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.In the history of the United States, the Reconstruction era has two definitions: the first in reference to the entire nation in the period 1865-1877 following the Civil War, and the second to the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, with the reconstruction of state and society in the former Confederacy and the addition of three amendments to the Constitution.^ History of the United States Since 1865 .
  • United States History - Weekly Schedule 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ilstu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Standards: US History Era 5: Civil War and Reconstruction (1860–1877).
  • Education Resources / American Art 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC americanart.si.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ AMH 4170 Civil War and Reconstruction .
  • University of West Florida Catalog 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC uwf.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In the different states, reconstruction began and ended at different times; federal reconstruction policies were finally abandoned with the Compromise of 1877.^ The End of Reconstruction: 1873–1877 .
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): The End of Reconstruction: 1873–1877 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reunion and reaction; the compromise of 1877 and the end of reconstruction.

^ Reconstruction began before the war ended.
  • Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the war began, and commenced in earnest after the Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1, 1863. Reconstruction policies were implemented when a state that joined the Confederacy came under the control of federal troops.^ Federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War.  .
  • National History Standards - Era 1 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sscnet.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson - - - Johnson’s policy .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To accomplish this, Lincoln issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in December 1863.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.President Abraham Lincoln set up reconstructed governments in several southern states during the war, including Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana, and experimented with giving land to ex-slaves in South Carolina.^ President during times of war in Europe .
  • Presidents of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ In two states, Georgia and South Carolina, slaves made up a majority of the population.
  • How slavery was ended | SocialistWorker.org 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Abraham Lincoln had appointed provisional military governors for Louisiana, Tennessee, and North Carolina .
  • Reconstruction (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.President Andrew Johnson continued Lincoln's plans despite the widespread bitterness over Lincoln's assassination.^ Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president.
  • Reconstruction Timeline 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ President Johnson presents plans for Reconstruction.
  • Reconstruction Timeline 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ President Andrew Johnson ’s plan for Reconstruction, which lasted from 1865 – 1867 .
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.He appointed new governors in the summer of 1865, and quickly declared the war goals of national unity and the end of slavery had been achieved, so that reconstruction was finished.^ The Reconstruction Era started at the end of the Civil War in 1865 and ended in1877 Reconstruction.
  • The Reconstruction Era Essay 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.exampleessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reconstruction began before the war ended.
  • Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Reconstruction and the New South, 1865–1900 .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Republicans in Congress refused to accept Johnson's lenient terms, rejected the new members of Congress selected by the South, and in 1865-66 broke with the president.^ But the U.S. Congress felt that the president's Reconstruction policies were too lenient (easy) on the South.
  • Reconstruction era? - Yahoo! Answers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Reconstruction and the New South: 1865-1900 .
  • Reconstruction and the New South 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC faculty.mville.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republicans advocating punishing the South while President Johnson wanted to treat the South leniently.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

A sweeping Republican victory in the 1866 Congressional elections in the North gave the Radical Republicans enough control of Congress that they over-rode Johnson's vetoes and began what is called "Radical reconstruction" in 1867.
.Congress removed the civilian governments in the South[2] in 1867 and put the former Confederacy under the rule of the U.S. Army.^ A Democrat and the only senator from the South who remained loyal to the Union, Johnson at first seemed ready to take a hard line against the former Confederacy.
  • U.S. History I: Politics of Reconstruction - CliffsNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Format: book (multiple pages) Military reconstruction In North Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction, page 9.10 First Reconstrution Act, passed by Congress over President Johnson's veto in 1867, which established military rule in the former Confederacy until states were formally readmitted to the Union.
  • LEARN NC: Search results 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the Reconstruction Act of March 1867, Congress, ignoring the governments that had been established in the Southern states, divided the South into five military districts, each administered by a Union general.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The army then conducted new elections in which the freed slaves could vote while those who held leading positions under the Confederacy were denied the vote and could not run for office.^ New elections were to be held in each state with freed male slaves being allowed to vote.

^ The much praised Fourteenth Amendment gave freed slaves the right to vote but withheld that right from Indians, women, and those involved in the Confederate war effort.
  • The Dunning School by Gail Jarvis 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under federal bayonets, blacks, including those who had recently been freed, received the right to vote, hold political offices, and become judges and police chiefs.
  • Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.In ten states[3], coalitions of Freedmen, recent arrivals from the North (Carpetbaggers), and white Southerners who supported Reconstruction (Scalawags) cooperated to form Republican state governments, which introduced various reconstruction programs, offered massive aid to railroads, built public schools, and raised taxes.^ Wells was known as a "scalawag," a southern-born white who supported the Republican Party.
  • Reconstruction: A State Divided 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lsm.crt.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The term Scalawag was applied to native white southerners who collaborated with Carpetbaggers.

^ Southern Republican Governments 1867–1870 .
  • American Journey, The: A History of the United States, Volume 2, 5/E - Pearson Education EMA Catalogue 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC cseng.awl.com [Source type: News]
  • American Journey, The: A History of the United States, Volume 1, 5/E - Pearson Education EMA Catalogue 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC cseng.aw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conservative opponents charged that Republican regimes were marred by widespread corruption.^ Republican A.J. Hamilton for the Governorship in an election marred by charges of fraud.
  • Governor Edmund Jackson Davis Marker 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.hmdb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the beginning, white conservatives tarred the Bullock regime with charges of fraud, corruption, and general malfeasance.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adam's supporters, who dubbed themselves the National Republican s, viciously retaliated at Jackson's accusations of a "corrupt bargain" with false charges of adultery .
  • Evolution of American political parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Violent opposition emerged in numerous localities under the name of the Ku Klux Klan, which led to federal intervention by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1870 that closed down the Klan.^ Ku Klux Klan begins.
  • Reconstruction Era: 1865-1896 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.thenagain.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ku Klux Klan emerged around 1870, interfering in elections through violence.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Grant dispatched federal troops to halt Ku Klux Klan violence in South Carolina following the election of 1870.

.Conservative Democrats calling themselves "Redeemers" regained control state by state, sometimes using fraud and violence to control state elections.^ Analyze the role of violence and the tactics of the “redeemers” in regaining control over the southern state governments.
  • National History Standards - Era 1 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sscnet.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Democrats regain control of every southern state government.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Election of 1868; the Democratic effort to regain control, by Charles H. Coleman ...

.A deep national economic depression following the Panic of 1873 led to Democratic gains in the North, the collapse of many railroad schemes in the South, and a growing sense of frustration in the North.^ Panic of 1873 followed by a depression wipes out most national unions.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northerners were tired of a decade of Reconstruction efforts and had become less interested in the South with the rise of speculation and profit-making in the Gilded Age and then the hardships of the Depression of 1873 .
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): The End of Reconstruction: 1873–1877 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Format: article Populists, fusionists, and white supremacists: North Carolina politics from Reconstruction to the Election of 1898 In North Carolina in the New South, page 7.2 After Reconstruction, Conservatives (later Democrats) reversed many of the gains Republicans had made while in power.
  • LEARN NC: Search results 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The end of Reconstruction was a staggered process, and the period of Republican control ended at different times in different states.^ Politics After almost a decade of Reconstruction efforts by Republicans , southern conservative Democrats , or " Bourbons ," regained political power in the period known as Redemption, which began in the mid-1870s.

^ Reconstruction was the period after the Civil War that extended from roughly 1865-1877 in the span of American history immediately following the Civil War and involved the re-integration of states of the Confederacy.
  • Overview of the Reconstruction era in American History Following the Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.articlemyriad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This political, economic, and social rebuilding process designed to bring the defeated Confederate states fully back into the Union was known as Reconstruction.
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With the Compromise of 1877, federal intervention in the South ceased and the last three Republican state governments in the South collapsed.^ Federal Government and the states .

^ In political terms, Reconstruction ended in 1877, when the federal government abandoned the idea of intervening in the South to protect the rights of black citizens.

^ In 1877 Hayes withdrew the remaining government troops, tacitly abandoning federal responsibility for enforcing blacks' civil rights.
  • United States History - The End of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: Original source]
  • United States History 1876-1900 - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC workmall.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE END OF RECONSTRUCTION 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC cybersleuth-kids.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was followed by a period white Southerners labeled Redemption, which saw the enactment of Jim Crow laws and (after 1890) the disfranchisement of most blacks.^ Southern legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws.
  • EduSolution - NYS Regents Exams 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC edusolution.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jim Crow Laws were instituted on the railroads.
  • 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jim Crow Laws of this period didnt assign blacks a fixed status.
  • 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Democratic Party dominated the "Solid South" with few breaks into the 1960s, when the civil rights and voting rights of the blacks were restored by Congress.^ More Democrats in Congress voted against the Civil Rights Act than Republicans.

^ Blacks are deprived of the vote in the South.
  • Reconstruction Era: 1865-1896 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.thenagain.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress for denial of voting rights .

Contents

Purpose

.Reconstruction addressed how the eleven seceding states would regain self-government and be reseated in Congress, the civil status of the former leaders of the Confederacy, and the Constitutional and legal status of freedmen, especially their civil rights and whether they should be given the right to vote.^ And the Civil Rights of 1875 is an attempt to address them.
  • American Experience | Reconstruction: The Second Civil War | Black Legislators | PBS 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How did the Confederate leaders establish a new federal constitution and state governments?
  • Syllabus for AHG 504B: Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mahg.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ States now had the right to secede from the Union.
  • Regents Prep U.S. History & Government: Multiple-Choice Question Archive 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC regentsprep.org [Source type: Original source]

.Violent controversy erupted throughout the South over these issues.^ Violent controversy erupted over how to tackle those issues, and by the late 1870s Reconstruction had failed to equally integrate the Freedmen into the legal, political, economic and social system.
  • Reconstruction era? - Yahoo! Answers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Violence erupted throughout the South as whites rebelled against Congress's Reconstruction policies.
  • Reconstruction era? - Yahoo! Answers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.The laws and constitutional amendments that laid the foundation for the most radical phase of Reconstruction were adopted from 1866 to 1871. By the 1870s, Reconstruction had officially provided Freedmen with equal rights under the law, and they were voting and taking political office.^ Keywords: Reconstruction, voting, constitutional law, african americans .
  • SSRN-The 'Voting Rights Act of 1867': The Constitutionality of Federal Regulation of Suffrage During Reconstruction by Gabriel Chin 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC papers.ssrn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the Civil Rights Law of 1866 , and of course the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, remain in the Constitution.
  • American Experience | Reconstruction: The Second Civil War | Black Legislators | PBS 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ States rights were reinforced by constitutional amendments.

.Republican legislatures, coalitions of whites and blacks, established the first public school systems in the South.^ The first public schools were established in the south through the work of coalitions consisting of both whites and African Americans.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Blacks were admitted to white Law Schools.
  • 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schools were established and Blacks elected to public office.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning in 1874, however, there was a rise in white paramilitary organizations, such as the White League and Red Shirts, whose political aim was to drive out the Republicans.^ Sometimes their hostility was expressed through such terrorist organizations as the Ku Klux Klan , which sought to punish so-called “uppity Negroes” and to drive their white collaborators from the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was such motivation in the African American community, however, and enough good will among white and black teachers, that by the turn of the twentieth century the majority of African Americans could read and write.
  • African American Odyssey: Reconstruction and Its Aftermath (Part 2) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC rs6.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Faced with imminent anarchy, the PLA--the only organization whose ranks for the most part had not been radicalized by Red Guard-style activities--emerged as the principal guarantor of law and order and the de facto political authority.
  • People's Republic of China: III 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www-chaos.umd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also disrupted organizing and terrorized blacks to bar them from the polls.^ Blacks were intimidated and terrorized so that they would not vote, and political leadership in the South gradually returned to the hands of whites.
  • Reconstruction era? - Yahoo! Answers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ They helped cause angry whites to form the Ku Klux Klan and other groups that terrorized blacks for years to come.
  • Reconstruction: After the Civil War, the American South Rebuilds 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They also sent their supporters south to organize blacks for the Republican Party.
  • Reconstruction: After the Civil War, the American South Rebuilds 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] .From 1873 to 1877, conservative white Democrats (calling themselves "Redeemers") regained power in the states.^ Democrats had "redeemed" all of the southern states by 1877.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Format: article Populists, fusionists, and white supremacists: North Carolina politics from Reconstruction to the Election of 1898 In North Carolina in the New South, page 7.2 After Reconstruction, Conservatives (later Democrats) reversed many of the gains Republicans had made while in power.
  • LEARN NC: Search results 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.learnnc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rutherford B. Hayes’s removal of federal troops from the South in 1877 allowed many former Confederates and slave owners to regain power, and this return of power to whites also meant a return to the policy of the old South.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): The End of Reconstruction: 1873–1877 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1860s and 1870s the terms "radical" and "conservative" had distinctive meanings.^ The Radical Republicans’ power began to fade in the late 1860s and early 1870s, and by the 1876 presidential election, they had little power in the South.
  • Reconstruction, The Essays and Articles at eNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Original source]

."Conservatism" in this context generally indicates the mindset of the ruling white elite, focused on white supremacy.^ Generalized, this famous bargain meant: Let the reforming Republicans direct the national government and the southern whites may rule the negroes.
  • Reconstruction, The Essays and Articles at eNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Attorney General cites Supreme Court precedents that ended Reconstruction and reestablished white supremacy.

^ After much needless suffering, the white community of the South banded together to overthrow these “black” governments and restore home rule (their euphemism for white supremacy).
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The New View of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

Many leaders had been Whigs and were committed to modernization.[6] .Most of the "radical" Republicans in the North were men who believed in free enterprise and industrialization; most were also modernizers and ex-Whigs.^ Radical Republicans saw Johnson as rewarding those who had fought to destroy the Union, and demanded harsher action.
  • M65 United States Army Fourth Military District Documents 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.usm.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ All had active local and colonial governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self government that stimulated support for republicanism.
  • The United States Ring - History - Sites/Homepages on American servers, made by Americans or containing something about the United States of America 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.unitedstatesring.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Republican leaders both white and black were courageous men who formed the cutting edge of an innovative attempt to build a truly biracial democracy on the ashes of slavery.
  • Counterfeit Justice: The Judicial Odyssey of Texas Freedwoman Azeline Hearne 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The "Liberal Republicans" of 1872 shared the same outlook except they were especially opposed to the corruption they saw around President Grant, and believed that the goals had been achieved so that the federal intervention could now end.^ To most people, however, the term Reconstruction means the period of federal intervention in the South from the end of the war until the withdrawal of troops in 1877.
  • The Story » War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tredegar.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War CenterLegacies of the Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC tredegar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His policy of conciliation and moderation displeased the Republicans, however, and when Ulysses S. Grant assumed the presidency in 1869, Gillem was transferred to Texas.
  • M65 United States Army Fourth Military District Documents 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.usm.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Legislators elected by fraud could then pass laws that made it more difficult for their opponents, especially blacks, to vote and to elect candidates they favored.
  • Supreme Court and the undoing of the second reconstruction, The | National Forum | Find Articles at BNET 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

.Passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments are constitutional legacies of Reconstruction.^ The 14 th Amendment was ratified in 1868.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ PREVIOUS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 NEXT » .
  • About Japan: A Teacher’s Resource | Reconstruction of the Ginza after the Great Kanto Earthquake | Japan Society 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC aboutjapan.japansociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why did the provisions of 14 th Amendment to the United States Constitution fail to protect the rights of African Americans and other minorities?

.These Reconstruction Amendments established the rights which, through extensive litigation, led to Supreme Court rulings starting in the early 20th century that struck down discriminatory state laws.^ The Supreme Court has already ruled on that power.
  • "To the Barricades!" ... by J. D. Longstreet 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.bloggersbase.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States Through the 19th and 20th Centuries .
  • The United States Through the 19th and 20th Centuries. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supreme Court Interpretations of the 14th Amendment .
  • Industrialization of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.westirondequoit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A "Second Reconstruction", sparked by the Civil Rights Movement, led to civil rights laws in 1964 and 1965 that ensured full civic rights of African Americans.^ African Americans the right to vote .

^ Civil rights movements -- History .
  • An Act to Establish a National Museum of African American History and Culture 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC siris-sihistory.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ And that's where the Civil Rights Law of 1875 is going.
  • American Experience | Reconstruction: The Second Civil War | Black Legislators | PBS 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

Restoring the South to the Union

.
A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled "The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union."
^ Throughout the summer of 1865 Johnson proceeded to carry out Lincoln's reconstruction program, with minor modifications.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Johnson (president of United States) ) proposal for amnesty and pardon ( in Document: Andrew Johnson: Proclamation of Amnesty and Pardon for the Confederate States ) Julian ( in George W. Julian (American politician) ) Lincoln .
  • Reconstruction (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Yet another battle lay ahead as political leaders sought to repair the fractured Union.
  • Oxford AASC: Reconstruction At a Glance 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.oxfordaasc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The caption reads (Johnson): Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever. (Lincoln): A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended.
.During the Civil War, the Radical Republican leaders argued that slavery and the Slave Power had to be permanently destroyed, and that all forms of Confederate nationalism had to be suppressed.^ Led the nation during World War I. .
  • Presidents of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ Used war powers of the presidency during Civil War to achieve his goal of preserving the nation.
  • Presidents of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ Like other Radical Republicans, Stevens believed that Reconstruction was a golden opportunity to purge the nation of the legacy of slavery and create a “perfect republic,” whose citizens enjoyed equal civil and political rights, secured by a powerful and beneficent national government.
  • History Now. The Historians Perspective 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historynow.org [Source type: Original source]

Moderates said this could be easily accomplished as soon as Confederate armies surrendered and the Southern states repealed secession and accepted the 13th Amendment — most of which happened by December 1865.[8]
.President Lincoln was the leader of the moderate Republicans and wanted to speed up Reconstruction and reunite the nation painlessly and quickly.^ Judiciary Chairman Lyman Trumbull of Illinois quickly helped secure the emergency war powers necessary for President Lincoln to fight the War.

^ Large numbers of white southerners resented being kept out of the “healing” of the nation that Lincoln had called for and were unwilling to give up their former authority.
  • Reconstruction Definition | Definition of Reconstruction at Dictionary.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The direction of Reconstruction changed irrevocably on 14 April 1865 when President Abraham Lincolnwas shot at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. Lincoln died ...
  • Oxford AASC: Reconstruction At a Glance 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.oxfordaasc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lincoln formally began Reconstruction in late 1863 with his Ten percent plan, which went into operation in several states but which Radicals opposed.^ Lincoln's plan of reconstruction.

^ Lincoln's plan of reconstruction / by Charles H. McCarthy.

^ The Radical Republicans considered the “Ten Percent Plan” far too generous.
  • U.S. History I: Politics of Reconstruction - CliffsNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln vetoed the Radical plan, the Wade–Davis Bill of 1864, which was much more strict than the Ten-Percent Plan.^ Lincoln's pocket veto kept the Wade-Davis Bill from becoming law, and he implemented his own plan.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, the stricter Wade–Davis Bill was passed in 1864 but pocket vetoed by the President.
  • Reconstruction (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Radical Republicans considered the “Ten Percent Plan” far too generous.
  • U.S. History I: Politics of Reconstruction - CliffsNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Original source]

[9]
.The opposing faction of Radical Republicans were skeptical of Southern intentions and demanded more stringent federal action.^ Six months later, Congressional Republicans concerned by Lincoln's charity rallied behind the more radical provisions of the Wade-Davis Bill.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1845-1877 | Yale Video Course 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC academicearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conflict between Stanton and Johnson had been provoked over Stanton's intention to use the Federal troops under his control occupying the Southern states to enforce the voting rights of blacks.

^ Tilden, Schurz organize a convention establishing "Liberal Republican" party, in opposition to the Radical Republicans, but lose control to a "realist" faction and nominate unpopular Horace Greeley.

.Congressman Thaddeus Stevens and Senator Charles Sumner led the Radical Republicans.^ Leaders like Pennsylvania Representative Thaddeus Stevens and Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner vigorously opposed Andrew Johnson's lenient policies.
  • Radical Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Lower House the Conservatives or Democrats had a majority; and in the Senate the Radicals or Republicans had a majority Of ten.
  • Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC sciway3.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Their collapse was hastened by the death of the old radical leaders in Congress, such as Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner , and by the revelation of internal corruption in the radical Republican governments; the Grant administration was compelled to lessen its support of them because of growing criticism in the North of corruption in the federal government itself.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sumner argued that secession had destroyed statehood alone but the Constitution still extended its authority and its protection over individuals, as in the territories.^ Describe major factors in Arizona history (e.g., territorial status, mining, constitutional convention) leading to statehood.

