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Railway electrification in Great Britain describes the past and present electrification systems used to supply traction current to railways and tramways in Great Britain with a chronological record of development, a list of lines using each system, and a history and a technical description of each system.


Railway electrification emerged at the end of the nineteenth century. Advantages over the then predominant steam traction, particularly in respect of its quick acceleration (ideal for urban (metro) and suburban (commuter) services) and power (ideal for heavy freight trains through mountainous/hilly sections). Many systems emerged in the first twenty years of the twentieth century (as listed below). In 1921 a government committee chose 1500 V DC overhead to be the national standard[1], but little implementation followed, and many different systems co-existed.

After World War II and subsequent nationalisation of the railways in 1948, British Railways expanded electrification of both the 1500 V DC overhead and Southern Region third rail systems, but in 1955 adopted 25 kV AC overhead for its proposed main line electrification.[2]

Despite the following years of minimal capital investment, the 25 kV AC network has continued to expand, slowly, although large areas of the country outside London are still non-electrified, despite their urban, suburban, hilly or intercity nature.

The British government's preferred option was to use diesel trains and run them on biodiesel. In the 2007 White Paper Delivering a Sustainable Railway [3] the government ruled out large-scale railway electrification in Network Rail's Control Period 4.

However, since then, with a new Network Rail Chief Executive, Iain Coucher and a new Transport Minister Lord Adonis (now Secretary of State for Transport) the outlook has changed considerably. In May 2009 Network Rail launched a consultation on large scale electrification, potentially to include the Great Western Main Line and Midland Main Line. Alongside major projects like these would be a raft of smaller "in-fill" schemes. Key benefits cited in the consultation were that electric trains are faster, more reliable and cause less track wear than diesel ones.[4]

In Scotland, where transport is a matter devolved to the Scottish Government, Transport Scotland is extending electrification where appropriate, for example on the Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link and Glasgow Airport Rail Link. This is part of a larger plan that foresees many major routes in Central Scotland electrified including the main Edinburgh to Glasgow Queen St route.

Facts and figures

Railway electrification in Europe by country. Data source: UIC

In 2006 40% (3,062 miles / 4,928 km) of the British rail network was electrified and 60% of all rail journeys are by electric traction (both by locomotives and multiple units) [5]

According to Network Rail, 66% of the electrified network uses the 25 kV a.c. overhead system and 36% uses the 660/750 V d.c. third rail system [5].

Systems no longer used

Great Britain has used a number of different electrification systems in the past. Many of these date from the early part of the 20th century when electricity was being experimented with for traction purposes. This section describes each system, in order of increasing voltage.


500 V DC, Overhead

525 V DC, Third Rail

The Liverpool Overhead Railway was one of the earliest electric railways in Great Britain. The first section between Alexandra Dock and Herculaneum Dock was opened in 1893. The line connected with Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway's North Mersey Branch. It was never nationalised and it closed on 30 December 1956 due to extensive corrosion throughout its iron infrastructure, which was deemed uneconomical to replace.

600 V DC, Third Rail

NER No.1, Locomotion museum, Shildon
This was electrified in 1904, in response to extensive competition from new electric trams. The concept was a success for the North Eastern Railway (NER) a noted early pioneer in electrification, as passenger numbers returned to pre Tram levels.[6] As the stock reached life expectancy in 1937, the network was remodelled by London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) to reflect the changing industrial and residential makeup of the area.[7] Electrified at the same time was the dockside branch, where a pair of Class ES1 (formerly NER No.1 and 2) locomotives were introduced from 1905. These British Thomson-Houston locomotives operated from both the third rail and from overhead catenary. British Rail brought in third-rail stock (12 2EPBs) from the Southern Region in 1955. The system was de-electrified by British Rail in between 1963 and 1967, citing the changing industrial and population makeup of the area, reducing the need for electric traction. Much of the Tyneside network was re-electrified using 1500 V DC overhead (see below) as the Tyne and Wear Metro.

