The Full Wiki

Rail transport: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Rail transport

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Railroad and railroading redirect here. For the meaning "coercion" see wikt:railroad
BNSF Railway freight service in the United States
Part of a series on
Transport
Modes...
See also...
Topics | Portal
Three rail tracks 350.jpg
Rail transport
Operations
Track
Maintenance
High-speed
Gauge
Stations
Trains
Locomotives
Rolling stock
Railways
History
History by country
Terminology
By country
Accidents

.Rail transport is the means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks.^ Rail transport is the transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads .

^ A road or way consisting of one or more parallel series of iron or steel rails, patterned and adjusted to be tracks for the wheels of vehicles, and suitably supported on a bed or substructure.
  • Railway@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When transporting a rail car, transport vehicle, or freight container placarded for Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in a terminal, yard, or on a side track or siding, the placarded rail car must be separated from the engine by at least one non-placarded rail car and must be placed in a location so that it will be safe from danger of fire.
  • Part 174.83: Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. - Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.fmcsa.dot.gov [Source type: News]

.In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on.^ Road and rail transport feed .
  • Snow transport chaos: rail, road and air disruption - Telegraph 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • High-speed rail must have 'Easytrain' prices, says Transport Secretary - Telegraph 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rail is the safest form of surface transport.
  • Transport Business - Manifesto for rail freight growth 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.transportbusiness.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Road and rail transport .
  • Snow transport chaos: rail, road and air disruption - Telegraph 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • High-speed rail must have 'Easytrain' prices, says Transport Secretary - Telegraph 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Track usually consists of steel rails installed on sleepers/ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves.^ A steel wheel rolling on a steel rail is the most efficient way to move people or freight.
  • Save the Rail Petition « Transport Pontiac-Renfrew 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC transportpontiac-renfrew.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A typical railway (or railroad) track consists of two parallel steel (or in older networks, iron ) rails, generally anchored perpendicular to beams, termed sleepers ( Commonwealth) or railroad ties ( U.S. and Canada ), of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge.

^ All the railway's original sleepers, rails and crushed rock ballast have been removed, and users now find a track similar to a gravel road.
  • Otago Central rail trail | Rail Trail Accommodation | railtrail guided tours | personal itineraries | transport | Central Otago rail trail | Trail Journeys 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.trailjourneys.co.nz [Source type: General]

.However, other variations are also possible, such as slab track where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.^ Europe your goods will be safe and secure it is environmentally friendly compared with other transport modes However, there are also risks for rail transport: .
  • Using rail transport for international trade | Business Link 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.businesslink.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ Mile Post A post or sign on pole each mile along the track that shows the distance from a predefined location such as a major rail terminal.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Phoenix – Tucson regional rail would also be good, and a possible part of such a network.

.Rolling stock in railway transportation systems generally has lower frictional resistance when compared with highway vehicles, and the carriages and wagons can be coupled into longer trains.^ A form of public transport a Tram or Light Rail, is a railborne vehicle of lighter weight and construction than a train that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail train system.
  • Transport Advice Portal: Trams/ Light Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tap.iht.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Transport Advice Portal: Trams/ Light Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tap.iht.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Metro, Light Rail & Other Transport Discuss all forms of transport not covered under the general rail banner, including metros, light rail transportation systems and other method of transport, including buses and aircraft.
  • Other Rail/Transport - RailUK Forums 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.railforums.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ These vehicles (referred to, in general, as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less friction than do vehicles riding on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that pulls the train tends to use energy far more efficiently as a result.

.The operation is carried out by a Railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities.^ Chiayi station with Alishan Railway train .
  • Railway station - Wikimedia Commons 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Providers of freight and passenger train transport, rail operators and other intermodal services.
  • Train Transport | Railroad Companies | Business.com 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Provides passenger and freight transport services.
  • Train Transport | Railroad Companies | Business.com 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

.Power is provided by Locomotives which either draw electrical power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power, usually by diesel engines.^ Modern railways - Diesel-electric locomotion and electr...
  • railroad -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Diesel locomotives are electric locomotives with an on-board generator powered by a Diesel engine.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In Canada, the government-owned VIA Rail system provides intercity service at prices that are usually higher than bus service but lower than air travel.

.Most tracks are accompanied by a signaling system.^ The track circuit is the basis of signaling systems.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most important for efficiency, the telegraph allowed a system to use a single track for two-way traffic.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Work on the light system extension requires not only tracks, signalling, stations, cut-and cover tunnels, and a maintenance facility, but also rolling stock.

.Railways are a safe land transportation systems when compared to other forms of transportation.^ Light rail transit (LRT) is an electric rail-borne form of transport which can be developed in stages from a tramway to a rapid transit system operated partially on its own right-of-way.
  • UITP - International Association of Public Transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.uitp.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Our list of railways includes most railroads and dedicated railway transit systems around the world since the early 1800's.  It also includes tramways and other guided ground transportation systems due to their impact on railway safety and signaling.
  • TSROSS Railway Names List 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.railway.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first practical form of mechanized transport, railways had their start in England in the 1820s.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

[1] .Railway transportation is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is often less flexible and more capital-intensive than highway transportation is, when lower traffic levels are considered.^ So much more than a 'Railway shop' .
  • Talyllyn Railway | The World's First Preserved Railway 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.talyllyn.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Industries : Coal energy , Passenger Transportation .
  • Rail transport trends in France and United kingdom on Reportlinker - March 2008, 21p. 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.reportlinker.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Industries : Railway Transport , Energy & environment .
  • Rail transport trends in France and United kingdom on Reportlinker - March 2008, 21p. 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.reportlinker.com [Source type: Reference]

.The oldest, man-hauled railways date to the 6th century B.C. With the development of the steam engine, it was possible to construct mainline railways, that were a key component of the industrial revolution.^ Maintenance of Way Railway engineering, track crews, track repair and construction, maintenance equipment, signals, derailments, and related.
  • RailroadForums.Com - Powered by vBulletin 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.railroadforums.com [Source type: General]

^ The steam locomotive was invented in the early stages of the industrial revolution, and railroads became essential to the swift movement of goods and labour that was needed for industrialization.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The mission of the Mountsorrel Railway project is to recreate this sadly forgotten industrial steam line, which was once crucial to the local community.

Also, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods. .The change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied very little from city to city.^ Rising public awareness of global warming and climate change, coupled with efforts to reduce urban congestion, particularly in city centres, will drive market expansion.
  • Rising Environmental Awareness Fosters Acceptance of Light Rail and Underground Transport Across Europe | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ It allows cities throughout the nation to benefit directly from rail service, with all cities getting at least some rail and the larger cities getting fast rail.

^ "The infraco consortiums are made up of the very companies thrown off maintenance on the national railway network for efficiency and safety reasons.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Studies have shown that the development of the railway was one of the most important technological inventions of the late 19th century in the United States, without which, GDP would have been lower by 7.0% in 1890. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and also the first tramways and rapid transit systems came into being.^ Handcars were developed during the 19th century.

^ This New Yorker was one of the most vocal abolitionists in the United States.
  • People of the Underground Railroad :: National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC freedomcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Railway came into existence in the 1890's.
  • The Railroad Police Badges Page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC therailroadpolice.com [Source type: Reference]

.During the 1940s and 1950s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives.^ Modern railways - Diesel-electric locomotion and electr...
  • railroad -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By the 1950's, Diesel and electric power had replaced steam power on most of the world's railroads.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Diesel and electric trains and locomotives replaced steam in many countries in the decades after World War II .

.During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and a few other countries.^ Many countries since the 1960s have adopted high-speed railways.

^ As the company introduced more American-style trains, people took notice and garden railways began to spring up all over the country.

^ Central Japan Railway Enters Competition for U.S. High-Speed Market ( 29 ) ▶J: I dont give a damn who runs the train as long as I can purchase my...

.Other forms of guided ground transportation outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use.^ According to the guide, the collection contains employee Information, which consists of a variety of material related to employees, such as forms, seniority lists, rules, regulations, and health information.

^ Our list of railways includes most railroads and dedicated railway transit systems around the world since the early 1800's.  It also includes tramways and other guided ground transportation systems due to their impact on railway safety and signaling.
  • TSROSS Railway Names List 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.railway.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first practical form of mechanized transport, railways had their start in England in the 1820s.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

Contents

History

Horsecar in Brno, Czech Republic

Pre-steam

.The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Corinth isthmus in Greece during the 9th century BC. Trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element.^ The Diolkos was a 6-km long railway that transported boats across the Corinth isthmus in Greece in the 6th century BC. Trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in a limestone track.

^ The first railways in Great Britain (also known as wagonways) were built in the early 17th century , mainly for transporting coal from the mine to the water side where it could be loaded on to a boat.

^ The Diolkos ran for over 1300 years, until 900 AD. The first horse-drawn wagonways appeared in Greece , Malta , and parts of the Roman Empire at least 2000 years ago, using cut-stone track.

.The Diolkos ran for over 1300 years.^ The Diolkos ran for over 1300 years, until 900 AD. The first horse-drawn wagonways appeared in Greece , Malta , and parts of the Roman Empire at least 2000 years ago, using cut-stone track.

[2]
.Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages.^ They began reappearing in Europe from around 1550, usually operating with wooden track.

.The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany, dating from around 1350.[3] In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Castle in Austria.^ The earliest recorded railway surgeon may have been an individual known as the railroad doctor, whose name is now lost, working for the Erie Railroad in 1849.
  • RailwaySurgery.org - History of Railway Surgeons - BriefVersion 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC railwaysurgery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is an interesting piece of history attaching to the Austrian railways ; the first railway built in Austria is claimed to have been also the first railway on the continent of Europe.

.The line originally used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope, and was operated by human or animal power.^ Wagonways were developed in Germany in the 1550s and the use of these tracks, consisting of wooden rails for horse-drawn wagons, spread across Europe.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The F-line’s operating and maintenance costs are in line with other Muni modes, and certainly in line with the vehicles used on other Rapid Network lines.
  • Market Street Railway Blog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC blog.streetcar.org [Source type: General]

^ By the 15th century, Europeans used hand-carts on wooden rails.

.The line still exists, albeit in updated form, and is probably the oldest railway still to operate.^ Tobu operates an extensive network of railway lines into the suburbs and prefectures north of Tokyo .

^ Nishitetsu operates a network of railway lines in Fukuoka Prefecture around the city of Fukuoka .

^ Before the war of 1914-18 no existing steam-worked railway had been electrified, although there were a few lines which had been worked from the beginning by electric traction.

[4][5]
.By 1550, narrow gauge railways with wooden rails were common in mines in Europe.^ Wagonways were developed in Germany in the 1550s and the use of these tracks, consisting of wooden rails for horse-drawn wagons, spread across Europe.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first public passenger timetable was issued in December 1866, and the first purpose-built, steam-worked, narrow gauge public railway in Britain opened for service.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The railway operates three trains which are approximately five-sixths the size of the old narrow-gauge trains.
  • Oregon Zoo - Washington Park and Zoo Railway 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.oregonzoo.org [Source type: Reference]

[6] .By the 17th century, wooden wagonways were common in the United Kingdom for transporting coal from mines to canal wharfs for transshipment to boats.^ United Kingdom (1998) Department for Transport.
  • Tiresias :: Design guidelines :: Transport :: Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tiresias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first railways in Great Britain (also known as wagonways) were built in the early 17th century , mainly for transporting coal from the mine to the water side where it could be loaded on to a boat.

^ Railways soon spread throughout the United Kingdom and through the world, and became the dominant means of land transport for nearly a century, until the invention of aircraft and automobiles , which prompted a gradual decline in railways.