^ They used the U.S. Constitution as a model in order to establish three branches of government with limited powers, protect individual rights, and promote the common good.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 7 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Students will understand that the Constitution protects individual rights yet the struggle to implement those protections continues into the present day.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Thaddeus Stevens and his followers viewed secession as having left the states in a status like new territories.^ Leaders like Pennsylvania Representative Thaddeus Stevens and Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner vigorously opposed Andrew Johnson's lenient policies.
  • Radical Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts and Representative Thaddeus Stevens (New England-born) of Pennsylvania were among the leaders of the Radical cause.
  • United States, history of the (1850s–1960s) | Scholastic.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is the likely population distribution in the 21st Century going to result in a new system of city-states, thereby undercutting the idea of national states?
  • Institute for Policy Studies: Paths for Reconstruction in the 21st Century: An Introduction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ips-dc.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Republicans sought to prevent Southern politicians from "restoring the historic subordination of Negroes". Since slavery was abolished, the three-fifths compromise no longer applied to counting the population of blacks.^ Slavery and the Three-fifths Compromise 4.
  • HIST 017-History of the United States to 1865 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.solano.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many South Carolinians, in particular, were convinced that Republican-sponsored emancipation would lead to bloody massacres as blacks sought vengeance against whites.
  • United States, history of the (1850s–1960s) | Scholastic.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The notorious three-fifths clause of the U.S. Constitution allowed Southerners to count slaves toward congressional representation, giving Southern states disproportionate power.
  • How slavery was ended | SocialistWorker.org 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the 1870 census, the South would gain numerous additional representatives in Congress, based on the population of freedmen.^ However, Congress refused to seat the newly elected senators and representatives from the South.
  • U.S. History I: Politics of Reconstruction - CliffsNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In return, Congress would appropriate more money for internal improvements in the South, a Southerner would be appointed to Hayes's cabinet, and Congress would not mess around in the South's affairs.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And, that all men who are at least twenty one years old will be counted when determining a states population to apportion representatives in Congress.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10] One Illinois Republican expressed a common fear that if the South were allowed to simply restore its previous established powers, that the "reward of treason will be an increased representation".[11]
.Upon Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, who had been elected with Lincoln in 1864 on the ticket of the National Union Party as the latter's vice president, became president.^ President Andrew Johnson ’s plan for Reconstruction, which lasted from 1865 – 1867 .
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After his assassination, Vice-President Johnson became the head of the government, and his views were the same as Lincoln's.
  • Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC sciway3.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After Lincolns assassination in April of 1865, Vice President Andrew Johnson became President and took over control of Reconstruction for the next two years.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Johnson rejected the Radical program of harsh, lengthy Reconstruction and instead appointed his own governors and tried to finish reconstruction by the end of 1865. By early 1866, full-scale political warfare existed between Johnson (now allied with the Democrats) and the Radicals; he vetoed laws and issued orders that contradicted Congressional legislation.^ Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1866 .
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The End of Congressional Reconstruction, 1869-1871 .
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress enacted its Reconstruction program over Johnson's veto.
  • U.S. History I: Politics of Reconstruction - CliffsNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.Congress rejected Johnson's argument that he had the war power to decide what to do, since the war was over.^ The ongoing dispute between Johnson and Congress led to the president's impeachment (a trial to decide whether to remove him from office) in 1868.
  • Reconstruction era? - Yahoo! Answers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The full House rejected that report, but Johnson was bent on confronting Congress.
  • Black Americans in Congress - The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC baic.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ When Johnson ignored Congress and fired Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton , the Radical Republicans in the House impeached Johnson on the grounds that he had violated the Tenure of Office Act.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Congress decided it had the primary authority to decide how Reconstruction should proceed, because the Constitution stated the United States had to guarantee each state a republican form of government.^ What is to be produced, how should it be produced and who should decide?
  • Institute for Policy Studies: Paths for Reconstruction in the 21st Century: An Introduction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ips-dc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution specifically gave the President the right to maintain a republican form of government in each state .

^ Specifically, the United States should: .
  • Foreign Policy in Focus | A Unified Security Budget for the United States, 2007 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fpif.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Radicals insisted that meant Congress decided how Reconstruction should be achieved.^ What is to be produced, how should it be produced and who should decide?
  • Institute for Policy Studies: Paths for Reconstruction in the 21st Century: An Introduction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ips-dc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That being the case, how does the United States decide which "failing or failed states" are worthy of "stabilization and reconstruction"?
  • MOAA: Military Officers Association of AmericaThink Tank Nation — Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.moaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project was meant to give information as to how immigrants not only were treated, but also why they decided to come to America.
  • United States History 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.chicousd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The issues were multiple: who should decide, Congress or the president?^ What is to be produced, how should it be produced and who should decide?
  • Institute for Policy Studies: Paths for Reconstruction in the 21st Century: An Introduction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ips-dc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ongoing dispute between Johnson and Congress led to the president's impeachment (a trial to decide whether to remove him from office) in 1868.
  • Reconstruction era? - Yahoo! Answers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Congress and President Andrew Johnson were often in conflict over the issue of who was responsible for dealing with Reconstruction.
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.How should republicanism operate in the South?^ The principal issue in the 1866 Congressional by-election was how the defeated South should be treated.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Explanation: Republican president Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans who controlled Congress, differed over how to handle the task of reconstruction in the post-Civil War South.
  • Regents Prep U.S. History & Government: Multiple-Choice Question Archive 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC regentsprep.org [Source type: Original source]

.What was the status of the Confederate states?^ As the former Confederate States were readmitted to the Union, the status of the Army changed, but its role remained much the same.
  • The Posse Comitatus Act and Homeland Security 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.homelandsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.What was the citizenship status of men who had supported the Confederacy?^ Wide public support gradually developed for those members of Congress who believed that African Americans should be given full citizenship.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Police attacked an unarmed crowd of men and women who were supporting the strike between the Steel Workers Organizing Committee an d Republic Steel.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supporters of the Confederacy who had not taken oaths of loyalty to the United States generally could not vote.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

What was the citizenship and suffrage status of freedmen?[13]
.The election of 1866 decisively changed the balance of power, giving the Republicans two-thirds majorities in both houses of Congress, and enough votes to overcome Johnson's vetoes.^ Radical Republicans in Congress were strengthened by the election of 1866.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Legislation is vetoed by Johnson but Congress overrides his veto.
  • Reconstruction Timeline 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the mid-term elections of 1866, Republicans gained an even larger majority in Congress.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.They moved to impeach Johnson because of his constant attempts to thwart radical Reconstruction measures, by using the Tenure of Office Act.^ Amendment Tenure of Office Act (1867) .

^ Johnson's attempts at presidential reconstruction undermined by election of Radical Republicans .

^ Congress impeached President Johnson because...
  • The Reconstruction Era / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Johnson was acquitted by one vote, but he lost the influence to shape Reconstruction policy.^ Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson - - - Johnson’s policy .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The series advocates the election of Hiester Clymer, who ran for governor on a white-supremacy platform, supporting President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policies.
  • The Center for the Teaching of American History-- Failure of Reconstruction DBQ 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC ctah.binghamton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The dispute between President Andrew Johnson and Congress during the Reconstruction Era illustrates the constitutional principle of equality of justice under the law federalism one man, one vote separation of powers Correct Answer Number: 4 .
  • Regents Prep U.S. History & Government: Multiple-Choice Question Archive 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC regentsprep.org [Source type: Original source]

[14]
.The Republican Congress established military districts in the South and used Army personnel to administer the region until new governments loyal to the Union could be established.^ Congress divided the South into military districts, with a General and an army in each.
  • Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC sciway3.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Reconstruction Acts established military rule over Southern states until new governments could be formed.
  • American Civil War: Aftermath and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They were willing to use military force to keep the South in the Union.
  • History of the United States of America 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyofnations.net [Source type: Original source]

.While Congress temporarily suspended the ability to vote of approximately 10,000 to 15,000 white men who had been Confederate officials or senior officers, constitutional amendments gave full citizenship and suffrage to former slaves.^ Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution approved by Congress.
  • Reconstruction Timeline 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this amendment, he gave women the suffrage rights.
  • A List of Presidents of the United States of America in Chronological Order 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The much praised Fourteenth Amendment gave freed slaves the right to vote but withheld that right from Indians, women, and those involved in the Confederate war effort.
  • The Dunning School by Gail Jarvis 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.With the power to vote, freedmen started participating in politics.^ In making this determination, Congress acted at the height of its powers in regulating the three intersecting areas of voting, race, and political rights.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louisiana blacks valued the right to vote above all other rights because they could not hope to protect their property or their lives without political power.
  • Reconstruction: A State Divided 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lsm.crt.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The southern whites began to invent methods for overcoming the power of the freedmen in politics and for insuring themselves against possible danger of violence at the hands of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.While many slaves were illiterate, educated blacks (including escaped slaves) moved down from the North to aid them, and natural leaders also stepped forward.^ This unchecked malfeasance worsened the already shattered economy in the South and, in order to financially support their families, many of the regions most qualified men moved to the North.
  • The Dunning School by Gail Jarvis 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These were vagrancy laws; these were laws against ex-slaves owning any property, laws against educating black people, laws against their mobility and so forth.
  • American Experience | Reconstruction: The Second Civil War | Black Legislators | PBS 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Working first among the freed slaves as a minister, he soon became their political leader, promoting the Republican Party, as did many other AME preachers.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.They elected white and black men to represent them in constitutional conventions.^ Did Abolition mean that black men would now enjoy the same status as white men?
  • Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most black males retained the vote until around 1900 when suffrage restrictions adopted by Democratic legislatures and constitutional conventions disfranchised the vast majority of African Americans and many poor whites.
  • Reconstruction – FREE Reconstruction information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Reconstruction research 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Blacks were intimidated and terrorized so that they would not vote, and political leadership in the South gradually returned to the hands of whites.
  • Reconstruction era? - Yahoo! Answers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.A Republican coalition of freedmen, southerners supportive of the Union (derisively called scalawags by white Democrats), and northerners who had migrated to the South (derisively called carpetbaggers—some of whom were returning natives, but were mostly Union veterans), organized to create constitutional conventions.^ Wells was known as a "scalawag," a southern-born white who supported the Republican Party.
  • Reconstruction: A State Divided 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lsm.crt.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Led by so-called carpetbaggers (Northerners who settled in the South) and scalawags (Southern whites in the Republican party) and freedmen, they began to rebuild the Southern economy and society.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The president, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern whites spurned this Republican plan of Reconstruction.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They created new state constitutions to set new directions for southern states.^ They were still in power in the Southern states.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress enacted the Military Reconstruction Act (i.e., "Radical Reconstruction") in March 1867, which allowed former Confederate States to be readmitted to the Union if they adopted new state constitutions that permitted universal male suffrage.

^ The Reconstruction Acts excluded from the election process most property owning Southern Whites stating that they "may be disfranchised for participation in the rebellion."
  • The Dunning School by Gail Jarvis 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]

Loyalty

.The issue of loyalty emerged in the debates over the Wade–Davis Bill of 1864. The bill required voters to take the "ironclad oath", swearing they had never supported the Confederacy or been one of its soldiers.^ They passed (July, 1864) the Wade-Davis Bill, which required 50% of a state's male voters to take an "ironclad" oath that they had never voluntarily supported the Confederacy.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Congressional Reconstruction Early efforts July 1864 Wade-Davis Bill (in reaction to Banks's policies in Louisiana) guarantee blacks legal equality & deny vote to those who swore they never supported CSA. Vetoed by Lincoln.
  • Pol Sci 3254 Development of the American Constitution 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC calvert.wustl.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pol Sci/AMCS 3255 Development of the American Constitution 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC calvert.wustl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reconstruction approach they preferred was embodied in the Wade-Davis bill (July 1864), which called for the establishment of a military government in each state and required at least fifty percent of the eligible voters to swear allegiance to the United States.
  • U.S. History I: Politics of Reconstruction - CliffsNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pursuing a policy of "malice toward none" announced in his second inaugural address, Lincoln asked voters only to support the Union.^ Lincoln's second inaugural address closed with these words: .
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Where Lincoln had urged America to re-unite with malice toward none in his famous second inaugural speech, Radical Republicans sought to punish the South for their role in causing the Civil War.
  • Creating a More Perfect Community: Units 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC chnm.gmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An 1864 bill that stipulated that southern states could reenter the Union only after 50 percent of their voters pledged allegiance to the United States.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] The Radicals lost support following Lincoln's veto of the Wade–Davis Bill but regained strength after Lincoln's assassination in April 1865.

Suffrage

Monument in honor of the Grand Army of the Republic, organized after the war
.Congress had to consider how to restore to full status and representation within the Union those southern states that had declared their independence from the United States and had withdrawn their representation.^ Confederate states were restored to full membership in the Union .

^ The United States was officially an independent nation.
  • The United States of America 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.solcomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern states had never left the Union   .

Suffrage for former Confederates was one of two main concerns. .A decision needed to be made whether to allow just some or all former Confederates to vote (and to hold office).^ Some Radical Republicans like Charles Sumner called for the redistribution of wealth in the former Confederate states as part of this effort.
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin further asserted that rather than try to demoralize and dominate white southerners, black politicians were largely conciliatory—for example, they sought to allow ex- Confederates, who in the period immediately following the war had been stripped of many of their civil rights, to again vote and hold office.
  • Reconstruction, The Essays and Articles at eNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the state refused at first to enfranchise former slaves, Arkansas was not readmitted to the Union until 1868, when a new constitution gave African Americans the right to vote and hold office.
  • Arkansas, state, United States - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The moderates wanted virtually all of them to vote, but the Radicals resisted.^ There was also the political advantage that virtually all the newly enfranchised blacks would vote Republicam.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ten of the Republicans, however, were classed as "Moderates" and did not always vote with the Radicals.
  • Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC sciway3.net [Source type: Original source]

.They repeatedly tried to impose the ironclad oath, which would effectively have allowed no former Confederates to vote.^ They knew former slaves would vote for the party which had freed them.
  • Reconstruction: After the Civil War, the American South Rebuilds 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franklin further asserted that rather than try to demoralize and dominate white southerners, black politicians were largely conciliatory—for example, they sought to allow ex- Confederates, who in the period immediately following the war had been stripped of many of their civil rights, to again vote and hold office.
  • Reconstruction, The Essays and Articles at eNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Slaves effectively freed themselves by escaping to Union territory, and they fought valiantly against their former masters.
  • Reconstruction – FREE Reconstruction information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Reconstruction research 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Representative Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania proposed, unsuccessfully, that all former Confederates lose the right to vote for five years.^ The much praised Fourteenth Amendment gave freed slaves the right to vote but withheld that right from Indians, women, and those involved in the Confederate war effort.
  • The Dunning School by Gail Jarvis 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders like Pennsylvania Representative Thaddeus Stevens and Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner vigorously opposed Andrew Johnson's lenient policies.
  • Radical Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of them believed that it was not revolutionary enough; in particular they regretted that Thaddeus Stevens's proposal to confiscate the !and of wealthy "traitors" (Confederates) and grant it in forty-acre plots to the freed slaves was never adopted.
  • RECONSTRUCTION RECONSIDERED 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The compromise that was reached disenfranchised many former Confederate civil and military leaders.^ Many former Confederate leaders were soon returned to power.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of the offices in the new governments, moreover, were won by disenfranchised Confederate leaders, and the President, rather than ordering new elections, granted pardons on a large scale.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Theoretically, North and South reached a compromise: black civil liberties and racial equality would be set aside in order to put the Union back together.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): The End of Reconstruction: 1873–1877 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

No one knows how many temporarily lost the vote, but one estimate was 10,000 to 15,000.[18]
.Second, and closely related, was the issue of whether freedmen should be allowed to vote.^ Congress also voted to expand the powers of the Freedmen's Bureau, allowing it to establish school s and court s for former slaves.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like his predecessor he intended to confine the voting power to the whites, leaving to the states themselves the question whether the ballot should be extended to any of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The issue was how to receive the four-million former slaves as citizens.^ Some four million slaves have been freed.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Foner agrees with post-revisionists that the problem of labor relations between former planters and former slaves was the central issue of Reconstruction.
  • RECONSTRUCTION RECONSIDERED 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not have details yet on just how much land that former slaves managed to purchase, but believe it was substantial.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.If they were to be fully counted as citizens, some sort of representation for apportionment of seats in Congress had to be determined.^ And, that all men who are at least twenty one years old will be counted when determining a states population to apportion representatives in Congress.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In his view, the people of the Southern states had never legally seceded; they had been misled by some disloyal citizens into a defiance of federal authority.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as the slaves became free, however, they were counted as if they were whites, and thereby the strength of the South in Congress would be increased.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before the war, the population of slaves had been counted as three-fifths of a comparable number of free whites.^ The notorious three-fifths clause of the U.S. Constitution allowed Southerners to count slaves toward congressional representation, giving Southern states disproportionate power.
  • How slavery was ended | SocialistWorker.org 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ T he tenuous balance between Slave and Free States collapsed with the first shots of the Civil War, fired in April 1861 at Fort Sumter, South Carolina.

^ But no state, including even northern states during the Civil War with a significant population of free Negroes, has shown any inclination to extend the suffrage beyond the white electorate.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.By now having the benefit of four million freedmen counted as full citizens, the South would gain additional seats in Congress.^ In the legislatures of Louisiana and South Carolina, African Americans actually gained a majority of the seats.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Congress refused to seat the newly elected senators and representatives from the South.
  • U.S. History I: Politics of Reconstruction - CliffsNotes 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, in the south, anyone who voluntarily took up arms in the Confederate cause during the Civil War is now disenfranchised.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.If blacks were denied the vote and the right to hold office, then only whites would represent them.^ Congress for denial of voting rights .

^ Many South Carolinians, in particular, were convinced that Republican-sponsored emancipation would lead to bloody massacres as blacks sought vengeance against whites.
  • United States, history of the (1850s–1960s) | Scholastic.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the start of the era, the holders of power almost everywhere in the world viewed the notion of popular sovereignty, that is, that people are citizens, not subjects, and should have the right to vote and hold office, as dangerous nonsense.

.Many conservatives, including most white southerners, northern Democrats, and some northern Republicans, opposed black voting.^ It began with a purge of black and white Republicans by white Democrats .
  • Lynching in the United States at AllExperts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The president, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern whites spurned this Republican plan of Reconstruction.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Republicans, most notably some Southern senators, thought [reauthorization was inappropriate].
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some northern states that had referendums on the subject limited the ability of their own small populations of blacks to vote.^ Northern states worried that the policy would subject blacks to conditions similar to slavery and put Confederate leaders back in power.

^ Until ratification (1870) of the Fifteenth Amendment, which made it illegal to deny the vote on the grounds of race, most northern states refused blacks the vote.
  • United States, history of the (1850s–1960s) | Scholastic.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In southern states, such as Mississippi, Black Codes were instilled that often denied blacks the right to vote, serve on juries, or even own land.
  • Salem Public Schools -- District Site - Lesson Plans - The Voice of the Political Cartoon 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC salem.k12.ma.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lincoln had supported a middle position to allow some black men to vote, especially army veterans.^ Nowhere were blacks allowed to vote.

^ The Republicans ambitious plan for Reconstruction failed, although it did leave two positive legacies: The 14th and 15th Amendments ensured black rights and gave the vote to black men.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority were veterans of the Union Army, and their ranks also included teachers, Freedmen's Bureau agents, and men who had invested tens of thousands of dollars in cotton plantations."
  • Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Johnson also believed that such service should be rewarded with citizenship.^ We believe this is such a time - - - a time when we should consider where weather forecasting is headed and what the goals of weather forecasting, by humans, should be.
  • http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/~brooks/waf15/bfd.html 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nssl.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Johnson initiated many social service programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, aid for education and "War on Poverty".
  • A List of Presidents of the United States of America in Chronological Order 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Johnson believed the Southern states should decide the course that was best for them.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.Lincoln proposed giving the vote to "the very intelligent, and especially those who have fought gallantly in our ranks."^ Truthfully, they would have to adopt the same attitude as Christ (forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us).

^ It was scarcely to be expected that a man who had fought his way to the fore in eastern Tennessee during those controversial years would possess the characteristics of a diplomat.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Louisiana, more ingenious, added the “ grandfather clause ” to its constitution, which exempted from this literacy test all of those who had been entitled to vote on Jan.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .In 1864, Governor Johnson said, "The better class of them will go to work and sustain themselves, and that class ought to be allowed to vote, on the ground that a loyal negro is more worthy than a disloyal white man."^ But it will take much more than a change of personnel in the White House to restore bipartisanship and moderation to an America increasingly divided along ideological and geographic lines.
  • The Fourth Age: The Next Era in Transatlantic Relations - Council on Foreign Relations 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More vicious, however, were the imported agitators of the lowest character, destitute of principles, such as Colonel James Sinclair, the fighting parson, a Uriah Heep of humility, mingling socially with the negroes, and promising them the division of the white mans acres among the blacks if they would vote the Republican ticket.

^ African Americans just do not play a role in Johnson's vision of the postwar South, other than to go back to work and be landless .
  • Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

[20] As President in 1865, Johnson wrote to the man he appointed as governor of Mississippi, recommending, "If you could extend the elective franchise to all persons of color who can read the Constitution in English and write their names, and to all persons of color who own real estate valued at at least two hundred and fifty dollars, and pay taxes thereon, you would completely disarm the adversary [Radicals in Congress], and set an example the other states will follow."[21]
.Senators Charles Sumner of Massachusetts and Thaddeus Stevens, leaders of the Radical Republicans, were initially hesitant to enfranchise the largely illiterate former slave population.^ Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts and Representative Thaddeus Stevens (New England-born) of Pennsylvania were among the leaders of the Radical cause.
  • United States, history of the (1850s–1960s) | Scholastic.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leaders like Pennsylvania Representative Thaddeus Stevens and Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner vigorously opposed Andrew Johnson's lenient policies.
  • Radical Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their collapse was hastened by the death of the old radical leaders in Congress, such as Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner , and by the revelation of internal corruption in the radical Republican governments; the Grant administration was compelled to lessen its support of them because of growing criticism in the North of corruption in the federal government itself.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sumner preferred at first impartial requirements that would have imposed literacy restrictions on blacks and whites.^ Did Abolition mean that black men would now enjoy the same status as white men?
  • Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He would go on to open a chain of barbershops throughout Atlanta and create the Atlanta Life Insurance Company, becoming Atlanta’s first black millionaire.
  • Herndon Home full of history, but its future is unclear  | ajc.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ajc.com [Source type: News]

^ Many blacks were still poor and worked hard to make a living, and House Democrats knew that lawsuits would require money and considerable effort.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): The End of Reconstruction: 1873–1877 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.He believed, however, that he would not succeed in passing legislation to disfranchise illiterate whites who already had the vote.^ However, progress on the earthworks was slow due to the shortage of slave laborers, who were already occupied at the undermanned iron works in the area.
  • The United States Through the 19th and 20th Centuries. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forty more years would pass, however, before the Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage, on May 28, 1919, reported a resolution that was passed by Congress and ratified by the States as the 19th Amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote.