650 V DC, Overhead

1200 V DC, Third Rail (Side-Contact)

A Class 504 (1200 V DC) train at Manchester Victoria station weeks before closure for conversion to the Metrolink light rail system.
  • Manchester Victoria - Bury
In 1917 the line between Manchester Victoria and Bury was electrified using 1200 V DC third rail (side contact). The line between Bury and Holcombe Brook that had been electrified using 3500 V DC overhead in 1913 was converted to this system in 1918. This system was abandoned in 1991 when the line was converted to 750 V DC system and became part of the Manchester Metrolink [8][9]

1500 V DC, Overhead

In the wake of World War I, the British Government set up a committee to investigate the various systems of railway electrification and in 1928 it reported that 1500 V DC overhead should be the future national standard.[1] Several schemes (see below) were implemented in its wake, although the Great Depression and World War II meant very little work was done. Technological advances post-war saw a government U-turn and the 25 kV AC system was adopted instead, for the West Coast Main line and Glasgow suburban electrification, as set out in the BR 1955 Modernisation Plan - at the same time the large amounts of money had/were still being spent converting several lines to 1500 V DC.

A joint LMS and LNER effort, opened on 11 May 1931. The success of this scheme propelled LNER's later electrification efforts. The line was converted to 25 kV AC in 1971 but the stretch between Altrincham and Trafford Bar plus the stretch between Trafford Bar and the Cornbrook viaduct were later incorporated into Manchester Metrolink and converted again, to 750 V DC.[10]
Known as the Woodhead Route. The LNER chose this hilly and busy mainline for its first mainline electrification, with work starting in 1936.[11] Due to the depression and World War II it was not completed until the 1950s. On completion the government chose to standardise on 25 kV AC instead, leaving the Woodhead Route and the few other 1500 V DC. lines isolated and non-standard. Subsequent rationalisation by BR saw much of this route closed east of Hadfield in 1981 in favour of the more southerly Hope Valley Line, which serves more local communities. The remaining stub in Manchester was converted to 25 kV AC in December 1984.
  • Shenfield Metro
LNER decided to electrify the Liverpool Street to Shenfield section of the Great Eastern Main Line (GEML), known as the Shenfield Metro. Civil engineering works began in the 1930s but World War II intervened. Work was completed in 1949 and extended to Chelmsford and Southend (Victoria) in 1956 using Class 306 (AM6) EMUs.[12] It was converted to the new standard of 25 kV AC, initially with some sections at 6.25 kV, on 4—6 November 1960, in the wake of the BR 1955 Modernisation Plan that called for 25 kV AC to be the new standard. The rest of the GEML was subsequently electrified.
  • Shildon to Newport
This line ran from Shildon (County Durham) to Newport (near Middlesbrough). In the wake of the electrification of Tyneside by the NER, this coal carrying line was electrified between 1 July 1915 and 1 January 1916, as a planned precursor to electrifying NER's busy York to Newcastle main line (part of the ECML). It was dismantled by LNER, as due to the the decline in the coal market it was uneconomic to undertake the significant renewals required to continue electric operation, it was thus dismantled from 7 January 1935 to 8 July 1935. The locos were stored for other electrified routes [13][14][15][16][17].

3500 V DC, Overhead

  • Bury to Holcombe Brook
This was electrified by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1913 as part of a trial system for export. The system was converted to third rail in 1918 (see above) [18].

6.25 kV 50 Hz AC, Overhead

During the initial electrification of parts of the network to 25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead the initial solution to the limited clearance problems in suburban areas (due to numerous tunnels and bridges) in London and Glasgow was to use the lower voltage of 6.25 kV. Latter technological improvements in insulation allowed these areas to be converted to 25 kV. The last sections of 6.25 kV were converted in the 1980s and this system of electrification is now obsolete in the UK.

