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Real Madrid
Real Madrid C.F. emblem
Full name Real Madrid Club de Fútbol[1]
Nickname(s) Los Blancos (The Whites)
Los Merengues (The Merengues)
Founded 6 March 1902
(as Madrid Football Club)[2]
Ground Estadio Santiago Bernabéu
(Capacity: 80,354)
President Spain Florentino Pérez
Head Coach Chile Manuel Pellegrini
League La Liga
2008–09 La Liga, 2nd
Home colours
Away colours
Third colours
Current season

Real Madrid Club de Fútbol (Spanish pronunciation: [reˈal maˈðɾið ˈkluβ ðe ˈfuðβol]), commonly known as Real Madrid (and in Spain, in football circles, simply as el Madrid), is a professional association football club based in Madrid, Spain. It is the most successful team in Spanish football and was voted by FIFA as the most successful club of the 20th century, having won a record thirty-one La Liga titles, seventeen Spanish Cups, a record nine European Cups and two UEFA Cups. Real Madrid was a founding member of FIFA and the now-defunct G–14 group of Europe's leading football clubs as well as its replacement, the European Club Association. The word "Real" in the club's name is the Spanish term for "Royal", and was added in 1920 together with the royal crown in the emblem.

Founded in 1902, Real Madrid has spent its entire history in the top flight of Spanish football. In the 1940s, the club, the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium and the Ciudad Deportiva had to be rebuilt following the Spanish Civil War. The club established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football during the 1950s. In the 1980s, the club had one of the best teams in Spain and Europe (known as La Quinta del Buitre), winning two UEFA Cups, five consecutive Spanish championships, one Spanish cup and three Spanish Super Cups.

The team's traditional home colours are all white, although it initially adopted a blue oblique stripe on the shirt. Its crest has been changed several times in attempts to modernise or re-brand it. The current crest is a modified version of the one first adopted in the 1920s. Real Madrid's home ground is the 80,354-seater Santiago Bernabéu football stadium in downtown Madrid, where it has played since 1947.

Real Madrid holds long-standing rivalries with other football clubs, most notably FC Barcelona, with matches between the two teams referred to as "el Clásico". Unlike most European football clubs, Real Madrid's members (socios) have owned and operated the club since its inception. The club is the world's richest football club (€401m) in terms of revenue and the second most valuable and was worth over €950m in 2008.[3][4]

Contents

History

Real Madrid's players celebrate their 2008 Supercopa de España title win.

Real Madrid's origins go back to when football was introduced to Madrid by the academics and students of the Institución libre de enseñanza, which included several Oxbridge graduates. They founded Football Club Sky in 1897, playing on Sunday mornings at Moncloa. It split into two clubs in 1900: New Foot-Ball de Madrid and Club Español de Madrid. The latter club split again in 1902, resulting in the formation of Real Madrid Football Club on March 6 in 1902.[2] Three years after its foundation, in 1905, Madrid FC won its first title after defeating Athletic Bilbao in the Spanish Cup final. The club became one of the founding sides of the Spanish Football Association on 4 January 1909, when club president Adolfo Meléndez signed the foundation agreement of the Spanish FA. After moving between grounds the team moved to the Campo de O'Donnell in 1912.[5] In 1920, the club's name was changed to Real Madrid after King Alfonso XIII granted the title of Real (Royal) to the club.[6]

In 1929, the first Spanish football league was founded. Real Madrid lead the first edition until the last match, a loss to Athletic Bilbao, meant they finished runners-up to Barcelona.[7] Real Madrid won its first League title in the 1931–32 season. The Whites won the League again the following year, becoming the first side to have won the championship twice.[8]

Santiago Bernabéu Yeste became president of Real Madrid in 1945.[9] Under his presidency, the club, the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium and the Ciudad Deportiva were rebuilt following the Spanish Civil War. Beginning in 1953, he embarked upon a strategy of signing world-class players from abroad, the most prominent of them being Alfredo di Stéfano.[10]

In 1955, acting upon the idea proposed by the French sports journalist and editor of L'Équipe Gabriel Hanot, and building upon the Copa Latina (a tournament involving clubs from France, Spain, Portugal and Italy), Bernabéu met in the Ambassador Hotel in Paris with Bedrignan and Gusztáv Sebes and created an exhibition tournament of invited teams from around Europe that would eventually become what today is known as the UEFA Champions League.[11] It was under Bernabéu's guidance that Real Madrid established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football. The club won the European Cup five times in a row between 1956 and 1960, which included the 7–3 Hampden Park final against Eintracht Frankfurt in 1960.[10] Winning the competition five consecutive times saw Real permanently awarded the original cup and earning the right to wear the UEFA badge of honour.[12] The club won the European Cup for a sixth time in 1966 defeating FK Partizan 2–1 in the final with a team composed entirely of nationally born players (known as the Ye-yé team) – a first in the competition.[13] The name "Ye-yé" came from the "Yeah, yeah, yeah" chorus in the Beatles' song "She Loves You" after four members of the team posed for Diario Marca dressed in Beatles wigs. The Ye-yé generation was also European Cup runner-up in 1962 and 1964.[13]