^ Therefore, many radical Republicans in Congress felt that it was necessary to also pass an amendment guaranteeing the right to vote for blacks equal to that of whites.
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[22]
.In the South, many poor whites were illiterate.^ Many South Carolinians, in particular, were convinced that Republican-sponsored emancipation would lead to bloody massacres as blacks sought vengeance against whites.
  • United States, history of the (1850s–1960s) | Scholastic.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A populist movement that linked poor white farmers with poor Black sharecroppers and wage workers erupted across the South.
  • How slavery was ended | SocialistWorker.org 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rest of the whites, many of them poor, suffer in the economic depression.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1880, for example, the white illiteracy rate was about 25% in Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, South Carolina, and Georgia; and as high as 33% in North Carolina.^ Indeed, a little more than 6,100 individuals from Alabama, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas are listed on salvaged fragments of the schedules.
  • Ancestry.com - Blazing New Trails: Reconstruction of the 1890 Census 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The records for the states of Alabama through Kansas and about one half of the Kentucky counties were lost or destroyed sometime before the 1940s though not in the fire of 1921.
  • Ancestry.com - Blazing New Trails: Reconstruction of the 1890 Census 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Confederacy originally included 11 states (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee).
  • Black Americans in Congress - The Fifteenth Amendment in Flesh and Blood 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC baic.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This compares with the 9% national rate and a black rate of illiteracy that was over 70% in the South.^ Compare the human and material costs of the war in the North and South and assess the degree to which the war reunited the nation.
  • National History Standards - Era 1 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sscnet.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration _____.
  • Online Library 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC afterslavery.com [Source type: Academic]

[23] .By 1900, with emphasis within the black community on education, however, the majority of blacks had achieved literacy.^ There was such motivation in the African American community, however, and enough good will among white and black teachers, that by the turn of the twentieth century the majority of African Americans could read and write.
  • African American Odyssey: Reconstruction and Its Aftermath (Part 2) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC rs6.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Educators locate their work and current practices within the broader social context of their communities.
  • JCEPS Vol. 4 No. 2 : The ambiguous politics of teachers in the reconstruction of Iraq 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.jceps.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conflicts within the black community, no less than divisions among whites, shaped Reconstruction politics.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The New View of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.Sumner soon concluded that "there was no substantial protection for the freedman except in the franchise."^ The studies, including a report by the Institute of Medicine, have concluded there is no convincing evidence that breast implants are associated with either of these diseases."
  • NEJM -- Breast Reconstruction after Breast-Cancer Surgery 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately there was no solution except war, but with the North's victory and passage of the 13th Amendment the "peculiar institution" of slavery was abolished.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was necessary, he stated, "(1) For his own protection; (2) For the protection of the white Unionist; and (3) For the peace of the country.^ We have also stressed the importance of thinking from the outset about what it's going to take to put a country on a path toward being a peaceful, democratic and market-oriented state.
  • Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) : CSIS SPEECH 10/20/2004 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.crs.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ To protect white supremacy, southern state governments have been passing measures which negate in almost every practical sense the emancipation of the slaves.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The US protectively stands guard over the entire world capitalist system rather than just its own investments which are highly integrated with those of other countries'.
  • Iraq's Reconstruction a Boondoggle by Design | World | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.We put the musket in his hands because it was necessary; for the same reason we must give him the franchise."^ The winning group should be determined by the panel who must give sound reasons for their selection.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The support for voting rights was a compromise between moderate and Radical Republicans.^ While the Radical Republicans were not a majority in Congress, they had the support of moderate Republicans as well.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Radical Republicans had been the core support for abolition.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout the later nineteenth century, almost all congressional Republicans, but not a single Democrat, supported civil rights measures.
  • Reconstruction – FREE Reconstruction information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Reconstruction research 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[25]
.The Republicans believed that the best way for men to get political experience was to be able to vote and to participate in the political system.^ Students will be able to understand the foundation of the American political system and the ways in which citizens participate in it.
  • Syllabus--Prof. Troy Johnson 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC historymatters.gmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other consolidations were already under way, and soon the major railroads of the nation were organized into trunk lines and "systems" directed by half a dozen men.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ The political system of the US is federal and the constitution upholds republican form of government.
  • A List of Presidents of the United States of America in Chronological Order 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

.They passed laws allowing all male freedmen to vote.^ The laws of the United States serve as the referee that allows all citizens to pursue their happiness on fair and equal grounds.
  • Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era by Herman Belz at Questia Online Library 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The result was tenantry and share-cropping, which allowed freedmen some autonomy and a higher standard of living than they had known as slaves.
  • RECONSTRUCTION RECONSIDERED 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fifteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, ratified March 30, 1870, provided that all male citizens were entitled to vote.
  • African American Odyssey: Reconstruction and Its Aftermath (Part 2) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC rs6.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1867, black men voted for the first time.^ Although it granted citizenship to African Americans, the Fourteenth Amendment did not explicitly extend the protection of voting rights to black men since it did not specifically mention the right to vote.
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Legally it could be assumed that the Fourteenth Amendment established equal voting rights for black men, but it was not explicitly clear that voting was a right of individual citizenship.
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After much debate, delegates to the constitutional convention agreed to abolish slavery without compensation for masters but not to give the vote to black men.
  • Reconstruction: A State Divided 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lsm.crt.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

.Over the course of Reconstruction, more than 1,500 African Americans held public office in the South.^ Describe the effects of Reconstruction on African Americans.
  • United States History Content Standards | ABCTE 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.abcte.org [Source type: Reference]
  • United States History Content Standards | ABCTE 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.abcte.org [Source type: Reference]

^ More than Freedom: African-American Aspirations in 1865 .
  • American Journey, The: A History of the United States, Volume 2, 5/E - Pearson Education EMA Catalogue 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC cseng.awl.com [Source type: News]

^ How would two of the following three people view the events of the Reconstruction period: an ex-Union soldier, a white southerner, an African American living in the South?
  • UMUC Asia - HIST 157: History of the United States since 1865 (CAT) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.asia.umuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They did not hold office in numbers representative of their proportion in the population, but often elected whites to represent them.^ Instead they became citizens possessing specific rights and duties embodied in a system of laws, to be enacted by legislatures composed of the peoples elected representatives.

^ The notation ( term limits A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office.
  • List of Current United States Governors Facts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.republicansagenda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those African Americans who did hold office appear to have been similar in competence and honesty to the whites.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] The question of women's suffrage was also debated but was rejected.[27]
.From 1890 to 1908, southern states passed new constitutions and laws that disfranchised tens of thousands of poor whites and many blacks with new voter registration and electoral rules.^ Blacks were admitted to white Law Schools.
  • 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between these two years the new state constitution had been passed.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern whites had held black people in slavery for many years.
  • Reconstruction: After the Civil War, the American South Rebuilds 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

[28]

Johnson's presidential Reconstruction

.Northern anger over the assassination of Lincoln and the immense human cost of the war led to vengeful demands for harsh policies.^ Two years into the war, Northern generals, led by Abraham Lincoln himself, tried to articulate a vague concept of "national unity" as the central issue.
  • How slavery was ended | SocialistWorker.org 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC socialistworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war, Republicans immediately clashed with now-President Johnson over Reconstructing the South (Lincoln had been assassinated immediately after the South surrendered).
  • Evolution of American political parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Lincoln was assassinated in 1865, President Andrew Johnson tried to implement similar Reconstruction policies.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 7 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

.Vice President Andrew Johnson had taken a hard line and spoke of hanging rebel Confederates, but when he succeeded Lincoln as President, Johnson took a much softer line, pardoning many Confederate leaders and former Confederates.^ Many former Confederate leaders were soon returned to power.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The vice-president, Andrew Johnson, succeeding to the office of president on Lincoln's assassination, is immediately confronted with the problems of peace.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Johnson, Andrew, vice president president amnesty policy.
  • A School History of the United States by John Bach McMaster - Full Text Free Book (Part 9/10) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Jefferson Davis was held in prison for two years, but other Confederate leaders were not.^ Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States, was held in prison until 1867 and then released.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Post Civil War, Confederate President Jefferson Davis was indicted ( never proven guilty ) and confined to prison for two years.
  • American Civil War: Aftermath and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in the election year, nevertheless, James G. Blaine, Republican leader in the House, made a forceful attack on Jefferson Davis, as the wilful author of the "gigantic murders and crimes at Andersonville," the southern prison in which federal captives had been held.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.There were no treason trials.^ This would be equivalent to saying there should be no penalty for treason, for there would be no power to impose it, as the guilty would have an equal voice with the guiltless in settling the controversy.
  • Valley of the Shadow: Civil War-Era Newspapers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC valley.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Only one person—Captain Henry Wirz, the commandant of the prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia—was executed for war crimes.^ For a time it seemed that the curtain would go down on the tragedy of Civil War only to rise immediately on the execution of the Confederate leaders and the confiscation of their property.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Born in Georgia, Pinchback worked as a ship's steward prior to the Civil War and commanded a Union Native Guard company during the war.
  • Reconstruction: A State Divided 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lsm.crt.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

^ William Howard Taft is the only person to head both the Executive and Judicial branches of the government.

.In March 1865, Congress had established the Freedmen's Bureau.^ On the 3d of March, 1865, therefore, while Mr. Lincoln still lived, an Act had been passed which created in the War Department a "Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands," whose powers were most elastic and paternal.

^ To deal with one of its major concerns – the condition of former slaves – Congress established the Freedmen's Bureau in March 1865 to act as guardian over African Americans and guide them toward self-support.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress attempted to protect the rights of African Americans by extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau , a welfare agency established in March 1865 to ease the transition from slavery to freedom; but Johnson vetoed the bill.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bureau provided food, clothing, and fuel to destitute former slaves and white refugees, and advice on negotiating labor contracts.^ When Johnson vetoed a bill extending the Freedmen's Bureau , which provided food to destitute southerners of both races, supervised labor contracts, and started schools where ex‐slaves could be educated and courts where their rights could be protected, Republicans in Congress overrode his action, as they did his veto of a Civil Rights Bill that outlawed the Black Codes and mandated basic legal equality .
  • Reconstruction – FREE Reconstruction information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Reconstruction research 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This volume, compiled by the staff of General Oliver O. Howard, the director of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands--usually called the Freedmen's Bureau--provides a digest of these laws in ten of the former Confederate states up to 1867.
  • African American Odyssey: Reconstruction and Its Aftermath (Part 2) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC rs6.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lacking capital, and with little to offer but their labor, thousands of impoverished former slaves slipped into the status of sharecropper farmers, as did many landless whites.

.It attempted to oversee new relations between freedmen and their former masters.^ He attempted to terminate the Freedmen's Bureau (an agency established in 1865 to aid refugees) and to veto legislation aimed at protecting the civil rights of former slaves.
  • United States, history of the (1850s–1960s) | Scholastic.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www2.scholastic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Warmer relations between the United States and former adversaries will open new opportunities for the intelligence services of those countries.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the relation between social caring, conditions of decency, and a new social contract?
  • Institute for Policy Studies: Paths for Reconstruction in the 21st Century: An Introduction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ips-dc.org [Source type: Original source]

.It did not, as later myths said, promise 40 acres and a mule.^ Clifford said to the end that he did not know that BCCI had been behind the purchase of the bank.  For him, the bank became a new challenge for his later years.
  • Clark Clifford, Secretary of Defense, United States of America 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.arlingtoncemetery.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The term term "40 acres and a mule" was not used in Sherman's order.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

[30]
.Although resigned to the abolition of slavery, many former Confederates were not willing to accept the social changes nor political domination by former slaves.^ He traces the evolution of Iowa politics and race relations from the 1830s to the 1880s, when voters eliminated the last racist legislation, concluding that political factors (such as Republican dominance) were as vital for progress as were social or cultural changes.
  • Bibliography - Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC cehs.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lacking capital, and with little to offer but their labor, thousands of impoverished former slaves slipped into the status of sharecropper farmers, as did many landless whites.

^ He returned all property, except, of course, their slaves, to former Confederates who pledged loyalty to the Union and agreed to support the 13th Amendment.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

The defeated were unwilling to acknowledge that their society had changed. In the words of Benjamin F. Perry, President Johnson's choice as the provisional governor of South Carolina: "First, the Negro is to be invested with all political power, and then the antagonism of interest between capital and labor is to work out the result."[31]
.The fears, however, of the mostly conservative planter elite and other leading white citizens were partly assuaged by the actions of President Johnson, who ensured that a wholesale land redistribution from the planters to the freedman did not occur.^ President Johnson, in particular, ensured that a wholesale land redistribution to the freed slaves did not occur.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who criticize Reconstruction as too conservative hold that only widespread land redistribution from former masters to former slaves, and perhaps even the extermination of the planter class, would have achieved a true social revolution.
  • Reconstruction – FREE Reconstruction information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Reconstruction research 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ December 25, 1868 - President Andrew Johnson issues an unconditional pardon to all those who participated in the southern rebellion.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

.President Johnson ordered that confiscated or abandoned lands administered by the Freedman's Bureau would not be redistributed to the freedmen but be returned to pardoned owners.^ The land was, as a result, returned to its former owners.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln's successor, Andrew Johnson, ordered the confiscated lands returned to their former owners.
  • Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ December 25, 1868 - President Andrew Johnson issues an unconditional pardon to all those who participated in the southern rebellion.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

Land was returned that would have been forfeited under the Confiscation Acts passed by Congress in 1861 and 1862.

Freedmen and the enactment of Black Codes

A Harper's Magazine political cartoon alleging Ku Klux Klan and White League opposition to Reconstruction
.Southern state governments quickly enacted the restrictive "black codes". However, they were abolished in 1866 and seldom had effect, because the Freedman's Bureau (not the local courts) handled the legal affairs of freedmen.^ To be sure, slavery was abolished; but each reconstructed Southern state government proceeded to adopt a “ Black Code ,” regulating the rights and privileges of freedmen.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State and local government - Political process .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The judicial branch - State and local government .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Black Codes indicated the plans of the southern whites for the former slaves.^ Ku Klux Klan established in TN. Oppressive "Black Codes" implemented in many Southern states.

^ The former leaders of the Confederacy were barred from political office, who were the regions "natural leaders," a reversal of sympathies took place which portrayed the Southern whites as victims, and blacks unfit to exercise suffrage.
  • American Civil War Reconstruction Era and Acts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War: Aftermath and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Blacks were excluded from public schools, black orphans “apprenticed” to their former owners, and black “servants” required to labor from sunup to sundown for their “masters.” White southerners also demanded that former Confederate officers and politicians be immediately seated in Congress.
  • Reconstruction – FREE Reconstruction information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Reconstruction research 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[32] .The freedmen would have more rights than did free blacks before the war, but they still had only a limited set of second-class civil rights, no voting rights, and, since they were not citizens, they could not own firearms, serve on a jury in a lawsuit involving whites or move about without employment.^ Would he support limited black suffrage as Lincoln did?
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only President to serve more than two terms.
  • Presidents of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ Furthermore, Republicans had a vested interest in black civil rights, as freedmen would constitute the only part of the Southern electorate that would vote Republican.
  • Evolution of American political parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[33] .The Black Codes would limit blacks' ability to control their own employment.^ In southern states, such as Mississippi, Black Codes were instilled that often denied blacks the right to vote, serve on juries, or even own land.
  • Salem Public Schools -- District Site - Lesson Plans - The Voice of the Political Cartoon 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC salem.k12.ma.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would he support limited black suffrage as Lincoln did?
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This example from Mississippi Black Codes 1865 shows how these laws restricted a Black persons freedom to resign from a place of employment.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Black Codes outraged northern opinion.^ They were outraged by the South's " black codes ", which severely restricted the civil rights of blacks to the point of virtual slavery.
  • Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were overthrown by the Civil Rights Act of 1866 that gave the Freedmen full legal equality (except for the right to vote).^ Civil Rights Act of 1875 (CP p.
  • Syllabus for AHG 504B: Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mahg.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Voting Rights Act, 1965 .
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Voting Rights Act of 1965 .
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

[34]
.The freedmen rejected gang labor work patterns that had been used in slavery; with the strong backing of the Freedman's Bureau, they forced planters to bargain for their labor.^ Freedmen's Bureau family Faced with outdated leads and physical descriptions, the Freedman's Bureau was often unsuccessful in its efforts to reunite families whose members were once slaves.
  • Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Freedman's Bureau , a federal agency created to help the transition from slavery to emancipation, was thwarted in its attempts to provide for the welfare of the newly emancipated.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Without land or money, most freedmen had to continue working for white masters; but they were now unwilling to labour in gangs or to live in the old slave quarters under the eye of the plantation owner.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such bargaining soon led to the establishment of the system of sharecropping, which gave the freedmen greater economic independence and social autonomy than gang labor.^ (National Historic Landmark) STANDARD 3: The rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act) establishes the first national labor policy of protecting the right of workers to organize and to elect their representatives for collective bargaining.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blacks preferred this system to wage labor because it gave them a sense of independence and responsibility.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, because they lacked capital and the planters continued to own the means of production (tools, draft animals and land), the freedmen were forced into producing cash crops (mainly cotton) for the land-owners and merchants, and they entered into a crop-lien system.^ The principal crop continued to be cotton.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The system continued into the Depression of the 1930s.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Carpetbagger: This term describes Northerners who moved South to invest in land and become planters in the staple crop economy.
  • Salem Public Schools -- District Site - Lesson Plans - The Voice of the Political Cartoon 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC salem.k12.ma.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Widespread poverty, disruption to an agricultural economy too dependent on cotton, and the falling price of cotton, led within decades to the routine indebtedness of the majority of the freedmen, and poverty by many planters.^ The majority were veterans of the Union Army, and their ranks also included teachers, Freedmen's Bureau agents, and men who had invested tens of thousands of dollars in cotton plantations."
  • Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Products basic to the American economyincluding cotton, wheat, iron, steel, and agricultural equipmentalready depended heavily on foreign sales.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result was an economy that remained heavily committed not only to agriculture, but to the staple crop of cotton.

[35]
.Northern officials gave varying reports on conditions for the freedmen in the South.^ Report on the condition of the South.

^ Georgia's major carpetbagger, Union veteran John Emory Bryant of Maine, had come south as a Freedmen's Bureau official and newspaper publisher.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1880, the South had defeated the weak Northern efforts in behalf of the freedmen, and had re-enslaved the Negro.

.One harsh assessment came from Carl Schurz, who reported on the situation in the states along the Gulf Coast.^ [Accompanied by a report of] Carl Schurz.

^ Document 16.1 Carl Schurz, Report on the Condition of the South (1865) .
  • American Nation, The: A History of the United States Since 1865, Volume II, Primary Source Edition (with Study Card), 12/E - Pearson Education EMA Catalogue 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC cseng.awl.com [Source type: Reference]

^ GRASPING THE REAL STRATEGIC SITUATION Another challenge the United States is going to have to overcome to deal with the real problems of Iraq is one of the new administration's own making.
  • Passing The Baton: An Obama Administration Takes on the Challenge Of Iraq | Editorial 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.rightsidenews.com [Source type: Original source]

.His report documented dozens of extra-judicial killings and claimed that hundreds or thousands more African Americans were killed.^ Violence against African Americans by such extra-legal organizations as the Ku Klux Klan became more and more frequent.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1915 murder of factory manager Leo Frank , an American Jew , was one of the more notorious lynchings of a non-African-American.
  • Lynching in the United States at AllExperts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More important than these differences, however, was African-American slavery.
  • History of the United States of America 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyofnations.net [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.The number of murders and assaults perpetrated upon Negroes is very great; we can form only an approximative estimate of what is going on in those parts of the South which are not closely garrisoned, and from which no regular reports are received, by what occurs under the very eyes of our military authorities.^ WWII not only built bases, but via the GI Bill provided incentives to go to school and you see the start of an educated class in the South that is not also part of the land owning class.

^ So they hit upon the idea of putting into this Fourteenth Amendment a clause stating that unless the South gave the negro the right to vote, the negroes would not be counted at all in estimating the number of representatives from this section.
  • Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC sciway3.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And those are contracts open-ended, essentially, that pay for everything and – you know, success or failure, but pay for what is expected under the contract and a lot of waste occurred.
  • "HARD LESSONS: The Iraq Reconstruction Experience" 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC fpc.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.As to my personal experience, I will only mention that during my two days sojourn at Atlanta, one Negro was stabbed with fatal effect on the street, and three were poisoned, one of whom died.^ The Personal Computer (PC) and Microsoft became an integral part of every day life starting in the United States during the late 1980's.
  • The United States of America 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.solcomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was only the school-organized leading of prayer, following any one religious organization's idea or dogma, that was, in my understanding, banned.
  • The History of The Pledge of Allegiance in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have entered a new era, one whose outline would have been unimaginable only three years ago.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While I was at Montgomery, one negro was cut across the throat evidently with intent to kill, and another was shot, but both escaped with their lives.^ Moreover, when one blogger does cut'n'paste from another blogger without linking, the responses can often be very vitriolic and downright nasty.

