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Raymond Cattell

Raymond Cattell
Born 20 March 1905 (1905-03-20)
Died 2 February 1998 (1998-02-03)
Nationality American

Raymond Bernard Cattell (20 March 1905 – 2 February 1998) was a British and American psychologist known for his exploration of a wide variety of substantive areas in psychology. These areas included: the basic dimensions of personality and temperament, a range of cognitive abilities, the dynamic dimensions of motivation and emotion, the clinical dimensions of personality, patterns of group and social behavior, applications of personality research to psychotherapy and learning theory, predictors of creativity and achievement, and many scientific research methods for exploring and measuring these areas. Cattell was famously productive throughout his 92 years, authoring and co-authoring over 50 books and 500 articles, and over 30 standardized tests. According to a widely-cited ranking, he was the 16th most influential and eminent psychologist of the 20th century.[1]

As a psychologist, Cattell was rigorously devoted to the scientific method. He was an early proponent of using factor analytical methods instead of what he called "verbal theorizing" to explore the basic dimensions of personality, motivation, and cognitive abilities. One of the most important results of Cattell's application of factor analysis was his discovery of 16 factors underlying human personality. He called these factors "source traits" because he believed they provide the underlying source for the surface behaviors we think of as personality.[2] This theory of personality factors and the instrument used to measure them are known respectively as the 16 personality factor model and the 16PF Questionnaire.

Although Cattell is best known for identifying the dimensions of personality, he also studied basic dimensions of other domains: intelligence, motivation, and vocational interests. Cattell theorized the existence of fluid and crystallized intelligences to explain human cognitive ability, and authored the Culture Fair Intelligence Test to minimize the bias of written language and cultural background in intelligence testing.


Innovations and accomplishments

Cattell's principal accomplishments were in personality, intelligence, and statistics. In personality, he is best remembered for his 16-factor model of personality, arguing for this over Eysenck's simpler 3-factor model, and developing tests to measure his primary factors in the form of the 16PF Questionnaire. He modeled his 16 primary factors in terms of 5 broader or global traits of personality, which are now identified with the widely used Big Five model of personality. His research lead to additional conceptual advances - for instance distinguishing state versus trait measurement of personality: immediate, transitory states versus long-term, enduring trait levels on traits such as anxiety. In intelligence, Cattell is best identified with the distinction of fluid and crystallized intelligence: current, abstract, adaptive intellectual abilities versus applied or crystallized knowledge. As a theoretical underpinning for this distinction, Cattell developed the investment-model of ability, arguing that crystallized ability emerged out of investment of fluid ability in a topic of knowledge. He thus contributed to cognitive epidemiology, arguing that crystallized knowledge, while initially lagging fluid ability, could be maintained or even increase after fluid ability began to decline, a concept embodied in the National Adult Reading Test. Cattell developed his own ability test, the Culture Fair Intelligence Scales, designed to minimize the effect of cultural background and provide a completely non-verbal measure of intelligence similar to Raven's.

In statistics, he founded the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology (1960) and its journal Multivariate Behavioral Research. He was a frequenet user of factor analysis, and improved this tool by developing the Scree Test for using the curve of latent roots to judge the number of factors in factor analysis and contributing a factor analysis rotation, the "Procrustes" rotation, designed to test the fit of data to a prior-hypothesized factor structure. Additional contributions include the Coefficient of Profile Similarity (taking account of shape, scatter, and level of two score profiles),the Dynamic Calculus for assessing interests and motivation, P-technique factor analysis for an occasion-by-variable matrix, the Taxonome program for ascertaining the number and contents of clusters in a data set, the Basic Data Relations Box (assessing the dimensions of experimental designs), sampling of variables, as opposed to or in conjunction with sampling of persons; the group syntality construct: the "personality" of a group; factoring or repeated measures on single individuals to study fluctuating personality states, and Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis (MAVA) with "specification equations" embodying genetic and environmental variables and their interactions.

