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Raoul Cédras

Leader of the Haitian Military Junta
De Facto leader of Haiti until October 12, 1994
In office
September 30, 1991 – October 8, 1991
Preceded by Jean-Bertrand Aristide (as President of Haiti)
Succeeded by Joseph Nérette (provisional)

Born July 9, 1949
Jérémie, Haiti
Nationality Haitian
Political party Military
Profession Soldier

Raoul Cédras (born Jérémie, Haiti July 9, 1949) is a military officer, and de facto ruler of Haiti from 1991 to 1994.

Cédras was a Lieutenant General in the Forces Armées d'Haïti (the Haitian army) and was responsible for the coup d'état which ousted President Jean-Bertrand Aristide September 29, 1991. During August 1991, Aristide's own government held a non-confidence vote with 83 going against him, with only 11 supporting him. Aristide resigned on September 29/30, 1991 and flew into exile. Some 56 people lost their lives, throughout Haiti, during September 29-30, violence.

Some human rights groups criticized Cédras's rule, alleging that innocent people were killed by the FAdH military and FRAPH paramilitary units.

While remaining the de facto leader of Haiti as commander of the country's armed forces[1], Cédras did not retain his position as head of state, preferring to have other politicians as official presidents. As required by Article 149, of the 1987 Haitian Constitution, Haiti's Parliament appointed Supreme Court Justice Joseph Nérette as provisional President, to fill in until elections could be held. The elections were called for December, 1991, however, these were blocked by the American government. At a later date, Nérette resigned and was replaced by Supreme Court Justice Émile Jonassaint.

Under the delegation of U.S. president Bill Clinton, the former President Jimmy Carter, accompanied by Senator Sam Nunn and General Collin Powell, urged Provisional President Émile Jonassaint to relinquish his control in 1994, in order to avoid a potential invasion. Jonassaint resigned[2] [3]. General Cédras had indicated his desire to remain in Haiti. However, the Americans did not think this was the best solution and convinced the General that, in the national interest, he should consider departing for Panama. The United States reportedly rented three properties from Cédras, putting U.S. personnel in them, presumably to protect the houses from being looted[4]

After leaving Haiti, Cédras went to Panama where he remains[5]. Aristide then returned to power in Haiti and would be forced into resigning again in 2004.


External links


See also

Preceded by
Jean-Bertrand Aristide
President of Haïti
Succeeded by
Joseph Nérette




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