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1 : 1 mixture (racemate)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-[4-[2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-propyl]piperazin-1-yl]acetamide
Identifiers
CAS number 142387-99-3
ATC code C01EB18
PubChem 56959
DrugBank APRD01300
Chemical data
Formula C 24H33N3O4  
Mol. mass 427.537 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 35 to 50%
Protein binding 62%
Metabolism Hepatic, CYP extensively involved
Half life 7 hours
Excretion Renal (75%) and fecal (25%)
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

EU EMEA:linkUS FDA:link

Pregnancy cat. C(US)
Legal status -only (US)
Routes Oral

Ranolazine, sold under the trade name Ranexa by Gilead Sciences (who acquired the developer, CV Therapeutics in 2009), is an antianginal medication. In India it is sold under the name "Ranozex". On January 31, 2006, ranolazine was approved for use in the United States by the FDA for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris.[1]

Contents

Mechanism of action

Ranolazine is believed to have its effects via altering the trans-cellular late sodium current. It is by altering the intracellular sodium level that ranolazine affects the sodium-dependent calcium channels during myocardial ischemia in rabbits.[2] Thus, ranolazine indirectly prevents the calcium overload that causes cardiac ischemia in rats.[3]

Indications for use

Ranolazine is indicated for the treatment of Chronic angina. Ranolazine may be used with beta-blockers,nitrates, calcium channel blockers, anti-platelet, therapy, lipid-lowering therapy, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers. It has been shown to decrease angina episodes in individuals with coronary artery disease on maximal doses of amlodipine.[4] In addition, it has been shown to both decrease angina episodes and increase exercise tolerance in individuals taking concomitant atenolol, amlodipine, or diltiazem.[5]

Unlike other antianginal medications such as nitrates and beta blockers, ranolazine does not significantly alter either the heart rate or blood pressure. For this reason, it is of particular use in individuals with angina that is refractory to maximal tolerated doses of other anti-anginal medications.

While it would seem from the mechanism of action that ranolazine may be of benefit in individuals with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes and acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), the recently completed Merlin/TIMI-36 trial showed no benefit in this population. [6]

Contraindications

Ranolazine was once thought to increase the QT interval on the electrocardiogram, but a new large study has shown this to be false.

Because of this, caution should be used when ranolazine is used in combination with other medications that increase the QT interval. In addition, because the effect of ranolazine on the QT interval is increased in the setting of liver dysfunction, it is contraindicated in the setting of mild, moderate, or severe liver disease.[1]

Metabolism

Ranolazine is metabolized in the liver, particularly by one of the cytochrome CYP3A enzymes, a member of the cytochrome P450 system.[7]

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Drug interactions

While ranolazine is not significantly metabolized by cytochrome CYP2D6, it does inhibit this enzyme.[7] Because of this, the doses of medications metabolized by cytochrome CYP2D6 may need to be reduced to prevent toxicity.

Drugs that may interact with ranolazine include:[8]

While caution should be used when administrating ranolazine in combination with any of the above medications, some combinations may be considered relatively safe. For instance, in the CARISA trial, ranolazine was used in individuals taking diltiazem without any adverse events attributable to the combination.[5]

MERLIN TIMI 36 Trial

This is the recent development in the field of Ranolazine. This study was done in 6560 post ACS NSTEMI patients followed up for 1 year. Although, Ranolazine did not show significant benefit in study's primary endpoint of CV death, MI, or recurrent ischemia; it exhibited a potential benefit in arrhythmia.

Among patients with ACS, ranolazine, an inhibitor of late INa, has anti-arrhythmic effects as assessed by Holter monitoring. In particular, patients treated with ranolazine had fewer episodes of VT > 8 beats, SVT, and ventricular pauses > 3 seconds. Ranolazine was associated with a 37% reduction in risk of VT lasting >= 8 beats. Reduction in VT >= 8 beats was significant and consistent in high - risk subgroups based on ejection fraction, corrected QT interval, TIMI risk score, history of heart failure, and the presence or absence of ischemia on ECG.

Earlier there was a concern that Ranolazine increases QT interval (approximately 2 to 6 ms) which has a theoretical risk of causing arrhythmia. Findings of MERLIN TIMI 36 should mitigate this concern. However, Studies specifically designed to evaluate the potential role of ranolazine as an anti-arrhythmic agent are warranted.

Based on encouraging safety data shown in MERLIN TIMI 36 trial, CV therapeutics has applied to US FDA for first line angina indication. It has also applied to US FDA for 2 more indication such as HbA1c reduction in coronary artery disease patients with diabetes and antiarrhythmic benefits. Based on initial evaluation of data presented, US FDA has accepted the application and have set the action date as 27 July 2008.

European Approval

On 24 April 2008 the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion,recommending to grant a marketing authorisation for the medicinal product Latixa, 375 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg prolonged-release tablets intended for treatment of patients with stable angina pectoris. The applicant for this medicinal product is CV Therapeutics Europe Limited. The approved indication is: “Latixa is indicated as add-on therapy for the symptomatic treatment of patients with stable angina pectoris who are inadequately controlled or intolerant to first-line antianginal therapies (such as beta-blockers and/or calcium antagonists).”