Biographical background: England

Raymond Cattell was born in 1905 in Hilltop, a small town in England near Birmingham. It was a time when burgeoning scientific ideas influenced his perspective on how to make a difference in the world. He wrote:

"1905 was a felicitous year in which to be born. The airplane was a year old. The Curies and Rutherford in that year penetrated the heart of the atom and the mystery of its radiations, Binet launched the first intelligence test, and Einstein, the theory of relativity." [3].

After Cattell had spent almost 7 years of his life in Hilltop, his family moved to Devon, in the south of England, where he grew up with strong interests in science and sailing. He was the first of his family to attend university when in 1921, he was awarded a scholarship to study chemistry at the University of London, where he obtained a magna cum laude BSc at the age of 19. While studying chemistry at university he learned from people of eminence in many other fields, who visited or lived in London. He writes that he:

"browsed far outside science in my reading and attended public lectures - Bertrand Russell, H. G. Wells, Huxley, and Shaw being my favorite speakers (the last, in a meeting at King's College, converted me to vegetarianism - for almost two years!)." [4 ].

As he observed first-hand the terrible destruction and suffering from World War I, he was increasingly attracted to the idea of applying the tools of science to the serious human problems that he saw around him. In the aftermath of WWI, he recalled feeling his laboratory bench begin to seem small and the world's problems vast. [4 ]. Thus, he decided to change his field of study and pursue a Ph.D. in psychology, which he received in 1929.

While working on his Ph.D., Cattell accepted a position teaching and counseling in the Department of Education at Exeter University. During his three years at Exeter, Cattell courted and married Monica Rogers, whom he had known since his boyhood in Devon. In 1932 a son was born to them. Soon after he moved to Leicester where he organized one of England's first child guidance clinics.

Biographical background: USA

In 1937 he reluctantly moved to the United States when invited by the eminent psychologist, Edward Thorndike, to come to Columbia University. When the prestigious G. Stanley Hall professorship in Psychology became available at Clark University in 1938, Cattell was recommended by Thorndike and was appointed to the position at the age of 34.

After a few productive years at Clark, he was invited by Gordon Allport to join the Harvard University faculty in 1941. The three years he spent at Harvard turned out to be a pivotal point in his academic and personal life. While at Harvard he planned and carried out some of the research in personality that would become the foundation for much of his later work in this area.

During World War II, Cattell served as a civilian consultant to the U.S. government developing tests for selecting officers in the armed forces. With the war coming to an end, Cattell returned to teaching at Harvard and married Alberta Karen Schuettler, a Ph.D. student in mathematics at Radcliffe College. Over the years, she worked with Cattell on many aspects of his research, writing, and test development. They were married for over 30 years and had three daughters and a son.

At this time Herbert Woodrow, Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and President of the APA, was searching for someone with a background in multivariate methods to establish a research department. Cattell was invited to assume this position in 1945 and he accepted. In this newly created professorship in psychology he was able to obtain sufficient grant support for two Ph.D. associates, four graduate research assistants, and clerical assistance, and each year his laboratory was able to grow for nearly 30 years.

One reason that Cattell move to the University of Illinois was that they were developing the first electronic computer, the Illiac I, which made it possible for him to undertake large-scale factor analyses, which had heretofore been impossible to conduct by hand. In 1949 he and his wife, Alberta Karen Cattell, founded The Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT). Karen Cattell served as director of IPAT until 1992. Raymond Cattell also founded the Laboratory of Personality Assessment and Group Behavior at the University of Illinois, where he initiated a period of remarkable creativity and productivity with a talented staff of research associates coming from all over the world.

In 1960, Cattell organized and convened an international symposium to increase communication and cooperation among researchers using multivariate statistics to study human behavior. This resulted in the foundation of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, which continues to be an important center of scientific research in psychology. Cattell's time at Illinois was one of prodigious productivity. The sheer number of talented researchers from many places around the globe, whom he invited or influenced, was extraordinary. His books are filled with lengthy lists of co-workers who contributed to his program of research. He continued to collaborate with them long after they left his laboratory. He remained in the Illinois research professorship until he reached the University's required retirement age in 1973. Largely due to Cattell, the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana became one of the world's most productive centers for multivariate experimental psychology. A few years after he retired from the University of Illinois he built a home in Boulder, Colorado, where he wrote and published the results of a variety of research projects that had been left unfinished in Illinois.