  • London, Tilbury and Southend (LTS)
    • The majority of the line was electrified at 6.25 kV in the early 1960s. Some sections were electrified using 25 kV from the outset. The sections electrified at 6.25 kV were converted to 25 kV in the early 1980s.
  • Shenfield Metro
    • The line was originally electrified at 1500 V DC overhead in the 1950s. In the early 1960s the line was converted to 6.25 kV AC overhead. In the early 1980s the line was converted for a second time, to 25 kV.
  • Glasgow Suburban network
    • The majority of the network was originally electrified at 6.25 kV in the early 1960s. Some sections were electrified using 25 kV from the outset. The sections electrified at 6.25 kV were converted to 25 kV in the early 1980s.
    • North Clyde Line - the central area, Springburn, Bridgeton and Milngavie branches and the Yoker loop)
    • Cathcart Circle Line
    • See SPT and Transport in Glasgow

6.6 kV, 25 Hz AC, Overhead

Existing Systems - Third and Fourth Rails

110 V DC, Third Rail

Volk's Electric Railway was originally electrified at 50V DC. This was raised to 160V in 1884, and then reduced to the present 110V DC in the 1980s.

600 V DC, Third Rail

This was electrified in 1935.

630 V DC, Fourth Rail

The Tube's fourth-rail system
London Underground track, showing the third and fourth rails beside and between the running rails

The London Underground is a large metro system operating across London, and beyond, commonly known as "the Tube". The 408 km (253 miles)[19] network is made up of 12 lines and has been electrified for some time, starting in the 1890s. The network was largely unified between 1900-1910 and nationalised in 1933 becoming the railway component of London Transport (LT). A major expansion programme, the "New Works", was immediately launched, which saw LT take over several urban branches of mainline railways.

The London Underground network has historically been located in north London. In south London, expansion was limited by the poor geology (for building tunnels) and the extensive above-ground railway network already in that area, this being soon electrified (see "Southern Electric").

Due to the early pioneering work by the City & South London Railway (now part of the Northern line), the Underground uses a relatively obscure four rail system of electrification. Two standard gauge rails are the running rails; the outer third rail carries positive current at +420 V DC, while the inner fourth rail is the negative return at –210 V DC, giving a supply voltage of 630 V DC.

The advantage of the fourth rail system is that the two running rails are available exclusively for track circuits, of which there are many, though this was not the primary reason for adopting a fourth-rail scheme. Most of the deep-level tube lines run in cast iron tunnels (only some of the more recent constructions use concrete tunnel lining). Using a third-rail scheme necessitates that the return current is conducted through one (earthed) running rail. Such current is just as easily able to travel through the cast iron tunnel lining. Unless the joints between the sections are electrically sound, the current will arc across the sections causing considerable damage, or corrode the tunnel segments via electrolysis.

There are many cast iron gas and water mains in the vicinity of the tube tunnels, and the return current would travel along these just as easily. Some of these mains date back to the 19th century and the joints between separate sections would certainly not have been designed to be electrically sound, as deep-level electric tube trains were unthought of.

The surface sections of the lines are constructed using fourth-rail purely to permit through running of the same trains, there being no other technical reason to do so.

The system shares track with Network Rail in several places. Some of these are non-electrified sections of the national railway network (e.g. Chiltern Railways out of Marylebone station), and diesel trains are used (by Network Rail). The suburban network of London North Western Railway (LNWR) was electrified in co-operation with London Underground, but in the 1970s British Rail introduced third-rail EMUs and the sections of the LNWR suburban network not used by the Underground had the fourth rail removed (see London and North Western Railway section below).

650 V-850 V DC, Third Rail "Southern Electric"

An example of a third rail EMU
1933 poster for the Southern Railway’s newly-electrified suburban services

The LSWR third rail system at 660 V DC was initially constructed prior to World War One out of Waterloo, to various suburban destinations. With grouping in the wake of World War One to form Southern Railway, the LSWR method of electrification was adopted. The 1920s saw LBSCR's 6600 V AC overhead suburban network replaced with third rail, by 1929). The South Eastern Main Line was electrified in 600 V but then upgraded to 750 V DC. The third rail extended throughout most South London lines under Southern control quickly (LBSCR and SECR), out all its London termini. The 1930s saw a wave of main line electrification with the Brighton mainline (1932/33, including East and West Coastways and other related routes), followed by Portsmouth Direct (4 July 1937), and mid-Kent (Maidstone and Gillingham 1939).