.The world's oldest continually working railway, built in 1758, is the Middleton Railway in Leeds.^ Thus the Middleton claims to be the oldest Railway in the world.
  • Railroad Timeline History 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sdrm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He patented (No 3431), a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive, and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds.

^ The first public passenger timetable was issued in December 1866, and the first purpose-built, steam-worked, narrow gauge public railway in Britain opened for service.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1764, the first gravity railroad in the United States was built in Lewiston, New York.^ In 1867 the first elevated railroad was built in New York.

^ Chinese workers and the first transcontinental railroad of the United States of America.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first railroad in the United States may have been a gravity railroad in Lewiston, New York in 1764.

[7] .The first permanent was the 1810 Leiper Railroad.^ The 1810 Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania was intended as the first permanent railroad, and the 1826 Granite Railway in Massachusetts was the first commercial railroad to evolve through continuous operations into a common carrier.

[8]
.The first iron plate rail way made with cast iron plats on top of wooden rails, was taken into use in 1768. This allowed a variation of gauge to be used.^ Steel rails first used in Britain.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Swedish inches (24.8 mm) ** used plate rails resting on stone blocks + the gauge is given in old Prussian inches Links to relevant sites .
  • Railroad Gauge Width 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC parovoz.com [Source type: News]

^ Wagonways were developed in Germany in the 1550s and the use of these tracks, consisting of wooden rails for horse-drawn wagons, spread across Europe.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

.At first only balloon loops could be used for turning, but later, movable points were taken into use, that allowed for switching.^ The > current type of maul seems to have come into use around the turn of the > century or slightly earlier.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this time steam navigation on the rivers was only in its beginnings, but no one could doubt that it would come into general use.
  • The Railroad Builders by John Moody,1919 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This service could be reinstated, by using the BNSF (ex-SP&S) mainline from Washougal, west through Camas, East Vancouver, Vancouver - then turning south over Hayden Island, St. Johns, and then through Willbridge and into Union Station.
  • Portland Transport: Updated: Rail/Road Math 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC portlandtransport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .From the 1790s, iron edge rails began to appear in the United Kingdom.^ Rail tracks In the United Kingdom and most other Commonwealth of Nations countries, the term railway is used in preference to railroad , while in the United States the reverse is true.

^ In the United Kingdom, vandalism or [negligence] is thought responsible for about half of rail accidents.

^ Tags: weather , weather-phenomena , rail-transport , snowfall , austria , finland , france , germany , poland , ukraine , united-kingdom , england .
  • Tag: Rail Transport - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: General]

[10] .In 1803, William Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London, arguably the world's first horse-drawn public railway.^ World's first underground railway opened in London.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1802, Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London - arguably the world's first public railway, albeit horse-drawn.

^ World's first public electric railway opened in Brighton England.
  • Find info about History of rail transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.biblioreview.com [Source type: Reference]

[11] Hot rolling iron allowed the brittle, and thus often uneven, cast iron railsto be replaced by wrought iron in 1805. These were succeeded by steel in 1857.[10]

Age of steam

A British steam locomotive-hauled train
.The development of the steam engine spurred ideas for mobile steam locomotives that could haul trains on tracks.^ Post your ideas or thoughts on track planning, yards, grades, positioning of industries, spurs and sidings, what code of track to use, etc.
  • The Railroad Forum (Powered by Invision Power Board) 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC forum.railroadforum.com [Source type: General]

^ The first high pressure steam engine locomotive was developed by Richard Trevithick in 1802; a locomotive using smooth wheels on an iron track could pull cars of freight a few hundred yards.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Elephant Ears Metal side plates used on some large steam locomotives to lift the smoke above the train at speed.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.The first was patented by James Watt in 1794.[12] In 1804, Richard Trevithick demonstrated the first locomotive-hauled train in Merthyr Tydfil, United Kingdom.^ The first steam locomotive to operate on rails was built by Richard Trevithick, and was tried out in 1804 at Merthyr Tydfil in Wales .

^ The first stream locomotive was built in England by Richard Trevithick in 1803.

^ The last horse-drawn train ran on December 12, 1872, between Linz and Kerschbaum, but the extension of the line from Linz to Gmunden was converted to locomotive traction in 1854.

[13][14] .Accompanied with Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success,[15] breaking some of the brittle cast-iron plates.^ Similar Railway parts----base plate Material: Ductile iron Process line: EPC (investment casting)...
  • railway, railway Manufacturers & Suppliers 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1768, the Coalbrookdale Company laid cast iron plates on such wooden rails to provide a more durable bearing surface.

[16] .Two years later, the first passenger horse-drawn railway was opened nearby between Swansea and Mumbles.^ In 1806 a horse-drawn railway was built between Swansea and Mumbles.

^ The InterCity service caters for both smoking and non-smoking passengers and carriages are divided between Superstandard (first class) and Standard (second class).
  • Irish Public Transport: Dublin Bus, Rail Information 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.jobsearch.ie [Source type: News]

^ The Diolkos ran for over 1300 years, until 900 AD. The first horse-drawn wagonways appeared in Greece , Malta , and parts of the Roman Empire at least 2000 years ago, using cut-stone track.

[17] .In 1811, John Blenkinsop designed the first successful and practical railway locomotive[18]—a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive between Middleton Colliery and Leeds on the Middleton Railway.^ How does a steam locomotive work?

^ He patented (No 3431), a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive, and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds.

^ The Middleton Railway was the first railway to successfully use steam locomotives on a commercial basis.

.The locomotive, The Salamanca, was built the following year.^ The following year locomotive No.1 Talyllyn returned to steam after an extensive overhaul.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

[19]:20 .In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, north east England, which was the first public steam railway in the world.^ The first stream locomotive was built in England by Richard Trevithick in 1803.

^ He patented (No 3431), a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive, and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds.

^ The first steam locomotive to operate on rails was built by Richard Trevithick, and was tried out in 1804 at Merthyr Tydfil in Wales .

.In 1829 he built The Rocket which was entered in and won the Rainhill Trials.^ Rocket wins a competition for locomotive power at the Rainhill Trials on the Manchester & Liverpool Railway.
  • Railroad Timeline History 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sdrm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This success led to Stephenson establishing his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the United Kingdom, the United States and much of Europe.^ He patented (No 3431), a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive, and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds.

^ The use of overhead wires conducting electricity, invented by Granville T. Woods in 1888, amongst several other improvements, led to the development of electrified railways, the first of which in the United States was operated at Coney Island from 1892.

^ Elephant Ears Metal side plates used on some large steam locomotives to lift the smoke above the train at speed.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

[19]:24–30 .In 1830, the first intercity railway, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened.^ Stephenson’s “ Rocket ” was the locomotive for the Liverpool and Manchester line, which opened in 1830.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Rocket wins a competition for locomotive power at the Rainhill Trials on the Manchester & Liverpool Railway.
  • Railroad Timeline History 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sdrm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Stockton and Darlington Railway opened in northern England in 1825 to be followed five years later by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway , considered to be the world's first "Inter City" line, which proved the viability of rail transport, with Stephenson's famous Rocket steam locomotive.

.The gauge was that used for the early wagonways, and had been adopted for the Stockton and Darlington Railway.^ This design was quickly superseded following the discovery of railroad traction properties by George Stephenson during construction of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.

^ These early uses of railways gave little hint that a revolution in methods of transportation was underway.
  • http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/rrintro.html 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This table contains a list of railway gauges used or being used worldwide.
  • Railroad Gauge Width 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC parovoz.com [Source type: News]

[20] .The 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) width became known as the international standard gauge, used by about 60% of the world's railways.^ Swedish inches (24.8 mm) ** used plate rails resting on stone blocks + the gauge is given in old Prussian inches Links to relevant sites .
  • Railroad Gauge Width 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC parovoz.com [Source type: News]

^ The rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) used for the Stockton and Darlington railway became known as " standard gauge" and is used by about sixty per cent of the world's railways.

^ The workload has taken on an increasingly international focus; the team recently acted for The World Bank on the modernisation of Indian railway stations.
  • The Legal 500 UK 2009 > London > Transport > Rail recommended Law firms, Lawyers 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.legal500.com [Source type: News]

.This spurred the spread of rail transport outside the UK. The Baltimore and Ohio that opened in 1830 was the first to evolve from a single line to a network in the United States.^ The Baltimore and Ohio, opened in 1830, was the first to evolve into a major system.

^ Various sources U.S. has a Third-World rail transportation system According to a study by the International Railway Journal, the United States ranks between Bolivia and Turkey in mainline railroad spending per capita at $1.64.
  • U.S. Transportation Subsidies 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC trainweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Stockton and Darlington Railway opened in northern England in 1825 to be followed five years later by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway , considered to be the world's first "Inter City" line, which proved the viability of rail transport, with Stephenson's famous Rocket steam locomotive.

[21] .By 1831, a steam railway connected Albany and Schenectady, New York, a distance of 16 miles, which was covered in 40 minutes.^ He patented (No 3431), a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive, and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds.

^ The tracks would cover 1,500 kilometers, or 930 miles, and connect Port Harcourt, on Nigeria's west coast, to Maiduguri, in the east, the ministry added.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ New York & Atlantic Railway Courtesy Page (lessor of LIRR freight operations).
  • S. Berliner, III's Railroad Page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC home.att.net [Source type: General]

[22] .In 1867, the first elevated railway was built in New York.^ In 1867 the first elevated railroad was built in New York.

^ While Paris, London, Moscow, and New York have extensive subway systems, they were built at the beginning of the last century when it was significantly cheaper to work underground.
  • Lean Transport: Buses vs. Light Rail — Lean Blog 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.leanblog.org [Source type: General]

^ IMAGES The New Castle, built by Richard Trevithick in 1803, the first locomotive to do actual work.
  • railroad -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The symbolically-important first transcontinental railway was completed in 1869.[23]
Elevated section of the Chicago L

Electrification and dieselisation

.Experiments with electrical railways were started by Robert Davidson in 1838. He completed a battery-powered carriage capable of 6.4 km/h (4 mph).^ It was powered by a Winton V12 600 HP distillate engine, and was capable of 110 mph.
  • Railroad Timeline History 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sdrm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electrical energy consumed on this line, some 11,000,000 kw hours, is obtained from the Federal Railways power stations at 55,000 volts.

^ Similar electric railway BATTERY OPERATE RAILWAY ,WITH IC SOUND...
  • railway, railway Manufacturers & Suppliers 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.The Giant's Causeway Tramway was the first to use electricity fed to the trains en-route, using a third rail, when it opened in 1883. Overhead wires were taken into use in 1888. At first this was taken into use on tramways, that until then had been horse-hauled tramcars.^ Rule: Use one way signals if you want a train to choose the track that goes closest to its destination, such as at junctions where tracks split into two.
  • Owen's Transport Tycoon Station - Rail Fundamentals 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.transporttycoon.net [Source type: General]

^ One train was en route from Beijing to eastern city of Qingdao when the accident happened in Zibo, Shandong province.
  • China News: Railway | China Digital Times (CDT) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC chinadigitaltimes.net [Source type: News]

^ Possible electrocution after coming into contact with electrified third rail.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The first conventional electrified railway was the Roslag Line in Sweden.^ Before the war of 1914-18 no existing steam-worked railway had been electrified, although there were a few lines which had been worked from the beginning by electric traction.