In 1978 he decided to move to Hawaii, largely because of his life-long love of the ocean and sailing (see his first book Under Sail Through Red Devon which he wrote in his 20's about his extensive early years of sailing around his hometown in Devon, England). He continued his career as a part-time professor and advisor at the University of Hawaii. He also served as adjunct faculty of the Hawaii School of Professional Psychology, which became the American School of Professional Psychology. After settling in Hawaii he married Heather Birkett, a clinical psychologist, who later carried out extensive research using the 16PF and other tests. During the last 2 decades of his life in Hawaii, Cattell continued to be productive, publishing a variety of scientific articles, as well as books on motivation, the scientific use of factor analysis, two volumes of personality and learning theory, the inheritance of personality and ability, structured learning theory; and co-edited a book on functional psychological testing, as well as a revision of his Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology.

Cattell and his wife Heather Birkett lived on a lagoon in the southeast corner of Oahu where he kept a small sailing boat. It was with great reluctance and sadness that his nearly 80-year career of sailing was finally discontinued in his last years because even his sailing the lagoon became a navigational challenge and a concern for his family. However, he continued to enjoy the great beauty of the area from his patio facing westward over the lagoon. He died peacefully at home in Honolulu on February 2, 1998, at the age of 92 (one month short of 93). He is buried in the Valley of the Temples on a hillside overlooking the sea. [2] Consistent with his will, his remaining funds have been used to build a school for underprivileged children in Cambodia [3].

Scientific orientation

When Cattell entered the field of psychology in the 1920s, psychology was in its infancy and was dominated by a mix of abstract, intuitive, and conflicting theories that were difficult or impossible to verify objectively. Coming to psychology with an education based in the physical sciences, Cattell’s goal was to bring objective methods to bear in understanding human nature, and to make important dimensions measurable in order to facilitate research. He was a rigorous and systematic thinker who felt that the discovery of the basic structure of personality and objective measurement of these traits was essential to increasing knowledge in psychology. Cattell believed in E.L. Thorndike’s empirical viewpoint that “If something actually did exist, it existed in some amount and hence could be measured.”

Cattell also found that concepts used by early psychological theorists tended to be subjective and poorly defined. For example, after examining over 400 published papers on the topic of anxiety in 1965, Cattell stated "The studies showed so many fundamentally different meanings used for anxiety and different ways of measuring it, that the studies could not be integrated.”[5]. Early psychologists also tended to provide little objective evidence or research on their theories. Cattell wanted psychology to become more like medicine and other sciences, where a theory could be tested in an objective way that could be replicated by others. In Cattell's words:

“Psychology appeared to be a jungle of confusing, conflicting, and arbitrary concepts. These pre-scientific theories doubtless contained insights which still surpass in refinement those depended upon by psychiatrists or psychologists today. But who knows, among the many brilliant ideas offered, which are the true ones? Some will claim that the statements of one theorist are correct, but others will favour the views of another. Then there is no objective way of sorting out the truth except through scientific research" [6]

Psychologist Art Sweney, an expert in psychometrics, summed up Cattell’s methodology:

“He was without exception the one man who made the most major strides in systematizing the field of behavioral science from all of its diverse facets into a real science based on empirical, replicable and universal principles. Seldom has psychology had such a determined, systematic explorer dedicated not only to the basic search for scientific knowledge but also to the need to apply science for the benefit of all.” [4]

Multivariate research

Rather than pursue a “univariate” research approach to psychology, studying the effect that a single variable (such as “anxiety”) might have on another variable (such as “problem solving”), Cattell pioneered the use of a multivariate approach to psychology. He believed that behavioral dimensions were too complex and interactive to fully understand one dimension in isolation. The classical univariate approach required bringing the individual into an artificial laboratory situation and measuring the effect of one particular variable on another, while the multivariate approach allowed psychologists to study the whole person and their unique combination of traits in a natural environment. Multivariate analyses allowed for the study of real-world situations (e.g. depression, divorce, loss) that could not be manipulated in a laboratory.