World War Two saw extensive damage to the region, but electrification was soon resumed under the newly nationalised British Rail's southern region. The BR 1955 Modernisation Plan, with the two stage "Kent Coast Electrification". The Chatham mainline was completed first, followed by SER mainline and related lines. At this time voltage used was changed from 660 V to 750 V.[20] Since then all further electrification has used 750 V, but the lines electrified before this time remain at 660 V. Attention then switched to the neglected LSWR region (now titled the South Western Division). The South Western Main Line (SWML) to Southampton and Bournemouth was electrified in 1967, as was the Island Line.[21]

Under sectorisation in the 1980s, Network SouthEast conducted extensive infill electrification. The SWML was completed to Weymouth 1988. The Snow Hill tunnel was reopened, enabling Thameslink. The Hastings Line, Eastleigh to Fareham Line, Oxted Line - East Grinstead branch were also electrified. This left only a few generally isolated, rural lines and freight branches unelectrified (West of England Main Line, North Downs Line, Marshlink Line, and Oxted Line - Uckfield branch).

650 V - 850 V DC, Third Rail, Other

This uses 750 V [22][23]. A history is here
A short history is here [24]. In 1970 the North London DC lines and the Class 501 EMUs used on these services were converted for third rail operation, with generally the fourth rail being removed on sections of lines not used by LUL. Some fourth rail was retained in the Gunnersbury and Queens Park areas for emergency use by LUL. With the closure of Broad Street, the NLL was joined with former Broad Street to North Woolwich via Stratford line, to extend the NLL: this section was electrified with third rail and OLE as far as Stratford and just third rail to North Woolwich. Two branches off the Watford DC Line have been closed; to Rickmansworth in 1952 (to passengers, goods 1967) and to Croxley Green in 1996.
  • The Watford DC Line between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone is used by London Overground trains designed for 750 V third rail and Bakerloo Line trains designed for 630 V third and fourth rail. As a compromise the nominal line voltage is 650 V, and the centre rail is bonded to the running rails.
  • The North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury is used by London Overground trains designed for 750 V third rail and District Line trains designed for 630 V third and fourth rail. As a compromise the nominal line voltage is 660 V, and the centre rail is bonded to the running rails. A similar arrangement applies on the District Line between Putney Bridge and Wimbledon, where District Line tracks also used by South West Trains, although the latter are not normally in passenger service.
  • Northern City Line

The Northern City Line connects the East Coast Main Line to Moorgate. It was isolated by the abandonment of the 1930s "New Works" programme (and the development of the greenbelt). Tube services were truncated at its northern end by the new Victoria Line in 1964, at Drayton Park. The remainder was handed over to BR in 1975 in conjunction with the suburban electrification of the East Coast Main Line. The line uses 25 kV AC overhead and third rail DC electrification, with the switchover at the platform at Drayton Park.

750 V DC, Third rail (Bottom Contact)

This system uses bottom-contact third rail. The third rail is composite, with an aluminium body and a steel contact surface. The benefit of this is a low-resistance, high current capacity rail that has a durable steel surface for current collection.

Existing Systems - Overhead Line (OHL)

750 V DC, Overhead

1500 V DC, Overhead

Tyne & Wear Metro is the only current 1500 V DC system in the UK
When the former "Tyneside Electrics" routes (which had been electrified using third rail until the 1960s when BR discontinued the "non-standard" equipment in favour of diesels) were rebuilt as the "Tyne and Wear Metro" in the 1970s, this system was used. Styled as "Light Rail" it is in practice normal heavy rail, and shares the Durham Coast Line with the national rail network (unlike the other tram systems in the UK, which operate alongside on separate rights of way).

25 kV, 50 Hz AC, Overhead

The West Coast Main Line is electrified at 25 kV AC Overhead

The majority of this line was originally electrified at 6.25kV. It was converted to 25 kV in the early 1960s.

