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RAI - Radiotelevisione Italiana S.p.A.
Type Government-owned corporation
Genre Italian Public Broadcasting Service
Founded 1945
Founder(s) Italian Government
Headquarters Italy Saxa Rubra, Rome, Italy
Revenue 3210,9 million (2008)[1]
Owner(s) Italian Ministry of Economic Development
Employees 11698 (2008)[2]
Divisions Rai Cinema
Rai Corporation
Rai Way
Sipra
Rai Trade
Rai Net
Rai Click
Rai Teche
Rai Fiction
Rai Eri
Rai Vaticano
Rai Quirinale
Rai Sat
Rai Uno
Rai Due
Rai Tre
Website rai.it rai.tv

RAI – Radiotelevisione Italiana, known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane,[3] is the Italian state owned public service broadcaster controlled by the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance. RAI is the biggest television company in Italy. It competes with three major private television companies, Mediaset, Telecom Italia Media and Sky Italia.

Rai operates many television channels and radio stations, broadcasting in analog terrestrial (until 2013), in digital terrestrial and in several satellite and IPTV offerings. RAI is one of the 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950.

Half of RAI's revenues come from the broadcast licence fee, half from advertising.[4][5] RAI has a relatively high audience share of 42.3%[6].

Due to its close proximity, Albania, Switzerland, Monaco, Malta, San Marino, Vatican City, Slovenia and Croatia also receive broadcasts.

Contents

History

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Origins

RAI started off as a privately owned company. The Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) was formed in 1924 by private entrepreneurs and part of the Marconi group. Granted a monopoly of radio broadcasts in 1924, URI made its first broadcast — a Haydn quartet — on the 24 October of that year. URI was developed under the Italian Postal and Telecommunications Code. This code indicated that broadcast services belonged to the state, which, at that time, was the commission of Unione Radiofonica Italian for a minimal of six years. However when the URI's contract was up, it was succeeded to 1927 by Ente Italiano Audiozioni Radiofoniche (EIAR) who later was renamed to Radio Audiozioni Italia (RAI) in 1944. For the next twenty years, RAI had made several expansive changes to their company as the market developed such as extending their charter to include television in 1952 and undergoing their final name change as Radiotelevisione Italiana in 1954.

In this year the state-controlled holding company IRI became the sole shareholder, and RAI finally began a regular television service. On January 3 at 11:00 CET, the first RAI television announcer announced the daily scheduling from the Milan office and the relay stations in Turin and Rome. At the 14:30 starts the first regular programme in the Italian television history: Arrivi e partenze, hosted by Armando Pizzo and Mike Bongiorno. The first evening show was a theatre performance, written by Carlo Goldoni: L'osteria della posta. At the 23:15 was introduced the last the program of the day: La Domenica Sportiva, a soccer television program.[7]

Parts of the early programming was focused on educational content: during the reconstruction following World War II, programs like Non è mai troppo tardi and Un viaggio al Po made people see what life was like in other parts of Italy, in a time when tourism was out of the reach of the vast majority of the population.

2000s

A very controversial plan to partly privatise RAI, by selling 20% of the public broadcaster, was suspended in October 2005.

The fact that the Berlusconi-led government pushed for the sale of Mediaset's public service rival caused a very heated debate, with some critics claiming that Mediaset could become the buyer and thus increase its dominant position even further. However, in October 2005 it was announced that the privatisation plan had been suspended, following the revelation that the company would make a loss of €80m ($96m, £54m) during 2006.[citation needed] "RAI's privatisation is de facto suspended", its new director general, Alfredo Meocci, told a parliamentary watchdog committee.[8][9]

Management

RAI is governed by a nine member Administrative Council. Seven of its nine members are elected by a parliamentary committee, the remaining two (one of which the President) are nominated by the largest shareholder: the Italian Ministry of Economic Development. The Council appoints the director-general. Both director-general and members of the administrative council are appointed for a renewable term of three years.

Presidents

Name Took office Left office
Arturo Carlo Jemolo April 20, 1945 August 9, 1946
Giuseppe Spataro August 9, 1946 May 17, 1951
Cristiano Ridomi May 17, 1951 March 11, 1954
Antonio Carrelli June 3, 1954 January 4, 1961
Novello Papafava January 4, 1961 March 25, 1964
Pietro Quaroni May 29, 1964 April 12, 1969
Aldo Sandulli April 23, 1969 February 18, 1970
Umberto delle Fave March 24, 1970 April 22, 1975
Beniamino Finocchiaro May 23, 1975 January 20, 1977
Paolo Grassi January 20, 1977 June 12, 1980
Sergio Zavoli June 12, 1980 October 23, 1986
Enrico Manca October 23, 1986 February 19, 1992
Walter Pedullà February 19, 1992 July 13, 1993
Claudio Demattè July 13, 1993 July 12, 1994
Letizia Moratti July 12, 1994 April 24, 1996
Giuseppe Morello April 24, 1996 July 10, 1996
Enzo Siciliano July 10, 1996 January 21, 1998
Roberto Zaccaria February 3, 1998 February 17, 2000
Roberto Zaccaria 1 February 17, 2000 February 16, 2002
Vittorio Emiliani February 16, 2002 February 22, 2002
Antonio Baldassarre March 5, 2002 February 26, 2003
Paolo Mieli March 7, 2003 March 13, 2003
Lucia Annunziata March 13, 2003 May 4, 2004
Francesco Alberoni 2 May, 2004 May, 2005
Sandro Curzi 2 June 1, 2005 July 30, 2005
Claudio Petruccioli July 31, 2005 March 25, 2009
Paolo Garimberti March 26, 2009 present