Cattell used multivariate research to explore, identify, and understand the basic, underlying elements of human behavior in three domains: the traits of personality or temperament, the motivational or dynamic traits, and the diverse dimensions of abilities. In each of these areas, he thought there must be a finite number of basic, unitary elements that could be identified. He drew a comparison between these fundamental, underlying traits to the basic elements of the physical world that were discovered and presented in the periodic table of the elements.

In his research, Cattell reached out to psychologists around the world to cooperate in using a multivariate approach. In 1960, he organized an international meeting of research-oriented psychologists, which resulted in the founding of the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology, and its journal, Multivariate Behavioral Research. Cattell collaborated with dozens of psychologists around the world on a broad spectrum of research projects. He brought many of these talented researchers from Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and South America to work at his lab at the University of Illinois. Many of his influential books were written in collaboration with others.[7]

Factor analysis

Cattell noted that in sciences such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, and medicine, unsubstantiated theories were historically widespread until new instruments were developed to improve scientific observation and measurement. In the 1920s, Cattell studied under Charles Spearman who was developing the new psychometric technique of factor analysis in his effort to understand the basic dimensions and structure of human abilities. Factor analysis became a powerful tool to help uncover the basic dimensions behind a confusing array of surface variables in a particular domain.

Factor analysis was built upon the earlier development of the correlation coefficient, which measures whether two variables are related or tend to go together. For example, if frequency of exercise and blood pressure level were measured on a large group of people, then intercorrelating these two variables will indicate to what degree exercise and blood pressure are directly related to each other. Factor analysis performs complex calculations on the correlation coefficients among a multitude of variables in a particular domain (such as abilities or personality) to determine the basic, unitary factors at work behind the superficial variables in that domain.

While working at the University of London with Spearman exploring human abilities, Cattell postulated that factor analysis could be applied to other areas beyond the domain of abilities. In particular, Cattell was interested in exploring the basic dimensions and structure of human personality. For example, he thought that if factor analysis were applied to a wide range of measures of interpersonal functioning, the basic dimensions within the domain of social behavior could be identified. Thus, factor analysis could be used to discover the fundamental dimensions behind the large number of apparent surface behaviors and then facilitate more effective research in this area.

Personality theory

In order to apply factor analysis to personality, Cattell believed it necessary to sample the widest possible range of variables. He specified three kinds of data for comprehensive sampling, to capture the full range of personality dimensions:

  1. Objective, life data (or L-data), which involves collecting data from the individual’s natural, everyday life behaviors, measuring their characteristic behavior patterns in the real world. This could range from number of traffic accidents or number of parties attended each month, to grade point average in school or number of illnesses or divorces.
  2. Experimental data (or T-data) which involves reactions to standardized experimental situations created in a lab where a subject’s behavior can be objectively observed and measured.
  3. Questionnaire data (or Q-data), which involves responses based on introspection by the individual about their own behavior and feelings. He found that this kind of direct questioning often measured subtle internal states and viewpoints that might be hard to see or measure in external behavior.

In order for a personality dimension to be called “fundamental and unitary,” Cattell believed that it needed to be found in factor analyses of data from all three of these domains. Thus, Cattell constructed personality measures of a wide range of traits in each medium. He then repeatedly performed factor analyses on the data.

With the help of many colleagues, Cattell's factor-analytic studies continued over several decades, eventually producing 16 fundamental factors underlying human personality. He decided to name these traits with letters (A, B, C, D, E…), like vitamins, in order to avoid misnaming these newly discovered dimensions, or inviting confusion with existing vocabulary and concepts. Factor-analytic studies by many researchers in diverse cultures around the world have re-validated the number and meaning of these traits. [8] This international confirmation and validation established Cattell’s 16 factors as objective and scientific.

Cattell set about developing tests to measure these traits across different age ranges, such as The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire for adults, the Adolescent Personality Questionnaire, and the Children’s Personality Questionnaire.[9] These tests have now been translated into many languages and validated across different cultures.

