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Rajus
Col. D.S. Raju.jpg
Notable Rajus:
Col. Dr. DS Raju • Alluri Sita Rama Raju
PS Kumaraswamy Raja • PAC Ramasamy Raja
PVG Raju • Ashok Gajapati Raju
BV Raju • DVS Raju • KVK Raju
Ramalinga Raju • AVS Raju • Ram Gopal Varma • Venkatapathy Raju
Prabhas • Krishnam Raju • Ravi Teja
Regions with significant populations
Andhra Pradesh • Karnataka • Tamil Nadu • Orissa
Religion

Hinduism

Related ethnic groups

Kshatriya, Rajaputra, Raju

Raju is a Telugu variation of the Sanskrit word Raj and Raja[1] meaning King, Prince or Lord.[2] Rajus (Rajulu in Telugu) is used to refer to a prominent and influential Telugu Kshatriya Caste in Andhra Pradesh.[3][4][5] Kshatriya Rajus are said to be descendents of ancient Royal dynasties like Eastern Chalukyas, Chalukya-Cholas, Vishnukundina, Gajapati, Chagi, Paricheda and Kota Vamsa.[6][7][8]

Over the centuries they have been called by various alternative names that signified their military status. During the British Raj they were known as Ratsas[9] and Rajavars, which means of or belonging to the caste of Ratsawars[10] (Raja Caste),[11] using the title of Raju. They are around 1.2 percent of the Telugu population,[12] concentrated mainly in the Coastal Andhra region with pockets in the Rayalaseema, North Arcot and Rajapalayam of Tamil Nadu, Bellary of Karnataka and Ganjam of Orissa. In last few decades significant population of Rajus have migrated and settled in US and UK.

Rajus use Raju or Varma in the Andhra regions and Deo in the Orissa regions as an agnomen for their last name. Varma in Sanskrit means Armor, Protection[13][14] and Deo in Sanskrit means God or Lord. In Telugu tradition the family name is written first followed by the given name and then the caste title. For example Alluri Sita Rama Raju, a prominent freedom fighter in the mid 19th century, is interpreted as Sita Ram of the Alluri family and Raju for Kshatriya caste. Similarly name of Penmatsa Ram Gopal Varma, a prominent Bollywood and Tollywood movie director-producer, is interpreted as Ram Gopal of the Penmatsa family and Varma for Kshatriya caste.

Contents

History

There have been varying accounts about the origins of the Raju community. Some include them among the military tribes of Rajput descent.

Regarding this community Edgar Thurston in his seven volume Castes and Tribes of Southern India writes...The Maharajas of Vizianagaram claim to be Kshatriyas from the Rajputana and the leaders of the people of gotrams said to have come to the Northern Circars centuries ago. It is noted in connection with the battle of Padmanabham(in present Visakhapatnam district) in 1794 AD that Rajputs formed a rampart round the corpse of Vijay Rama Raju. Padmanabham will long be remembered as the Flodden of the Rajputs of Vizianagaram...[15]as a class they are the handsomest and best developed men in the country and differ so much in feature and build from other Hindus that they may usually be distinguished at a glance...they are mostly Vaishnavites, and their priests are Brahmans...Rajus of course assume the sacred thread, and are very proud and particular in their conduct. Brahmanical rites of Punya Havachanam (Purification), Jata Karma (Birth ceremony), Nama Karanam (Naming ceremony), Chaulam (Tonsure), and Upanayanam (Thread ceremony) are performed...at weddings the Kasi Yatra (Mock flight to Benares) is performed...at their wedding they worship a sword, which is a ceremony usually denoting a soldier caste...they use a wrist string made of cotton and wool, the combination peculiar to Kshatriyas, to tie the wrists of the happy couple...[16]in some villages, Rajus seem to object to the construction of a pial, or raised platform, in front of their houses. The pial is the lounging place where visitors are received by day.[17]

Historically South Indian royal families of Kshatriyas (Rajus) had marital relationship with Central and North Indian royal families, like Rajas of Vizianagaram, Salur and Kurupam had marital relationships with the Rajputana royal families.[18]

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Legends

Rama (center) Suryavanshi lineage.
Krishna Chandravanshi lineage.

The history of South India and the Puranas reveal that the Andhra Kshatriyas descended from the Aryavarta (northern India) to the south due to internal conflicts, foreign invasions, famine etc. Vayu Purana, Buddhist and Jain literatures mention about migration of Ikshvakus Kshatriyas to southern India.