.Several papers attached to this report give an account of the number of capital cases that occurred at certain places during a certain period of time.^ The soldiers' numbers during the period from 1865 to 1871 fluctuated greatly, from around 9,000 (June 1865) to more than 15,000 (September 1865), but for most of the period their numbers totaled less than 1,000.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Migration is the process of moving from one place to another place intending to stay permanently or at least for a long period of time.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 7 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All they have been doing is submit mammoth reports to Congress for members to read during coffee time.
  • United States vs China - Consequences of a Nuclear War | Aby The Liberal 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.abytheliberal.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is a sad fact that the perpetration of those acts is not confined to that class of people which might be called the rabble.^ The poor people in those countries and the middle class suffer; they don’t benefit from these loans, they don’t benefit from the projects.
  • Iraq's Reconstruction a Boondoggle by Design | World | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The incomes of working people increased along with those of middle class and wealthier Americans.
  • History of the United States of America 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyofnations.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I saw plenty of injustice, plenty of inequality, and plenty of God-fearing people acting wrongly towards those of other races, creeds and ethnic backgrounds.
  • The History of The Pledge of Allegiance in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

.Carl Schurz, "Report on the Condition of the South", December 1865 (U.S. Senate Exec.^ Report on the condition of the South.

^ Group C: Excerpt from Carl Schurz, speech in the Senate , January 30, 1872 .
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Missouri coalition of Democrats and dissident Republicans secures US Senate seat for reformist Carl Schurz.

Doc. No. 2, 39th Congress, 1st session).
The report included sworn testimony from soldiers and officials of the Freedman's Bureau. .In Selma, Alabama, Major J.P. Houston noted that whites who killed 12 African Americans in his district never came to trial.^ In 1880, for example, African Americans were an absolute majority in Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina; and were over 40% of the population in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Virginia, making Afri- can Americans the largest single voting bloc in those states.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (National Historic Landmark) The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, a permanent working majority, white and black, never emerged, and black politicians never felt that they were given a fair share of power or patronage.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many more killings never became official cases.^ Our answers to the questions to be raised, questions which have bedeviled many generations, can never be more than tentative, for history and our own actions are full of surprises as well as consequences.
  • Institute for Policy Studies: Paths for Reconstruction in the 21st Century: An Introduction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ips-dc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those killed and wounded at Shiloh numbered more than 10,000 on each side, a casualty rate that Americans had never before experienced.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A crowd of negroes attending a convention in New Orleans in behalf of suffrage for their race became engaged in a fight with white anti-suffragists and many of the blacks were killed.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Captain Poillon described white patrols in southwestern Alabama "who board some of the boats; after the boats leave they hang, shoot, or drown the victims they may find on them, and all those found on the roads or coming down the rivers are almost invariably murdered.^ December 25, 1868 - President Andrew Johnson issues an unconditional pardon to all those who participated in the southern rebellion.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (However, the latter provisions were only temporary and soon rescinded for almost all of those affected by them.
  • American Civil War Reconstruction Era and Acts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, if you compare one of those popular red state/blue state maps that everybody was looking at after the elections of George W. Bush, you will find that they correspond almost exactly to the slave state/free state maps of the antebellum period!
  • Amazon.com: Understand the Impact of Reconstruction and the Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The bewildered and terrified freedmen know not what to do—to leave is death; to remain is to suffer the increased burden imposed upon them by the cruel taskmaster, whose only interest is their labor, wrung from them by every device an inhuman ingenuity can devise; hence the lash and murder is resorted to intimidate those whom fear of an awful death alone cause to remain, while patrols, Negro dogs and spies, disguised as Yankees, keep constant guard over these unfortunate people."^ These measures, known as the Black Codes, are designed to keep Negroes in a state of servitude as close as is legally possible to slavery.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, Republicans had a vested interest in black civil rights, as freedmen would constitute the only part of the Southern electorate that would vote Republican.
  • Evolution of American political parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The poor people in those countries and the middle class suffer; they don’t benefit from these loans, they don’t benefit from the projects.
  • Iraq's Reconstruction a Boondoggle by Design | World | AlterNet 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

Moderate responses

.In response to the Black codes and worrisome signs of Southern recalcitrance, the Radical Republicans blocked the readmission of the former rebellious states to the Congress in fall 1865. Congress also renewed the Freedman's Bureau, but Johnson vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau Bill in February 1866. Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, leader of the moderate Republicans, took affront at the black codes.^ Radical Republicans in Congress were strengthened by the election of 1866.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republican Congress in an effiort to strike down the black codes passed a Civil Riughts Bill, but President Johnson vetoed it (April 1866).
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Radical Republicans in Congress persue a policy aimed at protecting southern Blacks.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

He proposed the first Civil Rights Law, because the abolition of slavery was empty if
laws are to be enacted and enforced depriving persons of African descent of privileges which are essential to freemen... A law that does not allow a colored person to go from one county to another, and one that does not allow him to hold property, to teach, to preach, are certainly laws in violation of the rights of a freeman... The purpose of this bill is to destroy all these discriminations.[37]
The key to the bill was the opening section:
All persons born in the United States ... are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States; and such citizens of every race and color, without regard to any previous condition of slavery ... shall have the same right in every State ...to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, and give evidence, to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property, and to full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property, as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, and penalties and to none other, any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom to the Contrary notwithstanding.
Congress quickly passed the Civil Rights bill; the Senate on February 2 voted 33–12; the House on March 13 voted 111–38.

Johnson's vetoes

.Although strongly urged by moderates in Congress to sign the Civil Rights bill, Johnson broke decisively with them by vetoing it on March 27, 1866. His veto message objected to the measure because it conferred citizenship on the Freedmen at a time when eleven out of thirty-six states were unrepresented and attempted to fix by Federal law "a perfect equality of the white and black races in every State of the Union."^ Civil Rights Act of 1866 (CP p.
  • Syllabus for AHG 504B: Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mahg.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ States now had the right to secede from the Union.
  • Regents Prep U.S. History & Government: Multiple-Choice Question Archive 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC regentsprep.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Johnson, Veto of Civil Rights Bill, March 27, 1866 (CP p.
  • Syllabus for AHG 504B: Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mahg.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Johnson said it was an invasion by Federal authority of the rights of the States; it had no warrant in the Constitution and was contrary to all precedents.^ Article II, section 2 of the Constitution requires the President of the United States to appoint the principal officers of the federal government "with the Advice and Consent of the Senate."

^ The Judiciary Committee's consideration of civil rights laws during Reconstruction were crucial in the drafting of the 14th Amendment, which applied the same constitutional rights to the States.

^ For example, the population of the territory that now constitutes the United States may have been as high as 10 million in 1500, and those people were all American Indians.

.It was a "stride toward centralization and the concentration of all legislative power in the national government."^ The power of the central government was strengthened.
  • Regents Prep U.S. History & Government: Multiple-Choice Question Archive 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC regentsprep.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Comments on how the U.S. government shifted its power from establishing colonies to establishing a reputation as a nation that helps rebuild its vanquished enemies focusing on rebuilding Iraq after the war in 2003.
  • Nation Building--Post Conflict Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But not only were the legal power and authority of the Government of the United States vested in the organized States by recognition of the loyal people but they were recognized by foreign nations.
  • Valley of the Shadow: Civil War-Era Newspapers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC valley.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

[38]
.
The debate over reconstruction and the Freedman's Bureau was nationwide.
^ General Information: Freedman's Bureau, History - 1800s (2 folders), Ku Klux Klan - General (2), Reconstruction.
  • Bibliographies :: Georgia Room :: Hargrett :: UGA Libraries 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This 1866 Pennsylvania election poster alleged that Freedman's Bureau money was being lavished on lazy freedmen at the expense of white workers.^ In January 1866, Judiciary Chairman Trumbull introduced two bills, the Civil Rights Act of 1866, and a bill to expand the powers of the Freedman's Bureau.

^ However, I am sure that the freedmen did not care about the Constitution when it came to their lives being taken by madmen in white sheets.

[39]
.The Democratic Party, proclaiming itself the party of white men, north and south, supported Johnson.^ Led by so-called carpetbaggers (Northerners who settled in the South) and scalawags (Southern whites in the Republican party) and freedmen, they began to rebuild the Southern economy and society.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A former Democrat, Stanton joined the Republicans and went on to support Radical Reconstruction in the South.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other party was called conservative or Democratic, and was composed of the great mass of the whites.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[40] .However the Republicans in Congress overrode his veto (the Senate by the close vote of 33:15, the House by 122:41) and the Civil Rights bill became law.^ Proposed the Bill of Rights to congress.
  • Presidents of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ The same logic drove Senator Hillary Clinton (D-N.Y.) and many other Democrats and moderate Republicans in Congress to authorize the use of force in October 2002, producing the lopsided Senate vote of 77-23.
  • RealClearPolitics - The Bush Era in Perspective 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.realclearpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in his first showdown with Congress upon being elected, Grant backed down and accepted a compromise proposal with the Senate even after the House had voted to join him in his opposition to the Act.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Congress also passed the Freedmen's Bureau Bill over Johnson's veto.^ Congress passed the Act over Johnson's veto.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress attempted to protect the rights of African Americans by extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau , a welfare agency established in March 1865 to ease the transition from slavery to freedom; but Johnson vetoed the bill.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were officially called Freedmen after the U.S. Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1862.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The last moderate proposal was the Fourteenth Amendment, whose principal drafter was Representative John Bingham.^ In conformity with the provisions of the Act, the newly chosen legislatures ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, sent representatives and senators to Washington, where they were admitted to Congress, and by 1871 the last confederate state was reconstructed.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Heller , its Second Amendment case last term: Does the Fourteenth Amendment incorporate the Second Amendment to the states?
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roche, John P. "Entrepreneurial Liberty and the Fourteenth Amendment."
  • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It was designed to put the key provisions of the Civil Rights Act into the Constitution, but it went much further.^ Civil Rights Act of 1875 (CP p.
  • Syllabus for AHG 504B: Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mahg.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Civil Rights Act of 1866 (CP p.
  • Syllabus for AHG 504B: Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mahg.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Civil Rights Act of 1957 .
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

.It extended citizenship to everyone born in the United States (except visitors and Indians on reservations), penalized states that did not give the vote to Freedmen, and most importantly, created new federal civil rights that could be protected by federal courts.^ American Stories: A History of the United States concentrates on the topics most commonly taught in an American history survey course, with a focus on the major themes and the connections between them.
  • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gilded Age covers topics that include "[i]mmigration and migration, racism and civil rights, labor and industry, women and universal suffrage, American Indians, and the environment."
  • CSU Libraries: United States of America (History) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.library.colostate.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The 15th Amendment, passed by Congress the following year and ratified in 1870 by state legislatures, provided that "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It guaranteed the Federal war debt would be paid (and promised the Confederate debt would never be paid).^ For a time it seemed that the curtain would go down on the tragedy of Civil War only to rise immediately on the execution of the Confederate leaders and the confiscation of their property.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This turned out to be a hollow promise, the lands were never fully paid for.
  • TGS HiddenMysteries :: Lost History :: Texas History :: Brief by the Republic of Texas vs. The United States (book and disk) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC hiddenmysteries.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In due time conventions were held in each of the former Confederate states to repeal the ordinances of secession, repudiate the war debt, and draft new state constitutions.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Johnson used his influence to block the amendment in the states since three-fourths of the states were required for ratification (the amendment was later ratified.^ In the early 1960s, three fourths of all blacks in the United States lived in urban areas.
  • 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1869 Congress referred to the states the Fifteenth Amendment, which was declared in force a year later.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The former Conderate states, except Texas, by the end of 1865 had complied with the requirements established by President Johnson for restoring civil government.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

). .The moderate effort to compromise with Johnson had failed, and a political fight broke out between the Republicans (both Radical and moderate) on one side, and on the other side, Johnson and his allies in the Democratic party in the North, and the conservative groupings (which used different names) in each southern state.^ One goal of the Radical Republicans was to .
  • The Reconstruction Era / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Political parties, beginning of, see Federalists, Democrats, Republicans, etc.
  • A School History of the United States by John Bach McMaster - Full Text Free Book (Part 9/10) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Multiple Choice quiz on political parties: Democrat-Republican or Federalist .
  • Quizzes to Test Yourself 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Congress imposes Radical Reconstruction

.Republicans in Congress took control of Reconstruction policies after the election of 1866. Johnson ignored the policy mandate, and he openly encouraged southern states to deny to ratify the 14th Amendment (except for Tennessee, all former confederate states did so, as did the border states of Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky).^ Reconstruction under Andrew Johnson - - - Johnson’s policy .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radical Republicans in Congress were strengthened by the election of 1866.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only three border states states voted Democratic (Delaware, Maryland and Kentucky).
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Radical Republicans in Congress, led by Stevens and Sumner opened the way to suffrage for male freedmen.^ Their collapse was hastened by the death of the old radical leaders in Congress, such as Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner , and by the revelation of internal corruption in the radical Republican governments; the Grant administration was compelled to lessen its support of them because of growing criticism in the North of corruption in the federal government itself.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ His lenient Reconstruction policies toward the South embittered the Radical Republicans in congress and led to his political downfall and to his impeachment.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Radical Republicans in Congress were strengthened by the election of 1866.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were generally in control, although they had to compromise with the moderate Republicans (the Democrats in Congress had almost no power).^ The same logic drove Senator Hillary Clinton (D-N.Y.) and many other Democrats and moderate Republicans in Congress to authorize the use of force in October 2002, producing the lopsided Senate vote of 77-23.
  • RealClearPolitics - The Bush Era in Perspective 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.realclearpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They're designed to give local democratic control over utilities so that local citizens have a say in how their local utilities are managed.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Known as the Populists, they vigorously opposed the old Democratic and Republican parties.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

Historians generally refer to this period as Radical Reconstruction.[41]
.The South's white leaders, who held power in the immediate postwar era before the vote was granted to the freedmen, renounced secession and slavery, but not white supremacy.^ Under provisional governors appointed by him, the Southern states held conventions that voided or repealed their ordinances of secession, abolished slavery, and (except South Carolina) repudiated Confederate debts.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An orgy of corruption followed, presided over by unscrupulous carpetbaggers (Northerners who ventured south to reap the spoils of office), traitorous scalawags (Southern whites who cooperated with the new governments for personal gain), and the ignorant and childlike freedmen, who were incapable of properly exercising the political power that had been thrust upon them.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The New View of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a voter, he was on an equality with the whites; he belonged to the Republican party and his party was a powerful factor in the politics of the South; his position was secured, or at least seemed to be secured, by amendments to the federal Constitution.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.People who had previously held power were angered in 1867 when new elections were held.^ Former New York Tribune editor who ran for president in the election of 1872 .
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The spectacle of French and Russian bureaucrats, who for decades profited from dealing with a brutal dictator in power, ruling over the Iraqi people would be utterly abhorrent.
  • Blueprint for Freedom: Limiting the Role of the United Nations in Post-War Iraq 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From October 29 through November 2, 1867, an election was held for delegates to another constitutional convention, which would meet from December 1867 into March 1868.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Reconstruction in Georgia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.New Republican lawmakers were elected by a coalition of white Unionists, freedmen and northerners who had settled in the South.^ An orgy of corruption followed, presided over by unscrupulous carpetbaggers (Northerners who ventured south to reap the spoils of office), traitorous scalawags (Southern whites who cooperated with the new governments for personal gain), and the ignorant and childlike freedmen, who were incapable of properly exercising the political power that had been thrust upon them.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The New View of Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Led by so-called carpetbaggers (Northerners who settled in the South) and scalawags (Southern whites in the Republican party) and freedmen, they began to rebuild the Southern economy and society.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first public schools were established in the south through the work of coalitions consisting of both whites and African Americans.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some leaders in the South tried to accommodate to new conditions.^ While the president, from the porch of the White House , denounced the leaders of the Republican Party as “traitors,” Republicans in Congress tried to formulate their own plan to reconstruct the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern labor leaders and industrialist thought the South was trying to destroy capitalism and spread its slave power aristocracy on the nation.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Constitutional amendments

.Three new Constitutional amendments, known as the Reconstruction Amendments, were adopted.^ Under his direction each state was to frame and adopt a new constitution which must provide for negro suffrage.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Conscience and the constitution : history, theory, and law of the Reconstruction amendments / by David A.J. Richards.

^ The first two years of Congressional Reconstruction saw Southern states rewrite their Constitutions and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Radical Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.The 13th Amendment abolished slavery and was ratified in 1865. The 14th Amendment was proposed in 1866 and ratified in 1868, guaranteeing United States citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States (except Native Americans), and granting them federal civil rights.^ United States History 1865-1921.
  • CSU Libraries: United States of America (History) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.library.colostate.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A constitutional amendment, ratified in 1865 , that abolished slavery in the United States.
  • SparkNotes: Reconstruction (1865–1877): Key People & Terms 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 14th Amendment read in part, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 15th Amendment, proposed in late February 1869 and passed in early February 1870, decreeing that the right to vote could not be denied because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". The amendment did not declare the vote an unconditional right and only prohibited these types of discrimination while specific electoral policies were deeply determined within each state.^ February 27, 1869 - The 15th Amendment is passed by Congress.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By its terms the United States and the states are forbidden to abridge the right of citizens to vote on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hayes would be elected only if the electoral votes of all these states could be obtained for him.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Statutes

.Congress clarified the scope of the federal writ of habeas corpus to allow federal courts to vacate unlawful state court convictions or sentences in 1867 (28 U.S.C. §2254).^ Scope and Jurisdiction Section...decisions of state courts of last resort and federal decisions on any important matter, especially when the inferior courts...development of the U.S. economy, the alteration of political views , and the evolution of the federal structure.
  • Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era by Herman Belz at Questia Online Library 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of what avail to demand a trial by jury, process of witnesses, a copy of the indictment, the privilege of counsel, or that greater privilege, the writ of habeas corpus?
  • Valley of the Shadow: Civil War-Era Newspapers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC valley.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Commercial law , Federalism , History , State regulation , Supreme Court decisions , United States .
  • Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era by Herman Belz at Questia Online Library 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Military reconstruction

With the Radicals in control, Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts in 1867. The first Reconstruction Act placed ten Confederate states under military control, grouping them into five military districts:[42]
.Tennessee was not made part of a military district (having already been readmitted to the Union), and therefore federal controls did not apply.^ What did the Emancipation Proclamation accomplish, given the fact that it applied only to areas that were not under Union authority?
  • Syllabus for AHG 504B: Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mahg.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In pursuance of his policy he had already appointed military governors in states where the federal army had secured a foothold, and they directed the re-establishment of civil government.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Lincoln made him military governor of Tennessee in 1862.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ten Southern state governments were re-constituted under the direct control of the United States Army.^ Democrats regain control of every southern state government.
  • History of THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States is effectively controlling the area.
  • Embassy of the United States Ankara, Turkey - Remarks by Ambassador Eric S. Edelman during the Roundtable with Journalists at the Residence - Ankara, December 10, 2003 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC turkey.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These were acts of the UNITED STATES government.
  • TGS HiddenMysteries :: Lost History :: Texas History :: Brief by the Republic of Texas vs. The United States (book and disk) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC hiddenmysteries.com [Source type: Original source]

.One major purpose was to recognize and protect the right of African Americans to vote.^ In 1880, for example, African Americans were an absolute majority in Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina; and were over 40% of the population in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Virginia, making Afri- can Americans the largest single voting bloc in those states.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (National Historic Landmark) The Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March: Shaking the Conscience of the Nation (133) Learn how people in Selma, Alabama, and national civil rights organizations worked together to end the unconstitutional denial of voting rights to African Americans in the South.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black voting was not quickly extinguished; in the 1880s, some African Americans continued to vote in the upper South and in pockets elsewhere, but black officeholders and voting majorities vanished, fraud and intimidation were common, and black votes often fell under conservative control.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .There was little or no combat, but rather a state of martial law in which the military closely supervised local government, supervised elections, and tried to protect office holders and freedmen from violence.^ State and local government - Political process .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The judicial branch - State and local government .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the offices in the new governments, moreover, were won by disenfranchised Confederate leaders, and the President, rather than ordering new elections, granted pardons on a large scale.
  • Reconstruction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Blacks were enrolled as voters; former Confederate leaders were excluded for a limited period.[Foner 1988 p 274–5] No one state was entirely representative.^ Generally, the leaders of states encouraged nationalism, proclaiming that the interests of the state and the nation were one.