In the 1970s, Real Madrid won 5 league championships and 3 Spanish Cups.[14] The club played its first UEFA Cup Winners' Cup final in 1971, being defeated by English side Chelsea with 2-1.[15] On 2 July 1978, club president Santiago Bernabéu died while the World Cup was being played in Argentina. In his honour FIFA decreed three days of mourning during the tournament.[16] The following year, the club organized the first edition of Santiago Bernabéu Trophy in the memory of its former president.

By the early 1980s, Real Madrid had lost its grasp on the La Liga title until a new batch of home-grown stars brought domestic success back to the club.[17] Spanish sport journalist Julio César Iglesias gave to this generation the name La Quinta del Buitre ("Vulture's Cohort"), which was derived from the nickname given to one of its members, Emilio Butragueño. The other four members were Manuel Sanchís, Martín Vázquez, Míchel and Miguel Pardeza.[18] With La Quinta del Buitre (reduced to four members when Pardeza left the club for Zaragoza in 1986) and notable players like goalkeeper Francisco Buyo, right defender Miguel Porlán Chendo and Mexican striker Hugo Sánchez, Real Madrid had one of the best teams in Spain and Europe during the second half of the 1980s, winning two UEFA Cups, five Spanish championships in a row, one Spanish cup and three Spanish Super Cups.[18]

In the early 1990s, La Quinta del Buitre split up after Martín Vázquez, Emilio Butragueño and Míchel left the club. In 1996, President Lorenzo Sanz appointed Fabio Capello as coach. Although his tenure lasted only one season, Real Madrid was proclaimed league champion and players like Roberto Carlos, Predrag Mijatović, Davor Šuker and Clarence Seedorf arrived at the club to strengthen a squad that already boasted the likes of Raúl, Fernando Hierro, Iván Zamorano, and Fernando Redondo. As a result, Real Madrid (with the addition of Fernando Morientes in 1997) finally ended its 32-year wait for its seventh European Cup. In 1998, under manager Jupp Heynckes, The Whites defeated Juventus 1–0 in the final thanks to a goal from Predrag Mijatović.[19]

In July 2000, Florentino Pérez was elected club president.[20] His campaign vowed to erase the club's debt and modernize the club's facilities. However, the primary electoral promise that propelled Pérez to victory was the signing of Luís Figo.[21] The following year, the club controversially got its training ground rezoned and used the money to begin assembling the famous Galáctico side including players such as Zinédine Zidane, Ronaldo, Luís Figo, Roberto Carlos, Raúl and David Beckham. It is debatable whether the gamble paid off, as despite a European Cup win in 2002, followed by the League in 2003, the club failed to win a major trophy for the next three seasons.[22]

Ramón Calderón was elected as club president on 2 July 2006 and subsequently appointed Fabio Capello as the new coach and Predrag Mijatović as the new sporting director. Real Madrid won the La Liga title in 2007 for the first time in four years but Capello was sacked.[23] In the 2007–08 season, The Whites won the domestic league for the 31st time, achieving their first consecutive league title in eighteen years.[24] On 1 June 2009, Florentino Pérez was again announced as the new president of Real Madrid.[25][26] Pérez continued with the Galácticos policy pursued in his first term, first buying Kaká from A.C. Milan for just under £60 million,[27] then purchasing Cristiano Ronaldo from Manchester United for a record breaking £80 million. Despite such spending, Madrid exited the UEFA Champions League in the first knockout round for the sixth year in succession.[28]

Crest and colours

The progression of Real Madrid's crest since the Club's formation in 1902.

