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Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese
A portrait of a 12-year-old Ranuccio Farnese by Titian.

Ranuccio Farnese (August 11, 1530 - October 29, 1565) was an Italian prelate, who was Cardinal of Santa Lucia in Messina, Sicily from 1545 to his death in 1565.

Ranuccio Farnese was born in Valentano. As a 12-year-old, he was made prior of the Knights of Malta's important property San Giovanni dei Forlani in Venice. Son of Pier Luigi Farnese, the illegitimate son of Pope Paul III, Farnese was created Cardinal at the age of 15 by his grandfather the pope: he was nicknamed the cardinalino ("small cardinal") for his young age.

He was also administrator of the archdiocese of Naples, and was granted several bishoprics. Farnese was patron to Federico Commandino, an important translator of ancient Greek mathematical works.

Farnese's brother, Ottavio Farnese, was Duke of Parma.

He is entombed in the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano in Rome.

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