Rajus traditional accounts claim descent from Ikshvaku, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Paricchedi and Kota Vamsa.[19]

Some historians and traditional accounts link Rajus to ancient Andhra Ikshvakus, which was the first Kshatriya kingdom in Andhra which ruled during 2nd and 3rd Centuries CE and are purportedly linked to ancient Ikshvakus of Kosala.[19]

According to most historians and by the inscriptional evidences of Paricchedi and Chagi ruling clans, during 4th - 5th century AD few Kshatriyas of four clans travelled from northern India to the south, where they initially worked as feudatories of Vakatakas before establishing the Vishnukundina Kingdom. [20] While some Kshatriyas of Andhra are said to be descendents of Eastern Chalukyas and few other Kshatriya dynasties.

Basing on ancient inscriptions, traditional accounts and historical evidences, the Rajus of Andhra are descendents of the following ancient clans:

  1. Vishnukundina: A folktale claims Madhav Varma of the Vishnukundina dynasty led the original members of their gotras to Andhra.
  2. Chalukyas: Chandravanshi Rajus are said to be descendents of Eastern Chalukyas.
  3. Parichedis: The forefathers of the Pusapatis.
  4. Kota Vamsa: Dharanikota Kings of Dhananjaya gotra.
  5. Chagi: Forefathers of the Sagis and Vatsavais
  6. Chedi (Haiheya-Kalachuri-Kona Chodas): Chodarajus
  7. Gajapati and Eastern Ganga: Kurupam and Salur zamindars claim descent from them.
  8. Matsya of Oddadi (Orissa), which is linked to ancient Matsya Kingdom: The zamindars of Madgole claim descent from them.
  • Rajus are classified into two sects (as per ancient Kshatriya tradition based on Vansh): [21]
  1. Suryavanshi (Sun Dynasty) include Vishnukundina, Paricheda, Kota Vamsa, Chola-Chalukyas (Cholas claimed Suryavanshi and Chalukyas were Chandravanshi, the two families merged) Eastern Ganga and Gajapati.
  2. Chandravanshi (Lunar Dynasty) includes Eastern Chalukyas, , Kalachuris (Chedi-Haihaya), Saluva and Aravidu dyanasties of Vijayanagar.

Gotras

  • They are further subdivided into Four Gotras.
  1. Vasishta
  2. Dhananjaya
  3. Kashyapa
  4. Kaundinya

A poem called Sri Krishna-vijayam dated 1540 A.D. tells of a migration of these four clans to Telingana led by Madhav Varma.[22] While Rajus of Coastal Andhra and Rajapalayam have above four gotras, the Rajus of Karnataka also have three additional gotras:

  1. Pasupati
  2. Vishwamitra
  3. Atreya[23]
  • Each Gotra is again sub-divided into hundreds of endogamous sects based on surnames that are named after villages of origin, a famous member of the clan, personality etc.
  • Sage Kaundinya (Kundin) was the son of Vasishtha and nephew of Agastya.[24]
  • Dhananjaya is a branch of Vishwamitra.
  • Pasupati is a branch of Kashyapa.

A book entitled Sri Andhra Kshatriyalu Vamsha Ratnakaram elaborates on the traditional accounts and genealogy of the Kshatriya Raju community of Coastal Andhra and was written by Varahala Raju Buddharaju in Telugu. This book gives genealogy details of the 109 surnames of Andhra Kshatriya Rajus and there Four gotras.

To see a list of towns that were the source of the surnames see towns and to see the list of common names with Gotra see Gotras.

See also Andhra Kshatriya Customs.

Vishnukundina Dynasty

Vishnukundinas, one of the ancient clans that ruled in Andhra Pradesh from 5th to 7th centuries. It is believed that Vishnukundina Madhava Varma along with members of the other three gotras conquered the Salankayanas and established there rule.[25] Some of the feudal kingoms of this time were the Kotas, Chagis, and Paricchedi.

The Paricchedis Kings were ancestors of the Pusapati royal family who built Bezawada (Modern Vijayawada) off the river Krishna by 626 AD and another capital in Kollipaka establishing themselves for nine centuries there. They are considered to be desendents of one of the earliest Maharana's of Mewar, who migrated to south during 7th century. [20] They were staunch patrons of Hindu Dharma in contrast to the Chalukyas, who initially were patrons of Jainism.[26] The family name was changed to Pusapati after moving to the coastal region. The name is derived from the Sanskrit Pushavat (Pushan), meaning of the sun, to highlight their Suryavanshi lineage. They founded the city of Vizianagaram, named after Vijay Rama Raju. They obtained the title of Gajapathi, after the battle of Nandapur, in the northern circars in the 16th century.

The Raju families of Rajapalayam are descendents of migrated families led by the brother of the Vizianagaram Maharaja, Pusapati Chinna Raju.