The first crest of had a simple design consisting of a decorative interlacing of the three initials of the club, "MCF" for Madrid Club de Fútbol, in dark blue on a white shirt. The first change in the crest occurred in 1908 when the letters adopted a more streamlined form and appeared inside a circle.[29] The next change in the configuration of the crest did not occur until the presidency of Pedro Parages in 1920. At that time, King Alfonso XIII granted the club his royal patronage which came in the form of the title "Real madrid ", roughly translated as "Royal".[30] Thus, Alfonso's crown was added to the crest and the club styled itself Real Madrid Club de Fútbol.[29] With the dissolution of the monarchy in 1931, all the royal symbols (the crown on the crest and the title of Real) were eliminated. The crown was replaced by the dark mulberry band of the Region of Castile.[8] In 1941, two years after the end of the Civil War, the crest's "Real Corona", or "Royal Crown", was restored while the mulberry stripe of Castile was retained as well.[9] In addition, the whole crest was made full color, with gold being the most prominent, and the club was again called Real Madrid Club de Fútbol.[29] The most recent modification to the crest occurred in 2001 when the club wanted to better situate itself for the twenty-first century and further standardize its crest. One of the modifications made was changing the mulberry stripe to a more bluish shade.[29]

Real Madrid's original kit

Real Madrid's traditional home colours are all white, although it initially adopted a blue oblique stripe on the shirt (the design was kept in the club crest); but unlike today, dark blue socks were worn.[7][31] The striped shirt was replaced by an all-white version, modeled after the shirt worn by Corinthian F.C., in 1902.[32] In the same year, the blue socks were replaced by black ones. By the early 1940s the manager changed the kit again by adding buttons to the shirt and the club's crest on the left breast (which have remained ever since). On 23 November 1947, in a game against Atlético Madrid at the Metropolitano Stadium, Real Madrid became the first Spanish team to wear numbered shirts.[9]

Real's traditional away colours are all black or all purple. The club's kit is currently manufactured by Adidas whose contract extends from 1998.[33][34] Real Madrid's first shirt sponsor, Zanussi, agreed for the 1982–83, 1983–84 and 1984–85 seasons. Following that, the club was sponsored by Parmalat and Otaysa before a long-term deal was signed with Teka in 1992.[35][36] In 2001, Real Madrid ended their contract with Teka and for one season used the Realmadrid.com logo to promote the club's website. Then, in 2002, a deal was signed with Siemens Mobile and in 2006, the BenQ Siemens logo appeared on the club's shirt.[37] Real Madrid's current shirt sponsor is bwin.com following the economic problems of BenQ Siemens.[38][39] A table showing which company was Real Madrid's kit manufacturer and which company's logo appeared on the face of those shirts as the shirt partner during what time period is shown below (note: first year noted in period column represents the playing season that started in that year, while last year noted represents the end of that year's season. For example, "period 1985-1992" represents seasons '85-'86 through '91-'92).

Shirt sponsors and manufacturers

Period Kit manufacturer Shirt partner
1980–1982 Adidas None
1982–1985 Zanussi
1985–1989 Hummel Parmalat
1989–1991 Reny Picot
1991–1992 Otaysa
1992–1994 Teka
1994–1998 Kelme
1998–2001 Adidas
2001–2002 RealMadrid.com
2002–2005 Siemens Mobile
2005–2006 Siemens
2006–2007 BenQ Siemens
2007–Present bwin.com

Stadium

Real Madrid at Santiago Bernabéu during a 2007 match with Real Betis
Ciudad Real Madrid represents the team training facilities since 2005.

After moving between grounds the team moved to the "Campo de O'Donnell" in 1912, which remained its home ground for eleven years.[5] After this period, the club moved for one year to the Campo de Ciudad Lineal, a small ground with a capacity of 8,000 spectators. After that, Real Madrid moved its home matches to Estadio Chamartín which was inaugurated on 17 May 1923 wi Chujim w dupe h hosted 22,500 spectators, Real Madrid celebrated its first Spanish league title.[7] After some successes, the 1943 elected president Santiago Bernabéu decided that the Estadio Chamartín was not big enough for the ambitions of the club. A new stadium was built and was inaugurated on 14 December 1947.[9][40] This was the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium as it is known today, although it did not acquire this name until 1955.[10] The first match held on Bernabéu was played between Real Madrid and the Portuguese club Belenenses and won by The Whites with 3–1, the first goal being scored by Sabino Barinaga.[9]

The capacity has changed frequently, peaking at 120,000 after a 1953 expansion.[41][42] Since then, there have been a number of reductions due to modernizations (the last standing places went away in 1998–99 in response to UEFA regulations which forbids standing at matches in the UEFA competition), countered to some extent by expansions.[41] The last change was an increase of about five thousand to a capacity of 80,354, effected in 2003. A plan to add a retractable roof has been announced.[43]

The Bernabéu has hosted the 1964 European Championship final, the 1982 FIFA World Cup final, the 1957, 1969 and 1980 European Cup finals and is due to host the 2010 Champions League Final.[44] The stadium has its own Madrid Metro station along the 10 line called Santiago Bernabéu.[45] On 14 November 2007, the Bernabéu has been upgraded to Elite Football Stadium status by UEFA.[46]

On 9 May 2006, the Alfredo di Stéfano Stadium was inaugurated at the City of Madrid where Real Madrid usually trains. The inaugural match was played between Real Madrid and Stade Reims, a rematch of the 1956 European Cup final. Real Madrid won the match 6–1 with goals from Sergio Ramos, Cassano (2), Soldado (2), and Jurado. The venue is now part of the Ciudad Real Madrid, the club's new training facilities located outside Madrid in Valdebebas. The stadium holds 5,000 people and is Real Madrid Castilla's home ground. It is named after former Real footballer Alfredo di Stéfano.[47]

Statistics and records

Raúl is Real Madrid's all-time top goalscorer and top appearance.

