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Ranitidine: Wikis

  

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Ranitidine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-(2-[(5-(dimethylaminomethyl)furan- 2-yl)methylthio]ethyl)- N-methyl- 2-nitroethene- 1,1-diamine
Identifiers
CAS number 66357-35-5
ATC code A02BA02
PubChem 3001055
DrugBank APRD00254
ChemSpider 571454
Chemical data
Formula C 13H22N4O3S 
Mol. mass 314.4 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 39 to 88%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 2–3 hours
Excretion 30–70% Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

US FDA:link

Pregnancy cat. B1(AU) B(US)
Legal status Pharmacy Only (S2) (AU) OTC (US) P/POM (UK)
Routes Oral, IV
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Ranitidine hydrochloride (INN) (pronounced /rəˈnɪtɨdiːn/) is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is commonly used in treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Ranitidine is also used alongside fexofenadine and other antihistamines for the treatment of skin conditions such as hives. Ranitidine HCl is marketed under the brand name Zinetac or Zantac (not to be confused with Zyrtec or Xanax).

Contents

Clinical Use

Certain preparations of ranitidine are available over the counter (OTC) in various countries. In the United States, 75 mg and 150 mg tablets are available OTC. Zantac OTC is manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim. In Australia, packs containing 7 or 14 doses of the 150 mg tablet are available in supermarkets, small packs of 150 mg and 300 mg tablets are Schedule 2 Pharmacy Medicines. Larger doses and pack sizes still require a prescription.

Outside of the United States, ranitidine is combined with bismuth (which acts as a mild antibiotic) as a citrate salt (ranitidine bismuth citrate, Tritec), to treat Helicobacter pylori infections. This combination is usually given with clarithromycin, an antibiotic. dooo

History and Development

Ranitidine was developed by Glaxo in an effort to match the success of Smith, Kline & French (prior to the merger of the two companies into GlaxoSmithKline) with the first histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine. Ranitidine was the result of a rational drug-design process using what was by then a fairly refined model of the histamine H2-receptor and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).

Glaxo refined the model further by replacing the imidazole-ring of cimetidine with a furan-ring with a nitrogen-containing substituent, and in doing so developed ranitidine. Ranitidine was found to have a far-improved tolerability profile (i.e. fewer adverse drug reactions), longer-lasting action, and ten times the activity of cimetidine. Ranitidine has 10% the affinity that cimetidine has to CYP450 so it causes fewer side effects, but other H2 blockers famotidine and nizatidine have no CYP450 significant interactions.[1]

Ranitidine was introduced in 1981 and was the world's biggest-selling prescription drug by 1988. It has since largely been superseded by the even more effective proton pump inhibitors, with omeprazole becoming the biggest-selling drug for many years. When omeprazole and ranitidine were compared in a study of 144 people with severe inflammation and erosions or ulcers of the esophagus, 85 percent to those treated with omeprazole healed within eight weeks, compared to 50 percent of those given ranitidine. In addition, the omeprazole group reported earlier relief of heart burn symptoms.[2]

References

  1. ^ Laurence Brunton, John Lazo, Keith Parker (August 2005). [mhprofessional.com/product.php?isbn=0071422803 Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics] (11 ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 972. ISBN 0071422803. mhprofessional.com/product.php?isbn=0071422803.   DOI: 10.1036/0071422803
  2. ^ Pelot, Daniel, (M.D.). "Digestive System : New Drug for Heartburn". The New Book of Knowledge : Medicine & Health, Grolier : Danbury, Connecticut. 1990. p.262. ISBN 0-7172-8244-9. Library of Congress 82-645223

External links

  • [1] - Consumer information on Zantac from the manufacturer.
  • {www.gsk.com/products/prescription-medicines/zantac.htm Zantac official website] GlaxoSmithKline
  • [www.zantacotc.com/ Zantac OTC official website] Boehringer Ingelheim







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