^ Despite severe under-investment the line remained open, and in 1951 it became the first railway in the world to be preserved as a heritage railway by volunteers.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.During the 1890s, many large cities, such as London, Paris and New York used the new technology to build rapid transit for urban commuting.^ This system was in use for many years on the New York Central railroad.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It plays a major role in export trade in moving grain, coal and minerals to port, moves large tonnages of freight within and between States and, as an urban transit mode, plays a critical role in the efficiency and structure of Australia's major cities.
  • Independent Review of Rail Safety Arrangements in Australia 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.atcouncil.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Paris, London, Moscow, and New York have extensive subway systems, they were built at the beginning of the last century when it was significantly cheaper to work underground.
  • Lean Transport: Buses vs. Light Rail — Lean Blog 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.leanblog.org [Source type: General]

.In smaller cities, tramways became common, and were often the only mode of public transport until the introduction of buses in the 1920s.^ The vehicles covered by the new regulations are rail vehicles (trains), public service vehicles (buses and coaches) vehicles used on a system using a mode of guided transport (trams and light rail vehicles), taxis, private hire vehicles (minicabs), rental vehicles and breakdown recovery vehicles.
  • Tiresias :: Design guidelines :: Transport :: Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tiresias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has failed to introduce the key foundation to public transport planning and development in this city, that is, the north-west and south-west heavy rail lines.
  • Transport Administration Amendment (Metro Rail) Bill 2008 - 02/12/2008 - 2R 3R - NSW Parliament 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.parliament.nsw.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ It is pivotal that the metro works in an integrated manner with the other modes of transport to maximise the public transport network.
  • Transport Administration Amendment (Metro Rail) Bill 2008 - 02/12/2008 - 2R 3R - NSW Parliament 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.parliament.nsw.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.In North America, interurbans became a common mode to reach suburban areas.^ Mary Ann became one of the first Black newspaperwomen in the U.S. and the first Black female editor in North America.
  • People of the Underground Railroad :: National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC freedomcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This practice of manipulating scale, area, and paths of railroads became common practice in advertising maps of the 1870s and early 1880s and in railroad timetable maps.
  • http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/rrintro.html 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ International - Passenger, Transit and Commuter Rail Photos and discussion of passenger trains, commuter lines and transit in areas outside of North America.
  • RailroadForums.Com - Powered by vBulletin 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.railroadforums.com [Source type: General]

.At first all electric railways used direct current, but in 1904, the Spubeital Line in Austria opened with alternating current.^ The use of overhead wires conducting electricity, invented by Granville T. Woods in 1888, amongst several other improvements, led to the development of electrified railways, the first of which in the United States was operated at Coney Island from 1892.

^ As the German State Railways and the Swiss Federal Railways had adopted on their electrified lines single-phase alternating current of 16-2/3 cycles, 15,000 volts at the contact line, the Austrian Federal Railways decided to use the same system.

^ The first public passenger timetable was issued in December 1866, and the first purpose-built, steam-worked, narrow gauge public railway in Britain opened for service.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

[24]
.Steam locomotives require large pools of labour to clean, load, maintain and run.^ Elephant Ears Metal side plates used on some large steam locomotives to lift the smoke above the train at speed.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Georgetown Loop Railroad, Incorporated is now offering operating steam engines, railcars and the expertise required to run a successful steam operation to interested parties.
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad, Inc.- A Colorado Corporation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC gtownloop.com [Source type: News]

^ Ruling Grade The particular point on the run at which the combination of grade and curve resistance makes the train pull hardest and , therefore, "rules" how heavy a load can be given to the locomotive.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.After World War II, dramatically increased labour costs in developed countries made steam an increasingly costly form of motive power.^ After the Second World War, the LIRR became an increasing financial burden on the Pennsylvania Railroad, and eventually became bankrupt.
  • Long Island Railroad - LIRR schedule, times, information, delays Long Island, NY 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.longisland.com [Source type: News]

^ ATA's report's consideration of cost increases in based on a limited sample and has made assumptions, about margins in particular, that may or may not be accurate.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The 2010 FIFA World Cup is about placing transport infrastructure at the head of moving South Africa from being a developing country, to being a developed country.
  • Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa - Address at the SA Transport Conference 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.prasa.com [Source type: News]

.At the same time, the war had forced improvements in internal combustion engine technology that made diesel locomotives cheaper and more powerful.^ It may be a self-powered multiple unit or railcar, or else a combination of one or more locomotives and one or more unpowered trailers known as coaches, cars or carriages.
  • Commerce Resource : Transportation & Warehousing : Transportation : Rail Transport : Passenger Rail Transport Sector 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.1800miti.com [Source type: Reference]

^ United States hopes to learn from China in the field of advanced high-speed railway technology, and China can learn from the United States in rail freight equipment, internal combustion engine in advanced technologies.

^ In 1815, George Stephenson built the prototype of the modern steam locomotive, starting a technological race over the next century to build locomotives with more power at higher steam pressures.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This caused many railway companies to initiate programs to convert all unelectrified sections from steam to diesel locomotion.^ He patented (No 3431), a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive, and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds.

^ Modern railways - Diesel-electric locomotion and electr...
  • railroad -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Steam locomotives and early diesels usually carried rerailers on hooks on the tender trucks or frame (steam locomotive) or on the frame of a diesel.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

Luas in Dublin, Ireland
.Following the large-scale construction of motorways after the war, rail transport became less popular for commuting, and air transport started taking large market shares from long-haul passenger trains.^ Vehicle and Non-Rail Transportation Modeling Whether it's a delivery van, a street rod, a fork lift, a logging truck, or a passenger car, we all have vehicles on our train layouts and dioramas.

^ Central Japan Railway Enters Competition for U.S. High-Speed Market ( 29 ) ▶J: I dont give a damn who runs the train as long as I can purchase my...

^ In 1968 a new corporate identity program gave the names CP Rail, CP Ships, CP Transport and CP Air to the various transportation modes.

.Most tramways were either replaced by rapid transits or buses, while high transshipment costs caused short-haul freight trains to become uncompetitive.^ While some of those who promote BRT mean well, most of them seem to believe transit is strictly for the poor and seem to be out to kill good rapid transit.
  • Light Rail Now > light rail transit (LRT), trams, tramways, streetcars, rail transit 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC lightrailnow.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turnkey systems include streetcars, metro systems, light rail transit systems, suburban rapid transit systems, high speed & intercity trains, commuter & regional trains, diesel multiple units & electric multiple units.
  • Railroad Equipment on ThomasNet.com 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ If drivers had to pay the true cost of their habit, many of them would choose to ride trains and buses.
  • Rail officials hope to expedite Maine expansion of Amtrak - Bangor Daily News 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.bangordailynews.com [Source type: News]

.The 1973 oil crisis led to a change of mind set, and most tram systems that had survived into the 1970s remain today.^ This interjects some competition into the system and is intended to achieve the best set of alternatives for providing transportation services on the “public rail rights-of-way”.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ The truth dawned two years into the project and led to a financial crisis.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ In Germany, on the other hand, parts of its well-integrated system of rivers and canals remained competitive into the early 21st century.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.At the same time, containerization allowed freight trains to become more competitive and participate in intermodal freight transport.^ Now that the Government is in charge of the railway line from London to Edinburgh, the Transport Secretary wants to review and cut fares to get more people on the train.

^ Because highway truck and freight train run at same speed 100km/h.

^ Work with a rail freight consultant to control train transport costs .
  • Train Transport | Railroad Companies | Business.com 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

.With the 1962 introduction of the Shinkansen high-speed rail in Japan, trains could again have a dominant position on intercity travel.^ Rail Europe consists of ten high speed trains.

^ High speed rail: a green solution?

^ Russia’s high-speed rail revolution .
  • Transport | euronews 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.euronews.net [Source type: General]

.During the 1970s, the introduction of automated rapid transit systems allowed cheaper operation.^ An agreement to incorporate changes associated with the introduction of the crewplan system, staff signing on/off duty using a touch screen or an automated telephone system.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Also including discussion related to the PATCO Speedline rapid transit operated by Delaware River Port Authority.
  • RAILROAD.NET • Index page 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.railroad.net [Source type: General]

^ TTC T oronto T ransit C ommission, public transit system operating in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

The 1990s saw an increased focus on accessibility and low-floor trains. .Many tramways have been upgraded to light rail, and many cities that closed their old tramways have reopened new light railway systems.^ West of Chicago, many cities grew up as rail centers, with repair shops and a base of technically literate workers.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The vehicles covered by the new regulations are rail vehicles (trains), public service vehicles (buses and coaches) vehicles used on a system using a mode of guided transport (trams and light rail vehicles), taxis, private hire vehicles (minicabs), rental vehicles and breakdown recovery vehicles.
  • Tiresias :: Design guidelines :: Transport :: Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tiresias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cities and states would have an incentive to prop up their local transit systems if there were a well-used rail hub at the center of each metropolitan area.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

Trains

.A train is a connected series of rail vehicles that move along the track.^ For decades, rail travel in China meant an arduous overnighter in a crowded East German–designed train, riding along a rickety old track.
  • China News: Railway | China Digital Times (CDT) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC chinadigitaltimes.net [Source type: News]

^ In Miami, Tri-rail added track to help passenger and freight trains.
  • Portland Transport: Updated: Rail/Road Math 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC portlandtransport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Category: High speed rail — Tags: Behaviour , Dynamics , LongTerm , Railway , Subgrade , System , Track , Vehicles – admin @ 10:02 pm .

.Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate locomotive, or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units.^ Engine Lite Locomotive or multiple units lite of any cars.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All propulsion is provided by the locomotives; the cars are simply pushed or pulled.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slug A small, ballasted, four or six axle unit, semipermanently coupled to a locomotive that does not have a prime mover, but does have traction motors.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Most trains carry a revenue load, although non-revenue cars exist for the railway's own use, such as for maintenance-of-way purposes.^ Maintenance of Way Railway engineering, track crews, track repair and construction, maintenance equipment, signals, derailments, and related.
  • RailroadForums.Com - Powered by vBulletin 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.railroadforums.com [Source type: General]

^ He still owns the passenger car, the caboose, and has plenty of locomotives (the locomotives that were actually used for SamTrak have been sold, though, but the other locomotives will work just as well.
  • Portland Transport: Updated: Rail/Road Math 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC portlandtransport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add , to Couple car(s) to a train Adhesion Coefficient The ratio of tangential and normal force that exist between the wheel and the rail during motion.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.The railroad engineer or engine driver controls the locomotive or other power cars, although people movers and some rapid transits are driverless.^ Locomotive engineers, car men (and women!
  • Railroad Jobs - Your guide for railroad employment! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.getarailroadjob.com [Source type: General]

^ He still owns the passenger car, the caboose, and has plenty of locomotives (the locomotives that were actually used for SamTrak have been sold, though, but the other locomotives will work just as well.
  • Portland Transport: Updated: Rail/Road Math 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC portlandtransport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Engine Lite Locomotive or multiple units lite of any cars.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

Russian 2TE10U diesel locomotive

Haulage

.Traditionally, trains are pulled using a locomotive.^ Elephant Ears Metal side plates used on some large steam locomotives to lift the smoke above the train at speed.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ruling Grade The particular point on the run at which the combination of grade and curve resistance makes the train pull hardest and , therefore, "rules" how heavy a load can be given to the locomotive.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bronwydd Arms Station, Carmarthenshire A Class 03 locomotive was being used to add an additional carriage to a train.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.This involved a single or multiple powered vehicles being located at the front of the train, and providing sufficient adhesion to haul the weight of the full train.^ Initially, trains would be powered by diesel alternators located in the first and last cars of each train.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whilst in the short and medium term this cancellation is disappointing, electrification does open the longer term possibility of local train services being provided by electric trains.
  • Rail | West of England Partnership 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.westofengland.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With little raw power, the trains require expert firing and maximum effort to haul even four cars of passengers.
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad, Inc.- A Colorado Corporation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC gtownloop.com [Source type: News]

.This remains dominant for freight trains, and is often used for passenger trains.^ A new franchise often had to re-lease the trains that were previously used within the franchise, giving the leasing companies the leverage to raise prices.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ In Miami, Tri-rail added track to help passenger and freight trains.
  • Portland Transport: Updated: Rail/Road Math 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC portlandtransport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are very prescriptive and often stipulate which rolling stock a train operator must use.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.A push-pull train has the end passenger car equipped with a driver's cab so the engineer can remote-control the locomotive.^ All propulsion is provided by the locomotives; the cars are simply pushed or pulled.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Distributed Power Trains Trains that have a remotely controlled locomotive embedded within the train.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Locomotive engineers, car men (and women!
  • Railroad Jobs - Your guide for railroad employment! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.getarailroadjob.com [Source type: General]

.This allows one of the locomotive hauled trains drawbacks to be removed, since the locomotive need not be moved to the end of the train each time the train changes direction.^ There are, however, several gauge-changing trains, allowing to extend the high speed connections to not (yet) connected places.