Raúl holds the record for most Real Madrid appearances, having played 724 first-team matches since 1994. Manuel Sanchis, Jr. comes second, having played 710 times.[48] The record for a goalkeeper is held by Iker Casillas, with 493 appearances. With 127 caps (47 while at the club), Luís Figo of Portugal is Real's most capped international player.[49]

Raúl is Real's all-time top goalscorer, with 321 goals in 724 games (1994–).[50] Four other players have also scored over 200 goals for Real: Alfredo di Stefano (1953–64), Santillana (1971–88), Ferenc Puskás (1958–66) and Hugo Sánchez (1985–92). Sánchez holds the record for the most league goals scored in one season (38 in 1989–90). Di Stéfano's 49 goals in 58 matches was for decades the all-time highest tally in the European Cup, until it was surpassed by Raúl in 2005. The fastest goal in the history of the club (15 seconds) was scored by Brazilian Ronaldo on 3 December 2003 during a league match against Atlético Madrid.[51]

Officially, Real Madrid's highest home attendance is 83,329 for a Copa del Rey match in 2006. The current legal capacity of Estadio Santiago Bernabeu is 80,354.[52] The club's average attendance in 2007–08 season was 76,234, the highest in European Leagues.[53] Real have also set records in Spanish football, most notably the most domestic titles (31 as of 2007–08) and the most seasons won in a row (5, during 1960–65 and 1985–90).[54] With 121 matches (from 17 February 1957 to 7 March 1965), the club holds the record for longest unbeaten run at home in La Liga.[55]

The "Whites" also hold the record for winning the UEFA Champions League nine times and for the most semi-final appearances (21).[56] Raúl González is the all-time UEFA Champions League top scorer, with 66 goals. The team has the record number of consecutive participation in the European Cup with 15, from 1955–56 to 1969–70.

In June 2009, the club broke its own record for the highest transfer fee ever paid in the history of football by agreeing to pay Manchester United €96 million ($131.5 million, £80 million) for the services of Cristiano Ronaldo.[57] The fee of €76 million (over $100 million, £45.8 million) for Zinedine Zidane's transfer from Juventus to Real Madrid in 2001 was the previous highest transfer fee ever paid. In June 2009, Real Madrid also agreed to buy Kaká from AC Milan for a fee that broke the previous record in pounds sterling. The club's record sale came on 1 September 2008, when they sold Robinho to Manchester City for €42 million (£32.5 million).[58]

Supporters and rivalries

During most home matches the majority of the seats in the stadium are occupied by season ticket holders, of which there are average of 68,670.[1] To become a season ticket holder one must first be a socio, or club member. Not all members are able to get a season ticket. In addition to members, the club has more than 1,800 peñas (official, club-affiliated supporters' groups) in Spain and around the world. Real Madrid has the highest average all-time attendance in Spanish football and regularly attracts over 65,000 fans to Santiago Bernabéu; it was the second best-supported La Liga team in the 2004–05 season, with an average gate of 71,900.[59]

The club has a large fanbase, who hold some long-standing rivalries with other clubs; It semiannually contests the El Clásico with FC Barcelona, its most notable rival.[60] Real Madrid's hardcore supporters are the so-called Ultras Sur supporters. They are known for their extreme right-wing politics. The Ultras Sur have developed an alliance with other right wing groups, most notably S.S. Lazio Irriducibili fans. On several occasions they have racially abused opposing players, and have been investigated by UEFA for doing so.[61][62]

El Clásico

The rivalry with Barcelona projects what some regard as the political tensions felt between Castilians and Catalans. From the early days of football in Spain the two clubs were seen as representatives of the Spanish State and Catalonia, as well as the two cities themselves which have moved in different directions culturally speaking. Though Spain's first socialist party was founded in Madrid, almost all the ideas that have shaped country's modern history - republicanism, federalism, anarchism, syndicalism and communism - have tended to be associated with Barcelona. On the other hand, Madrid is the seat of the government and of the royal family. Especially during the Francoist era, it came to represent the fascist, conservative, centripetal forces.[63][64]