This covers the lines from London Liverpool Street (Bethnal Green Jn) to Chingford, Enfield Town, Hertford East, and Cambridge. The line was first electrified in the 1960s when the lines to Chingford, Enfield Town and Cheshunt were electrified 6.25 kV. The line from Cheshunt to Bishop's Stortford and Hertford East was electrified at 25 kV. The Lea Valley line between Coppermill Junction and Cheshunt was electrified at 25 kV in 1969. All the 6.25 kV areas were converted to 25 kV in 1983. In 1987 electrification was extended from Bishop's Stortford to Cambridge using 25 kV. In 1990, the line to Stansted Airport opened, and in 1992, electrification was further extended from Cambridge to King's Lynn along the Fen Line.
Electrified in two parts, the first between 1975 and 1978 and the second between 1984 and 1991.
The line between London (Kings Cross) and Royston was electrified between 1976 and 1978 as part of the Great Northern Suburban Electrification Project. This included the Hertford Loop Line.
In 1984, authority was given to electrify to Edinburgh and Leeds. The section between Hitchin and Peterborough was completed in 1987, and Doncaster and York were reached in 1989. By 1990 electrification had reached Newcastle, and in 1991 the final section to Edinburgh was completed.
In order to keep the construction teams busy two additional schemes were authorised that extended electrification to Carstairs and to North Berwick (North Berwick Line).
At the peak of electrification works in the late 1980s it claimed to be the "longest construction site in the world", at over 400 km.
Electrified between London (St Pancras) and Bedford in 1983. The branch from Dock Junction to Moorgate was also electrified.
See also Thameslink
Electrified from the late 1950s to the mid 1960s under the BR 1955 Modernisation Plan as far as Crewe (and branches), it was extended to Scotland in 1974.
Since 1999 the line has been modernised and the overhead line equipment has undergone a programme of refurbishment and renewal as part of works to increase train speeds from 110 mph to 125 mph.
  • Edinburgh
1989 saw the electrification of the ECML to Edinburgh. A few local routes were electrified, but the majority of local services are unelectrified.
– see also: Transport in Edinburgh
  • Glasgow Suburban

Suburban electrification was started in the 1960s in the wake of the BR 1955 Modernisation Plan. Electrification was piecemeal over the preceding year and is still incomplete, with several suburban, rural and inter city lines still unelectrified. Expansion plans call for reopening of the Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link, connecting the North Clyde Line and Edinburgh to Bathgate Line. See also: SPT and Transport in Glasgow.

The Glasgow Suburban railway network can be split into three main areas;
North Clyde
South Clyde
West Coast Main Line
  • Leeds area
The main line to Leeds from London (via Wakefield Westgate) was electrified in 1990. In 1994, a project to electrify some of the local lines around Leeds was given authority to proceed. The project was called the "Leeds North West Electrification", and covered lines to Bradford (Forster Square), Skipton (Airedale Line) and Ilkley (Wharfedale Line).
  • Manchester area -
  • West Midlands area
A few lines out of New Street mainly related to the West Coast Main Line.
Electrified in 1994 between London Paddington and Heathrow Airport, a joint venture between British Rail and the British Airports Authority.
As part of the works for Crossrail, the electrified section will be extended as far as Maidenhead. The British government also announced in July 2009 that the remaining sections of line from Maidenhead to Bristol and Swansea would be electrified[27].
See Heathrow Express and Heathrow Connect

25-0-25 kV, 50 Hz AC, Overhead, Autotransformer

The first time that an auto-transformer system has been used in the UK.
Currently in use between Ashton (north of Milton Keynes) and Hillmorton (south of Rugby), but planned to be extended along most of the route between London and Glasgow.