Eastern Chalukyas

Badami Chalukya Territories

Chalukyas were a royal dynasty that succeeded the Vishnukundinas and ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. Chalukyas originated from Karnataka, were led into Andhra by Pulakesi II, who appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as his Viceroy. On death of Pulakesi II, Kubja Vishnuvardhana declared himself king of the Eastern deccan and his dynasty came to be known as the Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas).

The Eastern Chalukyas ruled from Vengi. The collateral branches of Eastern Chalukyas ruled over small principalities like Elamanchili, Pithapuram and Mudigonda. The Eastern Chalukyas who were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas were closely connected by marriage ties with other Kshatriya families in Andhra(Kalachuris, Chagis, Parichedas and Kota Vamsas)[27]

The Eastern Chalukyas through marital alliances merged into the Cholas and ruled from 1076 C.E to 1019 C.E as Chalukya-Cholas[27]

The other important Kshatriya dynasties during this period were Perrichedi, Kota Vamsa, Chagi and Haiheyas.

  • Kota Vamsa (Dharanikota) (Fort Dynasty) [28]

The Kota kings, Kshatriyas of Dhananjya gotra ruled from Dharanikota during the 11th and 12th century AD. Last King of this dynasty was Kota Betaraja.[29][30] The Jampana, Datla, Dandu, Dantuluri, Uppalapati, Pakalapati and Nallaparaju royal families of Dhananjaya Gotra, who were Zamindars of Rama-Chandra-Puram,[31] Mogalthur, Kotapalli, Ghandavaram, Kuppili, Moida and Mutta Talaga Chirala, of which the current direct descendent is actor turned politician Krishnam Raju Uppalapathi, uncle of popular Telugu actor Prabas Uppalapathi, all claim descent from this ancient dynasty. [32]

  • Chagi

The Chagis have been around since the Chalukyas at least and possible the 6th or 7th century. They were mentioned as subordinate Chiefs of the Chalukyas and Kakatiyas. Bezawada inscription mentions in honor of Tulukam Velnadu Sagi Doraya Raju dated 1215 A.D. In 1246 inscriptions describe the reign of Chagi Manma Raju and in 1230 grants by Chagi Pota Raju. An inscription in Gudimetla on a fort dated around 1268 A.D. during the reign of Kakatiya Rudrama Devi states that Sagi Pota Raju was her commander in chief. Sagi Gannama was a governor under Vira Pratapa Purushottama Gajapati (AD 1462-1496). He built a hill fort in Vinukonda. [33]

The Kota Uratla and Thangedu royal families are descendents of the Chagis, with their name changing over time to Sagi.[34] The founder of Peddapuram line of kings was Sagi Potha Raju who participated in the battle of Palnadu in 1178-1182. The family attained the title of Jagapati in the 16th century and changed their surname to Vatsavai in honor of a fort during the times of Vatsavayi Timma Raju 1555-1607.[35]

  • Chedi-Kalachuri-Kona Chodas

The Matsyas, Chedis, Haihayas and Kalachuris seem to share a common mythylogical and historical background with possible ancestry links to ancient Matsya Desa. The Chedis (A.K.A. Haihaya, Kalachuri) eventually became the Chodarajus of Kona. Historians such as Dr. P.B. Desai are emphatic about the central Indian origin of the Karnataka Kalachuris who are also referred to as Katachuris (shape of a sharp knife), Kalanjara-pura-vara-dhis-vara (Lord of Kalanjara) and Haihaya (Heheya).

Several Kalachuri kings were related to Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances and had ruled from places like Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur. By the time they are mentioned in the Telugu epic Battle of Palnadu, they are referred to as the Haihaya family of the Kona region (Amalapuram and Razole of the present East Godavari District), and the Haihaya family of Palanadu, feudatories of the Chalukyas. The Kona Chiefs later took the title of Chodas, loyal governors for the newly formed Chola-Chalukya empire. They were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas of Kashyapa gotra.

Kalachuris, Chalukya, Chagis and Kota Vamsa clans were important participants in the battle of Palnadu. It was a battle between two factions of the Kalachuris (Haihaya).

Kakatiya Period

In Kakatiya period there were inscriptions mentioning about Kshatriyas in the Kakatiya army. There were 2000 Kshatriyas who lived in the Kakatiya capital. There were also few Kshatriya kingdoms in Andhra during Kakatiya period. There are 9 inscriptions mentioning the Sagi rulers, 6 inscriptions mentioning Pericheda Bhimaraju ruling in the Guntur region. The Chagis, Kota Kings and Paricchedis continued to hold onto their regions as subordinate rulers of Kakatiyas. [36] the Chodarajus were ruling in Narasaraopeta, the Chagis (Sagis) were described as Kshatriyas ruling with Gudimetla as their capital and a Rudraraju was the General of Nathavadi region allied to the Kakatiyas.[37][38][39][40][41][42]