After discovering these 16 primary level factors, Cattell reasoned that, as in other scientific domains, there might be an additional, higher level of organization within personality which would provide a structure for the many primary traits. When he factor analyzed the 16 primary traits themselves, he found five “second-order” or global factors, now commonly known as the Big Five [10]. These second-order or global traits were broad, over-arching domains of behavior, which provided meaning and structure for the primary traits. For example, the global trait extraversion emerged from factor-analytic results which loaded the five primary traits that were interpersonal in focus.

Thus, global extraversion is fundamentally related to the primary traits that came together in the factor analysis to define it, and the domain of extraversion gave conceptual structure to these primary traits, identifying their focus and function. These two levels of personality structure can be used to provide an integrated understanding of the whole person, with the global traits giving an overview of the individual’s functioning in a broad-brush way, and the more-specific primary trait scores providing an in-depth, detailed picture of the individual’s unique trait combinations.

Research on the basic 16 traits has found them useful in understanding and predicting a wide range of real life behaviors. [11][12] For example, the traits have been used in educational settings to study and predict such things as achievement motivation, learning style or cognitive style, creativity, and compatible career choices; in work or employment settings to predict such things as leadership style, interpersonal skills, conscientiousness, stress-management, and accident-proneness; in medical settings to predict heart attack proneness, pain management, likely compliance with medical instructions, or recovery pattern from burns or organ transplants; in clinical settings to predict self-esteem, interpersonal needs, frustration tolerance, and openness to change; and, in research settings to predict a wide range of dimensions such as aggression, conformity, and authoritarianism.

Cattell’s comprehensive program of personality research in the 1940’s, 50’s, and 60’s resulted in five books that have been widely recognized as identifying fundamental dimensions of personality and their organizing principles:

  • The Description and Measurement of Personality (1946)
  • Personality: A Systematic, Theoretical, and Factual Study (1950)
  • Personality and Motivation Structure and Measurement (1957)
  • The Scientific Analysis of Personality (1965)
  • Personality and Mood by Questionnaire (1973)

These books detailed a program of research that was theoretically comprehensive and methodologically sophisticated, bringing together personality data from objective behavioral studies, from self-report or questionnaire data, and from observer ratings. They presented a theory of personality development over the human life span, including effects on the individual’s behavior from family, social, cultural, biological, and genetic influences, as well as influences from the domains of motivation and ability. These books have been widely referenced, and fundamentally influenced the development of scientific psychology.

Political criticism and the APA Lifetime Achievement Award

Political critics, specifically William H. Tucker[13][14] and Barry Mehler,[15][16] have taken issue with Cattell based on his interests in eugenics, evolution and alternative cultures and political systems. They note that Cattell is known for laying out a mixture of Galtonian eugenics and theology called Beyondism, which Cattell considered "a new morality from science," and that his work in this area was published in the Pioneer Fund's Mankind Quarterly whose editor, Roger Pearson, has also published two of Cattell's monographs. [5] However, Cattell's former colleagues and other supporters assert that, although some of Cattell's views may be controversial, Tucker and Mehler have exaggerated and misrepresented him by using quotes out of context and from outdated writings. [6]

In 1997, Cattell, at 92, was chosen by the American Psychological Association (APA) for its "Gold Medal Award for Lifetime Achievement in the Science of Psychology." Before the medal was presented, Mehler launched a publicity campaign against Cattell [7] through his nonprofit foundation ISAR accusing Cattell of being sympathetic to racist and fascist ideas [8] and claiming that "it is unconscionable to honor this man whose work helps to dignify the most destructive political ideas of the twentieth century". A blue-ribbon committee was convened by the APA to investigate the legitimacy of the charges. However, before the committee reached a decision, Cattell issued an open letter to the committee saying "I abhor racism and discrimination based on race. Any other belief would be antithetical to my life’s work" and saying that "it is unfortunate that the APA announcement … has brought misguided critics' statements a great deal of publicity." [9] He refused the award, withdrawing his name from consideration. The blue ribbon committee was therefore disbanded and Cattell, in failing health, died months later.