^ Brake Pipe Commonly called a train line, it is the pipe, hose, connections, angle cocks, cut-out cocks, fittings, etc., connecting the locomotive and all cars from one end of the train to the other for the passage of air to charge and control the brakes.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Current of Traffic The movement of trains on a main track, in one direction, specified by the rules.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.A railroad car is a vehicle used for the haulage of either passengers or freight.^ Freight cars - Passenger cars .
  • railroad -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It operated 28,000 miles of track, directly served half of the U.S., and hauled more freight and passengers than any other railroad in the world.
  • Amazon.com: Pennsylvania Railroad (Railroad Color History) (9780760303795): Mike Schafer, Mike McBride: Books 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Because railroads can carry large cargo over great distances in a single trip, they use less fuel and produce less pollution than cars and trucks.

.A multiple unit has powered wheels throughout the whole train.^ Some passenger railroads use so-called "multiple-unit" (M-U) trains, in which every car is propelled (sometimes every other car).
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This the used for rapid transit and tram systems, as well as many both short- and long-haul passenger trains.^ Color and black-and-white photographs and period ads illustrate the railroad’s many facets, including both its passenger and freight operations, as well its motive power through the decades.
  • Amazon.com: Pennsylvania Railroad (Railroad Color History) (9780760303795): Mike Schafer, Mike McBride: Books 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Turnkey systems include streetcars, metro systems, light rail transit systems, suburban rapid transit systems, high speed & intercity trains, commuter & regional trains, diesel multiple units & electric multiple units.
  • Railroad Equipment on ThomasNet.com 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Trains would run from Boston to Stonington, Connecticut, where the passengers would cross by ferry to Long Island.
  • Long Island Railroad - LIRR schedule, times, information, delays Long Island, NY 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.longisland.com [Source type: News]

A railcar is a single, self-powered car. .Multiple units have a driver's cab at each end of the unit, and were developed following the ability to build electric motors and engines small enough to build under the coach.^ Engine Lite Locomotive or multiple units lite of any cars.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Slug A small, ballasted, four or six axle unit, semipermanently coupled to a locomotive that does not have a prime mover, but does have traction motors.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ British engineers invented and improved thousands of mechanical devices, and developed the science of civil engineering to build roadways, tunnels and bridges.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.There are only a few freight multiple units, most of which are high-speed post trains.^ There are, however, several gauge-changing trains, allowing to extend the high speed connections to not (yet) connected places.

^ Central Japan Railway Enters Competition for U.S. High-Speed Market ( 29 ) ▶J: I dont give a damn who runs the train as long as I can purchase my...

^ To: Mobties One important thing that I think that’s being overlooked is the fact that high speed trains can’t run on the same rail as freight.
  • Protestors Question High Speed Rail in Face of Budget Deficits 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Motive power

A RegioSwinger multiple unit of the Croatian Railways
.Steam locomotives are locomotives with a steam engine that provides adhesion.^ Booster A small two cylinder steam driven engine, manufactured by the Franklin Railway Supply Co., and attached to an axle of the trailing track of some steam locomotives to provide additional tractive effort when starting a train.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ You can also find pictures of steam, diesel, traction, and electric engines and locomotives.

^ Mud Ring The lower part of the boiler of a steam locomotive directly in front of the firebox, where boiler scale and sediment settled as the engine operated.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Coal, petroleum, or wood is burned in a firebox.^ Fire Box The "stove" where the wood, coal, oil, etc., was burned to make steam to propel the engine.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.The heat warms up water in the fire-tube boiler to create pressurized steam.^ There was oxygen pitting in the boiler and leaks in the tubes that were preventing the boiler from building steam, said boiler engineer John Settle.
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad, Inc.- A Colorado Corporation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC gtownloop.com [Source type: News]

^ A simple articulated is a mallet which had a large enough boiler to supply all four cylinders with high pressure steam direct from the boiler.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Guide to North American Steam Locomotives by George H. Drury Discusses: passenger locomotive electric locomotives pounds boiler pressure .
  • Amazon.com: Pennsylvania Railroad (Railroad Color History) (9780760303795): Mike Schafer, Mike McBride: Books 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

The steam travels through the smokebox before leaving via the chimney. .In the process it powers a piston, that transmits power directly through a connecting rod (US: main rod) and a crankpin (US: wristpin) on the driving wheel (US main driver) or to a crank on a driving axle.^ The engine, 1670 class, has independent axle drive, and the wheel arrangement is 2-8-2.

.Steam locomotives have been phased out in most parts of the world for economical and safety reasons.^ What are the parts of a steam locomotive?

^ Most of these locomotives are either still active, or available for viewing in various parts of the country.

^ Mud Ring The lower part of the boiler of a steam locomotive directly in front of the firebox, where boiler scale and sediment settled as the engine operated.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Electric locomotives draw power from a stationary source via overhead wire or a third rail.^ Head End Power A power system installed on diesel-electric passenger locomotives, used to generate "hotel load" power to the passenger train, including train heating and air conditioning.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Traction Motor The electric motor that transfers the electrical current generated by the locomotive to the rail.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Catenary Overhead wire system on elecricfied railroads for suppling current to electric locomotives and self-propelled cars equipped with pantographs.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

Some also or instead use a battery. .A transformer in the locomotive converts the high voltage, low current power to low voltage, high current used in the electric motors that power the wheels.^ Traction Motor The electric motor that transfers the electrical current generated by the locomotive to the rail.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Motor The electrical machine (traction motor) geared to the axles of all diesel-electric and electric locomotives, and used to convert the electrical energy provided by the diesel engine and main alternator in a diesel electric locomotive, or the transformer output in an electric locomotive, to mechanical force in the form of tractive effort.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The extended use of electricity will cause this power to be exploited in the near future to the full.

Modern locomotives use three-phase AC induction motors. .Electric locomotives are the most powerful traction.^ You can also find pictures of steam, diesel, traction, and electric engines and locomotives.

^ Head End Power A power system installed on diesel-electric passenger locomotives, used to generate "hotel load" power to the passenger train, including train heating and air conditioning.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Traction Motor The electric motor that transfers the electrical current generated by the locomotive to the rail.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.They are also the cheapest to run and provide less noise and no local air pollution.^ Cost includes private cost such as petrol and wages, and social costs such as damage to roads and externalities such as noise, air pollution, congestion and accidents.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel taxes and the revenue they generate have no correlation to the amount of funds provided either to states or nationally for roads.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ There is just no point in having a 350km/h train run through non-high-speed tracks, where they cannot exceed 180 km/h.

.However, they require high capital investments both for the catenary and the supporting infrastructure.^ The improvements are the result of continued investment in the infrastructure of Network Rail’s system, meaning a better service for both passengers and freight operators.

^ VICTORIA's country rail network will require a massive lift in capital expenditure to return its tracks to the condition they were in before its 1999 privatisation.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Any investment in improving the infrastructure was deemed risky because of the line's reliance on grain traffic and was unlikely to produce a high level of return, he said.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Accordingly, electric traction is used on urban systems, lines with high traffic and for high-speed rail.^ High speed rail: a green solution?

^ Diesel-electric locomotion and electronic systems - High-speed passenger lines .
  • railroad -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To: cripplecreek That depends on which politician is using the phrase high speed rail.
  • Protestors Question High Speed Rail in Face of Budget Deficits 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diesel locomotives use a diesel engine as the prime mover.^ If advanced diesel engines are used with low-sulfur fuel, and provided that the injectors are diligently maintained, exhaust ought to be quite clean.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slug A small, ballasted, four or six axle unit, semipermanently coupled to a locomotive that does not have a prime mover, but does have traction motors.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ You can also find pictures of steam, diesel, traction, and electric engines and locomotives.

.The energy transmission may be either diesel-electric, diesel-mechanical or diesel-hydraulic, but diesel-electric is dominant.^ Motor The electrical machine (traction motor) geared to the axles of all diesel-electric and electric locomotives, and used to convert the electrical energy provided by the diesel engine and main alternator in a diesel electric locomotive, or the transformer output in an electric locomotive, to mechanical force in the form of tractive effort.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Electro-diesel locomotives are built to run as diesel-electric on unelectrified sections, and as an electric locomotive on electrified sections.^ Modern railways - Diesel-electric locomotion and electr...
  • railroad -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ You can also find pictures of steam, diesel, traction, and electric engines and locomotives.

^ Four new power stations were built to supply the necessary energy for the electrified sections.

Alternative methods of motive power include magnetic levitation, horse-drawn, cable, gravity, pneumatics and gas turbine.

Passenger trains

.A passenger train travels between stations where passengers may embark and disembark.^ A passenger could take a train from Dayton to Milwaukee, via Indianapolis and Chicago, traveling at a slower speed for the first and last sections of the journey, and accelerating to top speeds between Indianapolis and Chicago.

^ If you look at the speed the train would be traveling, it would make more sense to just have flatbed cargo that the passengers could just park their car on.
  • Eugene-to-B.C. high-speed rail gets stimulus fund boost 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.portlandtribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Served by both CP and CN trains operated passenger trains between Ottawa and just about every community within 100 miles of the Capital .
  • Save the Rail Petition « Transport Pontiac-Renfrew 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC transportpontiac-renfrew.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The oversight of the train is the duty of a conductor. .Passenger trains are part of public transport, and often make up the stem of the service, with buses feeding to stations.^ What part of the train makes it move?

^ Department for Transport (2006) Train and station services for disabled passengers - A Code of Practice.
  • Tiresias :: Design guidelines :: Transport :: Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tiresias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Department for Transport (2006) Train and station services for disabled passengers - A code of practice.
  • Tiresias :: Design guidelines :: Transport :: Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tiresias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Interior view of the top deck of a VR InterCity2 double-deck carriage
.Intercity trains are long-haul trains that operate with few stops between cities.^ It is expected to run for between 18 and 24 months until a new invitation to tender can be produced and a train operating company selected.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Flying between London and Amsterdam takes an hour, but the total journey from city centre to city centre takes about the same as high-speed trains will take from the end of next year.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Served by both CP and CN trains operated passenger trains between Ottawa and just about every community within 100 miles of the Capital .
  • Save the Rail Petition « Transport Pontiac-Renfrew 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC transportpontiac-renfrew.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trains typically have amenities such as a dining car.^ Such a train must have a car on the rear with an operating brake controlled via the hose.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some lines also provide over-night services with sleeping cars.^ Mwakwere said although traditionally, government provided infrastructure services, some of them like railways had not been competitive, were disappointing and needed public funds for investment.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The withdrawal of the trains is expected to cause some disruption to services, particularly on the Pakenham and Cranbourne lines, until the problems can be fixed.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ This interjects some competition into the system and is intended to achieve the best set of alternatives for providing transportation services on the “public rail rights-of-way”.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.Some long-haul trains been given a specific name.^ True it is that some degree of latitude is given to permit wide-ranging debate on bills, but only if the contributions of members remain relevant to the long title of the bill.
  • Transport Administration Amendment (Metro Rail) Bill 2008 - 02/12/2008 - 2R 3R - NSW Parliament 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.parliament.nsw.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Regional trains are medium distance trains that connect cities with outlying, surrounding areas, or provide a regional service.^ It planned and funded a simple cross-shaped system that connected the major cities, ports and mining areas, and linked to neighboring countries.
  • Railway history - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Rail All licensed passenger train operators and station operators are required, as a condition of their licence, to have due regard to Train and Station Services for Disabled Passengers: A Code of Practice , when providing facilities or services for passengers with disabilities.
  • Tiresias :: Design guidelines :: Transport :: Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tiresias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Norfolk Connection is added, providing service from Norfolk/Virginia Beach to Richmond, a potentially very high travel market.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.Trains make more stops and have lower speeds.^ If you look at the speed the train would be traveling, it would make more sense to just have flatbed cargo that the passengers could just park their car on.
  • Eugene-to-B.C. high-speed rail gets stimulus fund boost 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.portlandtribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air Brake System All of the devices and parts included in making an air brake for controlling the speed and stopping a locomotive or train.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Make the train ride the vacation – Choose a pass that will allow you to get off and visit some of the stops for a day or two before reboarding to the next destination.