During the 1950s, the rivalry was intensified further when the clubs disputed the signing of Alfredo di Stéfano, who finally played for Real Madrid and was key in the subsequent success achieved by the club.[65] The 1960s saw the rivalry reach the European stage when they met twice at the European Cup, Real Madrid winning in 1960 and Barça winning in 1961. In 2000, the rivalry was reinforced following the controversial decision by Luís Figo to leave Barça and sign for Real Madrid.[66] The two teams met again in the 2002 UEFA Champions League semi-final. Real Madrid, the eventual champion, won the clash dubbed by Spanish media as the Match of the Century. As the two biggest and most successful clubs in the Spanish league, the rivalry is renewed on an annual basis with both teams often challenging each other for the league championship. The rivarly was amplified to unprecedented heights in August 2009 as Real Madrid ushered in a new era of Galacticos with the acquisition of back to back FIFA World Player of the Year and Ballon d'or winners Kaka and Cristiano Ronaldo among other stars while Barcelona also signed Zlatan Ibrahimovic to add to their already all star cast thereby creating an arrayed star studded face off. The two rivals played their most recent match on November 29, 2009 at the Camp Nou, with FC Barcelona winning 1-0 through a goal from substitute Zlatan Ibrahimovic.

El Derbi madrileño

Real Madrid supporters during the 2006 El Derbi madrileño match held on Bernabéu

The club's nearest neighbour is Atlético Madrid, a rivality feeling is shared between fans of both football teams. Although Atlético was originally founded by three Basque students in 1903, it was joined in 1904 by dissident members of Madrid FC. Further tensions came because initially Real supporters came from the middle class while the Atlético supporters were drawn from the working class. Today these distinctions are largely blurred. They met for the first time on 21 February 1929 in matchday three of the first League Championship at the former Chamartín. It was the first official derby of the new tournament, and Real won 2–1.[7] The rivalry first gained international attention in 1959 during the European Cup when the two clubs met in the semi-final. Real won the first leg 2–1 at the Bernabéu while Atlético won 1–0 at the Metropolitano. The tie went to a replay and The Whites won 2–1. Atlético, however, gained some revenge when, led by former Real Madrid coach José Villalonga, it defeated The Whites in two successive Copa del Generalísimo finals in 1960 and 1961.[67]

Between 1961 and 1989, when Real dominated La Liga, only Atlético offered it any serious challenge, winning Liga titles in 1966, 1970, 1973 and 1977. In 1965, Atlético became the first team to beat Real at the Bernabéu in eight years. Real Madrid's record against Atlético in more recent times is very favorable.[68] A high point coming in the 2002–03 season, when The Whites clinched the La Liga title after draw at Atlético 0-0 at the Vicente Calderón Stadium.[69]

Brand

It was under Florentino Pérez's presidency (2000–2006) that Real Madrid started harbouring its current ambition of becoming the world's richest professional football club.[70] The club ceded part of its training grounds to the city of Madrid in 2001 and sold the rest to four corporations: Repsol YPF, Mutua Automovilística de Madrid, Sacyr Vallehermoso and OHL. The sale wiped out its debts, paving the way for the club to buy the world's most expensive players such as Zinédine Zidane, Luís Figo, Ronaldo and David Beckham. The city had rezoned the training grounds for development, a move which in turn increased their value, and then bought the site.[22] The EU-commission started an investigation into whether the city overpaid for the property, which was considered state subsidies.[71]

The sale of the training ground for office buildings cleared Real Madrid's debts of €270m and enabled the club to embark upon an unprecedented spending spree which brought big-name players to the club. Moreover, the money gained was spent on a state-of-the-art training complex on the city's outskirts.[72]


Though Pérez's policy resulted in increased financial success based on the exploitation of the club's high marketing potential around the world, especially in Asia, it came under increasing criticism for being focused too much on marketing the Real Madrid brand and not enough on the performances of the team.

In September 2007, Real Madrid was considered the most valuable football brand in Europe by BBDO.[73] In 2008, it was ranked as the second most valuable club in football with a value of €951 mil (£640 million / $1.285 billion),[74] only beaten by Manchester United with a value of 1.333 billion euros (£900 million). [75] In 2010, Real Madrid had the highest turnover in football worldwide. [76]

In September 2009 it was announced that Real Madrid's management plans to open its own Real Madrid dedicated theme park by 2013.[77]

A study at Harvard University reached the conclusion that Real Madrid "is one of the 20 most important brand names and the only one in which its executives, the players, are well-known. We have some spectacular figures in regard to worldwide support of the club. There are an estimated 287 million people worldwide who follow Real Madrid." [78]

Popular culture

Real Madrid was the featured club in the second edition of the Goal! football movie trilogy, Goal! 2: Living the Dream... (2007). The film follows former Newcastle United star Santiago Muñez as he is first scouted, and then signed by Real Madrid for the 2005-06 season. The film's creators wanted to put emphasis on the changes in Muñez's life after his move to Madrid. Production was done with the full support of UEFA, allowing the film crew to use many real life players in cameo roles.

