|Tehran-Mashhad Railway Electrification (TMRE)|
Railway network in Iran
|Stations||49, train length 700m, Axle Load 22.5 ton|
|Services||80% passenger, 20% freight|
|Daily ridership||30,000 pass.|
|Line length||926 double track, UIC 60, CWR 98%|
|Track length||2,200 km (1,367 mi)|
|No. of tracks||2 (4 track, 114 km tehran garmsar)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 81⁄2 in)1435|
25 kV AC 50 Hz
|Operating speed||200km/h pass. trains, 250km/h Tilting EMU|
|History by country|
Railway electrification in Iran describes the past and present electrification systems used to supply traction current to rail transport in Iran with a chronological record of development, a list of lines using each system, and a history and a technical description of each system.
After initial negotiations in 1969, railway electrification in Iran started in 1975, with a contract with Russia to electrify the Tabriz to Jolfa route in East Azarbaijan Province near the border with the former Soviet Union. The work would include a Bogie exchange facility. Tabriz Jolfa was originally established in 1916 (before the main network in 1938) with the wide gauge 1524 mm and was changed to standard gauge after connection of Tabriz to the national network.
Tabriz-Jolfa is a single line rail track 146 km long with nine stations in between. The maximum grade is 2.8% and the minimum curve radius is 400 m.
The electric line voltage is 25kV, 50Hz, with substations in Tabriz, Marand and Jolfa fed by 132kV from the national grid. The end substations have three 15MW transformer and the Marand substation has four transformers.
|Rank||Year||Orig.||Dest.||Dis.||Voltage, KV||power, MW||SS Dis., Km||mast D., m||stagger len., m||pant. w., m||mast C., m||Height., m||Block l., m||Wire mm^2||Tens., Kn||Reg. brk.||Speed., Km/h|
Track specifications in current and planned electrified lines in Iran are as follows:
|Rank||Year||Orig.||Dest.||Dis.||Tunnel||Stations||D.T.%||T.C. Dis.||clear. Height||clear. Width||Train Length||Train Load||Axle load||Leaner Load||rail weight||Con. Weld||Min. Curve||Max. Grade||Max. Speed||Station Speed||Train control|
|country||Year||Orig.||Dest.||Dis.||D.Track %||train cap.||Train Length||Train weight||passenger||freight||Pass. A.S.||frt. A.S.||T.P. demand||T.F. demand||Max. Speed||max P.C.||Max F.C.|
co.= Railway company, Des.=designation, Man.= manufacturer, No.= Number, Type= diesel or electric and traction motor type, Y.= Year introduced, W.= weight, A.L.= Axle Load P.= Power, T.E.= Tractive effort D.B.= Dynamic brake power S.= Speed
Electric locomotive that are used on this line are eight RC4 units from ASEA Sweden. These have 4 axles and DC traction motors with 3.6MW power and 240 KN tractive effort, and a maximum speed of 100 km/h.
The main fleet of RAI Diesel locomotives among Iranian Locomotives have Diesel-electric transmission and are Electro-Motive Diesel, General Electric and Alstom diesel type EMD GT26CW-2, GE U30C, GE C30-7,Prima (locomotive) AD43C and DF8 from Qishuyan( China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry (Group) Corporation (CSR), Rail transport in the People's Republic of China) . [http://www.railfaneurope.net/list/iran/iran_rai.html ]
Recently another contract was signed with the Russian railway RZD in February 2009 to connect the Tabriz electric line to Azarshahr to the south, and continuing to Bonab and Maragheh and possibly to Urmia through the Shahid Kalantary bridge. that has the rail track inside, like Oresund Bridge. The existing electric line is going to be connected to Oroumieh and Maragheh and also Shabestar and Salmas, relying on existing facilities and locomotives. On the northern route it is planned to connect Soofian to Shabestar and Salmas.
A tender  for electrification of the Tehran-Mashhad double track line, would supply 70 electric locomotives with cab signalling that will increase the speed to 200 km/h for passenger car trains and 250 km/h for tilting trains. Electric Multiple Train (EMU) will reduce the existing journey time from 12 hours down to 6 hours. The line is equipped with Optical fiber communication and CTC center for railway signal. This project as well as electrification and locomotives, also includes SCADA, 5 years maintenance, and back up power generation. The contract includes dual mode vehicles for maintenance.
The passenger locomotives (with (Bo-Bo) according to UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements) continuous tractive effort is more than 240 kn and for freight (Co-Co) is more than 480 kn and the all weather adhesion is at least 33%. The passenger locomotives are equipped with head end power (HEP).
The desired locomotives prototype would be available 6 months sooner than end date of inauguration to pass the Homologation phase. The mockup and pilot experiment for EMU could be used to expedite the accepting process.
The locomotive test and approval, homologation would be done according to RAI, UIC, AAR(TTCI) and ... like SNCF Class BB 75000.
