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Civilian rationing: A shopkeeper cancels the coupons in a British housewife's ration book

Rationing in the United Kingdom is the series of food rationing policies put in place by the government of the United Kingdom during certain wartime periods of the 20th century.[1][2]

At the beginning of World War II, the UK imported 55 million tons of foodstuffs per year (70%), including more than 50% of its meat, 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 90% of cereals and fats. It was one of the principal strategies of the Axis to attack shipping bound for the UK, restricting British industry and potentially starving the nation into submission.

To deal with extreme shortages, the Ministry of Food instituted a system of rationing. Each person registered with their local shops, and was provided with a ration book that contained coupons. The shopkeeper was provided with enough food for registered customers. When purchasing goods, the purchaser had to give the shopkeeper a coupon as well as money.

Contents

Timeline of rationing

A WWI government leaflet detailing the consequences of breaking the rationing laws.

At around 1916 in the First World War, Germany started using its U-boats (submarines) in order to sink the ships - many of which were American - that were bringing food to the country and starve Britain into surrender. In about two years, Britain had just six weeks' food left and, therefore, had to ration its food supplies.

During the Second World War, rationing was introduced very early. On 8 January 1940, bacon, butter and sugar were rationed. This was followed by meat, tea, jam, biscuits, breakfast cereals, cheese, eggs, milk and canned fruit. Strict rationing caused many people to buy food on the black market; however people were often tricked with cheaper substitutes such as horsemeat instead of beef.[citation needed]

One of the few foods not rationed were fish and chips. The price of fish increased considerably as the war progressed, but the government was content to allow this since they realized fishermen would need to be able to collect a premium for their catch if they were to be persuaded to put to sea in the face of enemy submarines.

As the war progressed, most foods came to be rationed, as were non-food commodities such as clothing and petrol. Clothing was rationed on a points system. Initially the allowance was for approximately one new outfit per year; as the war progressed the points were reduced to the point where the purchase of a coat constituted almost an entire year's clothing.

Certain foodstuffs that the 1940s British consumer would find unusual, for example whalemeat and the South African snoek, were not rationed, however despite this they did not prove popular.[2][3]

Rationing continued after the end of the war. In fact, it became stricter after the war ended than during the hostilities. Bread, which was not rationed during the war, was rationed from 1946 to 1948; potato rationing began in 1947. At the time this was presented as being due to the necessity of feeding the population of European areas under British control, whose economies had been devastated by the fighting.[2] This was partly the case, however with a large number of British men still mobilized in the armed forces, an austere economic climate, and a centrally-planned economy still being operated by the post-war Labour government, resources were not available to expand food production and importation. Frequent industrial action by certain groups of workers (most critically the dockworkers) also exacerbated the situation.[2]

At the 1950 General Election the Conservatives campaigned on a manifesto of ending rationing as quickly as possible.[2] During the following Labour-controlled parliament, petrol rationing ended on 26 July 1950[4]. The Conservatives came to power in 1951. Sweet rationing ended in February 1953, and sugar rationing ended in September 1953, however the end of all food rationing did not come until 4 July 1954, with meat the last to go.

Petrol rationing was briefly reintroduced in late 1956 during the Suez Crisis, ending on 14 May 1957[5] and all advertising of petrol on the recently-introduced ITV was banned for a period.

Some of the ersatz foods like apple crumble and carrot cake continue to be popular today.

British Restaurants

Restaurants were exempt from rationing, which led to resentment, as the rich could supplement their food allowance by eating out frequently and extravagantly. To restrict this, rules were put into force: no meal could cost more than five shillings; no meal could consist of more than three courses; meat and fish could not be served at the same sitting. Establishments known as British Restaurants supplied another almost universal experience of eating away from home. British Restaurants were run by local authorities, who set them up in various premises such as schools and church halls. They evolved from the London County Council’s Londoners’ Meals Service which originated in September 1940 as a temporary emergency system for feeding those who had been bombed out. By mid-1941 the London County Council was operating 200 of these restaurants; during 1942 to 1944 there were thousands of them[6]. Here a three-course meal cost only 9d. Standards varied, but the best were greatly appreciated and had a large regular clientele. Similar schemes were run in other towns and cities.