^ Texas voters approved the convention's recommendation in a referendum on February 23 and Texas joined the Confederate States of America.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 7 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Proclamation of Amnesty and Pardon for the Confederate States One of the most controversial issues about Reconstruction was how to treat the states that had seceded.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

Randolph Campbell describes what happened in Texas:[45]
The first critical step … was the registration of voters according to guidelines established by Congress and interpreted by Generals Sheridan and Charles Griffin. .The Reconstruction Acts called for registering all adult males, white and black, except those who had ever sworn an oath to uphold the Constitution of the United States and then engaged in rebellion.… Sheridan interpreted these restrictions stringently, barring from registration not only all pre-1861 officials of state and local governments who had supported the Confederacy but also all city officeholders and even minor functionaries such as sextons of cemeteries.^ United States History 1815-1861.
  • CSU Libraries: United States of America (History) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.library.colostate.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I said even here in the United States?
  • Defense.gov News Transcript: Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with 60 Minutes II 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.defense.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ What had happened to the United States had happened only to the United States.
  • RealClearPolitics - The Bush Era in Perspective 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.realclearpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

.In May Griffin … appointed a three-man board of registrars for each county, making his choices on the advice of known scalawags and local Freedman's Bureau agents.^ We do known that the Freedmans' Bureau was established while Lincoln was still president.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dedicated May 4, 1957 Petroleum Production Pioneers Kern County Museum Oil Committee Kern County Board of Supervisors Erected 1957 by Kern County Museum, Petroleum Production Pioneers, Kern County Museum Oil Committee and Kern County Board of Supervisors.
  • Cable Tool Drilling Rig Marker 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.hmdb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In every county where practicable a freedman served as one of the three registrars.… Final registration amounted to approximately 59,633 whites and 49,479 blacks.^ Parts two and three will be the writers observation of relations between blacks and whites in the town or city where the writer lives at two different times in the year following the proceedings.
  • 08.01.06: Accountability and Reconstruction after the United States Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ida B. Wells-Barnett , a black journalist, was shocked when three of her friends in Memphis, Tennessee were lynched for opening a grocery that competed with a white-owned store.
  • Lynching in the United States at AllExperts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1946, a mob of white men shot and killed two young black men and two young black women near Moore's Ford Bridge in Walton County, Georgia.
  • Lynching in the United States at AllExperts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is impossible to say how many whites were rejected or refused to register (estimates vary from 7,500 to 12,000), but blacks, who constituted only about 30 percent of the state's population, were significantly overrepresented at 45 percent of all voters.^ Whites in particular refused to enfranchise blacks.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Does any man doubt, from all the evidence we have had during the last two years, that if the military power is withdrawn, from the States the loyal men, black and white, will be entirely under the control of the rebels, who will have an ascendency as complete and effectual as when Lee held undisputed power over the whole region?
  • Valley of the Shadow: Civil War-Era Newspapers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC valley.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the meanwhile a total of 703,000 black and 627,000 white voters were registered, delegates to constitutional conventions were elected, constitutions were drawn up and adopted which permitted negro suffrage, and state officers and legislators elected.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.All Southern states were readmitted to representation in Congress by the end of 1870, the last being Georgia.^ July 15, 1870 - Georgia is the 11th state to be readmitted to the Union.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By July 1870 the remaining Southern states had been similarly reorganized and readmitted.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The editors assert that all southern states should follow the path of Alabama to peacefully return to the Union.
  • Valley of the Shadow: Civil War-Era Newspapers 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC valley.lib.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All but 500 top Confederate leaders were pardoned when President Grant signed the Amnesty Act of 1872.^ December 25, 1868 - President Andrew Johnson issues an unconditional pardon to all those who participated in the southern rebellion.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pardon and amnesty under Lincoln and Johnson; the restoration of the Confederates to their rights and privileges, 1861-1898.

^ The United States admitted Texas as the twenty-eighth state on December 29, 1845, when President Polk signed the Texas Admission Act.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 7 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

Readmission to representation in Congress

African American officeholders

.Republicans took control of all Southern state governorships and state legislatures, except for Virginia.^ Republicans in the South on the basis of black sufferage were able to gain control of state governments in the South.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lost Cause historians criticized the Reconstruction Southern state legislatures for licentious spending.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .The Republican coalition elected numerous African-Americans to local, state, and national offices.^ And it is, hence, in this context that a Cabinet-level decision was taken at the National Security Council in April to create the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization in the State Department.
  • Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) : CSIS SPEECH 10/20/2004 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.crs.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Participants from every state were included, and emphasis was placed upon getting input from female historians and "specialists in African-American studies ", as well as a few non-American historians.
  • Historical rankings of United States Presidents - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard 1A- The student understands the origin of the Progressives and the coalitions they formed to deal with issues at the local and state levels.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 137 black officeholders had lived outside the South before the Civil War.^ It should be remembered that the South did not declare the war, known as the civil war, nor did it fire the first shot.
  • TGS HiddenMysteries :: Lost History :: Texas History :: Brief by the Republic of Texas vs. The United States (book and disk) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC hiddenmysteries.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You will need to read several books in order to obtain a true understanding of the Civil War and its consequences, which we are still living with today.
  • Amazon.com: Understand the Impact of Reconstruction and the Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ How Stuff Works: American Civil War : Informational site about the American Civil War which includes a video .
  • Kidinfo.com - Your Guide to the Civil War 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kidinfo.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some had escaped from slavery to the North and returned to help the South advance in the postwar era.^ Some had returned, "Busted by Thunder," but others had better fortune, discovered gold, silver or lead, and helped lay the foundations of Denver and Leadville.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The year 1865 brought the end of the war, and thus, slavery; the death of a president ; and extremely grave postwar conditions in the South.
  • Historical Eras 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.u-s-history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These included slavery and disagreements over its continuance and expansion, the sovereignty of states, and the conflicting economic and social structures of the North and South.
  • SSC - TEKS and TAKS - TEKS Glossary - Grade 7 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.tea.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

Many of them had achieved education and positions of leadership elsewhere. .Other African American men who served were leaders in their communities, including a number of preachers.^ Instead, anti-African American decisions sacrificed both the principle of democracy and the letter of the Constitution in favor of some other principle.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some erupted into race riots , but acts of terrorism against individual African American leaders were more common.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are incredible young American men and women who are fighting this war, and fighting it with such care to spare Iraqi lives.
  • Defense.gov News Transcript: Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with 60 Minutes II 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.defense.gov [Source type: Original source]

.As happened in white communities, all leadership did not depend on wealth and literacy.^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As happens in all kinds of community organizations in this country there were at least 16 different candidates who had a claim.
  • Defense.gov News Transcript: Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz Interview with 60 Minutes II 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.defense.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Tilden, his wealth was such that he could have purchased votes if he had desired to do so, and the fact that all the votes went to his rival indicates that he did not yield to the temptation.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[48]
Race of delegates to 1867
state constitutional conventions
State White Black % White Statewide
white
population
(% in 1870)[49]
Virginia 80 25 76 58
North Carolina 107 13 89 63
South Carolina 48 76 39 41
Georgia 133 33 80 54
Florida 28 18 61 51
Alabama 92 16 85 52
Mississippi 68 17 80 46
Louisiana 25 44 36 50
Texas 81 9 90 69
Source: Rhodes (1920) v 6 p. 199; no report on Arkansas
.There were few African Americans elected or appointed to national office.^ Participants from every state were included, and emphasis was placed upon getting input from female historians and "specialists in African-American studies ", as well as a few non-American historians.
  • Historical rankings of United States Presidents - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plaintiffs stated it in the first line of their brief: "The American that has elected Barack Obama as its first African-American president is far different than when Section Five was enacted in 1965."
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (National Park) Standard 2D- The student understands the rapid growth of "the peculiar institution" after 1800 and the varied experiences of African Americans under slavery.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.African Americans voted for white candidates and for blacks.^ He linked the case of Willie Horton, an African American convict who committed violent felonies against a white couple during a prison furlough in Massachusetts under Governor Michael Dukakis, also the Democratic presidential candidate.
  • Dissident Voice : Reviewing The United States Since 1980 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black voting was not quickly extinguished; in the 1880s, some African Americans continued to vote in the upper South and in pockets elsewhere, but black officeholders and voting majorities vanished, fraud and intimidation were common, and black votes often fell under conservative control.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ African American voting in the South was a casualty of the conflict between Redeemers and Populists.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed the right to vote, but did not guarantee that the vote would be counted or the districts would be apportioned equally.^ Equal right Amendment (failure to ratify) .
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Republicans ambitious plan for Reconstruction failed, although it did leave two positive legacies: The 14th and 15th Amendments ensured black rights and gave the vote to black men.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Foner] Essentially what emerged in the South was an acceptabce of the 13 Amendment (abolishing slavery), but an evasion of the 14th and 15 th Amendments conferring civil rights and the vote on blacks.
  • the American Civil War -- Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC histclo.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, even states with majority African American population often only had one or two African American representatives in Congress, except for South Carolina.^ American Stories: A History of the United States concentrates on the topics most commonly taught in an American history survey course, with a focus on the major themes and the connections between them.
  • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1880, for example, African Americans were an absolute majority in Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina; and were over 40% of the population in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Virginia, making Afri- can Americans the largest single voting bloc in those states.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Participants from every state were included, and emphasis was placed upon getting input from female historians and "specialists in African-American studies ", as well as a few non-American historians.
  • Historical rankings of United States Presidents - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the end of Reconstruction, four of its five Congressmen were African American.^ The plaintiffs stated it in the first line of their brief: "The American that has elected Barack Obama as its first African-American president is far different than when Section Five was enacted in 1965."
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ African Americans in the Reconstruction era / Gao Chungchan.

^ Reconstruction Era: African Americans The learner will be able to reconstruct the changes in African Americans' lives during the Reconstruction era.

African Americans in Office 1870–1876
State State Legislators U.S. Senators U.S. Congressmen
Alabama 69 0 4
Arkansas 8 0 0
Florida 30 0
Georgia 41 0 1
Louisiana 87 0 1*
Mississippi 112 2 1
North Carolina 30 0 1
South Carolina 190 0 6
Tennessee 1 0 0
Texas 19 0 0
Virginia 46 0 0
Total 633 2 15
See E. Foner, Reconstruction: America's unfinished revolution, 1863–1877 (NY: Harper & Row, 1988), pp. 354–5.

Public schools

.W. E. B. Du Bois argued that the freedmen had a deep commitment to education and that African Americans in the Republican coalition played a critical role in establishing the principal of universal public education in state constitutions during congressional Reconstruction.^ For example, the population of the territory that now constitutes the United States may have been as high as 10 million in 1500, and those people were all American Indians.

^ For 16 million refugees worldwide, the United States offers assistance through international programs and recognizes the critical role of nongovernmental organizations in providing care.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, anti-African American decisions sacrificed both the principle of democracy and the letter of the Constitution in favor of some other principle.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[50] .Some slaves learned to read from white playmates although formal education was not allowed by law; African Americans started "native schools" before the end of the war; Sabbath schools were another widespread means freedmen created for teaching literacy.^ African American Soldiers in the War, 574 .
  • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American Societies before 1492 .
  • American Journey, The: A History of the United States, Volume 1, 5/E - Pearson Education EMA Catalogue 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC cseng.aw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ African Americans and the War, 404 .
  • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .When they gained suffrage, black politicians took this commitment to public education to state constitutional conventions.^ Under his direction each state was to frame and adopt a new constitution which must provide for negro suffrage.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, many states established conservation commissions, and in 1909 a National Conservation Association was formed to engage in wide public education on the subject.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ "Outgrowing the Compact of the Fathers: Equal Rights, Woman Suffrage, and the United States Constitution, 1820-1878."
  • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.African Americans and white Republicans joined to build education at the state level.^ The plaintiffs stated it in the first line of their brief: "The American that has elected Barack Obama as its first African-American president is far different than when Section Five was enacted in 1965."
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Todaythe Government of the United States abandoned you," the Republican governor of South Carolina told his African American supporters, as the last federal soldiers departed.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those African Americans who did hold office appear to have been similar in competence and honesty to the whites.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They created a system of public schools, which were segregated by race everywhere except New Orleans.^ Perhaps they will create a model like the Lowell system.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 8, 1815 - American forces win the Battle of New Orleans (they didn't know the war is over).
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New Kent School and the George W. Watkins School: From Freedom of Choice to Integration (104) Learn about the U.S. Supreme Court case that forced the integration of public schools and meet the individuals who experienced segregation, fought to dismantle the institution, and integrated the public school system of New Kent County, Virginia.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Generally, elementary and a few secondary schools were built in most cities, and occasionally in the countryside, but the South had few cities.
.In the rural areas the public school was often a one-room affair that attracted about half the younger children.^ In the 1830s children under 16 made up about one-third of the New England labor force.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iron Hill School: An African-American One-Room School (58) Discover how an early 20th-century philanthropist reformed Delaware's education system for African-American children.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (National Park) Iron Hill School: An African-American One-Room School (58) Discover how an early 20th-century philanthropist reformed Delaware's education system for African-American children.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The teachers were poorly paid, and their pay was often in arrears.[52] .Conservatives contended the rural schools were too expensive and unnecessary for a region where the vast majority of people were cotton or tobacco farmers.^ Apart from the settled districts in California and scattered outposts, the vast inland region was peopled only by Indians.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern farms were too small, agriculture too diversified to justify investment in expensive machinery; southern cotton and tobacco were not readily adaptable to mechanized cultivation.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

They had no vision of a better future for their residents. .One historian found that the schools were less effective than they might have been because of "poverty, the inability of the states to collect taxes, and inefficiency and corruption in many places prevented successful operation of the schools."^ To the extent they can, great powers must therefore carefully choose places to occupy where the threat environment is conducive to occupation success.
  • Nation Building--Post Conflict Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Cold War, the United States spent less than $4 billion a year on average on these nuclear weapons activities.
  • Foreign Policy in Focus | A Unified Security Budget for the United States, 2007 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fpif.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The negroes were in the majority and although they paid only $143 in taxes altogether, they helped add $20,000,000 to the state debt in four years.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]
1868 Republican cartoon identifies Democratic candidate Horatio Seymour (right panel) with KKK violence and with Confederate soldiers
Numerous private academies and colleges for Freedmen were established by northern missionaries. Every state created state colleges for Freedmen, such as Alcorn State University in Mississippi. .The state colleges created generations of teachers who were critical in the education of African American children.^ The most influential African American spokesman for this policy was Booker T. Washington, the head of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, who urged his fellow African Americans to forget about politics and college education in the classical languages and to learn how to be better farmers and artisans.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plaintiffs stated it in the first line of their brief: "The American that has elected Barack Obama as its first African-American president is far different than when Section Five was enacted in 1965."
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early development ) rhetoric ( in rhetoric: Toward a new rhetoric ) requirements for teachers ( in teacher education: General education ) resource material .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1890, the black state colleges started receiving federal funds as land grant schools.^ In 1862, with the passage of the Morrill Land-grant College Act, Congress appropriated public land to each state for the establishment of agricultural and industrial colleges.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 1890 and 1908, starting in Mississippi, Southern states held constitutional conventions to impose new voting regulations, such as literacy testingregulations that registrars could impose at will on blacks and not on whites.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As well as acquainting students with the history of school desegregation, I also wish to educate students as to the extreme prejudice and discrimination that blacks in the United States have been subjected to throughout our history.
  • 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .They received state funds after Reconstruction ended because, as Lynch explains, "there are very many liberal, fair-minded and influential Democrats in the State who are strongly in favor of having the State provide for the liberal education of both races."^ As a result, many states established conservation commissions, and in 1909 a National Conservation Association was formed to engage in wide public education on the subject.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ The era of individual prospectors was limited; by the end of the century, they had been replaced by large mining companies in the Western states.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's a payoff in a more secure world and security for the United States, and in working with those people on the ground who are seeking to be able to have a more democratic and market-oriented state, and to opt for values that we believe in.
  • Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) : CSIS SPEECH 10/20/2004 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.crs.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[55] .Before this period, however, planters had opposed public education for freedmen and underfunded schools.^ The public school system was starved for money; in 1890 the per capita expenditure in the South for public education was only 97 cents, as compared with $2.24 in the country as a whole.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern schools, southern Blacks, and Reconstruction : freedmen's education, 1862-1875 / Ronald E. Butchart.

^ Eugene R. Provenzo, Jr., Religious Fundamentalism and American Education: The Battle for the Public Schools, State University of New York Press, 1990.
  • Books about Religious Conservatism in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC polaris.gseis.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

Railroad subsidies and payoffs

Atlanta, Georgia shortly after the end of the American Civil War showing the city's railyard and roundhouse in ruins.
.Every Southern state subsidized railroads, which modernizers felt could haul the South out of isolation and poverty.^ Southern merchants, manufacturers, and newspaper editors of the 1880s led the campaign for a "New South," where Southern industrialism would break the cycle of rural poverty.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Practically, however, the southern states were out of connection with the remainder of the nation and some method must be found of reconstructing the broken federation.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the fall of 1876, Democrats had returned to power in all Southern states except South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Millions of dollars in bonds and subsidies were fraudulently pocketed. .One ring in North Carolina spent $200,000 in bribing the legislature and obtained millions in state money for its railroads.^ South Carolina, one of the thirteen colonies, became the eighth state on May 23, 1788.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a number of midwestern states, they elected members to the legislature and passed laws regulating railroads and warehouses.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ May 21, 1861 - North Carolina is the 10th state to secede from the Union.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead of building new track, however, it used the funds to speculate in bonds, reward friends with extravagant fees, and enjoy lavish trips to Europe.^ The continued freedom, vitality and national independence of the new Eastern European democracies are also critical to the new structure of peace we seek to build throughout Europe.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basic to the new structure of peace we seek to build throughout Europe is the continued vitality of the North Atlantic Alliance -- the indispensable foundation of transatlantic cooperation.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .Taxes were quadrupled across the South to pay off the railroad bonds and the school costs.^ In South Carolina, African-Americans had to pay a special tax if they were not farmers or servants.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It would be a tool of decision-making about cost-effective trade-offs across agency lines.
  • Foreign Policy in Focus | A Unified Security Budget for the United States, 2007 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fpif.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There were complaints among taxpayers, because taxes had historically been low, since there was so little commitment to public works or public education. Taxes historically had been much lower than in the North, reflecting a lack of public investment in the communities.[57] .Nevertheless thousands of miles of lines were built as the Southern system expanded from 11,000 miles (17,700 km) in 1870 to 29,000 miles (46,700 km) in 1890. The lines were owned and directed overwhelmingly by Northerners.^ Other consolidations were already under way, and soon the major railroads of the nation were organized into trunk lines and "systems" directed by half a dozen men.
  • From Revolution to Reconstruction: Outlines: American History (1954): The Era of Expansion and Reform (6/7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ Except for the American Tobacco Company, located in North Carolina, Southern industry was owned mainly by Northern financiers.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1870 two men in every ten lived in cities whose population was 8,000 or more; by 1890 another man in every ten had forsaken rural life.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Railroads helped create a mechanically skilled group of craftsmen and broke the isolation of much of the region. .Passengers were few, however, and apart from hauling the cotton crop when it was harvested, there was little freight traffic.^ The 2006 QDR suggests that China presents such a threat; however there is little evidence to confirm such an assertion.
  • Foreign Policy in Focus | A Unified Security Budget for the United States, 2007 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fpif.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .As Franklin explains, "numerous railroads fed at the public trough by bribing legislators...and through the use and misuse of state funds."^ Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that it was not wrong for a state to use discriminatory seating practices on public transportation and that each state may require segregation on public transportation.
  • 88.01.03: School Desegregation and Prejudice in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excerpts from his The Regulation of All Railroads through the State-Ownership of One.
  • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

The effect, according to one businessman, "was to drive capital from the State, paralyze industry, and demoralize labor."[59]

Taxation during Reconstruction

.Reconstruction changed the tax structure of the South.^ Union League movement in the Deep South : politics and agricultural change during Reconstruction / Michael W. Fitzgerald.

^ Reconstruction Era: Structure/Social The learner will be able to name changes in the social structure of the U.S. during the Reconstruction era.
  • Social Studies - Grade 8 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.stfabian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reconstruction Era: Structure/Political The learner will be able to name changes in the political structure of the U.S. during the Reconstruction era.
  • Social Studies - Grade 8 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.stfabian.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the U.S. from the earliest days until today, a major source of state revenue was the property tax.^ The negroes were in the majority and although they paid only $143 in taxes altogether, they helped add $20,000,000 to the state debt in four years.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other states imposed stringent property qualifications for voting or enacted complex poll taxes .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some states imposed stringent property qualifications for voting or poll taxes, which meant that each voter had to pay a tax in order to vote.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the South, wealthy landowners were allowed to assess the value of their own land. These fraudulent assessments were almost valueless and pre-war property taxes collections were almost nothing. State revenues came from fees and from sales taxes on slave auctions.[60] .Some states assessed property owners by a combination of land value and a capitation tax, a tax on each worker employed.^ Other states imposed stringent property qualifications for voting or enacted complex poll taxes .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some states imposed stringent property qualifications for voting or poll taxes, which meant that each voter had to pay a tax in order to vote.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most settled in the United States permanently, but others came only to amass some capital and then return home.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This tax was often assessed in a way to discourage a free labor market, where a slave was assessed at 75 cents, while a free white was assessed at a dollar or more, and a free African American at $3 or more.^ Some erupted into race riots , but acts of terrorism against individual African American leaders were more common.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those African Americans who did hold office appear to have been similar in competence and honesty to the whites.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some revenue also came from poll taxes.^ For some years it had been suspected that a ring of revenue officials with accomplices in Washington were in collusion with the distillers to defraud the government of the lawful tax on whiskey.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some states imposed stringent property qualifications for voting or poll taxes, which meant that each voter had to pay a tax in order to vote.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some places the imposition of a poll tax peacefully eliminated the impecunious freedman.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.These taxes were more than poor people could pay, with the designed and inevitable consequence that they did not vote.^ When the figures were all gathered, it was found that his popular vote exceeded that of his rival by more than 250,000.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The disappointment of the Democrats was bitter and lasting, for their candidate had received over a quarter of a million popular votes more than his opponent, and yet had been declared defeated.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The mixture of peoples in the West spurred competition and antagonism more than harmony.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During Reconstruction, new spending on schools and infrastructure, combined with fraudulent spending and a collapse in state credit because of huge deficits, forced the states to dramatically increase property tax rates.^ Union soldiers had defeated New Orleans early in the war, and had the opportunity to test out their Reconstruction strategy in the state of Louisiana before the fighting had ended everywhere else.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Henry J. Raymond and the New York times during reconstruction ...