The initial study was done by RAI vice president for planning and international affairs in 2003 specially by calculating the benefit of electrification in locomotive saving in long passenger trains that was argued by the railway research center MATRAI. After convincing the top managers and management and planning organization,(MPO) it was approved by the government to make a Feasibility study for electrification and this was accepted by the parliament in 2007.
The study was carried out by a joint of Metra and Italferr according to United Nations Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO) andFIDIC recommendations and Tehran Mashhad was assigned as the first priority for being electrified. After this phase the Tendering Pre-qualification(PQ) was prepared by new Joint venture of Metra and Systra and Request for proposal (RFP) was released with conceptual design and by result obligations.
The realisation need to be observed according to international project management guides like PMBOK(Project Management Body of Knowledge), ISO 10006, Opm3 or PRINCE2. One of the main items emphasised was RAMS (reliability, availability, maintanability and safety) with quantitative measures and goals specially for MTBF (mean time between failures) and MDBF (mean distance between failures).
To promote the Electrification with more effectiveness, better performance and more productivity according the internal and external factors, a study have been done and a SWOT analysis table was created.
It is planned to expand electrification to the north west up to Tabriz (with 200 km/h speed for passenger trains and 250 for tilting EMU or such trains like Railjet) that is part of Silk Road and the transit route from Almaty to Istanbul and islamabad to Istanbul as one of main task and objectives of ECO Economic Cooperation Organization and one of the emphasized rout of ESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
The first phase of this project will be in tehran to Zanjan (city) to make it more economic and also to prepare the new under construction short cut from Tabriz to Mianeh that will decrease the distance from Tehran to Tabriz about 100 km and for this stepwise plan the dual mode or Electro-diesel locomotive could help to justify the project.
|Route||Length||traffic 2011||fuel saving||Date||Max. speed|
|Tehran-Mashhad||926||20 pass. +5 frt.||250||2012||250|
|Tehran-bandarabbas||1350||10 pass. + 60 frt.||4000||2014||160|
|Tehran-Tabriz||600||20 pass. + 5 frt.||100||2014||250|
|Chadormaloo-Ardakan||220||1pass. + 10frt.||100||2011||120|
High speed railway in Iran was started by a visit to view Japan's shinkansen high speed trains by the road and transportation minister (Mr. Shahrestani)in 1974, who was appointed as Tehran mayor List of mayors of Tehran. He asked the Japanese to prepare a proposal for construction of a new and dedicated HSR from Tehran to Mashhad.(Railway trend in Iran) Subsequently, a delegation was sent from JARTS to do this and finally they proposed three options in 1976 as follows:
Track at that time was single line without electric signaling system, with many curves at a 300-meter radius. (Estimated cost to upgrade: about $1 billion.)
The maximum speed in Japan at that time was 210 km/h and there was no other railway with high speed except Japan. (Estimated cost to upgrade: about $4 billion.)
This option was based on the long realisation time of such a huge project, with an estimate of about 10 years. (Estimated cost to upgrade: about $7 billion.)
There are other lines that have been nominated, studied and approved for high speed railway, including Tehran-Isfahan and Tehran-Qom. The first one has been started and is under construction.
This project will enable the economically introduction of High-speed rail HSR gradually perhaps from Garmsar to Semnan, and the final goal is to have less than 3 hours for wide body high speed trains in a dedicated high speed line with road rail parallel layout.
There are two high-speed rail line projects in Iran, between Tehran and Isfahan, as well as Tehran to Mashhad. The Tehran-Isfahan HSR speed has been increased to 350 km/h and the section between Tehran and Qom is going to have a new dedicated alignment for 350 km/h connecting Tehran to Imam Khomeini International Airport, possibly connected by monorail, and to a new multi-mode terminal in Qom with a road rail parallel layout with freeway connecting to Isfahan HSR.
There are some possibilities to use the maglev (transport) with linear motor for high speed needs starting according to reliability and life cycle cost (LCC) with a pilot experiment in short distance like Tehran-Karaj.
|Route||Length||traffic forecast||Date||Max. speed||fuel saving||life saving||time saving|
|origin-destination||km||million||year||km/h||million liter||person||million hours|
prices in million Euro
|speed km/h||trip time||civil works||equipment||stations||land+study||rolling stock||total|
The main factors that are different in above options could be referred to as the equipment for track and electrification that will be increased by speed and also the rolling stock that for higher speed will have a small higher price about 10% but the productivity that increases considerably because of lower time of trip that enables more density of seats with seat pitch about 50%.
On freight corridor, the electrification of Bafgh bandarabbas in Persian Gulf is planed as BOT Build-Operate-Transfer base with future continuation to Tehran and Intermodal freight transport at both ends plus the Classification yard.
The rate of return on investment would be very acceptable specially for international investment  because of enough demand between bandarabbas to Tehran with only 10% share of railway Freight train because of capacity limitation.