Kakatiya King Ganapatideva's sister Melambika and his two daughters were given in marriage to the three Kshatriya family clans Chagis, Chalukyas and Kotas respectively. After this marital alliance with the three Kshatriya family clans, Kakatiyas started claiming Kshatriya status as evidenced by an inscription found in Guntur District.[43][44] Ganapati Deva's sister Melambika was married to the second son of Chagi Buddaraju, who was ruling Natavadi region.[45] Ganapatideva's first daughter Rudramadevi was married to Veerabhadra, Eastern Chalukyan prince of Nidadavolu[46] and his second daughter Ganapamba was married to Kota Betaraja.[47][48]

Kakatiya King Ganapati Deva had no sons so he made his daughter Rudramadevi as his legitimate heir. As Rudramadevi was married to Eastern Chalukyan prince who were Kshatriyas, Kakatiya rulers from Rani Rudramadevi regime used to mention themselves as Kshatriyas of Kashyapa gotra as seen in Guntur inscriptions. Kakatiya King Pratap Rudra's brother, Annam Deo, who left Warangal and established his kingdom at Bastar[49] Chhattisgarh around the late 14th century also mentioned Kakatiyas as Kshatriyas.

See Inscriptions, to see some of the many archived inscriptions click this link.[50]

Gajapatis of Kalinga/Orissa

The Suryavanshi Gajapatis of Orissa, on the height of their power in the 15th century, ruled over a kingdom extending from the Ganga river in the north to the Kaveri in the south under Gajapati Kapilendra Deva. But by the early 16th century, the Gajapatis lost great portions of their southern dominion to Vijayanagar and Golconda. During the Gajapathi reign an inscription mentions a Bhupathiraju Vallabha Raju Mahapatra in Chodavaram. [51]

It was common for the Zamindari families of the border region of Orissa and Andhra to have alliances. Early on they actually sided with the Gajapatis against the Vijayanagar Empire. There was a notable exception with inscriptional confirmation of two Kshatriya generals fighting on the side of Krishna Deva Raya. Of the modern clans, the Vyricharla royals of Kurupam [52] and the Satrucharla clan of Salur have more in common with the Orissa royals, who claim descent from the Gajapati and Ganga Dynasties, then they do with the Godavari clans.[53]

The Rajas of Kurupam are related through marriage to Jeypore Royal family, Bhanj dynasty of Daspalla princely state, Parmar dynasty of Gangpur princely state of Orissa and Kacchawa dynasty of Talcher princely state of Orissa founded in the 12th century.

Vijayanagara Period

Out of the four clans that ruled the Vijayanagara empire, two clans Saluva Dynasty and Aravidu Dynasty claimed to be of the Kshatriya Varna. [54] Raja Achutya Deva Raya, Zamindar of Anegundi and head of the Hindu Kshatriya Community[55] mentioned that they are of the Kshatriya Raju caste and marry among Telugu speaking Kshatriya Rajus settled in Hampi area.

Raju families such as the Chodarajus, Tirumalarajus, Madirajus, ,Nandyalas, Gobburis, Saluvas (Bommarajus) of Karvetinagar, the Rajas of Owk and Matla Chiefs were all relatives of the Aravidu dynasty.

  • The founding brothers of the Aravidu dynasty were the son-in-laws of Krishna Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty and were also related previously through marriage with the Saluva Dynasty. Gobburi Narasaraju was the nephew of Aliya Ramaraju and[56] After the death of King Venkatapathi Raju, from 1614 to 1616 there was a great war of succession. Amongst the claimants to the throne was Gobburi Jaga Deva Raju, the brother-in-law of the emperor and also a relative of the Raja of Karvetinagar, Saluva Makaraju.[57][58]
  • The Chodaraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and the Nandyala's gotra was given as Atreya and were described as belonging to Chandravanshi, both were related through marriage and both were appointed Mahamandaleswars during the start of the 16th century.[59][60][61][62]
  • The Madiraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and Suryavanshi and related to the Thirumalarajus, both appointed Mahamandeleswars of Guntur area and happened to be the grandchildren of Aravidu Rama Raya.[63][64][65]
  • Madhava Varma Bejawada was mentioned in 1509 AD. as of the Vasishtha gotra and Suryavansi.[66]
  • Krishna Deva Raya defeated among others Rachi Raju Pusapati, Srinatha Raju and Lakshmipati Raju on his way to defeating Pratapa Rudra Gajapati Raju of the Gajapathi Dynasty. He immediately reinstated these rulers as his vassals and married the daughter of Pratapa Rudra as a truce offering. All this occurred between 1514-1517 AD.[67][68]
  • Ganapathirajus were described as of the Suryavanshi and Kasyapa gotra and were Mahamandaleswars in 1555 AD.[69]
  • Karvetinagar