.Commuter trains serve suburbs of urban areas, providing a daily commuting service.^ Neither the Union Pacific, nor the Spokane, Portland & Seattle, nor the Oregon Electric, nor the United Railways, nor the Northern Pacific, nor the Great Northern, provided any type of "commuter" service in the Portland metro area.
  • Portland Transport: Updated: Rail/Road Math 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC portlandtransport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, he said as trains on the new route would take longer than the existing Glasgow to Edinburgh service, the line would primarily serve people in the West Lothian and North Lanarkshire areas.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ "We might start operating on a daily basis because people have been asking us if we can provide the service daily," Lunga said.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Airport rail links provide quick access from city centres to airports.^ In this point, I agree with many of the comments already posted that suggest including rail links to the major airports.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ It is essential that the federal government provide funding for the rescue of this essential interprovincial rail link!
  • Save the Rail Petition « Transport Pontiac-Renfrew 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC transportpontiac-renfrew.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These links need not be HSR, but rail links at the key airports are essential (and already exist today in many major cities in the US).
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.Rapid transit is built in large cities and has the highest capacity of any passenger transport system.^ "We plan to set up an inter-city passenger transportation express, which will reach a speed of at least 200 kilometers per hour," said Li.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The sixth acceleration is expected to increase passenger transport capacity by 18 percent and freight transport capacity 12 percent, said the vice minister.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Interstate Rail (IR) is a proposal to utilize surplus capacity on the US Interstate Highway system for high-capacity, medium-speed passenger and freight rail service.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is grade separated and commonly built underground or elevated. At street level, smaller trams can be used. .Light rails are upgraded trams, that have step-free access, their own right-of-way and sometimes sections underground.^ October: We've responded to an inquiry on light rail with suggestions for how we can get more trams in UK cities.

^ Part 3 This section includes disabled people's Right of Access to Goods, Facilities and Services.
  • Tiresias :: Design guidelines :: Transport :: Rail 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.tiresias.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Numerous maps of the United States and individual states and counties were made which clearly indicated the sections of the granted land and the railroad rights-of-way.
  • http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/rrintro.html 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Monorail systems operate as elevated, medium capacity systems. .A people mover is a driverless, grade-separated train that serves only a few stations, of as a shuttle.^ The company has stated that drivers will now be responsible for opening train doors at stations and guards will now only close them.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Speed is not the only reason why people switch from plane to train - cost is also key.

^ Before preservation, the station had contained only a fan of sidings, which meant that there was no way for the locomotive of an arriving train to run round the carriages.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

.High-speed rail operate at much higher speeds than conventional railways, the limit being regarded at 200 to 320 km/h.^ High speed rail: a green solution?

^ Central Japan Railway Enters Competition for U.S. High-Speed Market ( 29 ) ▶J: I dont give a damn who runs the train as long as I can purchase my...

^ United States hopes to learn from China in the field of advanced high-speed railway technology, and China can learn from the United States in rail freight equipment, internal combustion engine in advanced technologies.

.High-speed trains are used mostly for long-haul service, and most systems are in Western Europe and East Asia.^ Rail Europe consists of ten high speed trains.

^ There are, however, several gauge-changing trains, allowing to extend the high speed connections to not (yet) connected places.

^ Central Japan Railway Enters Competition for U.S. High-Speed Market ( 29 ) ▶J: I dont give a damn who runs the train as long as I can purchase my...

.The speed record is 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph), set by a modified French TGV.^ Maglev speed record is 581 km/h, high-speed wheeled rail speed record is 576 km/h.

^ Even high-speed trains, such as the French TGV, have sedate acceleration, because the trains are propelled only by locomotives at each end.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25][26] .Magnetic levitation trains such as the Shanghai airport train use under-riding magnets which attract themselves upward towards the underside of a guideway, and this line has achieved somewhat higher peak speeds in day-to-day operation than conventional high-speed railways, although only over short distances.^ Although the Michigan DOT announced the M&W would operate the line within a day of the MI ceasing operations, a federal court restraining order stopped the bid and the line was eventually abandoned without ever resuming car ferry service.

^ There are, however, several gauge-changing trains, allowing to extend the high speed connections to not (yet) connected places.

^ Central Japan Railway Enters Competition for U.S. High-Speed Market ( 29 ) ▶J: I dont give a damn who runs the train as long as I can purchase my...

Freight train

Bulk cargo of minerals
.A freight train hauls cargo using freight cars specialized for the type of goods.^ Bradley Bar A device shaped like a hockey stick used to straighten hand holds on freight cars.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Special trains, charters and PV Special trains, officer car specials, inspection trains, private varnish, luxury rail tours, circus trains, etc.
  • RailroadForums.Com - Powered by vBulletin 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.railroadforums.com [Source type: General]

^ Yard A system of tracks, other than main tracks and sidings, used for making up trains, storing of cars and for other purposes.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Freight trains can be highly economic, with economy of scale and high energy efficiency.^ High-speed rail lines would not be shared with freight trains, but the right-of-way could be shared.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Low frontal area Very low rolling resistance Very high capacity, allowing denser (and therefore more energy-efficient) land occupancy Congestion .
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As energy constraints begin to affect the USA, traffic on the Interstates will decline and freight traffic will shift from trucks to trains.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, its use is reduced by lack of flexibility, often by the need of transshipment at both ends of the trip due to lack of tracks to the point of pick-up and delivery.^ Yard A system of tracks, other than main tracks and sidings, used for making up trains, storing of cars and for other purposes.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If people are showing up late less often, the financial gains from this need to be taken into account.

^ The railway network in Kenya and Uganda has suffered due to lack of investment and is often cited as a major impediment to doing business in the region.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Authorities often encourage the use of cargo rail transport due to its environmental profile.^ The government, which seeks to encourage people to use trains, is already due to publish a long-term strategy for the railways in the summer of 2007.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The safety of commuters and goods endeared many organisations to use rail transport, until financial breeding at the institutions, occasioned by poor management set in.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Stinger A portable insulated pole used by railroads (and transit authorities) with third rail trackage.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

Container trains have become the dominant type in the US for non-bulk haulage. .Containers can easily be transshipped to other modes, such as ships and trucks, using cranes.^ The F-line’s operating and maintenance costs are in line with other Muni modes, and certainly in line with the vehicles used on other Rapid Network lines.
  • Market Street Railway Blog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC blog.streetcar.org [Source type: General]

^ In the same period many Kauai plantations began to experiment with the use of motor trucks in harvesting and other hauling needs.

^ Train Register A book or form used at designated stations for registering time of arrival and departure of trains, and such other information as may be prescribed.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.This has succeeded the boxcar (wagon-load), where the cargo had to be loaded and unloaded into the train manually.^ The original line fanned out into a set of three sidings, used to marshal trains of loaded slate wagons coming down from the quarry and empty wagons waiting to ascend.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

In Europe the sliding wall wagon has largely superseded the ordinary covered wagons. Other types of cars include refrigerator cars, stock cars for livestock and autoracks for road vehicles. .When rail is combined with road transport, a roadrailer will allow semi-trailer to be driven onto the train, allowing for easy transshipment between road and rail.^ Add , to Couple car(s) to a train Adhesion Coefficient The ratio of tangential and normal force that exist between the wheel and the rail during motion.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you are travelling by train and are searching for services such as destination routes, rail tickets or prices then the Ufindus rail transport directory can help you.
  • Ufindus Sitemap - Rail Transport 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.ufindus.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hospital Train A train consisting of damaged or wrecked rail cars being transported to a repair point on their wheels.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Bulk handling represents a key advantage for rail transport.^ He has failed to introduce the key foundation to public transport planning and development in this city, that is, the north-west and south-west heavy rail lines.
  • Transport Administration Amendment (Metro Rail) Bill 2008 - 02/12/2008 - 2R 3R - NSW Parliament 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.parliament.nsw.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Rail systems enjoy several intrinsic advantages over all other forms of transportation: .
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, the cost of road externalities is in the order of seven times the cost of rail externalities for interstate non-bulk freight transport.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

.Low transshipment costs combined with energy efficiency and low inventory costs allow trains to handle bulk much cheaper than by road.^ Low frontal area Very low rolling resistance Very high capacity, allowing denser (and therefore more energy-efficient) land occupancy Congestion .
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems nearly certain that as energy limitations begin to affect transportation, we will turn to trains as the most energy-efficient means of fast transportation ever devised.
  • Carfree Cities: Transport Improvements: Interstate Rail Proposal 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.carfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, the construction cost has been repaid several times over, but the banks continue to charge train companies more than £1,000 a week per carriage.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Typical bulk cargo includes coal, ore, grains and liquids. Bulk is transported in open-topped cars and tank cars.

Infrastructure

Railway turnouts

Right of way

.Railway tracks are laid upon land owned or leased by the railway company.^ In January 1864, McConnel formed the Aberdovey Slate Company, which leased the land including Bryn Eglwys from the landowner, Lewis Morris of Machynlleth.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Usually the companies received from the federal government, in twenty- or fifty-mile strips, alternate sections of public land for each mile of track that was built.
  • http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/rrintro.html 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the latter case the question was whether certain steamers owned by the railroad company, upon which were laid railroad tracks, and with which its passenger and freight cars were transported from the eastern shore of the bay of San Francisco to its western shore, where the railway again commenced, were to be assessed by the city and county of San Francisco, or by the state board of equalization.
  • Santa Clara County v. Southern Pac. R.R. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.tourolaw.edu [Source type: Original source]

Owing to the desirability of maintaining modest grades, rails will often be laid in circuitous routes in hilly or mountainous terrain. .Route length and grade requirements can be reduced by the use of alternating cuttings, bridges and tunnels—all of which can greatly increase the capital expenditures required to develop a right of way, while significantly reducing operating costs and allowing higher speeds on longer radius curves.^ Another interesting note is that a friend from our church and I were able > to walk all the way through Summit Tunnel (No.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-speed rail lines would not be shared with freight trains, but the right-of-way could be shared.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Experts said a better-managed network would help to significantly lower the cost of doing business and increase the competitiveness of products from the region.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

In densely urbanized areas, railways are sometimes laid in tunnels to minimize the effects on existing properties.