^ And I think we can learn from India, too, as it develops new mechanisms for cooperation between federal and state security forces.
  • Remarks at U.S.-India Business Council's 34th Anniversary "Synergies Summit" 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In places, the rate went up to ten times higher—despite the poverty of the region. .The infrastructure of much of the South—roads, bridges, and railroads—scarce and deficient even before the war—had been destroyed during the war.^ In the country as a whole the concentration in cities was most marked in the area north of the Potomac and Ohio rivers and east of the Mississippi; the South remained rural, as before the war.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Free Labor Ideology and Its Exponents in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction" (paper presented before the OAH, 1984) (typescript).
  • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dixie after the war; an exposition of social conditions existing in the South, during the twelve years succeeding the fall of Richmond.

.In addition, there were other new expenditures, because pre-war southern states did not educate their citizens or build and maintain much infrastructure.^ Now the Southern Unionists — Southerners who supported the Union during the War — became the new Southern leadership.
  • Radical Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Union soldiers had defeated New Orleans early in the war, and had the opportunity to test out their Reconstruction strategy in the state of Louisiana before the fighting had ended everywhere else.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In part, the new tax system was designed to force owners of large estates with huge tracts of uncultivated land either to sell or to have it confiscated for failure to pay taxes.^ Confederate officials and owners of large taxable estates were required to apply individually for a Presidential pardon.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, the system enabled the land owner to take advantage of the labor supply and to supervise the untutored negro,--and it kept the South alive.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under this system the plantation owner who had more property than he could cultivate under the new conditions let parts of his land to tenants, supplying them with buildings, tools, seed and perhaps credit at the village store for the supplies necessary for the year.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[61] The taxes would serve as a market-based system for redistributing the land to the landless freedmen and white poor.
.Here is a table of property tax rates for South Carolina and Mississippi.^ In South Carolina, African-Americans had to pay a special tax if they were not farmers or servants.
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

Note that many local town and county assessments effectively doubled the tax rates reported in the table. .These taxes were still levied upon the landowners' own sworn testimony as to the value of their land, which remained the dubious and exploitable system used by wealthy landholders in the South well into the 20th century.^ These systems have also served to deter an enemy's use of such weapons and they have contributed to the deterrence of conventional attack.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately none of these has been successful, though South Africa may still seem promising.
  • Nation Building--Post Conflict Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the United States entered the 20th century, demand arose to combat these ills.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

State Property Tax Rates during Reconstruction
Year South Carolina Mississippi
1869 5 mills (0.5 %) 1 mill (0.1 %) (lowest rate between 1822 and 1898)
1870 9 mills 5 mills
1871 7 mills 4 mills
1872 12 mills 8.5 mills
1873 12 mills 12.5 mills
1874 10.3-8 mills 14 mills (1.4%) "a rate which virtually amounted to confiscation" (highest rate between 1822 and 1898)
1875 11 mills
1876 7 mills
Source .J. S. Reynolds, Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865–1877, (Columbia, SC: The State Co., 1905) p.^ Stuffing the ballot box was common in South Carolina and other states.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States Army and Reconstruction, 1865-1877 / by James E. Sefton.

^ South Carolina, one of the thirteen colonies, became the eighth state on May 23, 1788.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

329.
.J. H. Hollander,Studies in State Taxation with Particular Reference to the Southern States, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1900) p.^ Rousas John Rushdoony, The Messianic Character of American Education: Studies in the History of the Philosophy of Education, Craig Press, 1963.
  • Books about Religious Conservatism in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC polaris.gseis.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
  • The Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC mupfc.marshall.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No Other God's: On Science and American Social Thought (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976).
  • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

192.
.Called upon to pay an actual tax on their property, angry plantation owners revolted.^ Some states imposed stringent property qualifications for voting or poll taxes, which meant that each voter had to pay a tax in order to vote.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The conservatives shifted their focus away from race to taxes.[62] Former Congressman John R. Lynch, a black Republican leader from Mississippi, concluded,
The argument made by the taxpayers, however, was plausible and it may be conceded that, upon the whole, they were about right; for no doubt it would have been much easier upon the taxpayers to have increased at that time the interest-bearing debt of the State than to have increased the tax rate. The latter course, however, had been adopted and could not then be changed.[55]

Conservative reaction

.The fact that their former slaves now held political and military power angered many whites.^ It obscured the fact that white women were slaveholders or beneficiaries of the slave system.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The southern whites began to invent methods for overcoming the power of the freedmen in politics and for insuring themselves against possible danger of violence at the hands of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a voter, he was on an equality with the whites; he belonged to the Republican party and his party was a powerful factor in the politics of the South; his position was secured, or at least seemed to be secured, by amendments to the federal Constitution.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.They formed new political parties (often with "Conservative" in the title) to contest elections, and supported or tolerated violent activist groups that intimidated both Black and White Republicans at election time.^ A reign of terror was aimed both at local Republican leaders as well as at blacks seeking to assert their new political rights.
  • Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After 1872, membership in the Republican Party fell, as terrorist groups used violence and intimidation to diminish black votes and curb Republican support.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were also alarmed by Southern adoption of Black Codes that sought to maintain white supremacy.
  • Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.The party names varied, but by the late 1870s, the Conservatives had aligned with the national Democratic Party, which enthusiastically supported their cause even as the national Republican Party was losing interest in Southern affairs.^ The Southern Republican Party virtually vanished.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Republican Party and the South, 1855-1877 : the first Southern strategy / Richard H. Abbott.

^ (National Park) STANDARD 3: The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historian Walter Lynwood Fleming describes mounting anger of Southern whites:
The Negro troops, even at their best, were everywhere considered offensive by the native whites... The Negro soldier, impudent by reason of his new freedom, his new uniform, and his new gun, was more than Southern temper could tranquilly bear, and race conflicts were frequent.[63]
.While the planter-business and the common farmer classes of the South opposed black suffrage, they did so for different reasons.^ Would he support limited black suffrage as Lincoln did?
  • Presidential Reconstruction [ushistory.org] 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To cope with these problems, farmers began forming farmers alliances, which multiplied in the Great Plains and spread to the South, where white and black farmers formed separate alliances.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, African American votes were sometimes of great value to these regimes, which favoured the businessmen and planters of the South at the expense of the small white farmers.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These common farmers were competing economically with the recently freed blacks and wanted to keep them inferior.^ Recent changes to our strategic trade policies reflect a new balance between these competing factors.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To cope with these problems, farmers began forming farmers alliances, which multiplied in the Great Plains and spread to the South, where white and black farmers formed separate alliances.
  • History Of The United States Of America, Part Five 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the interwar period, the politics of these states were often dominated by economic hardship, competing nationalisms and overlapping territorial claims.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They opposed black suffrage for racial reasons. .On the other hand, the planter-business class opposed black suffrage for economic reasons, not racial reasons.^ In the South, on the other hand, agriculture formed the main economic resource and the twenty-five years following the war were, for the most part, consumed in recovering from that struggle.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The radicals opposed the plan because it left much power, including the question of negro suffrage, in the hands of the states.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Giving a laboring class, no matter what race, universal suffrage could lead to an attack on the property that the planter class loved so much.^ Rachel N. Klein, Unification of a Slave State: The Rise of the Planter Class in the South Carolina Backcountry, 1760-1808, University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
  • Books about Religious Conservatism in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC polaris.gseis.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These conservatives felt that their property interests were in danger because the laboring class was ignorant and would vote to raise taxes significantly.^ Hayes would be elected only if the electoral votes of all these states could be obtained for him.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other states imposed stringent property qualifications for voting or enacted complex poll taxes .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AFL did not join because it felt the labor organizations of the Soviet Union were not "free and democratic".
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After being faced by these taxes, the planter-business class thought that by teaming up with the blacks they could lift the tariffs and further their own political agendas.^ African Americans could now legally marry, and they set up conventional and usually stable family units; they quietly seceded from the white churches and formed their own religious organizations, which became centres for the African American community.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their right to own land was restricted, they could not bear arms, and they might be bound out in servitude for vagrancy and other offenses.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Democrats nominated blacks for political office and tried to steal other blacks from the Republican side.^ Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, having failed to obtain the Republican nomination, allowed it to be known that he was willing to become the Democratic candidate.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Governor Roosevelt Accepts the Nomination of the Republican Party to the Office of Vice-President."
  • John E.T. Milsaps Collection: An Inventory of his Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library (part 6 of 7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John E.T. Milsaps Collection: An Inventory of his Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library (part 6 of 7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Powell, Lawrence N. "Rejected Republican Incumbents in the 1866 Congressional Nominating Conventions: A Study in Reconstruction Politics."
  • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.But when these attempts to combine with the blacks failed, the planters joined the common farmers in simply trying to displace the Republican governments.^ Indeed, African American votes were sometimes of great value to these regimes, which favoured the businessmen and planters of the South at the expense of the small white farmers.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The small white farmers resentful of planter dominance, residents of the hill country outvoted by Black Belt constituencies, and politicians excluded from the ruling cabals tried repeatedly to overthrow the conservative regimes in the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]
Fleming is a typical example of the White Supremacist interpretation of Reconstruction. .His work defended some roles of the White Supremacist group the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) but denounced its violence.^ Sometimes their hostility was expressed through such terrorist organizations as the Ku Klux Klan , which sought to punish so-called “uppity Negroes” and to drive their white collaborators from the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Student will discuss the function of the Freedmens Bureau and how each of the following worked to disenfranchise African Americans: poll tax, black codes, grandfather clause, literacy tests, Jim Crow laws and the Ku Klux, Klan.
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If they succeeded in dispersing the Ku Klux Klan as an organization, they also drove its members, and their tactics, more than ever into the Democratic camp.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fleming accepted as necessary the disenfranchisement of African Americans because he thought their votes were bought and sold.^ African American voting in the South was a casualty of the conflict between Redeemers and Populists.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, African American votes were sometimes of great value to these regimes, which favoured the businessmen and planters of the South at the expense of the small white farmers.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Objectives: Student will discuss why some early Americans thought it was necessary to include a Bill of Rights in the Constitution.
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

Fleming described the first results of the movement as "good" and the later ones as "both good and bad." According to Fleming (1907) the KKK
quieted the Negroes, made life and property safer, gave protection to women, stopped burnings, forced the Radical leaders to be more moderate, made the Negroes work better, drove the worst of the Radical leaders from the country and started the whites on the way to gain political supremacy.
The evil results, Fleming said, was that lawless elements
made use of the organization as a cloak to cover their misdeeds... the lynching habits of today [1907] are largely to conditions, social and legal, growing out of Reconstruction.[65]
Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer (a northern scholar) in 1917 explained:[66]
Outrages upon the former slaves in the South there were in plenty. Their sufferings were many. But white men, too, were victims of lawless violence, and in all portions of the North and the late "rebel" states. Not a political campaign passed without the exchange of bullets, the breaking of skulls with sticks and stones, the firing of rival club-houses. Republican clubs marched the streets of Philadelphia, amid revolver shots and brickbats, to save the negroes from the "rebel" savages in Alabama... .The project to make voters out of black men was not so much for their social elevation as for the further punishment of the Southern white people—for the capture of offices for Radical scamps and the entrenchment of the Radical party in power for a long time to come in the South and in the country at large."^ Southern whites wished to keep African Americans in a condition of quasi-servitude, extending few civil rights and firmly rejecting social equality .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The radical or Republican group included the negroes, a few southern whites, commonly called "scalawags," and various northerners known as "carpet-baggers."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fully alive to the dangers of giving unrestricted freedom to so large a body of ignorant negroes, the southern whites passed the "black codes," which placed numerous limitations on the civil liberty of "persons of color."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Reaction by conservatives included the formation of violent secret societies, especially the KKK. Violence occurred in cities and in the countryside between white former Confederates, Republicans, African-Americans, representatives of the federal government, and Republican-organized armed Loyal Leagues.^ African American voting in the South was a casualty of the conflict between Redeemers and Populists.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a reaction, too, against the great power which the executive arm of the government had exercised in war time.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The radical or Republican group included the negroes, a few southern whites, commonly called "scalawags," and various northerners known as "carpet-baggers."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The victims of this violence were overwhelmingly African American, though their white supporters were also attacked.^ Those African Americans who did hold office appear to have been similar in competence and honesty to the whites.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, "allied with Republican whites, African Americans outnumbered conservatives and earned majority control of the electoral system in many states."
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Redemption 1873–77

Republicans split nationally: election of 1872

As early as 1868 Supreme Court Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, a leading Radical during the war, concluded that:
"Congress was right in not limiting, by its reconstruction acts, the right of suffrage to whites; but wrong in the exclusion from suffrage of certain classes of citizens and all unable to take its prescribed retrospective oath, and wrong also in the establishment of despotic military governments for the States and in authorizing military commissions for the trial of civilians in time of peace. There should have been as little military government as possible; no military commissions; no classes excluded from suffrage; and no oath except one of faithful obedience and support to the Constitution and laws, and of sincere attachment to the constitutional Government of the United States."[67]
.By 1872, President Ulysses S. Grant had alienated large numbers of leading Republicans, including many Radicals by the corruption of his administration and his use of federal soldiers to prop up Radical state regimes in the South.^ The Ulysses S. Grant administrations, 1869–77 .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growing Northern disillusionment with Radical Reconstruction and with the Grant administration became evident in the Liberal Republican movement of 1872, which resulted in the nomination of the erratic Horace Greeley for president.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be easy to over-estimate the responsibility of General Grant for the political corruption of his administrations.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The opponents, called "Liberal Republicans", included founders of the party who expressed dismay that the party had succumbed to corruption.^ The radical or Republican group included the negroes, a few southern whites, commonly called "scalawags," and various northerners known as "carpet-baggers."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Brown-Schurz faction had quickly increased in numbers, had become known as the Liberal Republican party and had attracted such interest throughout the country that a national conference was called for May, 1872, at Cincinnati.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a course, to be sure, would commit them to a candidate who had excoriated their party for years in his newspaper, and to the three war amendments to the Constitution, which the Liberal Republicans had accepted.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were further wearied by the continued insurgent violence of whites against blacks in the South, especially around every election cycle, which demonstrated the war was not over and changes were fragile.^ Women and blacks enter the work force in large numbers as the main work force of white males go to war.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The southern whites began to invent methods for overcoming the power of the freedmen in politics and for insuring themselves against possible danger of violence at the hands of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Court continues to further the rights of white racial conservative minorities nationally and locally.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Leaders included editors of some of the nation's most powerful newspapers.^ It was deemed necessary to get the support of Horace Greeley, the editor of the New York _Tribune_, the most powerful northern newspaper of Civil War times, but Greeley was an avowed protectionist.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Northern labor leaders and industrialist thought the South was trying to destroy capitalism and spread its slave power aristocracy on the nation.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the most powerful newspaper editors of the country, also, were friendly to its purpose, so that it seemed likely to be a decisive factor in the coming campaign.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charles Sumner, embittered by the corruption of the Grant administration, joined the new party, which nominated editor Horace Greeley.^ It would be easy to over-estimate the responsibility of General Grant for the political corruption of his administrations.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the meanwhile Grant seems to have been brought to believe that Bristow was persecuting Babcock with a view to getting the favor of the reform element in the party and eventually the presidential nomination.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Growing Northern disillusionment with Radical Reconstruction and with the Grant administration became evident in the Liberal Republican movement of 1872, which resulted in the nomination of the erratic Horace Greeley for president.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The badly organized Democratic party also supported Greeley.
.Grant made up for the defections by new gains among Union veterans and by strong support from the "Stalwart" faction of his party (which depended on his patronage), and the Southern Republican parties.^ Republican Party and the South, 1855-1877 : the first Southern strategy / Richard H. Abbott.

^ Objectives: Students will assess whether America's ethnic and disadvantages groups made gains during this period: African American, people with disabilities, veterans with disabilities.
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the 1830s children under 16 made up about one-third of the New England labor force.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Grant won a smashing landslide, as the Liberal Republican party vanished and many former supporters—even former abolitionists—abandoned the cause of Reconstruction.^ Liberal Republican party.
  • A School History of the United States by John Bach McMaster - Full Text Free Book (Part 9/10) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Growing Northern disillusionment with Radical Reconstruction and with the Grant administration became evident in the Liberal Republican movement of 1872, which resulted in the nomination of the erratic Horace Greeley for president.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After long and acrimonious quarrels between Radical and moderate Republicans, the party leaders finally produced a compromise plan in the First Reconstruction Act of 1867.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]

Republican coalition splinters in South

.In the South, political–racial tensions built up inside the Republican party as they were attacked by the Democrats.^ Political parties, beginning of, see Federalists, Democrats, Republicans, etc.
  • A School History of the United States by John Bach McMaster - Full Text Free Book (Part 9/10) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Republican Party and the South, 1855-1877 : the first Southern strategy / Richard H. Abbott.

^ National Democratic party National Labor Congress National Labor Reform party National notes, see Bonds National party National Pike National Prohibition Reform party National Republican party, see Republican.
  • A School History of the United States by John Bach McMaster - Full Text Free Book (Part 9/10) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1868, Georgia Democrats, with support from some Republicans, expelled all 28 black Republican members, arguing blacks were eligible to vote but not to hold office.^ In Louisiana, for example, the Democrats prevented many negroes from voting by outrageous intimidation, while the Republicans had many negroes fraudulently registered.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Republican electoral votes were thereupon sent to Washington, but so also were Democratic votes.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When all ballots had been sent in, the Democrats claimed a majority of ninety; the Republicans a majority of forty-five.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In several states, the more conservative scalawags fought for control with the more radical carpetbaggers and usually lost.^ Further, "allied with Republican whites, African Americans outnumbered conservatives and earned majority control of the electoral system in many states."
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, in Mississippi, the conservative faction led by scalawag James Lusk Alcorn was decisively defeated by the radical faction led by carpetbagger Adelbert Ames.^ James Lusk Alcorn and a Unified Levee System."
  • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

The party lost support steadily as many scalawags left it; few recruits were acquired. Meanwhile, the freedmen were demanding a bigger share of the offices and patronage, thus squeezing out their carpetbagger allies.[69] .Finally some of the more prosperous freedmen were joining the Democrats, as they were angered at the failure of the Republicans to help them acquire land.^ Republicans looked upon the Democrats as being so wicked that they were justified in "fighting the devil with fire."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1864 many Democrats and most Republicans joined to form a Union party, and in order to emphasize its non-sectional and non-partisan character they nominated Andrew Johnson as Lincoln's running mate.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[70]
.Although historians such as W. E. B. Du Bois looked for and celebrated a cross-racial coalition of poor whites and blacks, such coalitions rarely formed in these years.^ Neither poor whites nor poor blacks had much opportunity to rise in a region that was desperately impoverished.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With long-term agricultural problems, there was an alliance later in the century between Populists and Republicans whose coalition won control in several states, especially in 1894. White Democrats reacted by creating more legislative and constitutional barriers to voter registration and voting by poor whites and blacks.^ Corruption there certainly was, though nowhere on the scale of the Tweed Ring, which at that time was busily looting New York City; but it is not possible to show that Republicans were more guilty than Democrats, or blacks than whites, in the scandals that did occur.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither poor whites nor poor blacks had much opportunity to rise in a region that was desperately impoverished.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ten-hour movement achieved legislative success in several states for the ten-hour day.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
Writing in 1915 and demonstrating contemporary biases about Reconstruction, Congressman Lynch explained that,
While the colored men did not look with favor upon a political alliance with the poor whites, it must be admitted that, with very few exceptions, that class of whites did not seek, and did not seem to desire such an alliance.
Lynch explained that poor whites resented the job competition from freedmen. Furthermore, the poor whites
with a few exceptions, were less efficient, less capable, and knew less about matters of state and governmental administration than many of the former slaves.… As a rule, therefore, the whites that came into the leadership of the Republican party between 1872 and 1875 were representatives of the most substantial families of the land.[72]
.Thus, the Democrats encouraged the poor whites to ally with them over race.^ And now this unschooled, poor-white, slave-holding, Jeffersonian, states-rights Democrat had become President of the United States.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.They became bitterly opposed to black Republicans.^ In adopting a conciliatory southern policy, the Liberal Republicans became opposed to the President, who had by this time become thoroughly committed to the radical program.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.As is noted in Redeemers below, elite white Democrats subverted a coalition threat to their control by passage of statutes and new constitutions from 1890 to 1908 that effectively disfranchised most blacks and hundreds of thousands of poor whites.^ Neither poor whites nor poor blacks had much opportunity to rise in a region that was desperately impoverished.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are incorporating the most modern safety and control features into our deterrent stockpile as rapidly as practicable and developing new safety technologies for future weapons.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The efforts of white and black leaders in South Africa to move that country into a democratic, constitutional, post-apartheid era merit our active support and we have provided it.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]

Democrats try a "New Departure"

A Republican Form of Government and No Domestic Violence
by Thomas Nast
A political cartoon about the (Wheeler) Compromise in Louisiana
published in Harper's Weekly
March 6, 1875
.By 1870, the Democratic–Conservative leadership across the South decided it had to end its opposition to Reconstruction and black suffrage to survive and move on to new issues.^ A crowd of negroes attending a convention in New Orleans in behalf of suffrage for their race became engaged in a fight with white anti-suffragists and many of the blacks were killed.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The platform portrayed the benefits of radical reconstruction and defended negro suffrage in the South.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAPTER III ECONOMIC FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW ERA With the close of Grant's administration, the main immediate problems connected with political reconstruction came to an end.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Grant administration had proven by its crackdown on the Ku Klux Klan that it would use as much federal power as necessary to suppress open anti-black violence.^ Student will discuss the function of the Freedmens Bureau and how each of the following worked to disenfranchise African Americans: poll tax, black codes, grandfather clause, literacy tests, Jim Crow laws and the Ku Klux, Klan.
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It would be easy to over-estimate the responsibility of General Grant for the political corruption of his administrations.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The southern whites began to invent methods for overcoming the power of the freedmen in politics and for insuring themselves against possible danger of violence at the hands of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