The current Bommaraju family of Karvetinagar are of Kshatriya Raju caste and trace their origins back to an ancestor who migrated from the Pithapuram area of the Godavari Delta about the 8th or 9th century. One ancestor obtained the favor of the Eastern Chalukya King, Vimala Aditya and Saluva Narasa was appointed the Chief of the region around Tirupati, where he founded a town called Narasapuram. The family later became feudatories of Vijayanagar, and had marriage alliances with the Saluva and loyalties to the Aravidu dynasties over the next two hundred years. Around the 16th century the family changed their name to the current Bommaraju, retaining Saluva as a title.[70]

Nizam/Colonial Period

The Sultans, Nizams and British all employed Rajus as the governors of estates with the responsibility of collecting taxes. In 1857 the British broke up the estates and realigned the bigger brigands into Princely states and the lesser ones as Zamindars or Jagirdars. These zamindars were abolished after the formation of the Indian Union in 1947.

Zamindaris of Rajus

Zamindars and the families that controlled them in parenthesis.

  1. Andra
  2. Anegundi (Narapathi)
  3. Ankapilli (Pusapadi)
  4. Chemudu (Vyricharla)
  5. Charmahal (Kalidindi)
  6. Chintalapalli (Alluri)
  7. Darlapudi (Chintalapati)[71]
  8. Dimili (Pusapati)
  9. Ellore (Thirupathiraju)
  10. Gandhavaram (Pakalapati)
  11. Godi (Rudraraju)
  12. Godicharla (Vatsavai)
  13. Godilanka (Rudraraju)
  14. Karvetinagar
  15. Kasipuram (Pusapati)
  16. Kumili (Pusapati)
  17. Kuppili (Jampana)
  18. Kottakota (Pinnamraju)
  19. Kota Uratla (Raja Sagi)
  20. Kondakirla (Sagi)
  21. Kurupam (Vyricharla)
  22. Korukonda (Thirupathiraju)
  23. Kottur (Sagi)
  24. Koppuram (Nallaparaju)
  25. Madgole (Chintalapati) Claim descent from Matsya desa. [72]
  1. Merangi (Satrucharla)
  2. Mogalthur (Kalidindi)
  3. Moida (Penumatsa)
  4. Nakkapilli (Kakarlapudi)
  5. Peddapuram (Vatsavai)
  6. Puttur(Madiraju)
  7. Rajamundry (Pusapati)
  8. Ramachandrapuram Kota royal family SRK Raja Gopal Narasa Raju.
  9. Rayavaram (Sagi)
  10. Rajala (Sagi)
  11. Rajapalayam(Valivarthi)
  12. Razolu (Kanumuri)
  13. Revidi(
  14. Padmanabham(Raja Sagi)
  15. Srirampuram (Kakarlapudi)
  16. Salur (Satrucharla)
  17. Thangedu (Raja Sagi)
  18. Tuni (Vatsavai)
  19. Uppada (Pusapati)
  20. Vemalapudi (Sagi)
  21. Velchur Kodur (Sagi)
  22. Vizianagaram (Pusapati)
  23. pedamajjipalem (siruvuri)
  24. Wurutla (Dantuluri)
  25. Jeypore In 1768, Vijayarama Raju had granted the Jeypore country as a jagir.

Modern community

After the Independence of India Zamindari was abolished. During this time many Raju zamindars donated their property and land liberally for the upliftment of poor and Education. Vizianagaram is the oldest and largest Hindu Princely State of Andhra Pradesh (Samsthanam). Maharaja PVG Raju donated his Royal State to Republic of India. He also donated enormous wealth, Khazana, Land, Gold, Diamonds, Propertis, Palaces to Korukonda Sainik school, Andhra University, Mansas Trust and to poor and needy for schools, colleges and hospitals. [73] [74]

Rajus of Andhra are designated as forward caste.[75]. Most of Rajus are doing well in Education, Information Technology and other fields. Despite sizeable population of Rajus being economically backward, Andhra Kshatriya Rajus never asked for Reservation unlike other Andhra communities.[76]