Bandarabbas is close to Gheshm Island that has 100 km length and could be connected by bridge or tunnel (like Channel Tunnel) or Marmaray in Turkey. One of the big advantages of this line is the big loading gauge and axle load that increases the productivity of the rail transport specially for intermodal freight transport by Well Car (double stack containers) from port shahid rajaee .
This line also can help to transit oil as a good start to the planed transit pipeline transport.
Iron ore is one of the main commodities on this line, especially from Golgohar mine near Sirjan, Choghart and Chadormaloo near Bafgh to Isfahan for two steel plants and steel mills named Zobahan (Esfahan Steel Company) and Mobarakeh.
As the rail connection with Zahedan will be inaugurated in near future, it will make it possible to have a direct transit line from Central Asia to Pakistan and India possibly with variable gauge bogies and could be completed with a link to Chabahar port in the south east of the country.
The business plan to justify the electrification and supplying locomotives is going to be prepared.
For low density lines by doing cost-benefit analysis it is considered to use Dc elec. loco and the power from city substations for more Cost effectiveness of projects. For Lorestan province that there is more than 60 km tunnel, the DC diesel locomotive will be converted to electric.
For northern line (that has the grade of 3%) to Mazandaran and Golestan provinces one of the solutions could be third rail for using the existing diesel locomotives and dual-mode transit. The local production capability in electric energy sector makes the cost effectiveness better. for example the contact wire is produced a locally and also different insulators and there is god companies to wind transformers. With electrification, the need for shunting will be reduced and the Switcher locomotive as well. To improve the economic result of electrification it is foreseen to convert the diesel locomotives to electric one both in DC like GE E60  and AC like AD43C. Value chain is a theory that could be used for this.
Transport demand is increased more than GDP in freight and less than it in passenger sector, and it is essential to provide appropriate means for transport by investing in infrastructures.
According to the limitation in funds for electrification it is very important to increase investment for the extensions with good ROR rate of return with different solutions rather than national budget as well as BOT [] as a Public-private partnership(PPP) type investment or a Concession (contract),Private finance initiative, Franchising, By back, Barter, Joint venture, FDI Foreign direct investment [] &...
Other sources of fund for Expansion of electric network is by believer people help for constructing the infrastructures for easy, safe and convenient transportation that is emphasized by Islam by Vaghf as a type of charity
Another solution is go for Privatization like Privatisation of British Rail or Japan. For more information it is possible to see the : Organization For Investment, Economic and Technical Assistance of Iran 
In 2006 25% (240,000 km) of the world rail network was electrified and 50% of all rail transport was carried by electric traction (both by locomotives and multiple units) and about 36% of electric system is 25 KV AC.
Electrification of railway like every other phenomenon has some positive and negative results. some of advantages of electrification are as follows: less weight and space for same power (thus less locomotive need in big passenger trains), less maintenance (more availability and less cost in locomotive purchasing), less power losing in elevation and warm weather. Electrification allows more powerful locomotives to be used than on non-electrified tracks. The rule of thumb is that the power range of diesel locomotives begin at the power of the strongest steam engines, while the power range of electric locomotives begin at the high end of diesel locomotives. The strongest locomotives of the world are all electric. Power means higher top speed and higher tractive effort.
There are many argument about the electrification and may people believe it is not feasible to electrify the railway in many cases. Some of these experts say with the need to expand network it is better to invest for expansion programs. But it is important to say that there is not a general rule for accepting or rejecting this phase and the best approach is to evaluate all of the consequences of electrification either positive or negative. One of the restrictions of electrification is the clearance for large size commodities like double stack containers and big transformers.
The External Cost of railway is lower than other modes of transport but the electrification brings down it even more, if it is Sustainable.
This is specially due to railway safety relative to Road traffic safety, considering the Value of life [ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/techadvs/t75702.htm]. Also energy from well to wheel, and the necessity to reduce pollutions and greenhouse gas in earth according to the Kyoto Protocol.
The Electrification cost depends on the speed or the class of the track like Speed limits in the United States (rail). An initial and good estimate is done by world bank in 1984 with the name Railways and Energy 
According to the book of Prices and Costs in the railway sector by Professor Baumgartner from Switzerland  the rough estimation of traction substation cost is 0.2 million euro per megavolt amper and 0.2 million euro per km of line with 300 km/h and 0.15 for 100 km/h. It is possible to find some prices and cost data in following site.
One of the main factors in electrification cost is the new grids cost for connecting to national grid. in long distance cases it could be feasible to use other sources of energy like solar energy, wind power, and etc.
The electrification generally could have a reverse effect on safety but the consequences of it may increase safety a lot specially by increasing reliability as the first element of RAMS (reliability, availability, maintainability & safety), for example we can refer to the accident in neishabur as in Nishapur train disaster in List of rail accidents (2000–present) and derailment (Classification of railway accidents) in tight curves and high cant could be reduced by electrification.
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