Trackage

Long freight train crossing the Stoney Creek viaduct on the Canadian Pacific Railway in southern British Columbia
.Track consists of two parallel steel rails, anchored perpendicular to members called ties (sleepers) of timber, concrete, steel, or plastic to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge.^ The two-track incline dropped 150ft (46m) over a distance of 363ft (111m).
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ IT seems consistently preferred to run either parallel to or perpendicular to them, I assume to minimize tunnel length.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Requires two trainmen, one to pull the pin on the car to be dropped and the other to throw the switch after the engine has passed to let the car run onto the parallel track.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.The track guides the conical, flanged wheels, keeping the cars on the track without active steering and therefore allowing trains to be much longer than road vehicles.^ Add , to Couple car(s) to a train Adhesion Coefficient The ratio of tangential and normal force that exist between the wheel and the rail during motion.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Yard A system of tracks, other than main tracks and sidings, used for making up trains, storing of cars and for other purposes.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The legal limit on most Class 1 railroads is 79 mph for passenger trains, even if track geometrics allow more.
  • Protestors Question High Speed Rail in Face of Budget Deficits 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rails and ties are usually placed on a foundation made of compressed earth on top of which is placed a bed of ballast to distribute the load from the ties and to prevent the track from buckling as the ground settles over time under the weight of the vehicles passing above.^ Some of the track bed still in place.
  • Railway 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC levyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also If the US were to add more eletric catenary wires to the tracks we would easlly pass Chinia in the number of high speed rail lines under wire.

^ At this point the rails were loaded on low flat cars, and hauled by horses to end of track.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ballast also serves as a means of drainage. .Some more modern track in special areas is attached by direct fixation without ballast.^ The difference there is that the populations are more clustered, and in some areas the trains may be useful.
  • Protestors Question High Speed Rail in Face of Budget Deficits 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The area was closed for track renewal - we're replacing sleepers and the ballast - the gravel under the tracks," he said.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Some standard-speed corridors would act as extensions of the high-speed services and allow for trains to run on both types of track; this would allow people living in an area without direct access to high-speed lines to still be able to travel on high-speed trains to other destinations.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

Track may be prefabricated or assembled in place. .By welding rails together to form lengths of continuous welded rail, additional wear and tear on rolling stock caused by the small surface gap at the joints between rails can be counteracted and make for a quieter ride (passenger trains).^ Ribbon Rail Continuous welded rail, laid in 1/4 mile lengths then welded end to end to make a continuous length.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Add , to Couple car(s) to a train Adhesion Coefficient The ratio of tangential and normal force that exist between the wheel and the rail during motion.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Wheel Rolling The wheel rotating on its axle theoretically without motion existing between the wheel and the rail at the area of contact.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.On curves the outer rail may be at a higher level than the inner rail.^ Calculations thus prove higher levels of exploitation of the Chinese than in previous studies.
  • Railroad History, Railways, Locomotives, entrepreneurs, business history 19c American, Jensen 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsidy has also soared to record levels, with the taxpayer contributing more than £6 billion this year, four times what British Rail received.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ High Iron The railroad's mainline, usually with more ballast and heavier rail, which made this track higher than yard track.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

This is called superelevation or cant. .This reduces the forces tending to displace the track and makes for a more comfortable ride for standing livestock and standing or seated passengers.^ The Pro Traveler features an upgraded internal structure to make it more comfortable and has integrated handles to make it more convenient to carry or hang.

^ "Increasing capacity doesn't mean ripping out a few seats and removing passenger toilets to squeeze in a few more standing commuters.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The change would make travelling by raila much more attractive and environmentally sound option for passengers from as far afield as Derby, Birmingham and Sheffield.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

This will be effective at a limited range of speeds.
.Turnouts, also known as points and switches, are the means of directing a train onto a diverging section of track.^ Current of Traffic The movement of trains on a main track, in one direction, specified by the rules.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A train pulls completely through one leg of wye, the switch is thrown and reverses the direction, allowing the movement across the semi-loop track of the wye, and the train is then headed in the opposite direction.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Turnout Number The ratio of the length of the tangent track to an equal unit of space between the tangent track and a point on the branch track.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Laid similar to normal track, a point typically consists of a frog (common crossing), check rails and two switch rails.^ The track is laid around this point, Cape Horn, on the side of a mountain so precipitous that the first workmen had to be lowered from the bluff above by ropes.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sticking point is whether the privatized company should own the rail network, including tracks and stations.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ At this point the rails were loaded on low flat cars, and hauled by horses to end of track.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The switch rails may be moved left or right, under the control of the signalling system, to determine which path the train will follow.^ The move was controlled by hand signals.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Signalling System A system to ensure the safe movement of trains by means of lineside indications and/or indications given in the driver's cab.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Air Brake System All of the devices and parts included in making an air brake for controlling the speed and stopping a locomotive or train.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Spikes in wooden ties can loosen over time, but split and rotten ties may be individually replaced with new wooden ties or concrete substitutes.^ The extension and new station at Nant Gwernol were opened on 22 May 1976 by Wynford Vaughan Thomas who drove in the ceremonial "golden spike" to complete the extension.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

Concrete ties can also develop cracks or splits, and can also be replaced individually. .Should the rails settle due to soil subsidence, they can be lifted by specialized machinery and additional ballast tamped under the ties to level the rails.^ Every time he mentions Florida he seems to be asking them to give him an excuse: they should fund something, anything vaguely rail-related.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ The horses could not walk between the rails because of the ties, therefore they walked on a path alongside the rails, the towpath.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ VICTORIA's country rail network will require a massive lift in capital expenditure to return its tracks to the condition they were in before its 1999 privatisation.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Periodically, ballast must be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure adequate drainage. Culverts and other passages for water must be kept clear lest water is impounded by the trackbed, causing landslips. .Where trackbeds are placed along rivers, additional protection is usually placed to prevent erosion during times of high water.^ During that time, she was determined to persuade those people living close to the Ohio River to help runaways from Kentucky and Virginia who fled across the river.
  • People of the Underground Railroad :: National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC freedomcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slack is necessary so as to start one car at a time and so that the train may be operated around curves and over high and low places.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Bridges require inspection and maintenance, since they are subject to large surges of stress in a short period of time when a heavy train crosses.^ On the other hand, trains are best when you are short on time and money – unlike the United States, train fares are cheaper here and the distances are not that great.

^ When the trains ran, from 1931 to 1948, they crossed over Flatts Inlet via a trestle bridge and entered Hamilton Parish.

^ "They are running enough trains that we believe they should be subject to our reporting requirements," said Warren Flatau, spokesman for the FRA. "As the popularity of these operations grows, so too has the scope of operations."
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad, Inc.- A Colorado Corporation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC gtownloop.com [Source type: News]

Great Western Railway semaphore-type signal

Signalling

.Railway signalling is a system used to control railway traffic safely to prevent trains from colliding.^ Block Signal A fixed signal at the entrance of a block to govern trains and engines entering and using that block.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Yard A system of tracks, other than main tracks and sidings, used for making up trains, storing of cars and for other purposes.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Signalling System A system to ensure the safe movement of trains by means of lineside indications and/or indications given in the driver's cab.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Being guided by fixed rails with low friction, trains are uniquely susceptible to collision since they frequently operate at speeds that do not enable them to stop quickly or within the driver's sighting distance.^ Rail Europe consists of ten high speed trains.

^ A tour guide offers information on sights and the history of the rail area.

^ High-speed rail lines would not be shared with freight trains, but the right-of-way could be shared.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.Most forms of train control involve movement authority being passed from those responsible for each section of a rail network to the train crew.^ The problems involve a fleet of 72 German-built trains that were introduced to the suburban network in 2003.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ A spokesman for Network Rail said: "The Ladbroke Grove tragedy was a terrible event for everyone involved.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ After quite a response to the transport politic’s original post on envisioning a new intercity rail network, I’d like to offer up some revisions to the proposal.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.Not all methods require the use of signals, and some systems are specific to single track railways.^ The track circuit is the basis of signaling systems.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There were others!  I remember the 3 wheeler Scammell trucks used by some coalmen & by  British Railways.
  • Railway 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC levyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Category: High speed rail — Tags: Behaviour , Dynamics , LongTerm , Railway , Subgrade , System , Track , Vehicles – admin @ 10:02 pm .

.The signalling process is traditionally carried out in a signal box, a small building that houses the lever frame required for the signalman to operate switches and signal equipment.^ Each passing loop is controlled by a small signal box, known as a block-post.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Not much remedial work has been carried out on the old station building.
  • Railway 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC levyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through the end of the season a lot of kinks were worked out, systems changed, and the 9 ran the final 20 days straight as the only remaining operating equipment.
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad, Inc.- A Colorado Corporation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC gtownloop.com [Source type: News]

.These are placed at various intervals along the route of a railway, controlling specified sections of track.^ Repeater Signal Signal placed on the opposite side of the track from the controlling signal.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The transfer took place on 8 February 1951, at which point the newly formed Talyllyn Railway Preservation Society effectively took control of the railway.
  • Talyllyn Railway - Thomas the Tank Engine Wikia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ttte.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Overlap A section of track where the control length of a signal overlaps the next signal to reduce the risk of collision if the train fails in braking before the stop signal.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.More recent technological developments have made such operational doctrine superfluous, with the centralization of signalling operations to regional control rooms.^ Controlled Signal An absolute signal, the aspect of which, is controlled by a control operator.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dummy A small auxiliary signal used to control unusual movements such as a set back into a yard from a main line.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Controlled Point A location designated by number where signals and /or switches of a CTC system are controlled by a control operator.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.This has been facilitated by the increased use of computers, allowing vast sections of track to be monitored from a single location.^ Form D A form used in receiving written permission to occupy track in DCS sections of railroad lines.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "The new arrangements will allow for better maintenance of the tracks by the Government and facilitate better access to the network," he said.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.The common method of block signalling divides the track into zones guarded by combinations of block signals, operating rules, and automatic-control devices so that only one train may be in a block at any time.^ At present, lines are divided into fixed 'blocks', entry to which is controlled by signals.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The block signals may be controlled manually or automatically.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ordinarily, only one train may occupy a DTC block at a time.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

Electrification

.The electrification system provides electrical energy to the trains, so they can operate without a prime mover onboard.^ The technology also has the potential to allow trains to operate without drivers in the future.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ A head end power system may use either the locomotive's prime mover, or it may use a separate HEP engine generator set installed at the #2 end of the locomotive.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Train operations would be scheduled by Amtrak depending on ridership; the corridor scores in the table below provide a basic estimate for travel demand along each of the lines.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.This allows lower operating costs, but requires large capital investments along the lines.^ Train operations would be scheduled by Amtrak depending on ridership; the corridor scores in the table below provide a basic estimate for travel demand along each of the lines.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Other standard-speed corridors with lower ridership would operate with their own train sets and require passengers to transfer at high-speed stations to get onto high-speed lines.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ In other words, if the corridor were wide enough, NatTrack could allow for the operation of freight trains along parallel tracks.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.Mainline and tram systems normally have overhead wires, which hang from poles along the line.^ Catenary Overhead wire system on elecricfied railroads for suppling current to electric locomotives and self-propelled cars equipped with pantographs.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Grade-separated rapid transit sometimes use a ground third rail.^ Cities and states would have an incentive to prop up their local transit systems if there were a well-used rail hub at the center of each metropolitan area.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Stinger A portable insulated pole used by railroads (and transit authorities) with third rail trackage.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The pole is used to "reach" from an existing third rail power source to the pickup shoes of the electric locomotive in instances where the shoes of the locomotive are not contacting the third rail.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

Power may be fed as direct or alternating current. .The most common currencies are 600 and 750 V for tram and rapid transit systems, and 1,500  and 3,000 V for mainlines.^ Main Archives Under Construction Planned Planned Intercity Rail Systems Planned Commuter Rail Systems Planned Light Rail Systems Planned Streetcar Systems Planned Bus Rapid Transit Systems Planned Metro Rail Systems Links .

The two dominant AC systems are 15 kV AC and 25 kV AC.