References

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  36. ^ No. 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.) (Published in the Journal of the Andhra Historical Research Society, Vol. IV, pp. 147-64.) S. 1183. (Durmati)
  37. ^ South Indian Inscriptions - Volume 10 - Kakatiya Dynasty Inscriptions @ whatisindia.com
  38. ^ No. 257. (A. R. No. 324 of 1915.) On the Garudastambha in the temple of Venugopalasvami, Uppumaguluru, Narasaraopeta Taluk, same District. S. 1133. Damaged and partly illegible. Refers to the gift of an oil-mill and land made by Balli Chodaraju presumably to some temple.
  39. ^ (A. R. No. 138 of 1917.) On a slab lying in front of the temple of Venugopalasvami, Potturu, Guntur Taluk, Guntur District. S. 1168. Incomplete. The portion which describes the actual grant is missing. The portion available refers to what was probably a gift made to a Siva temple by Paricheda Bhimaraja, Tammu Bhimaraju, Devaraju and Ganapa Deva Raju for the merit of their father Komma Raju and mother Surala Devi. Contains the usual Parichedi titles.
  40. ^ No. 373. (A. R. No. 283 of 1924.) On a pillar lying in the temple of Chandramaulisvara, Anumanchipalli, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1182. (Raudri) States that a certain Brahmin Chavali Bhaskara consecrated the image of Sagi-Ganapesvara and that king Sagi Manma endowed the temple with land. Describes the Sagi family as of Kshatriya caste (bahujakula) and gives the donor’s genealogy.
  41. ^ No. 468. (A. R. No. 318 of 1924.) On a pillar lying near a dilapidated mosque among the ruins of the fort at Gudimetta, Nandigama Taluk, Krishna District. S. 1213. States that Dadi Somaya-Sahini and Peddaya-Sahini gave lands to the temple of Visvanatha-Mahadeva who were the officers of Rudraraju.
  42. ^ No. 544. (A. R. No. 270 of 1924.) On a pillar set up in the temple of Anjaneyasvami at Konakanchi, same Taluk and District. Undated. States that, while Sagi Potaraja was ruling the Nathavadi country with Gudimetla as his capital, his kampu Birama’s sons Kassevu-Setti and Kurivi-Setti and the latter’s wife Surama got the temple of Narendresvara plastered, consecrated the images of Narayana Deva and Brahma Deva and also got the temples of attendant gods plastered, and gave two tanks for the naivedya and Patrapagudamu in these temples. Also states that Kurri-Setti of the Teliki thousand tribe of Bejevada presented two lamps to the temples.
  43. ^ Social and Economic Conditions in Eastern Deccan from $A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1250 By A. Vaidehi Krishnamoorthy[11]
  44. ^ The history of India By Mountstuart Elphinstone
  45. ^ No. 254(AR No. 204 of 1905) Melambika, sister of Kakatiya Ganapatideva and wife of Rudra, son of Buddaraja, chief of Natavadi consecrated the image of Mailambikesvara in the temple of Tripurantaka
  46. ^ History of the Minor Chāḷukya Families in Medieval Āndhradēśa By Kolluru Suryanarayana[12]
  47. ^ Annual Report By Archaeological Survey of India, John Hubert Marshall
  48. ^ Social and Cultural Life in Medieval Andhra By M. Krishna Kumari
  49. ^ [13]
  50. ^ [14]
  51. ^ No. 741. (A. R. No. 54 of 1912.) On a pillar in the temple of Kesavasvami at Chodavaram, Viravalli Taluk, Vizagapatam District
  52. ^ KURUPAM (Zamindari)
  53. ^ CHINNA MERANGI (Zamindari)
  54. ^ Journal of the Andhra Historical Society By Andhra Historical Research Society pg 61[15]
  55. ^ Aenegondi
  56. ^ Questioning Ramayanas: A South Asian tradition by Paula Richman
  57. ^ Gazetteer of the Nellore District : brought upto (sic) 1938. Pg 61
  58. ^ The Nayaks of Tanjore. by V Vriddhagirisan
  59. ^ 97 (No. 201 of 1967) Chidipiralla (Kamalapuram Taluk) On a stone near the Anjaneya temple. S. 1501; Bhadhanya, (A.D. 1578) It records the digging of irrigation canals at Chadupurella as the old ones became out of use, by Mahamandal-eswara Katta Mama Singa Raya Deva Choda Maharaja, who is said to be holding the Nayamkara of Chadupurala n the Ghandikota sima (as a subordinate chief) under his son-in-law Mahamandal-eswara Nandyala Narashim-ayya Deva Maharaja.
  60. ^ No. 73. (A.R. No. 353 of 1915.) Kundurru, Narasarowpet Taluk, Guntur District. 1522 A.D., May 13 (Tuesday). It registers the grant of a piece of land in the village of Konudortta...by Maha Mandalesvara Sarvayya Deva Chodaraju, son of Alamandala Yarayya Deva Chodaraju of Kasyapa-gotra. Vinikondasima is said to have been given to the donor as nayankara by Maha Pradhana Saluva Timmarasayya.