Directors General

Name Took office Left office
Salvino Sernesi 1949 1953
Giovan Battista Vicentini 1954 1955
Rodolfo Arata 1956 1960
Ettore Bernabei January 5, 1961 September 18, 1974
Michele Principe May 23, 1975 January 25, 1977
Giuseppe Glisenti January 26, 1977 June 17, 1977
Pierantonino Bertè July 12, 1977 June 18, 1980
Villy De Luca June 19, 1980 July 21, 1982
Biagio Agnes July 29, 1982 February 1, 1990
Gianni Pasquarelli February 5, 1990 July 23, 1993
Gianni Locatelli July 23, 1993 August 3, 1994
Gianni Billia August 3, 1994 December 31, 1994
Raffaele Minicucci January 16, 1995 February 29, 1996
Aldo Materia 3 March 6, 1996 July 15, 1996
Franco Iseppi July 15, 1996 February 8, 1998
Pier Luigi Celli February 9, 1998 February 17, 2000
Pier Luigi Celli 1 February 17, 2000 February 9, 2001
Claudio Cappon February 9, 2001 March 19, 2002
Agostino Saccà March 19, 2002 March 27, 2003
Flavio Cattaneo March 27, 2003 August 5, 2005
Alfredo Meocci August 5, 2005 June 20, 2006
Claudio Cappon June 22, 2006 April 2, 2009
Mauro Masi April 2, 2009 present

Notes:
Note 1: Second term.
Note 2: Temporary.
Note 3: Vice Director-general acting as Director-general.

Television

RAI broadcasts three main terrestrial channels, also available on satellite television. Rai Uno, the main channel, targets the family market. Rai Due, that has broadcast since November 4, 1961 as the "Secondo Programma", has in recent years lacked clear focus, but now attempts to focus on a slightly younger audience than Rai Uno. Rai Tre (on air from December 15, 1979 as "TV3") is the ‘alternative’ channel, with a definite public service remit. Rai Uno and Rai Due started full-time color broadcasting on February 1, 1977.

Terrestrial channels

The following channels are also available in digital terrestrial and satellite television:

Digital-only channels:

[1]: also available on satellite television

Satellite channels

Free-to-air

Free-to-view on Tivù Sat platform

IPTV channels

On Alice Home TV

  • Rai Fiction
  • Viva la Rai: entertainment
  • Rai Supercult: entertainment
  • Rai Magazine
  • Rai Storia
  • Rai Ritratti
  • Rai Junior

On TV di FASTWEB

  • Rai Click Cinema
  • Rai Click Fiction
  • Rai Click Fiction Live
  • Rai Click Junior
  • Rai Click News
  • Rai Click Spettacolo
  • Rai Click Culture
  • Rai Click Oggi

International

  • Raitalia: broadcasts the best of RAI to International audiences

Discontinued channels

  • RaiSat Album (30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Art (30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Fiction (30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Smash Girls (1 august 2009)
  • RaiSat Gambero Rosso Channel (1 august 2009)
  • Rai Azzurri: UEFA Euro 2004 (2004, broadcast using Rai Olimpia / Rai Utile frequencies)
  • Rai Doc: cultures, styles (31 May 2007)
  • Rai Futura: technologies, games, etc. (1 February 2007, broadcast on the same frequences of Rai Doc at settled times)
  • Rai Olimpia: 2004 Summer Olympics (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
  • Rai Utile (1 January 2008)
  • Rai Widescreen: 1998 FIFA World Cup (1999)

Radio channels

News

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ ::: RAI Annual Report 2008 ::: (English) Retrieved on 2009-09-11
  2. ^ "Rai, l'orgia del potere" (Italian) L'espresso, Retrieved on 2008-07-09
  3. ^ La radio in Italia cronologia (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-11-28
  4. ^ "Basta con il governo padrone, così cambierà la Tv pubblica" (Italian) Retrieved on 2007-10-10
  5. ^ " DDL Riforma Rai" (Italian) Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10
  6. ^ ::: RAI Annual Report 2008 ::: (English) Retrieved on 2009-09-11
  7. ^ [1], in Italian. Retrieved on 2009-06-21
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ [3]

External links

Coordinates: 41°55′4″N 12°27′59″E / 41.91778°N 12.46639°E / 41.91778; 12.46639



Simple English

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