Stations

.A railway station serves as a area where passengers can board and alight from trains.^ Other standard-speed corridors with lower ridership would operate with their own train sets and require passengers to transfer at high-speed stations to get onto high-speed lines.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Passenger Train heading South through Levenshulme North Station, Albert Road.
  • Railway 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC levyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A goods station is a yard which is exclusively used for loading and unloading cargo.^ The Main Line & Goods Yard near Levenshulme South Station, looking west.
  • Railway 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC levyboy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brakemen on local freight runs used to have to unload LCL merchandise at stations on their territories.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Team Track A track on which rail cars are placed for the use of the public in loading or unloading freight.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Large passenger stations have at least one building providing conveniences for passengers, such as purchasing tickets and food.^ A spokeswoman said: "The safety of colleagues and passengers is our number one priority and tragic incidents such as this should not happen.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Three teams of two-strong patrols are providing support to staff and passengers at stations and on board trains.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Smaller stations typically only consist of a platform. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities.[27] .Platforms are used to allow easy access to the trains, and are connected to each other via underpasses, footbridge and level crossings.^ There are, however, several gauge-changing trains, allowing to extend the high speed connections to not (yet) connected places.

^ When the trains ran, from 1931 to 1948, they crossed over Flatts Inlet via a trestle bridge and entered Hamilton Parish.

^ If you are planning to visit London then the train travel will be highly beneficial for you and your family and will give you an easy and comfortable access to various places.

.Some large stations are built as cul-de-sac, with trains only operating out from one direction.^ Elephant Ears Metal side plates used on some large steam locomotives to lift the smoke above the train at speed.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We want all public subsidy and fare-box revenue spent on improvements to train services, not siphoned out of the network as profit for greedy train operators.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Current of Traffic The movement of trains on a main track, in one direction, specified by the rules.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.Smaller stations normally serve local residential areas, and may have connection to feeder bus services.^ The Chicago-Cleveland Corridor Service Program includes feeder bus service … from Toledo to Detroit …” .
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Mr Scott gave assurances that the executive would help ensure the rail line would be linked with local bus services.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Large stations, in particular central stations, serve as the main public transport hub for the city, and have transfer available between rail services, and to rapid transit, tram or bus services.^ It allows cities throughout the nation to benefit directly from rail service, with all cities getting at least some rail and the larger cities getting fast rail.

^ He added that the strategy would enable the national rail carrier diversify from its large dependency on transit goods to export.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ See also: Category:Rapid transit stations in China [ edit ] Station buildings Colombia .
  • Railway station - Wikimedia Commons 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

Operations

In the United States, railways, such as Union Pacific, are privately owned

Ownership

.Traditionally, the infrastructure and rolling stock are owned and operated by the same company.^ TfL also says that their proposal is not really privatisation, given that the infrastructure would be owned by TfL and that specification of service levels, fares, staffing etc would also remain with TfL. However, the services will be operated by a private-sector franchisee whose main aim will be to make a profit, and the operational staff will be employed by that private operator - a situation similar to the private train-operating companies, who are also subject to franchise specification and who also do not own rolling stock or infrastructure.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ These are very prescriptive and often stipulate which rolling stock a train operator must use.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rift Valley Railways' Managing Director Roy Puffet said the company's priority will be to computerise the operations of the railways before moving to upgrade the infrastructure.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.This has often been by a national railway, while other companies have had private railways.^ "The infraco consortiums are made up of the very companies thrown off maintenance on the national railway network for efficiency and safety reasons.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The FRA regulates Colorado's other tourist trains because they are part of the national railway system, Flatau said.
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad, Inc.- A Colorado Corporation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC gtownloop.com [Source type: News]

^ Under the system, private companies bid to run rail services on routes, with some receiving subsidies to do so but others paying the government a premium.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Since the 1980s, there has been an increasing tendency to split up railway companies, with separate companies owning the stock from those owning the infrastructure, particularly in Europe, where this is required by the European Union.^ "The infraco consortiums are made up of the very companies thrown off maintenance on the national railway network for efficiency and safety reasons.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rift Valley Railways' Managing Director Roy Puffet said the company's priority will be to computerise the operations of the railways before moving to upgrade the infrastructure.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Particularly when there’s an existing ROW owned by SEPTA (which they don’t seem to want to admit to owning) running direct from Phildelphia to Allentown.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.This has allowed open access by any train operator to any portion of the European railway network.^ We want all public subsidy and fare-box revenue spent on improvements to train services, not siphoned out of the network as profit for greedy train operators.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The technology also has the potential to allow trains to operate without drivers in the future.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ 'It supports competition, and yet appears to see open access operators as a threat to stability.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Financing

.The main source of income for railway companies is from ticket revenue (for passenger transport) and shipment fees for cargo.^ The main charges applying to rail and road transport are access/registration and safety fees, while the main taxes are the diesel fuel excise, payroll tax, import duty and company tax.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ "The transportation turnover rate for railways will double with the completion of main trunk lines in 2010," said Long Hua, an analyst from Industrial Securities Co.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Article continues The Department for Transport, which reported the leasing companies to the ORR, accused the businesses of piling costs on to passengers by making profits of £175m last year.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Discounts and monthly passes are sometimes available for frequent travelers. .Freight revenue may be sold per container slot or for a whole train.^ A freight train operator has introduced and is trialling new shunting practices which may reduce the risk to shunters.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The former government-owned VLine Freight was sold to Rail America for $163 million in May 1999, about half of which was for the rail track.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Sometimes, the shipper owns the cars and only rents the haulage. For passenger transport, advertisement income can be significant.
.Government may choose to give subsidies to rail operation, since rail transport has fewer externalities than other dominant modes of transport.^ So, fewer than 5,000 Chinese workers were employed by the CPRR when Promontory Summit was reached, on May 10, 1869.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rail operators to be treated like other 'off road' diesel users for the purposes of fuel taxation.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The former Bureau of Transport and Communications Economics has classified the charges and taxes governments levy on transport into five categories: charges for the use of infrastructure; fuel taxes; vehicle charges and taxes; operations charges and taxes; and taxes on externalities.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

.If the railway company is state-owned, the state may simply provide direct subsidies in exchange for an increased production.^ While subsidy and profits have increased, services remain worse than those provided under public ownership.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Relying on states to plan the systems and then provide the majority of funds is simply unrealistic.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ And why are we making these companies bet on how well the railway will do over the next 10 years, when that is largely based on the health of the economy and not their own efforts?"
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

If operations have been privatized, several options are available. .Some countries have a system where the infrastructure is owned by a government agency or company—with open access to the tracks for any company that meets safety requirements.^ Mwakwere said although traditionally, government provided infrastructure services, some of them like railways had not been competitive, were disappointing and needed public funds for investment.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The main charges applying to rail and road transport are access/registration and safety fees, while the main taxes are the diesel fuel excise, payroll tax, import duty and company tax.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ A government spokesman said new fire safety regulations would lead to an even safer Underground system.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In such cases, the state may choose to provide the tracks free of charge, or for a fee that does not cover all costs.^ I recognize that these assumptions may be incorrect in many cases, but they provide a reasonable start for further research on this subject.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ The general principle on which transport charges and taxes are based is that the service user should pay the full cost to society of providing the service.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Governments levy charges on all modes to recover the cost of providing infrastructure and other resources used in transport services, and impose taxes to raise revenue, change the allocation of resources and for equity reasons.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

This is seen as analogous to the government providing free access to roads. .For passenger operations, a direct subsidy may be paid to a public-owned operator, or public service obligation tender may be helt, and a time-limited contract awarded to the lowest bidder.^ We want all public subsidy and fare-box revenue spent on improvements to train services, not siphoned out of the network as profit for greedy train operators.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ While subsidy and profits have increased, services remain worse than those provided under public ownership.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ That's why, as a limited time only marketing test, you can own your own copy of The Railroad Jobs Guide for only $27.00 .
  • Railroad Jobs - Your guide for railroad employment! 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.getarailroadjob.com [Source type: General]

Safety

Main article: list of rail accidents pre-1950; 1950–1999; 2000–present.
Train wreck at Montparnasse Station, Paris, France, in 1895.
.Rail transport is one of the safest forms of land travel.^ Amanda Fazio is obviously someone who does not travel by public transport and would have no intention of ever travelling on any future rail lines—she is commenting from the sidelines.
  • Transport Administration Amendment (Metro Rail) Bill 2008 - 02/12/2008 - 2R 3R - NSW Parliament 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.parliament.nsw.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally it should be remembered that taxes and charges are only one aspect of government policies affecting competitive neutrality between rail and road transport.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Decorated Mouse Pad with Sweden, vehicle, travel, transport, Europe, conveyance, rail, carrier, train .

[28] .Trains can travel at very high speed, but they are heavy, are unable to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop.^ There are, however, several gauge-changing trains, allowing to extend the high speed connections to not (yet) connected places.

^ Central Japan Railway Enters Competition for U.S. High-Speed Market ( 29 ) ▶J: I dont give a damn who runs the train as long as I can purchase my...

^ Rail Europe consists of ten high speed trains.

.Possible accidents include derailment (jumping the track), a head-on collision with another train and collision with an automobile or other vehicle at a level crossings.^ These were put into position and spiked by another gang, which also leveled up the track and left it ready for the ballasters.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yard A system of tracks, other than main tracks and sidings, used for making up trains, storing of cars and for other purposes.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ron Trottier, the train's general manager, expected the agent to conduct a thorough inspection of the track, which was repaired after the derailment.
  • Georgetown Loop Railroad, Inc.- A Colorado Corporation 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC gtownloop.com [Source type: News]

The latter accounts for the majority of rail accidents and casualties. .The most important safety measures are railway signalling and gates at level/grade crossings.^ The most serious incident occurred on Tuesday night when a train failed to stop at Brighton Beach station and travelled into the level crossing at South Road.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ The Railway Safety Regulator said it was concerned about the "prevalence of accidents at level crossings."
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ In a statement, the Railway Safety Regulator said preliminary investigations suggested the truck driver had ignored warning signals at the level crossing, leading to the collision.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Train whistles warn of the presence of a train, while trackside signals maintain the distances between trains.^ Automatic Cab Signal System (ACS) A system which provides for the automatic operation of the cab signals and cab warning whistle.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The system has already been introduced by Alstom on the high-speed line between Rome and Naples, where trains run at 186mph without any signals to separate them.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ All 12 trackside signals will be removed and replaced by a digital radio link with sensors between the rails telling each train exactly how far ahead from the next train it is.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Impact

Energy

Rail transport is an energy-efficient [29] but capital-intensive means of mechanized land transport. .The tracks provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train can roll with a minimum of friction.^ Track Head The top of the track on which the wheels roll.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rolling Resistance Resistance that is made up of wheel friction, journal friction, and wind resistance.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The maintenance train's purpose is to smooth out worn-down sections of track.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.As an example, a typical modern wagon can hold up to 113 tonnes of freight on two four-wheel bogies.^ Typical European freight cars (wagons) are rated at 90-tonnes gross weight vs. In addition, Euro-freight trains typically operate loaded at 60 MPH and 75 MPH empty, depending on the operating environment (some do operate at higher speeds).
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