  61. ^ No. 129. (A.R. No. 690 of 1917.) Kovelakuntla, Koilkuntla Taluk, Kurnool District. 1543 A.D., August 25 (Saturday). It registers the grant of income derived from svamyatas in his nayankara territory of Kovila Kuntlasima....by Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhalesvara Deva Maharaju, son of Singa Raju Deva Maharaju and the grandson of Narasingayya Deva Maharaju of the lunar race.
  62. ^ No. 139. (A.R. No. 498 of 1906.) Mopuru, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. 1545 A.D., January 19, ’50. It records the remission of all taxes like Durga Vartana, Danayani Vartana, bedige, kanika and others in favour of the Vidvan mahajanas of the villages belonging to temples and to agraharas in Ghandikota Sakalisima obtained by the donor, Timmaya Deva Maharaju, son of Narasingaya Deva Maharaju and grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Nandyala Avubhala Deva Maharaju as Nayankara from the king. A similar remission of these taxes in the villages granted to the Bhai Ravesvara temple of Mopura is also recorded with the stipulation that the amount accrued was to be utilized for the daily worship and the rathosvava of the god.
  63. ^ No. 191. (A.R. No. 584 of 1909.) Macherla, Palnadu Taluk, Guntur District. On a slab set up in the courtyard of the Virabhadresvara temple. Sadasiva, 1554 A.D. The record is dated in Chronogram ‘rasa-saila-veda..’ and the numerals 76, Ananda, Ashadha, su. 15, Friday, lunar eclipse. The word for the numeral 1 is apparently lost. The details of the date correspond to 1554 A.D., June 15, ’51, if the month was Adhika Ashadha. The inscription which is damaged, records a grant of 14 putti and 10 tumu of land constituting it into a village by name Lingapuram, by Ling Amma, wife of Veligoti Komara Timma Nayaka to the gods Ishta Kamesvara and Viresvara of Macherla situated to the north of Macherla and west of the Chandra Bhaga river, in Nagarjuna-konda-sima which Komara Timma Nayaka is said to have obtained as nayankara from Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju.
  64. ^ No. 201. (A.R. No. 161 of 1905.) Markapur, Markapur Taluk, Kurnool District. On the east wall, left of entrance, of the antarala-mandapa in the Chenna-kesava-svamin temple. Sadasiva, 1555 A.D. This is dated Saka 1476, Ananda, Magha su. 7, corresponding to 1555 A.D., January 29. It records a gift of the various toll incomes due from the 18 villages, viz., Marakarapuram, Channavaram, Konddapuram, Yachavaram, Rayavaram, Gonguladinna, Tarnumbadu, Surepalli, Vanalapuram, Chanareddipalle, Gangireddipalle, Korevanipalle, Medisettipalle, Gollapalle, Jammuladinna, Tellambadu, Kamalpuram and Kondapalli to god Chennakesava by Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Narappadeva Maharaju, son of Aubhalayya Deva Maharaju, grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Madiraju Singa Raju Deva Maharaju, of Kasyapa-gotra and Surya-vamsa, and nephew of Maha Mandalesvara Rama Raju Thirumalaraju. The gift villages are said to be situated in Kochcherla Kotasima which was held by the donor as Nayankara from the king. Records in addition that the lanjasunkham (levy on prostitutes) collected during the festivals at Marakapuram was also made over to the temple and that fie out of every six dishes of offerings to the deity, were to be made over to the satra (feeding house) for feeding paradesi Brahmanas of the smartha sect, the sixth dish being the share of the sthanikas, the adhikaris and the karanas.
  65. ^ No. 228. (A.R. No. 411 of 1911.) Vontimitta, Sidhavatam Taluk, Cuddapah District. On a slab set up near the eastern gopura of the Kodanda Rama Swamy temple. Sadasiva, 1558 A.D. This is dated Saka 1480, Kalayukt, and Ashadha su. 12, Monday, corresponding to 1558 A.D. June 27. The inscription records a gift of the village Vontimetta with its hamlets in Sidhavatam-sima of Udayagiri Rajya to god Raghu Nayaka of the same village said to have been consecrated by Jambavanta, by Naga Raja Deva Maharaju of Kasyapa-gotra, and Surya-Vamsa and the son-in-law of Rama Raju and Gutti Yara Thirumalaraju Deva Maharaju of Kasyapa-gotra, and Surya-Vamsa and the sons of Sri Ranga Raju and the grandsons of Aravidu Rama Raju of Atreya-gotra and Soma-Vamsa. The gift village was situated in Siddhavatamsima which the donor appears to have held as his nayankara