The Democrats in the North concurred. .They wanted to fight the Republican Party on economic grounds rather than race.^ As for the Republicans they elected not only their candidate but also a sufficient majority in Congress to carry out any program that the party might desire.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Republicans looked upon the Democrats as being so wicked that they were justified in "fighting the devil with fire."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The New Departure offered the chance for a clean slate without having to re-fight the Civil War every election.^ It re- entered after the Civil War.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sectional dissatisfaction - - Fighting the Civil War .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fighting the Civil War - - - Foreign affairs .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, many wealthy landowners thought they could control part of the newly enfranchised black electorate to their own advantage.^ Their right to own land was restricted, they could not bear arms, and they might be bound out in servitude for vagrancy and other offenses.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases they will involve states not part of one or another bloc.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Partly their restraint was caused by fear of further federal intervention; chiefly, however, it stemmed from a conviction on the part of conservative leaders that they could control African American voters, whether through fraud, intimidation, or manipulation.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Not all Democrats agreed; an insurgent element continued to resist Reconstruction no matter what. .Eventually, a group called "Redeemers" took control of the party in the Southern states.^ The radical or Republican group included the negroes, a few southern whites, commonly called "scalawags," and various northerners known as "carpet-baggers."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A wing of the Republican party, led by Colonel B. Gratz Brown, had begun a counter-movement, intended to remove the restrictions on the southerners, and also to reform other abuses in the state.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[74] .They formed coalitions with conservative Republicans, including scalawags and carpetbaggers, emphasizing the need for economic modernization.^ Standard 1A- The student understands the origin of the Progressives and the coalitions they formed to deal with issues at the local and state levels.
  • TwHP Lesson Plans--U.S. History Standards Index 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The radical or Republican group included the negroes, a few southern whites, commonly called "scalawags," and various northerners known as "carpet-baggers."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1864 many Democrats and most Republicans joined to form a Union party, and in order to emphasize its non-sectional and non-partisan character they nominated Andrew Johnson as Lincoln's running mate.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Railroad building was seen as a panacea since northern capital was needed. The new tactics were a success in Virginia where William Mahone built a winning coalition. In Tennessee, the Redeemers formed a coalition with Republican governor DeWitt Senter. .Across the South, some Democrats switched from the race issue to taxes and corruption, charging that Republican governments were corrupt and inefficient.^ In practice the Republican state governments in the South were continued in the seats of authority only through the presence of the federal soldiery.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In South Carolina it became evident that a majority of the popular vote was for Hayes, although both the Democratic and the Republican electors sent in returns to Washington.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, close friends of the Republican candidate assured southern Democratic politicians that Hayes if elected would adopt a conciliatory policy toward the South, and would allow the southern states to govern themselves unhampered by federal interference.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.With continuing decrease in cotton prices, taxes squeezed cash-poor farmers who rarely saw $20 in currency a year but had to pay taxes in currency or lose their farm.^ The negroes were in the majority and although they paid only $143 in taxes altogether, they helped add $20,000,000 to the state debt in four years.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In North Carolina, Republican Governor William Woods Holden used state troops against the Klan, but the prisoners were released by federal judges.^ On May 29, 1865, Johnson made his policy clear when he issued a general proclamation of pardon and amnesty for most Confederates and authorized the provisional governor of North Carolina to proceed with the reorganization of that state.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students will analyze reasons for the Homestead, Pullman and Lawrence Strickes, the tactics used by both sides, the roles of the states or federal governments and the outcome of the strikes.
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (The Second Circuit , in a panel including then-Judge Sotomayor, similarly rejected a claim that the Second Amendment applied against the states, but the Ninth Circuit ruled that it did.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Holden became the first governor in American history to be impeached and removed from office. .Republican political disputes in Georgia split the party and enabled the Redeemers to take over.^ As a voter, he was on an equality with the whites; he belonged to the Republican party and his party was a powerful factor in the politics of the South; his position was secured, or at least seemed to be secured, by amendments to the federal Constitution.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Political parties, beginning of, see Federalists, Democrats, Republicans, etc.
  • A School History of the United States by John Bach McMaster - Full Text Free Book (Part 9/10) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[75]
In the lower South, violence continued and new insurgent groups arose. .The disputed election in Louisiana in 1872 found both Republican and Democratic candidates holding inaugural balls while returns were reviewed.^ Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, having failed to obtain the Republican nomination, allowed it to be known that he was willing to become the Democratic candidate.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In only one presidential election had he so much as voted for a candidate, and then it was for a Democrat, James Buchanan.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Louisiana, for example, the Democrats prevented many negroes from voting by outrageous intimidation, while the Republicans had many negroes fraudulently registered.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

Both certified their own slates for local parish offices in many places, causing local tensions to rise. .Finally, Federal support helped certify the Republican as governor, but the Democrat Samuel D. McEnery in March 1873 brought his own militia to bear in New Orleans, the seat of government.^ In practice the Republican state governments in the South were continued in the seats of authority only through the presence of the federal soldiery.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In New York, where Samuel J. Tilden was chosen governor, and in such Republican strongholds as Massachusetts and Pennsylvania the Democrats were successful.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States has provided political and economic support for the new government and its program for reconstruction and long-term development.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Slates for local offices were certified by each candidate. .In rural Grant Parish in the Red River Valley, freedmen fearing a Democratic attempt to take over the parish government reinforced defenses at the Colfax courthouse in late March.^ Late in 1867 Ames became fearful of railroad legislation that was being introduced in Washington and he therefore decided to take steps to protect the enterprise.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

White militias gathered from the area a few miles outside the settlement. Rumors and fears abounded on both sides. .William Ward, an African-American Union veteran and militia captain, mustered his company in Colfax and went to the courthouse.^ Objectives: Students will assess whether America's ethnic and disadvantages groups made gains during this period: African American, people with disabilities, veterans with disabilities.
  • United States History and Government Core curriculum 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kathydoty.addr.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Strike by the American Railway Union against the Pullman Palace Car Company near Chicago is defeated by the use of injunctions and federal troops.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, the whites attacked the defenders at the courthouse. There was confusion about who shot one of the white leaders after an offer by the defenders to surrender. It was a catalyst to mayhem. .In the end, three whites died and 120–150 blacks were killed, some 50 while held as prisoners.^ A crowd of negroes attending a convention in New Orleans in behalf of suffrage for their race became engaged in a fight with white anti-suffragists and many of the blacks were killed.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The disproportionate numbers of black to white fatalities and documentation of brutalized bodies are why contemporary historians call it the Colfax Massacre rather than the Colfax Riot, as it is known locally.^ Women and blacks enter the work force in large numbers as the main work force of white males go to war.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76]
.This marked the beginning of heightened insurgency and attacks on Republican officeholders and freedmen in Louisiana and other Deep South states.^ Stuffing the ballot box was common in South Carolina and other states.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Troops had long been stationed in South Carolina and Louisiana, and others were promptly sent to Florida.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In practice the Republican state governments in the South were continued in the seats of authority only through the presence of the federal soldiery.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Louisiana, Judge T.S. Crawford and District Attorney P.H. Harris of the 12th Judicial District were shot off their horses and killed from ambush October 8, 1873, while going to court.^ Here's the three-judge district court decision (thanks to Election Law @ Moritz for the link); here's the reauthorization act .
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peleg Sprague, Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts, to the Grand Jury, at the March Term, A.D., 1863.
  • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.One widow wrote to the Department of Justice that her husband was killed because he was a Union man and "...of the efforts made to screen those who committed a crime..."^ It was scarcely to be expected that a man who had fought his way to the fore in eastern Tennessee during those controversial years would possess the characteristics of a diplomat.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York State Supreme Court Chief Justice Savage- The union is guilty of "a statutory offence because such practice was injurious to trade and commerce."
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Judge's work drew praise from both Justice Ginsburg (who wrote the book's forward) and Justice Scalia.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

{US Senate Journal January 13, 1875, pp. 106–107}.
.In the North, a live-and-let-live attitude made elections more like a sporting contest.^ The attitude of the South toward the North was more difficult to determine.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor is it likely that politicians who lived in the days of the Credit Mobilier and the Whiskey King would falter at a bargain which would affect the election of a president.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.But in the Deep South, many white citizens had not reconciled with the defeat of the war or the granting of citizenship to freedmen.^ In short, by the 1890s the South, a poor and backward region, had yet to recover from the ravages of the Civil War or to reconcile itself to the readjustments required by the Reconstruction era.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As an Alabama scalawag explained,
Our contest here is for life, for the right to earn our bread...for a decent and respectful consideration as human beings and members of society.[77]

Panic of 1873

.The Panic of 1873 hit the Southern economy hard and disillusioned many Republicans who had gambled that railroads would pull the South out of its poverty.^ Panic of 1873 followed by a depression wipes out most national unions.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MAINTAINING ECONOMIC GROWTH Clear signs are emerging that the U.S. economy is pulling out of its brief recession but uncertainty remains over economic performance in much of the rest of the world.
  • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Republicans, most notably some Southern senators, thought [reauthorization was inappropriate].
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The price of cotton fell by half; many small landowners, local merchants and cotton factors (wholesalers) went bankrupt.^ At once the price dropped, brokers went bankrupt, and Gould and Fisk had to take refuge behind armed guards to save their lives.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sharecropping for black and white farmers became more common as a way to spread the risk of owning land.^ During this turmoil, Southern whites and blacks began to work out ways of getting their farms back into operation and of making a living.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A crowd of negroes attending a convention in New Orleans in behalf of suffrage for their race became engaged in a fight with white anti-suffragists and many of the blacks were killed.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Large factories, which had existed only in the textile industry before the Civil War, increasingly became more common in a variety of industries.
  • A Curriculum of United States Labor History for Teachers. 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.kentlaw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The old abolitionist element in the North was aging away, or had lost interest, and was not replenished. Many carpetbaggers returned to the North or joined the Redeemers. .Blacks had an increased voice in the Republican Party, but across the South it was divided by internal bickering and was rapidly losing its cohesion.^ While the president, from the porch of the White House , denounced the leaders of the Republican Party as “traitors,” Republicans in Congress tried to formulate their own plan to reconstruct the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a voter, he was on an equality with the whites; he belonged to the Republican party and his party was a powerful factor in the politics of the South; his position was secured, or at least seemed to be secured, by amendments to the federal Constitution.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Johnson continued to do all he could to block the enforcement of Radical legislation in the South, the more extreme members of the Republican Party demanded his impeachment .
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many local black leaders started emphasizing individual economic progress in cooperation with white elites, rather than racial political progress in opposition to them, a conservative attitude that foreshadowed Booker T. Washington.^ Enthusiastically received by Southern whites, Washington’s program also found many adherents among Southern blacks, who saw in his doctrine a way to avoid head-on, disastrous confrontations with overwhelming white force.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even on racial questions the new Southern political leaders were not so reactionary as the label Bourbon might suggest.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A crowd of negroes attending a convention in New Orleans in behalf of suffrage for their race became engaged in a fight with white anti-suffragists and many of the blacks were killed.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.Nationally, President Grant took the blame for the depression; the Republican Party lost 96 seats in all parts of the country in the 1874 elections.^ During the two administrations of President Grant there was a gradual attrition of Republican strength.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though Grant was overwhelmingly reelected, the true temper of the country was demonstrated in the congressional elections of 1874, which gave the Democrats control of the House of Representatives for the first time since the outbreak of the Civil War.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the president, from the porch of the White House , denounced the leaders of the Republican Party as “traitors,” Republicans in Congress tried to formulate their own plan to reconstruct the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bourbon Democrats took control of the House and were confident of electing Samuel J. Tilden president in 1876. President Grant was not running for re-election and seemed to be losing interest in the South.^ In the House of Representatives the Republican two-thirds majority was wiped out and the Democrats given complete control.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Grant was overwhelmingly reelected, the true temper of the country was demonstrated in the congressional elections of 1874, which gave the Democrats control of the House of Representatives for the first time since the outbreak of the Civil War.
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^ While the president, from the porch of the White House , denounced the leaders of the Republican Party as “traitors,” Republicans in Congress tried to formulate their own plan to reconstruct the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

States fell to the Redeemers, with only four in Republican hands in 1873, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina; Arkansas then fell after the Brooks–Baxter War in 1874.

Paramilitary groups allied with Democratic Party

.Political violence had been endemic in Louisiana, but in 1874 the white militias coalesced into paramilitary organizations such as the White League, first in parishes of the Red River Valley.^ The southern whites began to invent methods for overcoming the power of the freedmen in politics and for insuring themselves against possible danger of violence at the hands of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

A new organization operated openly and had political goals: the violent overthrow of Republican rule and suppression of black voting. White League chapters soon rose in many rural parishes, receiving financing for advanced weaponry from wealthy men. .In one example of local violence, the White League assassinated six white Republican officeholders and five to twenty black witnesses outside Coushatta, Red River Parish in 1874. Four of the white men were related to the Republican representative of the parish.^ As in Florida there was a board of canvassers which was here composed of four Republicans, three of whom were men of low character.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The southern whites began to invent methods for overcoming the power of the freedmen in politics and for insuring themselves against possible danger of violence at the hands of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Crouch, Barry A. "A Spirit of Lawlessness: White Violence; Texas Blacks, 1865-1868."
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[79]
.Later in 1874 the White League mounted a serious attempt to unseat the Republican governor of Louisiana, in a dispute that had simmered since the 1872 election.^ Upon his inauguration in January 2003, he became the first Republican governor of Georgia since Benjamin F. Conley served during Reconstruction in the 1870s .
  • List of Current United States Governors Facts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.republicansagenda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lingle holds a number of distinctions: first Republican elected governor of Hawaii since the departure of William F. Quinn in 1962, first county mayor elected governor of Hawaii, first female governor of Hawaii, first Jewish governor .
  • List of Current United States Governors Facts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.republicansagenda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ M. Jodi Rell Mary Jodi Rell is a Republican politician and has been the 72nd Governor of the U.S. state of Connecticut since July 1, 2004.
  • List of Current United States Governors Facts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.republicansagenda.com [Source type: Original source]

.It brought 5000 troops to New Orleans to engage and overwhelm forces of the Metropolitan Police and state militia to turn Republican Governor William P. Kellogg out of office and seat McEnery.^ The governor is the chief executive of the state, and commander-in-chief of the state military forces .
  • List of Current United States Governors Facts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.republicansagenda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ List The Governor of Arkansas is the head of the executive branch of Arkansas's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
  • List of Current United States Governors Facts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.republicansagenda.com [Source type: Original source]

^ List The Governor of Kansas is the head of the executive branch of Kansas's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
  • List of Current United States Governors Facts 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.republicansagenda.com [Source type: Original source]

.The White League took over and held the state house and city hall, but they retreated before the arrival of reinforcing Federal troops.^ Hall, Kermit L. "Judicial Politics and Regional Reward: Congress and the Federal Courts, 1861-1869" (paper presented before the SHA, 1973) (typescript).
  • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ April 1, 1789 - The United States House of Repersentatives holds its 1st full meeting in New York City.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal troops needed to be called out as some state militias sided with strikers.
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.Kellogg had asked for reinforcements before, and Grant finally responded, sending additional troops to try to quell violence throughout plantation areas of the Red River Valley, although 2,000 troops were already in the state.^ In the country as a whole the concentration in cities was most marked in the area north of the Potomac and Ohio rivers and east of the Mississippi; the South remained rural, as before the war.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The negroes were in the majority and although they paid only $143 in taxes altogether, they helped add $20,000,000 to the state debt in four years.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[80]
Similarly, the Red Shirts, another paramilitary group, arose in 1875 in Mississippi and the Carolinas. .Like the White League and White Liner rifle clubs, these groups operated as a "military arm of the Democratic Party", to restore white supremacy.^ He was a Democrat who looked for the restoration of his old party partly as a step toward his own reelection to the presidency in 1868.
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^ The other party was called conservative or Democratic, and was composed of the great mass of the whites.
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[81]
.Democrats and many northern Republicans agreed that Confederate nationalism and slavery were dead—the war goals were achieved—and further federal military interference was an undemocratic violation of historic Republican values.^ Personal and historical memories of events preceding, during, and since the American Civil War, involving slavery and secession, emancipation and reconstruction, with sketches o .

^ The president, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern whites spurned this Republican plan of Reconstruction.
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^ Further, "allied with Republican whites, African Americans outnumbered conservatives and earned majority control of the electoral system in many states."
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The victory of Rutherford Hayes in the hotly contested Ohio gubernatorial election of 1875 indicated his "let alone" policy toward the South would become Republican policy, as happened when he won the 1876 Republican nomination for president.^ Despite Grant’s hope for a third term in office, most Republicans recognized by 1876 that it was time to change both the candidate and his Reconstruction program, and the nomination of Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio, a moderate Republican of high principles and of deep sympathy for the South, marked the end of the Radical domination of the Republican Party.
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^ March 5, 1877 - Rutherford Hayes is sworn in as the 19th President of the United States.
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^ Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, having failed to obtain the Republican nomination, allowed it to be known that he was willing to become the Democratic candidate.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

An explosion of violence accompanied the campaign for the Mississippi's 1875 election, in which Red Shirts and Democratic rifle clubs, operating in the open and without disguise, threatened or shot enough Republicans to decide the election for the Democrats. .Republican Governor Adelbert Ames asked Grant for federal troops to fight back; Grant initially refused, saying public opinion was "tired out" of the perpetual troubles in the South.^ More frequently it was manifested through support of the Democratic Party , which gradually regained its strength in the South and waited for the time when the North would tire of supporting the Radical regimes and would withdraw federal troops from the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Federal troops needed to be called out as some state militias sided with strikers.
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Ames fled the state as the Democrats took over Mississippi.[82]
.This was not the end of the violence, however, as the campaigns and elections of 1876 were marked by additional murders and attacks on Republicans in Louisiana, North and South Carolina, and Florida.^ But there were disputes in three states, Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Troops had long been stationed in South Carolina and Louisiana, and others were promptly sent to Florida.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the circumstances, however, it was natural that the presidential campaign of 1876 should turn upon the failings of the administration.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.In South Carolina the campaign season of 1876 was marked by murderous outbreaks and fraud against freedmen.^ Mark A. Shibley, Resurgent Evangelicalism in the United States: Mapping Cultural Change since 1970, University of South Carolina Press, 1996.
  • Books about Religious Conservatism in the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC polaris.gseis.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Red Shirts paraded with arms behind Democratic candidates; they killed blacks in the Hamburg and Ellenton SC massacres; and one historian estimated 150 blacks were killed in the weeks before the 1876 election across South Carolina.^ South Carolina, one of the thirteen colonies, became the eighth state on May 23, 1788.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In only one presidential election had he so much as voted for a candidate, and then it was for a Democrat, James Buchanan.
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^ In South Carolina it became evident that a majority of the popular vote was for Hayes, although both the Democratic and the Republican electors sent in returns to Washington.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Red Shirts prevented almost all black voting in two majority-black counties.^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
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^ The Republicans carried almost every northern state and obtained a two-thirds majority in each house of Congress, with which to override vetoes.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In all the legislatures there were large numbers of blacks--sometimes, indeed, they were in the majority.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[83] The Red Shirts were also active in North Carolina.