.The contact area between each wheel and the rail is a strip no more than a few millimetres wide, which minimizes friction.^ Wheel Slipping The wheel rotating on its axle with motion existing between the wheel and rail at the area of contact.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Wheel Sliding The wheel not rotating on its axle and motion existing between the wheel and rail at the area of contact.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Add , to Couple car(s) to a train Adhesion Coefficient The ratio of tangential and normal force that exist between the wheel and the rail during motion.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.The track distributes the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads per axle and wheel than in road transport, leading to less wear and tear on the permanent way.^ Yard A system of tracks, other than main tracks and sidings, used for making up trains, storing of cars and for other purposes.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, it could lead to undercharging in large metropolitan areas, where externalities from road transport are likely to be high.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In some cases, the construction cost has been repaid several times over, but the banks continue to charge train companies more than £1,000 a week per carriage.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.This can save energy compared with other forms of transportation, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tires and the road.^ The Bureau of Transport Economics also concluded that even after the tax reforms are implemented, charges and taxes would not be competitively neutral between road and rail: (37) .
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ User choice of mode depends on a range of factors including the characteristics of the goods and passengers to be transported, service characteristics such as journey time and reliability, and service prices.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The Bureau restricted its analysis to interstate non-bulk road and rail freight transport, the main area of competition between road and rail.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

.Trains have a small frontal area in relation to the load they are carrying, which reduces air resistance and thus energy usage, although this does not reduce the effects of side winds.^ This merchandise was usually carried in partially loaded - thus "Less than Carload lots" - boxcars, usually right ahead of the caboose.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Grade Resistance Resistance that results from the energy you must put into a train to lift it vertically.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

.In addition, the presence of track guiding the wheels allows for very long trains to be pulled by one or a few engines, even around curves, which allows for economies of scale in energy use; by contrast, in road transport, more than two articulations causes fishtailing and makes the vehicle unsafe.^ Booster A small two cylinder steam driven engine, manufactured by the Franklin Railway Supply Co., and attached to an axle of the trailing track of some steam locomotives to provide additional tractive effort when starting a train.
  • 446 Railroad Definitions 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.parovoz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ State governments impose heavy vehicle (17) road use charges to recover the cost of road damage these vehicles cause.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ One of them -- a boulder about 6 meters long, 3 meters wide and 2 meters tall -- might have bent the rails and caused the derailment, they said.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

Railway tracks running through Stanhope, United Kingdom

Usage

.Due to these benefits, rail transport is a major form of passenger and freight transport in many countries.^ The consequences of government charges and taxes on the relative competitiveness of rail and road freight transport have long been contentious.
  • Cost Recovery in Road and Rail Transport (Research Paper 28 1999-2000) 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.aph.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In this point, I agree with many of the comments already posted that suggest including rail links to the major airports.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Rail Minister Tom Harris said: "This is good news for passengers in Leeds and Nottingham who will benefit from a fourfold increase in services.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In Asia, many millions use trains as regular transport in India, China, South Korea and Japan.^ To conquer the many sheer embankments, the Chinese workers used techniques they had learned in China to complete similar tasks.
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The safety of commuters and goods endeared many organisations to use rail transport, until financial breeding at the institutions, occasioned by poor management set in.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ A recent Department for Transport study found that people on higher incomes were twice as likely to use trains.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

It is widespread in European countries. .Freight rail transport is widespread and heavily used in North America, but intercity passenger rail transport on that continent is relatively scarce outside the Northeast Corridor.^ Where it does tend to work is in the Northeast Corridor which is dedicated to passenger rail.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ He has failed to introduce the key foundation to public transport planning and development in this city, that is, the north-west and south-west heavy rail lines.
  • Transport Administration Amendment (Metro Rail) Bill 2008 - 02/12/2008 - 2R 3R - NSW Parliament 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.parliament.nsw.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ A rail freight market has struggled to develop at Eurotunnel, in part because of the failure of the French, German and Belgian rail operators to open a freight corridor to Calais.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

[30]
.Africa and South America have some extensive networks such as in South Africa, Northern Africa and Argentina; but some railway on these continents are isolated lines connecting two places.^ After a competitive bidding process, a South African investor, Rift Valley Railways (RVR), has taken over the two corporations, who won a contract of running the railway network for 25 years.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ LCR will also say it is ready to build a second North-South high-speed line if ministers approve the plan put forward by Network Rail.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Two other operators, FirstGroup and StageCoach, which have signed billion-pound contracts, are ripping out seats from carriages to meet increased demand on a network that is running out of capacity in some areas, particularly the south-east.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.Australia has a generally sparse network befitting its population density, but has some areas with significant networks, especially in the southeast.^ He said: "While Metronet is demonstrating good performance in some areas, such as fleet management, it needs to make significant improvements in other areas.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ "While Metronet is demonstrating good performance in some areas, such as fleet management, it needs to make significant improvements in other areas," said Mr Bolt.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

.In addition to the previously existing east-west transcontinental line in Australia, a line from north to south has been constructed.^ He has failed to introduce the key foundation to public transport planning and development in this city, that is, the north-west and south-west heavy rail lines.
  • Transport Administration Amendment (Metro Rail) Bill 2008 - 02/12/2008 - 2R 3R - NSW Parliament 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.parliament.nsw.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The line will extend north into Hackney and south to West Croydon, and is due to re-open in 2010.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ LCR will also say it is ready to build a second North-South high-speed line if ministers approve the plan put forward by Network Rail.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

The highest railway in the world is the line to Lhasa, in Tibet, partly running over permafrost territory. .The western Europe region has the highest railway density in the world, nevertheless it remains a technically and organizationally fragmented region with the Trans-Europe Express being one of the few exceptions.^ Contrary to the book's conclusion , the engineers' and contemporary newspaper reports were (with one exception) of only few casualties .
  • CHINESE-AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD 9 February 2010 16:016 UTC cprr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have seen passenger numbers rising - indeed we have a one billion passenger railway, the fastest-growing passenger railway anywhere in Europe," he said.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ It was when Bermuda was without any motor transportation (instead of the 2,506 motor vehicles per square mile on the roads now, one of the highest in traffic density anywhere).

.Of 236 countries and dependencies globally, 143 have rail transport (including several with very little), of which about 90 have passenger services.^ This interjects some competition into the system and is intended to achieve the best set of alternatives for providing transportation services on the “public rail rights-of-way”.
  • A Future Interstate Rail Network – Redux « The Transport Politic 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.thetransportpolitic.com [Source type: News]

^ Immediate hiring of 1500 workers to handle the increase in rail travel (passenger) and the needs of the SNCF FRET service.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

^ Rail Minister Tom Harris said: "This is good news for passengers in Leeds and Nottingham who will benefit from a fourfold increase in services.
  • National Union of Rail, Maritime & Transport Workers (RMT): November 2006 Archives 2 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.rmtbristol.org.uk [Source type: News]

[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ According to this source, railways are safest on both a per-mile and per-hour basis, whereas airline transportation is safe only on a per-mile basis
  2. ^ Lewis, M. J. T. "Railways in the Greek and Roman World" (pdf). http://www.sciencenews.gr/docs/diolkos.pdf. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
  3. ^ Hylton, Stuart (2007). The Grand Experiment: The Birth of the Railway Age 1820-1845. Ian Allan Publishing. 
  4. ^ Kriechbaum, Reinhard (15 May 2004). "Die große Reise auf den Berg" (in German). der Tagespost. http://www.die-tagespost.de/Archiv/titel_anzeige.asp?ID=8916. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  5. ^ "Der Reiszug - Part 1 - Presentation". Funimag. http://www.funimag.com/funimag10/RESZUG01.HTM. Retrieved 22 April 2009. 
  6. ^ Georgius Agricola (1913). De re metallica. 
  7. ^ Porter, Peter (1914). Landmarks of the Niagara Frontier. The Author. 
  8. ^ Morlok, Edward K. (11 May 2005). "First permanent railroad in the U.S. and its connection to the University of Pennsylvania". http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~morlok/morlokpage/transp_data.html. Retrieved 19 September 2007. 
  9. ^ Vaughan, A. (1997). Railwaymen, Politics and Money. London: John Murray. 
  10. ^ a b Marshall, John (1979). The Guiness Book of Rail Facts & Feats. ISBN 0-900424-56-7. 
  11. ^ "Surrey Iron Railway 200th - 26th July 2003". Early Railways. Stephenson Locomotive Society. http://www.stephensonloco.fsbusiness.co.uk/surreyiron.htm. Retrieved 19 September. 
  12. ^ Gordon, W. J. (1910). Our Home Railways, Volume One. London: Frederick Warne and Co. pp. 7–9. 
  13. ^ http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/rhagor/article/trevithic_loco/
  14. ^ "Steam train anniversary begins". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/3509961.stm. Retrieved 13 June 2009. "A south Wales town has begun months of celebrations to mark the 200th anniversary of the invention of the steam locomotive. Merthyr Tydfil was the location where, on 21 February 1804, Richard Trevithick took the world into the railway age when he set one of his high-pressure steam engines on a local iron master's tram rails" 
  15. ^ Payton, Philip (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. 
  16. ^ Chartres, J.. "Richard Trevithick". in Cannon, John. Oxford Companion to British History. p. 932. 
  17. ^ "Early Days of Mumbles Railway". BBC. 15 February 2007. http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southwest/sites/swansea/pages/mumbles_trainanniv.shtml. Retrieved 19 September 2007. 
  18. ^ "John Blenkinsop". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9001800. Retrieved 10 September 2007. 
  19. ^ a b Ellis, Hamilton (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. Hamlyn Publishing Group. 
  20. ^ "Liverpool and Manchester". http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAliverpool.htm. Retrieved 19 September 2007. 
  21. ^ Dilts, James D. (1996). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio, the Nation's First Railroad, 1828-1853. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0804726290. http://books.google.com/books?id=JjrCWPwvHzIC&lpg=PR18&dq=dilts%20b%26o&pg=PA26#v=onepage&q=first&f=false. 
  22. ^ "The Journal of Ebenezer Mattoon Chamberlain 1832-5", Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. XV, September, 1919, No. 3, p.233ff.
  23. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (2000). Nothing Like It In The World; The men who built the Transcontinental Railroad 1863-1869. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84609-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=TZp_GT7PscIC&lpg=PP1&dq=ambrose%20nothing%20like%20it&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  24. ^ Tokle, Bjørn (2003) (in Norwegian). Communication gjennom 100 år. Meldal: Chr. Salvesen & Chr. Thams's Communications Aktieselskab. p. 54. 
  25. ^ Associated Press (4 April 2007). "French train breaks speed record". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/04/03/TGVspeedrecord.ap/index.html. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  26. ^ Fouquet, Helene and Viscousi, Gregory (3 April 2007). "French TGV Sets Record, Reaching 357 Miles an Hour (Update2)". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601085&sid=aW23Aw20niIo&refer=europe. Retrieved 19 September 2007. 
  27. ^ "The Inception of the English Railway Station". Architectural History 4: 63–76. 1961. doi:10.2307/1568245. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0066-622X(1961)4%3C63%3ATIOTER%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Q. Retrieved 13 August 2008. 
  28. ^ U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics (2010) National Transportation Statistics. Table 2-1: Transportation Fatalities by Mode . (Report). Retrieved on 2010-02-14.
  29. ^ American Association of Railroads. "Railroad Fuel Efficiency Sets New Record". http://www.progressiverailroading.com/news/article.asp?id=16740. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
  30. ^ "Public Transportation Ridership Statistics". American Public Transportation Association. 2007. http://www.apta.com/research/stats/ridership/. Retrieved 10 September 2007. 

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Train station in the city of Mumbai. Railways in India carry about 17 million passengers every year[1] and are one of the busiest in the world.[2]]]

Rail transport is the movement of passengers and goods using wheeled vehicles designed to run on railway tracks. In most countries, this transportation method helps international trade and economic growth. Railways provide an energy-efficient [3] way to transport material over land. The railway tracks are a large part of the system and provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train roll with a little friction. Also, the track spreads the weight of the train which means larger amounts can be carried than with trucks and roads.

References

  1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6287152.stm
  2. http://www.indianembassy.org/i_digest/2004/jan_31/indian_railways.htm
  3. Railroad Fuel Efficiency Sets New Record- American Association of Railroads


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Rail transport, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message