Standard rationing

The average standard rations during the Second World War are as follows. Quantities are per week unless otherwise stated; all from the same source, which is elided for brevity.[6]

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Food rations

Item Maximum level Minimum level Rations (April '45)
Bacon and Ham 8 oz (227 g) 4 oz (113 g) 4 oz (113 g)
Sugar 16 oz (454 g) 8 oz (227 g) 8 oz (227 g)
loose Tea 4 oz (113 g) 2 oz (57 g) 2 oz (57 g)
Meat 1 s. 2d. 1s 1s. 2d.
Cheese 8 oz (227 g) 1 oz (28 g) 2 oz (57 g)

Vegetarians were allowed an extra 3 oz (85 g) cheese[6][7]

Preserves 1 lb (0.45 kg) per month
2 lb (0.91 kg) marmalade
8 oz (227 g) per month 2 lb (0.91 kg) marmalade
or 1 lb (0.45 kg) preserve
or 1 lb (0.45 kg) sugar
Butter 8 oz (227 g) 2 oz (57 g) 2 oz (57 g)
Margarine 12 oz (340 g) 4 oz (113 g) 4 oz (113 g)
Lard 3 oz (85 g) 2 oz (57 g) 2 oz (57 g)
Sweets 16 oz (454 g) per month 8 oz (227 g) per month 12 oz (340 g) per month
  • Notes:
    1. Tea bags were not used widely in the UK.
    2. 1s 2d bought about 1 lb 3 oz (540 g)) of meat. Offal and sausages were only rationed from 1942-1944. Even when sausages were not rationed, the meat needed to make them was so scarce that they were very rarely seen.

Eggs were rationed and "allocated to ordinary consumers as available"; in 1944 thirty allocations of one egg each were made. Children and some invalids were allowed three a week; expectant mothers two on each allocation.

  • 1 egg per week or 1 packet (makes 12 "eggs") of egg powder per month (vegetarians were allowed two eggs)
  • plus, 24 “points” for four weeks for tinned and dried food.

Arrangements were made for vegetarians so that their rations of meat were substituted by other goods.[6][7]

Milk was supplied at 3 imp pt (1.7 l) each week week for priority to expectant mothers and children under 5; 3.5 imp pt (2.0 l) for those under 18; children unable to attend school 5 imp pt (2.8 l), certain invalids up to 14 imp pt (8.0 l). Each consumer got one tin of milk powder (equal to 8 imperial pints (4.5 l; 9.6 US pt)) every 8 weeks.

Non-food rations

Clothing

  • 66 “points” for clothing per year, in 1942 it was cut to 48 and in 1943 to 36, and in 1945 to 24. In 1945, an overcoat (wool and fully lined) 18 coupons; a man's suit 26-29 (according to lining); men's shoes 9, women's shoes 7; woollen dress 11.[6] Children aged 14–16 got 20 more coupons. Clothing rationing points could be used for wool, cotton and household textiles. People had extra points for work clothes, such as overalls for factory work. No points were required for second-hand clothing or fur coats, but their prices were fixed. Before rationing lace and frills were popular on knickers but these were soon banned so material could be saved. Similarly turn-ups on trousers were banned to save material.[citation needed]

Soap

All types of soap were rationed. Coupons were allotted by weight or (if liquid) by quantity. In 1945, the ration gave four coupons each month; babies and some workers and invalids were allowed more.[6] A coupon would yield:

  • 4 oz (113 g) bar hard soap
  • 3 oz (85 g) bar toilet soap
  • 12 oz (14 g) No. 1 liquid soap
  • 6 oz (170 g) soft soap
  • 3 oz (85 g) soap flakes
  • 6 oz (170 g) soap powder

Fuel

The Fuel and Lighting (Coal) Order 1941 came into force in January 1942.[6] Central heating was prohibited "in the summer months", i.e. July 29 to August 29.

Domestic coal was rationed to 15 hundredweight (cwt) — 34 long tons (0.76 t) for those in London and the south of England; 20 hundredweight — 1 long ton (1.0 t) for the rest (the south part of England having generally a milder climate). Some kinds of coal such as anthracite were not rationed, and in the coal-mining areas were eagerly gathered as they were in the Great Depression (see Road to Wigan Pier).

See also

References

  1. ^ Zweiniger-Bargielowska, Ina (2002), Austerity in Britain: Rationing, Controls and Consumption, 1939-1955, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199251025 
  2. ^ a b c d e Kynaston, David (2007), Austerity Britain, 1945-1951, Bloomsbury Publishing, ISBN 978-0747579854 
  3. ^ Patton, Marguerite, Feeding the Nation, Hamlyn, ISBN 978-0600614722 
  4. ^ "1950: UK drivers cheer end of fuel rations". BBC. 26 May 1950. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/26/newsid_2502000/2502691.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  5. ^ "1957: Cheers as petrol rationing ended". BBC. 14 May 1957. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/14/newsid_2511000/2511733.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Home Front Handbook, Imperial War Museum (Ministry of Information), April 1945 (reprinted 2005), pp. 46–48, 73, ISBN 1-904897-11-8, http://www.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.2498 
  7. ^ a b Vegetarian history - World War Two

External links


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