Rape by gender: Wikis

  

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While gender preferences do play a role in rape, the types of rape listed here are primarily classified by sex rather than by gender. This article classifies types of rape by sex for both the rapist and the victim.

Note: in this article, all types of sexual abuse are called "rape".

Contents

Rape of females by males

This is the most common type of rape.[citation needed] In a 2000 research article from the Home Office, in England and Wales around 1 in 20 women (4.9%) said that they had been raped at some point in their life from the age of 16 beyond.[1] This does not take into account the possibility of exaggeration or false reports nor of underreporting.

Victims of rape are often severely psychologically traumatized by the assault. Gynaecological and other physical injuries can also occur.

A woman's physiological response to sexual contact is involuntary. In rare cases, women can become physically aroused, produce natural lubrication, and even experience orgasms against their will during rape. However, this is very uncommon and in no way implies consent. [2]

Rape of males by males

Male rape is far more common than generally supposed: research from the UK suggests that almost 3% of men reported a non-consensual sexual experience as adults and over 5% of men reported sexual abuse as a child.[3] This does not take into account the likelihood of under reporting. Recognition of male on male rape in law has historically been limited; the first successful prosecution for attempted male on male rape in the UK was not until 1995.

Rape of males by females

Women also can commit an act of rape with force or deception to make a man engage in a non-consensual penetrative sexual act although it is often unreported. According to "Court TV"'s "Crime Library",[citation needed] women commit about 2% of all sexual offenses and their abuse often involves their own child or children, but this statistic doesn't mention how many, if any, of these cases of abuse were rape.

Statutory female-on-male rape

Several widely publicized cases of female-on-male statutory rape in the United States involved school teachers raping their underage students. (See e.g. Mary Kay Letourneau)

Non-statutory female-on-male rape

Male erectile response is involuntary.[4][5] Rape of a man by a woman is thus possible.

Male victims of sexual abuse by females[6] often face social, political, and legal double standards.[7] Though studies show otherwise,[8] female abusers are usually seen as less culpable than male abusers/rapists by the courts due to these misconceptions. Since rape by females is much less well known than male-female abuse, male victims of female abusers often find little support from rape crisis centers. Due to these reasons, it is likely being substantially under-reported, with the probable cause being the double standard.[9]

Rape of females by females

Female on female rape is often labeled "lesbian rape", though the sexual identity of one or both (or more) persons involved may or may not actually be lesbian. Forced penetration by another female is possible with the use of strap-ons, dildos, other foreign objects and digital penetration.

A few books, such as Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships by Dr. Claire M. Renzetti,[10] No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships by Janice Ristock,[11] and Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? by Lori B. Girshick[12] also cover the topic of rape of females by other females.

References

  1. ^ http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r159.pdf Rape and sexual assault of women: findings from the British Crime Survey
  2. ^ Roy J. Levin; Willy van Berlo (2004-04). "Sexual arousal and orgasm in subjects who experience forced or non-consensual sexual stimulation – a review". Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine (elsevier.com) 11 (2): 82–88. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1353113103001536. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  3. ^ Coxell A, King M, Mezey G, Gordon D. Lifetime Prevalence, characteristics, and associated problems of non-consensual sex in men
  4. ^ Philip M. Sarrel; William H. Masters (1982-04). "Sexual molestation of men by women". Archives of Sexual Behavior (springerlink.com) 11 (2): 82–88. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t60447681m7531l2/?p=6d3fd72b5d2d42a3a234d56204f59c51. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  5. ^ "Male Rape". The National Center for Victims of Crime. 1997. http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32361#3. Retrieved 2006-03-12. 
  6. ^ Barbara Krahé; Renate Scheinberger-Olwig, Steffen Bieneck (2003-04). "Men's Reports of Nonconsensual Sexual Interactions with Women: Prevalence and Impact". Archives of Sexual Behavior (springerlink.com) 32 (5). http://www.springerlink.com/content/t88035m5295g6751/?p=f4627938f6ee449bad67bc5f803aebf8. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  7. ^ "Male Sexual Victimization Myths & Facts". malesurvivor.org. http://www.malesurvivor.org/myths.html. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  8. ^ Barbara Krahé; Eva Waizenhöfer, Ingrid Möller (2003-09). "Women's Sexual Aggression Against Men: Prevalence and Predictors". Sex Roles (springerlink.com) 49 (5-6). http://www.springerlink.com/content/h4038x61400l8273/?p=f4627938f6ee449bad67bc5f803aebf8. Retrieved 2008-08-03. 
  9. ^ "Female Sex Offenders". Breaking the Silence. 1998. http://www.vaonline.org/vls6.html. Retrieved 2007-03-11. 
  10. ^ Renzetti, Claire M. Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1992.
  11. ^ Ristock, Janice. No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships. New York: Routledge, 2002.
  12. ^ Girshick, Lori B. Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? (The Northeastern Series on Gender, Crime, and the Law). Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000.







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