In 1994, Cattell was one of 52 signatories on "Mainstream Science on Intelligence," an editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal, which defended the findings on race and intelligence in The Bell Curve. [17]

Selected publications

Raymond Cattell's papers and books are the 7th most referenced in psychology journals over the past century.[18] His 20 most cited publications are:[19]

  • Cattell, R. B. (1966). "The Scree Test for the Number of Factors." Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1(2), 245-276. 1585 citations
  • Cattell, R. B., Eber, H. W. & Tatsuoka, M. M. (1970 or 1980 Edition). Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF). Champaign IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. 542 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1978). The Scientific Use of Factor Analysis in Behavioral and Life Sciences. New York: Plenum. 452 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their Structure, Growth, and Action. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 436 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1957). Personality and Motivation Structure and Measurement. New York: World Book. 280 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1965). The Scientific Analysis of Personality. London: Penguin. 216 citations
  • Cattell. R. B. (1966). Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally. 203 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. & Scheier, I. H. (1961). The Meaning and Measurement of Neuroticism and Anxiety. New York: Ronald Press. 138 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1966). "The Meaning and Strategic Use of Factor Analysis." (In Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology). Chicago: Rand McNally. 190 citations
  • Horn, J. L. & Cattell, R. B. (1966). "Refinement and test of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence." Journal of Educational Psychology, 57(5), 253-270. 168 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. Description and Measurement of Personality. (1946). New York: World Book. 166 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. Factor analysis. (1952). New York: Wiley. 165 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. Personality and Mood by Questionnaire. (1973). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass San Francisco. 146 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. Intelligence: Its Structure, Growth, and Action. (1987). Amsterdam: Elsevier. 145 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1943). "The description of personality: Basic traits resolved into clusters." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1943, 38, 476-506. 96 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1965). "A Biometrics Invited Paper. Factor Analysis: An Introduction to Essentials II. The role of factor analysis in research." Biometrics, 21, 405-435. 92 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. (1950). Personality a systematic theoretical and factual study. New York: McGraw Hill. 82 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. & Vogelmann, S. (1977). "A comprehensive trial of the scree and KG criteria for determining the number of factors." Multivariate Behavioral Research, 12, 289-325. 94 citations
  • Cattell, R. B. & Scheier, I. H. (1963). Handbook for the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire. Champaign IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. 70 citations
  • Hurley, J. R. & Cattell, R. B. (1963). "The Procrustes program: Producing direct rotation to test a hypothesized factor structure." Behavioral Science, 7, 258-262. 69 citations