  66. ^ No. 45. (A.R. No. 491 of 1906.) Pulivendla, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. 1509 A.D., October 24. It records a gift of the village Kunddal Kundu...by Narasayya Deva Maharaju, brother of Basava Raju, son of Tamma Raju, grandson of Valla Bharaya and great-grandson of Bejawada Madhava Varma of Vasishtha-gotra and Surya-vamsa.
  67. ^ No. 52. (A.R. No. 18 of 1915.) Srisailam, Nandikotkur Taluk, Kurnool District. 1515 A.D., July 25. The record is important for the historical information contained in it. The king, it is stated, started out from Vijayanagara on a campaign of conquest towards the east, conquered at a stretch Udayagiri, Addanki, Vinukonda, Bellamkonda, Nagarjunikonda, Tangedu, Ketavaram and other hill-forts and land-forts and captured Tirumala Kataraya Mahapatra. Having taken Kondavidu, he captured alive Virabhadra Raya, Nara Hari Deva, Rachuri Mallukhanu, Uddandakhanu, Jannala Kasavapatra, Pusapati Rachiraju, Srinatha Raju, Lakshmipati Raju, Paschima Balachandra Mahapatra and others. Later he reinstated the captives in their places, visited Amaresvara at Dharanikota and performed the Tulapurusha ceremony in the presence of the god on the banks of the river Krishnaveni.
  68. ^ No. 57. (A.R. No. 474 of 1919.) Little Kanchipuram, Kanchipuram Taluk, Chingleput District. 1517 A.D., January 14. States that the king, having conquered Udayagiri, captured Ravutaraya-mahapatra, and having taken the hill fortresses of Addanki, Vinikonda, Bellamkonda, Tangeda, Ketavaram, etc., captured alive Vira Bhadra Raya, son of Pratapa Rudra Gajapati Raju. Narahari Deva, son of Kumara Hamvira and others, performed Tulapurusha at Amaresvara in Dharanikota, returned to Vijayanagara and started out again on a campaign of conquest towards Kalinga, reached Bejawada, conquered Kondapalli, captured Praha Raju Siras Chandra Mahapatra, Bodajana Mahapatra, Bujilikhanu and others, took at a stretch all the fortresses of Telangana such as Anantagiri, Udrakonda, Urlugonda, Aruvapalli, Jallipalli, Kandikonda, Kappaluvayi, Nalgonda, Kambhammettu, Kanakagiri, Samkkaragiri, etc., installed the jayastambha at Simhadri Potnuru and performed the mahadana there, returned to Rajamahendra and desiring to have the mahadanas performed by his queens Chinna Devi and Tirumala Devi, returned to Vijayanagara...
  69. ^ No. 205. (A.R. No. 59 of 1915.) Chinna Ahobalam, Sirvel Taluk, Kurnool District. On the west wall of the Narasimha-svamin shrine in the Narasimha-svamin temple. Sadasiva, 1555 A.D. This is dated Saka 1478 (current), Rakshasa, Sravana ba. 7 corresponding to 1555 A.D., August 9 (Friday). The record is damaged and fragmentary. It seems to register a gift (of land) to god Ahobala Narasimha by Ganapatiraju who belonged to the Kasyapa-gotra Apastamba-sutra and Yajus-sakha and was the son of Nandi Raju and the grandson of Maha Mandalesvara Krishna Raju of the solar race.
  70. ^ A Sketch of the Dynasties of Southern India By Robert Sewell pg 44-45
  71. ^ History in Modern Indian Literature By Siba Pada Sen pg 188
  72. ^ A Manual of the District of Vizagapatam, in the Presidency of Madras By David Freemantle Carmichael pg 309[16]
  73. ^ [17]
  74. ^ [18]
  75. ^ Caste, Class and Social Articulation In Andhra Pradesh. Mapping Differential Regional Tragectories. K. Srinivasulu Pg 6, 11, 51 [19]
  76. ^ http://indculture0.tripod.com/rajus.htm

[20]

Other Sources

  • Andhra Zamindars:[21]
  • Karvetnagar [22]
  • Andhra Kingdoms[23]
  • Indian Intelligence Report: Inscriptions:[24]
  • History of the Andhras [25]
  • Caste system: [26]
  • Caste politics In the North, West, and South India Before Mandal.[27]
  • V. Ramesam, K. Mahadevan. Andhra Chronology (90-1800 A.C):[28]
  • Caste Transformation (Winners and Losers) [29]
  • The Andhras through the ages: Kandavalli Balendu Sekharan
  • Class-study of the History and Cultue of the Andhras: Kandavalli
  • Precolonial India in Practice: Cynthia Talbot
  • A study of the history and culture of the Andhras: Kambhampati Satyanarayana
  • Inscriptions:[30]
  • Dharani Priya, B: A study of genetic demography of the Kshatriyas, Ph.D. Thesis, Andhra University (2001)

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