See also


  1. ^ a b Electrification of Railways Advisory Committee Final Report, London: HMSO, 1921,  
  2. ^ The System of Electrification for British Railways, London: British Transport Commission, 1955,  
  3. ^ Delivering a Sustainable Railway - White Paper CM 7176
  4. ^ Rail Magazine June 3-June 16 2009 "Network Rail's strategy to extend electrification by 3000 miles" page 6
  5. ^ a b Network Rail, 2003 Technical Plan, Chapter 11 "Network Capability", page 7 "Electrification". "Approximately 40% of the rail network is currently equipped with electrification. From page 1, total network is 30,764 km, 7,587 km of 25 kV AC, 4,285 km of 650/750 V DC and 28 km of 1500 V DV. Excludes CTRL, LUL, Old Danby test track, bulk of Tyne and Wear Metro, etc. NB it does not state what method of counting length of network is used - ie sidings, loops, double track, etc produce different numbers. The UIC statistics that are used in the chart showing electrification in Europe is based solely on line length. Thus on this count 11,900 km is electrified, 38.7%. Of the electrified network, 25 kV AC is 65.8%, 36.0% is 650/750 V DC and 0.2% is 1500 V DC.
  6. ^ "The NER Tyneside Electric Multiple Units". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-17.  
  7. ^ "The LNER Tyneside Electric Multiple Units". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-17.  
  8. ^ Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Society - History - P14
  9. ^ Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Society - History - P15
  10. ^ "The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham (BR Class 505) Stock". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-17.  
  11. ^ "Woodhead Railway and its Electrification". Wortley Top Forge Industrial Museum. 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-14.  
  12. ^ "The Liverpool Street to Shenfield Route AM6 (Class 306) Stock". The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia. 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-17.  
  13. ^ The Newport - Shildon Electrification of the North-Eastern RailwayPDF (248 KiB), Electric Railway Society Journal, Vol 30, No 180, Nov-Dec 1985, Stephen Williams, Electric Railway Society
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ adult classifieds voyage spectacle shopping at
  16. ^ NER locomotive 3 to 12
  17. ^ Locomotive history - NER Bo+Bos
  18. ^ Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Society
  19. ^ "Tube facts". London Underground. 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-03.  
  20. ^ "Southern Electric Locomotives". 'Electron'. 1989. Retrieved 2007-01-19.  
  21. ^ "Electric Railways". 'Stendec Systems'. 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-01.  
  22. ^ NedRailways - Merseyrail
  23. ^ UrbanRail.Net > Europe > UK > England > LIVERPOOL MERSEYRAIL
  24. ^ London And North Western Railway Electrification to Watford and Richmond
  25. ^ a b Little, Stuart M. (December 1979). "Greater Glasgow's Railway Network". Scottish Transport No. 33: 2–12. ISSN 0048-9808.  
  26. ^ The Rebirth of AyrLine: Electrification to Ayr / Ardrossan / Largs - 1986/1987
  27. ^ a b "£1.1bn rail electrification planned". The Guardian. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-23.  

External links

Further reading

525 V DC, Third Rail

  • Box, Charles E. (1959). Liverpool Overhead Railway. Railway World Ltd..  
  • Gahan, John W. (1992). Seventeen stations to Dingle - The Liverpool Overhead Railway remembered. Countyvise and Avon-Anglia. ISBN 0-907768-20-2.  
  • Bolger, Paul (1992). The Docker's Umbrella - A History of Liverpool Overhead Railway. The Bluecoat Press. ISBN 1-872568-05-X.  
  • Jarvis, Adrian (1996). Portrait of the Liverpool Overhead Railway. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-2468-5.  

630 V DC, Fourth Rail

  • Glover, John (2003). London's Underground (10th Edition). Ian Allan. ISBN 0 7110 2935 0.  

650 V DC, Third Rail

  • Maund, T.B. (2001). Merseyrail Electrics - The Inside Story. NBC Books. ISBN 0-9531896-1-3.  

750 V DC, Third Rail

  • Moody, G.T. (1979). Southern Electric 1909-1979. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0924-4.  
  • Glover, John (2001). Southern Electric. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-2807-9.  

1500 V DC, Overhead

  • Appleby, K.C. (1990). Shildon - Newport in Retrospect. Lincoln: Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. ISBN 0-901115-67-3.  
  • Dixon, Frank (1994). The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham Railway. The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-454-7.  

6.6 kV 25 Hz AC, Overhead

  • Goslin, Geoff (2002). London's Elevated Electric Railway - The LBSCR Suburban Overhead Electrification 1909-1929. Connor & Butler Ltd. ISBN 0-947669-35-X.  

25 kV 50 Hz AC, Overhead

  • Nock, O.S. (1966). Britain's New Railway. Ian Allan.  
  • Nock, O.S. (1974). Electric Euston to Glasgow. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0530-3.  
  • Boocock, Colin (1991). East Coast Electrification. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1979-7.  
  • Semmens, Peter (1991). Electrifying the East Coast Route. Patrick Stephens Ltd.. ISBN 0-85059-929-6.  
  • Glover, John (2003). Eastern Electric. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-2934-2.  


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