Real Madrid squad members featured in the film included Iker Casillas,Zinedine Zidane, David Beckham, Ronaldo, Roberto Carlos, Raúl, Sergio Ramos, Robinho, Thomas Gravesen, Michael Owen, Míchel Salgado, Júlio Baptista, Steve McManaman, Jonathan Woodgate, and Iván Helguera. Non-Real Madrid players to make cameo appearances included Ronaldinho, Thierry Henry, Lionel Messi, Samuel Eto'o, Andrés Iniesta, Pablo Aimar, Fredrik Ljungberg, Cesc Fàbregas, Santiago Cañizares and others. In the film, both Florentino Pérez and Alfredo di Stéfano presented the fictional player Muñez to the club after his signing.[79]

Real, The Movie is a 2005 part feature, part documentary film that showcases the world-wide passion for Real Madrid C.F. Produced by the club and directed by Borja Manso, it follows five sub-stories of fans from around the world and their love for Real Madrid. Along with the fictional portion of the film, it also contains real footage of the squad, during training at Ciudad Real Madrid, matches, and interviews. Although the film mentions all of the squad, it mainly focuses on Los Galácticos such as David Beckham, Zinedine Zidane, Raúl, Luís Figo, Ronaldo, Iker Casillas, and Roberto Carlos, among others. The film was originally produced in Spanish, but has been dubbed for their world-wide fanbase.

The book White Storm: 100 years of Real Madrid by Phil Ball was the first English-language history of Real Madrid. Published in 2002, it talks about the most successful moments of the club during its first centenary, having been translated into various languages.

Players

Spanish teams are limited to three players without EU citizenship. The squad list includes only the principal nationality of each player; several non-European players on the squad have dual citizenship with an EU country. Also, players from the ACP countries—countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement—are not counted against non-EU quotas due to the Kolpak ruling. Real Madrid has established a reputation of signing only the world's best players, a throw back to President Santiago Bernabeu Yeste 's 1950s policy that brought the likes of Alfredo Di Stefano, Ferenc Puskas, Francisco Gento and Raymond Kopa. In recent times the likes of Figo, Zidane, Ronaldo and Beckham simultaneously donned the prestigious white shirt, giving birth to the name Los Galácticos. The second tenure of Florentino Perez is typical as seen with the arrival of the much famed pair of Kaká and Cristiano Ronaldo.

Current squad

As of the 24th January 2010.[80][81]

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Spain GK Iker Casillas (vice-captain)
2 Spain DF Álvaro Arbeloa
3 Portugal DF Pepe
4 Spain DF Sergio Ramos (vice-captain)
5 Argentina MF Fernando Gago
6 Mali MF Mahamadou Diarra
7 Spain FW Raúl (captain)
8 Brazil MF Kaká
9 Portugal FW Cristiano Ronaldo
10 France MF Lass Diarra
11 France FW Karim Benzema
12 Brazil DF Marcelo
No. Position Player
13 Poland GK Jerzy Dudek
14 Spain MF Guti (vice-captain)
15 Netherlands MF Royston Drenthe
18 Spain DF Raúl Albiol
19 Argentina DF Ezequiel Garay
20 Argentina FW Gonzalo Higuaín
21 Germany DF Christoph Metzelder
22 Spain MF Xabi Alonso
23 Netherlands MF Rafael van der Vaart
24 Spain MF Esteban Granero
26 Spain GK Antonio Adán
30 Spain MF Pedro Mosquera

Notable players

Managerial information

There have been 44 managers of Real Madrid since the appointment of the club's first professional manager, Arthur Johnson in 1910. The longest-running manager in terms of time and games is Miguel Muñoz (1960–1974) with 604 matches. Argentine Luis Carniglia is Real's most successful permanent manager in terms of percentage of wins with 70.59%, while Jacinto Quincoces is team's least successful (38.89%).