US FDA approves Ranolazine for first line angina indication

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a new, first line indication for ranolazine for the treatment of chronic angina. The new labeling also provides information showing that Ranolazine reduced arrhythmias including ventricular arrhythmias, new onset atrial fibrillation and a potentially dangerous slow heartbeat known as bradycardia in patients with coronary artery disease. In addition, the new labeling states that Ranexa reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with diabetes.

According to the revised labeling, Ranolazine is indicated for the treatment of chronic angina and may be used alone or in combination with traditional therapies for chronic angina, such as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and nitrates, and common cardio-protective treatments for cardiovascular disease such as anti-platelet therapy, lipid-lowering therapy, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.

Ranolazine may now be used as part of an optimal medical therapy regimen for chronic angina patients, regardless of whether or not they receive a stent or other medical intervention. Ranolazine does not reduce heart rate or blood pressure and, unlike long acting nitrates, Ranolazine can be prescribed for patients taking oral erectile dysfunction treatments.

"Ranolazine may now take optimal medical therapy to an entirely new level, and may afford enhanced symptom relief," said Dr. William Boden, clinical chief, division of cardiovascular medicine, University at Buffalo Schools of Medicine & Public Health and principal investigator of the COURAGE study. "I have seen excellent safety, tolerability and symptom relief in the great majority of chronic angina patients for whom I have prescribed ranolazine," he added.

"As we have seen in the MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial and in clinical practice, patients with ischemia and angina can be at increased risk for arrhythmias and also often have diabetes. Considering its mechanism of action, established cardiovascular safety and observed reductions in arrhythmias and HbA1c, ranolazine now becomes an even more important drug in our treatment of chronic angina," said Dr. Eugene Braunwald, Distinguished Hersey Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and chairman of the TIMI Study Group.

These significant new labeling changes were supported by a supplemental new drug application submitted in September 2007 that included data from the 6,560 patient MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial, which showed no adverse trend in death or arrhythmia in a high risk acute coronary syndromes patient population.

The revised labeling includes new language noting that there was a significantly lower incidence of arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia, bradycardia, supraventricular tachycardia and new atrial fibrillation) in patients treated with Ranexa versus placebo. This difference in arrhythmias did not lead to a reduction in mortality, a reduction in arrhythmia hospitalization or a reduction in arrhythmia symptoms.

The revised labeling also includes new language noting that Ranexa produces small reductions in HbA1c. Though Ranexa should not be considered a treatment for diabetes, Ranexa may be a particularly useful medication for the reduction of chronic angina in this patient population, which is difficult to treat because some anti anginal medications such as beta blockers increase HbA1c.

References

  1. ^ a b "FDA Approves New Treatment for Chest Pain". FDA News. 2006-01-31. http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/news/2006/NEW01306.html. Retrieved 2007-02-04.  
  2. ^ Hale SL, Kloner RA. (2006). "Ranolazine, an inhibitor of the late sodium channel current, reduces postischemic myocardial dysfunction in the rabbit". J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 11 (4): 249–55. doi:10.1177/1074248406294607. PMID 17220471.  
  3. ^ Fraser H, Belardinelli L, Wang L, Light PE, McVeigh JJ, Clanachan AS. (2006). "Ranolazine decreases diastolic calcium accumulation caused by ATX-II or ischemia in rat hearts". J Mol Cell Cardiol 41 (6): 1031–8. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2006.08.012. PMID 17027025.  
  4. ^ Stone PH, Gratsiansky NA, Blokhin A, Huang IZ, Meng L; ERICA Investigators. (2006). "Antianginal efficacy of ranolazine when added to treatment with amlodipine: the ERICA (Efficacy of Ranolazine in Chronic Angina) trial". J Am Coll Cardiol 48 (3): 566–75. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.05.044. PMID 16875985.  
  5. ^ a b Chaitman BR, Pepine CJ, Parker JO, Skopal J, Chumakova G, Kuch J, Wang W, Skettino SL, Wolff AA; Combination Assessment of Ranolazine In Stable Angina (CARISA) Investigators. (2004). "Effects of ranolazine with atenolol, amlodipine, or diltiazem on exercise tolerance and angina frequency in patients with severe chronic angina: a randomized controlled trial". JAMA 291 (3): 309–16. doi:10.1001/jama.291.3.309. PMID 14734593.  
  6. ^ Morrow DA, Scirica BM, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, et al. (2007). "Effects of ranolazine on recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the MERLIN-TIMI 36 randomized trial". JAMA 297 (16): 1775–83. doi:10.1001/jama.297.16.1775. PMID 17456819.  
  7. ^ a b Jerling M. (2006). "Clinical pharmacokinetics of ranolazine". Clin Pharmacokinet 45 (5): 469–91. doi:10.2165/00003088-200645050-00003. PMID 16640453.  
  8. ^ "Patient information sheet: Ranolazine". FDA. 2006-06-14. http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/InfoSheets/patient/ranolazine.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-04.  

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