Comprehensive list of Cattell's books

See also


  1. ^ S. J. Haggbloom et al. (2002), "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century", Review of General Psychology, 6(2), 139-152. This empirical study used six criteria including citations, surveys, and awards to rank the eminence of psychologists.
  2. ^ Richard Gerrig and Philip Zimbardo, Psychology and Life, 7th ed.
  3. ^ Cattell, R. B., Autobiography. In G. Lindsey (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, vol. VI, 1973. p.64
  4. ^ a b Cattell, R. B., Autobiography. In G. Lindsey (Ed.), A history of psychology in autobiography. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, vol. VI, 1973. p.64
  5. ^ Cattell, R.B., The Scientific Analysis of Personality, 1965, p. 55
  6. ^ Cattell, R.B. The Scientific Analysis of Personality, 1965, p14.
  7. ^ For example, The Meaning and Measurement of Neuroticism and Anxiety (1961) with Ivan Scheier, Objective Personality and Motivation Tests (1965) with Frank Warburton, The Prediction of Achievement and Creativity with Jim Butcher (1968), Handbook of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire with Herbert Eber and Maurice Tatsuoka (1970), Cross-cultural comparison (USA, Japan, Austria) of personality structure in objective tests (1973), with Kurt Pawlik and Bien Tsujioka, and the Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology (1984) with John Nesselroade.
  8. ^ Research papers validating Cattell's 16-factor theory: Boyle, G.J. (1989). “Re-examination of the major personality factors in the Cattell, Comrey and Eysenck scales: Were the factor solutions of Noller et al. optimal?” Personality and Individual Differences, 10(12), 1289-1299. Carnivez, G.L. & Allen, T.J. (2005). “Convergent and factorial validity of the 16PF and the NEO-PI-R.” Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. Cattell, R.B. & Krug, S.E. (1986). “The number of factors in the 16PF: A review of the evidence with special emphasis on methodological problems.” Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 509-522. Chernyshenko, O.S., Stark, S., & Chan, K.Y. (2001). “Investigating the hierarchical factor structure of the fifth edition of the 16PF: An application of the Schmid-Leiman orthogonalisation procedure.” Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61(2), 290-302. Conn, S.R. & Rieke, M.L. (1994). The 16PF Fifth Edition technical manual. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. Dancer, L.J. & Woods, S.A. (2007). “Higher-order factor structures and intercorrelations of the 16PF5 and FIRO-B.” International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14(4), 385-391. Gerbing, D.W. & Tuley, M.R. (1991). “The 16PF related to the five-factor model of personality: Multiple-indicator measurement versus the a priori scales.” Multivariate Behavioral Research, 26(2), 271-289. Hofer, S.M., Horn, J.L., & Eber, H.W. (1997). “A robust five-factor structure of the 16PF: Strong evidence from independent rotation and confirmatory factorial invariance procedures.” Personality and Individual Differences, 23(2), 247-269. Krug, S.E. & Johns, E.F. (1986). “A large-scale cross-validation of second-order personality structure defined by the 16PF.” Psychological Reports, 59, 683-693. McKenzie, J., Tindell, G., & French, J. (1997). “The great triumvirate: Agreement between lexically and psycho-physiologically based models of personality.” Personality and Individual Differences, 22(2), 269-277. Mogenet, J. L., & Rolland, J. P. (1995). 16PF5 de R. B. Cattell. Paris, France: Les Editions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée. Motegi, M. (1982). Japanese translation and adaptation of the 16PF. Tokyo: Nihon Bunka Kagakusha. Ormerod, M.B., McKenzie, J., & Woods, A. (1995). “Final report on research relating to the concept of five separate dimensions of personality—or six including intelligence.” Personality and Individual Differences, 18(4), 451-461. Prieto, J.M., Gouveia, V V., & Fernandez, M A. (1996). “Evidence on the primary source trait structure in the Spanish 16PF Fifth Edition.” European Review of Applied Psychology, 46 (1), 33-43. Schneewind, K. A., & Graf, J. (1998). Der 16-Personlichkeits-Factoren-Test Revidierte Fassung test-manual. Bern, Switzerland: Verlag Hans Huber.
  9. ^ These personality tests are available from IPAT, a company that Cattell and his wife founded to publish his tests.
  10. ^ Cattell, R. B. (1957). Personality and Motivation Structure and Measurement. New York: World Book.
  11. ^ Conn, S.R & Rieke, M.L. (1994). The 16PF Fifth Edition technical manual. Champaign, IL: IPAT.
  12. ^ Russell, M. T. & Karol, D. L. (1994) The 16PF Fifth Edition Administrator's Manual. Champaign, IL: IPAT.[1]
  13. ^ Tucker, W. H. (1994). The Science and Politics of Racial Research. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  14. ^ Tucker, W. H. (2009). The Cattell Controversy: Race, Science, and Ideology. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  15. ^ Beyondism: Raymond B. Cattell and the New Eugenics
  16. ^ Mehler reports that he was mentored by Jerry Hirsch, a colleague and strong critic of Cattell at the University of Illinois, where Cattell and Hirsch spent the majority of their careers.
  17. ^ Gottfredson, Linda (December 13, 1994). Mainstream Science on Intelligence. Wall Street Journal, p A18.
  18. ^ S. J. Haggbloom et al. (2002), "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century", Review of General Psychology, 6(2), 139-152.
  19. ^ According to Google Scholar

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