Only managers who have won at least one trophy are mentioned.[82][83]
Name Period Trophies Total
Domestic International
LC SC SS LC CL UC USC IC
England Arthur Johnson 1910–20
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
Hungary Lippo Hertzka 1930–32
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
England Robert Firth 1932–34
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Spain Francisco Bru 1934–36, 1939–41
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Spain Jacinto Quincoces 1945–46, 1947–48
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
Spain Baltasar Albéniz 1946–47, 1950–51
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Uruguay Enrique Fernández 1953–54
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Spain José Villalonga 1954–57
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
4
Argentina Luis Carniglia 1957–59, 1959
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
3
Spain Miguel Muñoz 1959, 1960–74
9
2
-
-
2
-
-
1
14
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Miljan Miljanić 1974–77
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Vujadin Boškov 1979–82
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
Argentina Alfredo Di Stéfano 1982-1984, 1990–91
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
Spain Luis Molowny 1974, 1977–79, 1982, 1985–86
3
3
-
1
-
2
-
-
9
Netherlands Leo Beenhakker 1986–89, 1992
3
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
Wales John Toshack 1989–90, 1999
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Radomir Antić 1991–92
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
Spain Benito Floro Sanz 1992–94
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
Argentina Jorge Valdano 1994–96
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Spain Arsenio Iglesias 1996
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Italy Fabio Capello 1996–97, 2006–07
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
Germany Jupp Heynckes 1997–98
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
2
Netherlands Guus Hiddink 1998–99
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
Spain Vicente Del Bosque 1994, 1996, 1999–03
2
-
1
-
2
-
1
1
7
Portugal Carlos Queiroz 2003–04
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
Germany Bernd Schuster 2007–08
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
Total 1902–2009 31 17 9 1 9 2 1 3 73

Presidents

Since its foundation, Real Madrid has been owned and operated only by its members (all Spanish) called socios, unlike most European football clubs. Santiago Bernabéu Yeste remains the longest-running president of The Whites (35 years, from 1943 to 1978). On July 2000, former Real player Alfredo di Stéfano was appointed Honourary President of the Club.[84]

As of 1 June 2009.[85]
Businessman Florentino Pérez is the current president of the club.
Name From To
Spain Julián Palacios 1900 6 March 1902
Spain Juan Padrós 6 March 1902 January 1904
Spain Carlos Padrós January 1904 1908
Spain Adolfo Meléndez 1908 July 1916
Spain Pedro Parages July 1916 16 May 1926
Spain Luis de Urquijo 16 May 1926 1930
Spain Luis Usera 1930 31 May 1935
Spain Rafael Sánchez Guerra 31 May 1935 4 August 1936
Spain Adolfo Meléndez 4 August 1936 1940
Spain Antonio Santos Peralba 1940 11 September 1943
Spain Santiago Bernabéu Yeste 11 September 1943 2 June 1978
Spain Luis de Carlos September 1978 24 May 1985
Spain Ramón Mendoza 24 May 1985 26 November 1995
Spain Lorenzo Sanz 26 November 1995 16 July 2000
Spain Florentino Pérez 16 July 2000 27 February 2006
Spain Fernando Martín Álvarez 27 February 2006 26 April 2006
Spain Luis Gómez-Montejano 26 April 2006 2 July 2006
Spain Ramón Calderón 2 July 2006 16 January 2009
Spain Vicente Boluda 16 January 2009 31 May 2009
Spain Florentino Pérez 1 June 2009 present

Honours

Historically, Real Madrid is Spain's most successful team, having won 58 domestic trophies, and one of the most recognized football clubs in the world, having won 15 international trophies, making them the second most successful team in Europe and third in the world for official international competition won, all recognized by UEFA and FIFA; it also has the record in La Liga titles (with 31), Supercopa de España titles (with 8) and European Cup/UEFA Champions League titles (with 9). The club was placed first in the FIFA Clubs of the 20th Century's selection on 23 December 2000.[86] It also received the FIFA Order of Merit in 2004.[87] Added to this, Real is allowed to wear a multiple-winner badge on their shirt during UEFA Champions League matches as they have won more than five European Cups.[12]

Regional Competitions

Winners (24): 1902-03, 1904-05, 1905-06, 1906-07, 1907-08, 1909-10, 1912-13, 1915-16, 1916-17, 1917-18, 1919-20, 1921-22, 1922-23, 1923-24, 1925-26, 1926-27, 1928-29, 1929-30, 1930-31, 1931-32, 1932-33, 1933-34, 1934-35, 1935-36

Domestic Competitions

Winners (31): 1931–32, 1932–33, 1953–54, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1966–67, 1967–68, 1968–69, 1971–72, 1974–75, 1975–76, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1985–86, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1989–90, 1994–95, 1996–97, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2006–07, 2007–08
Winners (17): 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1917, 1933–34, 1935–36, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1961–62, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1979–80, 1981–82, 1988–89, 1992–93
Winners (8): 1988, 1989*, 1990, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2008
(* Won Copa del Rey and La Liga)
Winners (1): 1947
Winners (1): 1984–85

Major European Competitions

Winners (9): 1955–56*, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1997–98, 1999–2000, 2001–02
(* First ever winners)
Winners (2): 1984–85, 1985–86
Winners (1): 2002
Winners (2): 1955, 1957
Winners (1): 1994

Major Worldwide Competitions

Winners (3): 1960, 1998, 2002

References

  • Dénes, Tamás & Rochy, Zoltán (2002). Real Madrid. Aréna 2000. ISBN 963-86167-5-X. 
  • Ball, Phil (2003 New edition). Morbo: The Story of Spanish Football. WSC Books Limited. ISBN 0-954-01346-8. 
  • Ball, Phil (2003). White Storm: The Story of Real Madrid. Mainstream. ISBN 1-84018-763-8. 
  • McManaman, Steve & Edworthy, Sarah (2003). El Macca: Four Years with Real Madrid. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-743-48920-9. 
  • Luis Miguel González, Luis González López, Fundación Real Madrid (2002). Real Madrid: Cien años de leyenda, 1902-2002. Everest. ISBN 84-241-9215-X. 

External links

News sites
Official websites
2009/2010 Real Madrid Statistical Websites


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Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c "Real Madrid Club de Fútbol" (in Spanish). Liga de Fútbol Profesional. http://www.lfp.es/Default.aspx?tabid=78&IDParam=15. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  2. ^ a b Luís Miguel González. "Pre-history and first official title (1900-1910)". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730681095/noticia/Noticia/Real_Madrid_turns_106_(I).htm. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  3. ^ "United rise but Real Madrid stays top". Deloitte UK. 2008-02-14. http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/press_release/0,1014,sid%253D2834%2526cid%253D191865,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  4. ^ "Soccer Team Valuations". forbes.com. 2008-04-30. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2008/34/biz_soccer08_Soccer-Team-Valuations_Revenue.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  5. ^ a b "History — Chapter 1 - From the Estrada Lot to the nice, little O’Donnel pitch". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/Santiago_Bernabeu/1193041512791/Historia/History.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  6. ^ Luís Miguel González. "Bernabéu's debut to the title of Real (1911-1920)". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730681252/noticia/Noticia/Real_Madrid_turns_106_(II).htm. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  7. ^ a b c d Luís Miguel González (2007-02-28). "A spectacular leap towards the future (1921-1930)". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730681768/noticia/Noticia/Real_Madrid_turns_106_(III).htm. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  8. ^ a b Luís Miguel González. "The first two-time champion of the League (1931-1940)". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730681729/noticia/Noticia/Real_Madrid_turns_106_(IV).htm. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Luís Miguel González. "Bernabéu begins his office as President building the new Chamartín Stadium (1941-1950)". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730681924/noticia/Noticia/Real_Madrid_turns_106_(V).htm. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  10. ^ a b c Luís Miguel González. "An exceptional decade (1951-1960)". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730565386/noticia/Noticia/Real_Madrid_turns_106_(VI).htm. 
  11. ^ Matthew Spiro (2006-05-12). "Hats off to Hanot". uefa.com. http://www.uefa.com/magazine/news/Kind=512/newsId=419682.html. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  12. ^ a b "Regulations of the UEFA Champions League" (PDF). UEFA. http://www.uefa.com/newsfiles/19071.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-12. ; Page 4, §2.01 "Cup" & Page 26, §16.10 "Title-holder logo"
  13. ^ a b Luís Miguel González. "The generational reshuffle was successful (1961-1970)". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730565958/noticia/Noticia/Real_Madrid_turns_106_(VII).htm. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Trophy Room". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/es/Club/1193040475224/PalmaresTotal/Palmares.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  15. ^ "European Competitions 1971". RSSS. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec197071.html#cwc. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
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  17. ^ "The “Quinta del Buitre” era begins". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202735906881/noticia/Noticia/1985_86.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
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  25. ^ First measures adopted by the Real Madrid Board of DirectorsANNOUNCEMENT OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS
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  27. ^ The Times Madrid Signs Kaká http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/football/premier_league/article6458907
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  32. ^ Real Madrid home kit in 1905 was all-white, so the supporters start calling the players as Los Blancos
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  38. ^ Juan José López Soto (2008-06-11). "Real Madrid and Bwin sign sponsorship agreement". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/1202730193846/noticia/Noticia/Three_year_deal.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
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  43. ^ "History — Chapter 10 - The future". Realmadrid.com. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/en/Santiago_Bernabeu/1193041512791/Historia/History.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-13. 
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  59. ^ On the first place was Barcelona with an average gate of 76,000.
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  78. ^ "Noticias". upcomillas.es. http://www.upcomillas.es/eng/noticias/noticia.aspx?ID=122. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
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