Election of 1876

.Reconstruction continued in South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida until 1877. The elections of 1876 were accompanied by heightened violence across the Deep South.^ But there were disputes in three states, Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1880, for example, African Americans were an absolute majority in Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina; and were over 40% of the population in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Virginia, making Afri- can Americans the largest single voting bloc in those states.
  • Constitutional Law Prof Blog: Reconstruction Era Amendments 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC lawprofessors.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rice culture, likewise, did not recover readily for South Carolina alone produced almost as much in 1860 as the entire South in 1890, and not until the development of production in Louisiana after 1890 did the crop assume its former importance.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.A combination of ballot stuffing and intimidating blacks suppressed their vote even in majority black counties.^ Like his predecessor he intended to confine the voting power to the whites, leaving to the states themselves the question whether the ballot should be extended to any of the blacks.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

The White League was active in Louisiana. .After Republican Rutherford Hayes won the disputed U.S. Presidential election of 1876, the national Compromise of 1877 was reached.^ March 5, 1877 - Rutherford Hayes is sworn in as the 19th President of the United States.
  • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The circumstances surrounding the disputed election of 1876 strengthened Hayes’s intention to work with the Southern whites, even if it meant abandoning the few Radical regimes that remained in the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National politics - - - The Rutherford B. Hayes administr...
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The white Democrats in the South agreed to accept Hayes's victory if he withdrew the last Federal troops.^ As a voter, he was on an equality with the whites; he belonged to the Republican party and his party was a powerful factor in the politics of the South; his position was secured, or at least seemed to be secured, by amendments to the federal Constitution.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to resolve the impasse, Hayes’s lieutenants had to enter into agreement with Southern Democratic congressmen, promising to withdraw the remaining federal troops from the South, to share the Southern patronage with Democrats, and to favour that section’s demands for federal subsidies in the building of levees and railroads.
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^ More frequently it was manifested through support of the Democratic Party , which gradually regained its strength in the South and waited for the time when the North would tire of supporting the Radical regimes and would withdraw federal troops from the South.
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By this point, the North was weary of insurgency. .White Democrats controlled most of the Southern legislatures and armed militias controlled small towns and rural areas.^ In the country as a whole the concentration in cities was most marked in the area north of the Potomac and Ohio rivers and east of the Mississippi; the South remained rural, as before the war.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The president, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern whites spurned this Republican plan of Reconstruction.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional small-town patterns - - The rural–urban transition .
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.With the white Democrats' passage of disfranchising constitutions and statutes, African Americans who wanted to exercise their legal rights were repeatedly thwarted by white Democrats for most of the next 75 years.^ Southern whites wished to keep African Americans in a condition of quasi-servitude, extending few civil rights and firmly rejecting social equality .
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^ Who's Who in the World, 2nd Floor Reference CT 120 .W5 v.18 (Most recent year) .
  • History (Non-United States) - SubjectGuides 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.auburn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the U.S. Constitution forbade outright racial discrimination , the Southern states excluded African Americans by requiring that potential voters be able to read or to interpret any section of the Constitution—a requirement that local registrars waived for whites but rigorously insisted upon when an audacious black wanted to vote.
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.They considered Reconstruction a failure because the Federal government withdrew from enforcing their ability to exercise their rights as citizens.^ In pursuance of his policy he had already appointed military governors in states where the federal army had secured a foothold, and they directed the re-establishment of civil government.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It condemned the administration for keeping unworthy men in power, favored the removal of all disabilities imposed on southerners because of the rebellion, objected to interference by the federal government in local affairs--a reference to the use of troops to enforce the radical reconstruction policy--and advocated civil service reform.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "You forbid these men that union which alone can enable them to resist the oppressions of avarice....You deprive them of the means and opportunity of learning the rights and duties which they are to exercise as citizens."
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[84]

Legacy and historiography

The interpretation of Reconstruction has swung back and forth several times. Nearly all historians hold that Reconstruction ended in failure. It is hard to see Reconstruction "as concluding in anything but failure" says Etcheson (2009)[85] Etcheson adds, "W. E. B. DuBois captured that failure well when he wrote in Black Reconstruction in America (1935): 'The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.'" Likewise Eric Foner concludes that from the black point of view, "Reconstruction must be judged a failure."[86]
.Some of the repercussions of this failure could be felt all the way through the Civil Rights movement of the mid-20th century.^ Hubert Humphrey discusses the personalities of some of the 20th century’s most memorable presidents.
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^ In the late 19th and early 20th century, many immigrants came to America by way of New York and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
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^ Students could then report orally or in a more creative way through an editorial, editorial cartoon, newspaper style description, speech or a short essay.
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The first wave of Northern historians believed that the former Confederates were traitors and Johnson was their ally who threatened to undo the Union's Constitutional achievements. By the 1880s Northern historians argued that Johnson and his allies were not traitors but blundered badly in rejecting the 14th Amendment and setting the stage for Radical Reconstruction.[87]
The black leader Booker T. Washington, who grew up in West Virginia during Reconstruction, concluded that, "the Reconstruction experiment in racial democracy failed because it began at the wrong end, emphasizing political means and civil rights acts rather than economic means and self-determination."[88] His solution was to concentrate on building the economic infrastructure of the black community, in part by his leadership of Tuskegee Institute. However, historians have discovered that Washington also used his significant resources and called on Northern allies to secretly provide financing and representation in numerous lawsuits that challenged Southern segregation restrictions and constitutional disfranchisement, as in Alabama's Giles v. Harris (1903) and Giles v. Teasley (1904).[89]
In popular literature two novels by Thomas DixonThe Clansman and The Leopard's Spots: A Romance of the White Man's Burden — 1865–1900—romanticized white resistance to Northern/black coercion, hailing vigilante action by the KKK. Other authors romanticized the benevolence of slavery and the happy world of the antebellum plantation. These sentiments were expressed on the screen in D.W. Griffith's anti-Republican 1915 movie The Birth of a Nation.
The Dunning School of scholars based at the history department of Columbia University analyzed Reconstruction as a failure, at least after 1866, for different reasons. .They claimed that it took freedoms and rights from qualified whites and gave them to unqualified blacks who were being duped by corrupt carpetbaggers and scalawags.^ The conduct of white Southerners indicated that they were not prepared to guarantee even minimal protection of African American rights.
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^ Hume, Richard L. "Carpetbaggers in the Reconstruction South: A Group Portrait of Outside Whites in the "Black and Tan" Constitutional Conventions."
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^ "White Rights as a Model for Black: or, Who's Afraid of the Privileges or Immunities Clause?"
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.As one scholar notes, "Reconstruction was a battle between two extremes: the Democrats, as the group which included the vast majority of the whites, standing for decent government and racial supremacy, versus the Republicans, the Negroes, alien carpetbaggers, and renegade scalawags, standing for dishonest government and alien ideals.^ It was composed of two Republicans and one Democrat.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The radical or Republican group included the negroes, a few southern whites, commonly called "scalawags," and various northerners known as "carpet-baggers."
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Miscellaneous notes and contemporary excerpts on Reconstruction Era politics (thirty-one pieces).
  • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

These historians wrote literally in terms of white and black."[90]
In the 1930s revisionism became popular among scholars. As disciples of Charles A. Beard, revisionists focused on economics, downplaying politics and constitutional issues. .They argued that the Radical rhetoric of equal rights was mostly a smokescreen hiding the true motivation of Reconstruction's real backers.^ They formed the Equal Rights Party to be free of existing party control.
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^ "Equal Rights vs. The Presidential Policy in Reconstruction" (letter to the New York Independent 20 October 1865).
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.Howard K. Beale argued Reconstruction was primarily a successful attempt by financiers, railroad builders and industrialists in the Northeast, using the Republican Party, to control the national government for their own selfish economic ends.^ After long and acrimonious quarrels between Radical and moderate Republicans, the party leaders finally produced a compromise plan in the First Reconstruction Act of 1867.
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^ While the president, from the porch of the White House , denounced the leaders of the Republican Party as “traitors,” Republicans in Congress tried to formulate their own plan to reconstruct the South.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For that reason, we have -- in close cooperation with other supplier nations -- significantly improved controls on technologies useful in developing nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and the missiles to deliver them.
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.Those ends were to continue the wartime high protective tariff, the new network of national banks and to guarantee a sound currency.^ I. THE FOUNDATIONS OF NATIONAL STRATEGY: INTERESTS AND GOALS. NEW ERA The bitter struggle that divided the world for over two generations has come to an end.
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^ It demanded reform in the governments of states and nation, in the currency system, the tariff, the scale of public expense, and the civil service.
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^ Those nations with whom we are bound by alliances will continue to be our closest partners in building a new world order.
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.To succeed the business class had to remove the old ruling agrarian class of Southern planters and Midwestern farmers.^ "Class and State in Postemancipation Societies: Southern Planters in Comparative Perspective."
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.This it did by inaugurating Reconstruction, which made the South Republican, and by selling its policies to the voters wrapped up in such attractive vote-getting packages as Northern patriotism or the bloody shirt.^ As Republican leaders in Congress saw the satisfaction created in the South by the President's policy, and discovered that northern Democrats were rallying to his support, the jealousies of partisanship caused them still further to increase their grip on the processes of reconstruction.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The president, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern whites spurned this Republican plan of Reconstruction.
  • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon his inauguration in January 2003, he became the first Republican governor of Georgia since Benjamin F. Conley served during Reconstruction in the 1870s .
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.Historian William Hesseltine added the point that the Northeastern businessmen wanted to control the South economically, which they did through ownership of the railroads.^ Through the purchase of votes and the skilful distribution of the proceeds of their control, they managed to keep in power despite a growing suspicion that something was wrong.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[91] .However, historians in the 1950s and 1960s refuted Beale's economic causation by demonstrating that Northern businessmen were widely divergent on monetary or tariff policy, and seldom paid attention to Reconstruction issues.^ To the consternation of the radicals the President issued a proclamation announcing a reconstruction policy which substantially followed that of Lincoln.
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[92]
.The black scholar W. E. B. Du Bois, in his Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880, published in 1935, compared results across the states to show achievements by the Reconstruction legislatures and to refute claims about wholesale African-American control of governments.^ To be sure, slavery was abolished; but each reconstructed Southern state government proceeded to adopt a “ Black Code ,” regulating the rights and privileges of freedmen.
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^ Constitution of the United States of America ) Declaration of Independence text ( in Declaration of Independence ) flag, history of ( in United States of America, flag of the ) history ( in United States, history of ) legal system ( in American law ) literature ( in American literature ) state ( in state government ) agriculture and fishing .
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^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
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.He showed black contributions, as in the establishment of universal public education, charitable and social institutions and universal suffrage as important results, and he noted their collaboration with whites.^ Adult-education agencies and institutions ) college ( in college ) colonial ( in education: British America ) degree programs ( in degree ) higher education ( in higher education: The system of higher education in the United States ) public ( in education: The United States ) university ( in university: First universities in the Western Hemisphere ) government .
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^ International Institute of Social History Online access to catalog of the Institute, established in 1935 in Amsterdam.
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^ An important feature of the policy had been the encouragement of education and of transportation through the gift of large grants of the public land.
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He also pointed out that whites benefited most by the financial deals made, and he put excesses in the perspective of the war's aftermath. .He noted that despite complaints, several states kept their Reconstruction constitutions for nearly a quarter of a century.^ Wright, Neil S. "A Quarter-Century Window on the U.S. Federal System: the Shift from National-State Relations to Intergovernmental Relations, 1935-1960."
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.Despite receiving favorable reviews, his work was largely ignored by white historians.^ Women and blacks enter the work force in large numbers as the main work force of white males go to war.
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.In the 1960s neoabolitionist historians emerged, led by John Hope Franklin, Kenneth Stampp and Eric Foner.^ Franklin, John Hope .
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  • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Influenced by the Civil Rights Movement, they rejected the Dunning school and found a great deal to praise in Radical Reconstruction.^ Malnutrition, illiteracy and poverty put dangerous pressures on democratic institutions as hungry, uneducated or poorly housed citizens are ripe for radicalization by movements of the left and the right.
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^ Civil rights legislation - - - The South during Reconstruction .
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^ The first section was, of course, designed to put the civil rights of the negro into the Constitution where they would be safe from hostile legislation.
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.Foner, the primary advocate of this view, argued that it was never truly completed, and that a Second Reconstruction was needed in the late 20th century to complete the goal of full equality for African Americans.^ Domestic policy - - The late 20th century .
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^ The late 20th century - - - The Ronald Reagan administration .
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^ In the late 19th and early 20th century, many immigrants came to America by way of New York and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
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.The neo-abolitionists followed the revisionists in minimizing the corruption and waste created by Republican state governments, saying it was no worse than Boss Tweed's ring in New York City.^ Melvin , 1810 (New York City).
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^ One of the most flagrant examples was the Tweed Ring in New York.
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^ Corruption there certainly was, though nowhere on the scale of the Tweed Ring, which at that time was busily looting New York City; but it is not possible to show that Republicans were more guilty than Democrats, or blacks than whites, in the scandals that did occur.
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[93]
.Instead they emphasized that suppression of the rights of African Americans was a worse scandal and a grave corruption of America's republican ideals.^ An act to define and guarantee African Americans’ basic civil rights met a similar fate, but Republicans succeeded in passing it over the president’s veto.
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^ Southern whites wished to keep African Americans in a condition of quasi-servitude, extending few civil rights and firmly rejecting social equality .
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^ The conduct of white Southerners indicated that they were not prepared to guarantee even minimal protection of African American rights.
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.They argued that the tragedy of Reconstruction was not that it failed because blacks were incapable of governing, especially as they did not dominate any state government, but that it failed because whites raised an insurgent movement to restore white supremacy.^ To be sure, slavery was abolished; but each reconstructed Southern state government proceeded to adopt a “ Black Code ,” regulating the rights and privileges of freedmen.
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^ In pursuance of his policy he had already appointed military governors in states where the federal army had secured a foothold, and they directed the re-establishment of civil government.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
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.White elite-dominated state legislatures passed disfranchising constitutions from 1890 to 1908 that effectively barred most blacks and many poor whites from voting.^ Neither poor whites nor poor blacks had much opportunity to rise in a region that was desperately impoverished.
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^ In the meanwhile a total of 703,000 black and 627,000 white voters were registered, delegates to constitutional conventions were elected, constitutions were drawn up and adopted which permitted negro suffrage, and state officers and legislators elected.
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^ New York state legislature passes a law that frees slaves born before 4 July 1799.
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.This disfranchisement affected millions of people for decades into the 20th century, and closed African Americans and poor whites out of the political process in the South.^ African American voting in the South was a casualty of the conflict between Redeemers and Populists.
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^ Some erupted into race riots , but acts of terrorism against individual African American leaders were more common.
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^ During this turmoil, Southern whites and blacks began to work out ways of getting their farms back into operation and of making a living.
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[94][95]
.Re-establishment of white supremacy meant that within a decade people forgot that blacks were creating thriving middle classes in many states of the South.^ In pursuance of his policy he had already appointed military governors in states where the federal army had secured a foothold, and they directed the re-establishment of civil government.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Skip this Advertisement Encyclopædia Britannica Reconstruction and the New South 1865 1900 CREATE MY United State...
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^ Six states added more than a million each to their population--New York and Pennsylvania in the Northeast; Ohio, Illinois and Kansas in the Middle West; and Texas in the South.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.African Americans' lack of representation meant they were treated as second-class citizens, with schools and services consistently underfunded in segregated societies, no representation on juries or in law enforcement, and bias in other legislation.^ Under this law the citizen might settle upon a quarter-section and receive a title after five years of actual occupation, with no charge other than a slight fee.
  • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The conduct of white Southerners indicated that they were not prepared to guarantee even minimal protection of African American rights.
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^ Varying from state to state, these codes in general treated African Americans as inferiors, relegated to a secondary and subordinate position in society.
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.It was not until the Civil Rights Movement and the passage of Federal legislation that African Americans regained their suffrage and civil rights in the South, under what is sometimes referred to as the "Second Reconstruction."^ Civil rights legislation - - - The South during Reconstruction .
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^ Civil rights legislation .
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^ Expanded and clarified in three supplementary Reconstruction acts, this legislation swept away the regimes the president had set up in the South, put the former Confederacy back under military control, called for the election of new constitutional conventions, and required the constitutions adopted by these bodies to include both African American suffrage and the disqualification of former Confederate leaders from officeholding.
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More recent work by Nina Silber, David W. Blight, Cecelia O'Leary, Laura Edwards, LeeAnn Whites and Edward J. Blum, has encouraged greater attention to race, religion and issues of gender while at the same time pushing the end of Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, while monographs by Charles Reagan Wilson, Gaines Foster, W. Scott Poole and Bruce Baker have offered new views of the Southern "Lost Cause".[96]
.While 1877 is the usual date given for the end of Reconstruction, some historians extend the era to the 1890s.^ In short, by the 1890s the South, a poor and backward region, had yet to recover from the ravages of the Civil War or to reconcile itself to the readjustments required by the Reconstruction era.
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^ CHAPTER III ECONOMIC FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW ERA With the close of Grant's administration, the main immediate problems connected with political reconstruction came to an end.
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[97] Reconstruction is unanimously considered a failure, though the reason for this is a matter of controversy.
.
  • The Dunning School considered failure inevitable because they felt that taking the power away from Southern whites was a violation of republicanism.
  • A second school sees the reason for failure as Northern Republicans' lack of effectiveness in guaranteeing political rights to blacks.
  • A third school blames the failure of not giving land to the Freedmen so they could have their own economic base of power.
  • A fourth school sees the major reason for failure of reconstruction as the states' inability to suppress the violence of Southern whites when they sought reversal for blacks' gains.^ The president, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern whites spurned this Republican plan of Reconstruction.
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    ^ Chief George Manuel Memorial Library and the Fourth World Documentation Archive Full-text access to social, political, economic, and political rights documents pertaining to the Fourth World ("nations forcefully incorporated into states which maintain a distinct political culture but are internationally unrecognized").
    • History (Non-United States) - SubjectGuides 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.auburn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Without land or money, most freedmen had to continue working for white masters; but they were now unwilling to labour in gangs or to live in the old slave quarters under the eye of the plantation owner.
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    .Etcheson (2009) points to the "violence that crushed black aspirations and the abandonment by Northern whites of Southern Republicans."^ During this turmoil, Southern whites and blacks began to work out ways of getting their farms back into operation and of making a living.
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    ^ The radical or Republican group included the negroes, a few southern whites, commonly called "scalawags," and various northerners known as "carpet-baggers."
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    ^ The president, the Northern Democrats, and the Southern whites spurned this Republican plan of Reconstruction.
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    [98] -

Reconstruction state-by-state – significant dates

Only Georgia has a separate article about its experiences under Reconstruction. .The other state names below link to a specific section in the state history article about the Reconstruction era.^ MuslimHeritage.com Articles and article summaries about Muslim culture and history.
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^ As the North Atlantic allies declared in June: "Our own security is inseparably linked to that of all other states in Europe.
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^ Series AA - United States - History - Reconstruction Era, 1865-1877.
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Article on Reconstruction in each State Seceded from Union Joined Confederacy Readmitted into Union Democratic Party Establishes Control
South Carolina December 20, 1860 February 4, 1861 July 9, 1868 April 11, 1877
Mississippi January 9, 1861 February 4, 1861 February 23, 1870 January 4, 1876
Florida January 10, 1861 February 4, 1861 June 25, 1868 January 2, 1877
Alabama January 11, 1861 February 4, 1861 July 14, 1868 November 16, 1874
Georgia January 19, 1861 February 4, 1861 July 15, 1870 November 1, 1871
Louisiana January 26, 1861 February 4, 1861 June 25 or July 9, 1868 January 2, 1877
Texas February 1, 1861 March 2, 1861 March 30, 1870 January 14, 1873
Virginia April 17, 1861 May 7, 1861 January 26, 1870 October 5, 1869
Arkansas May 6, 1861 May 18, 1861 June 22, 1868 November 10, 1874
North Carolina May 21, 1861 May 16, 1861 July 4, 1868 November 28, 1870
Tennessee June 8, 1861 May 16, 1861 July 24, 1866 October 4, 1869

Notes

  1. ^ In recent decades most historians follow Foner (1988) in dating the reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 and ending in 1877.
  2. ^ Except in Tennessee.
  3. ^ Not including Virginia
  4. ^ A somewhat similar "reconstruction" process took place in the border states of Missouri and Kentucky, but they never left the Union and were never controlled by Congress.
  5. ^ Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, (2007), pp 75–77
  6. ^ Thomas B. Alexander, "Persistent Whiggery in the Confederate South, 1860-1877," Journal of Southern History, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Aug., 1961), pp. 305-329 in JSTOR
  7. ^ Allen W. Trelease, "Republican Reconstruction in North Carolina: A Roll-Call Analysis of the State House of Representatives, 1866-1870", Journal of Southern History, Vol. XLII, No. 3 (Aug. 1976)
  8. ^ Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction (2001) ch 26
  9. ^ Eric Foner, "If Lincoln Hadn't Died," American Heritage (2009) Vol. 58, Issue 6; Simpson (2009); William C. Harris, With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1999)
  10. ^ All blacks would be counted in 1870, whether or not they were citizens.
  11. ^ Valelly, Richard M. (2004). The Two Reconstructions: The struggle for black enfranchisement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 29. ISBN 0-226-84530-3. ; Hans Trefouse, The Radical republicans (1975).
  12. ^ Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction (2001); Hans L. Trefousse, Andrew Johnson: A Biography (1998)
  13. ^ Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction (2001) ch 26–27
  14. ^ Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction (2001) ch 28–29
  15. ^ Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction (2001) ch 29
  16. ^ Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction (2001) ch 30
  17. ^ Harris, With Charity for All (1999)
  18. ^ Foner 1988 pp 273–6
  19. ^ William Gienapp, Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America (2002), p. 155
  20. ^ Patton p126
  21. ^ Johnson to Gov. William L. Sharkey, August 1865 quoted in Franklin (1961), p. 42
  22. ^ Donald, Charles Sumner pg. 201
  23. ^ Ayers pg. 418
  24. ^ James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935, pp.244–245
  25. ^ Randall and Donald p. 581
  26. ^ Eric Foner, Freedom's lawmakers: a directory of Black officeholders during Reconstruction (1993)
  27. ^ Ellen DuBois, Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women's movement in America (1978)
  28. ^ Glenn Feldman, The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, (2004), p.136.
  29. ^ Trefousse c1989
  30. ^ see
  31. ^ Barney, William L., The Passage of the Republic: An Interdisciplinary History of Nineteenth-Century America (1987), p. 245
  32. ^ Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction (2001) ch 31
  33. ^ Oberholtzer 1:128–9
  34. ^ Donald (2001) p. 527
  35. ^ Barney, The Passage of the Republic, p. 251, pp. 284–286
  36. ^ Report on the Condition of the South / Schurz, Carl, 1829–1906:
  37. ^ Rhodes, History 6:65–66
  38. ^ Rhodes, History 6:68
  39. ^ See [1] based America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War, by Eric Foner and Olivia Mahoney. Online source is: [2]
  40. ^ Trefousse 1989
  41. ^ Fellman (2003) pp 301–310; Foner (1988) entitles his chapter 6, "The Making of Radical Reconstruction." Trefousse (1968) and Hyman (1967) put "Radical Republicans" in the title. Benedict (1974) argues the Radical Republicans were conservative on many other issues.
  42. ^ Foner 1988 ch 6
  43. ^ Gabriel J. Chin, "The 'Voting Rights Act of 1867': The Constitutionality of Federal Regulation of Suffrage During Reconstruction," 82 North Carolina Law Review 1581 (2004)
  44. ^ Foner 1988, ch 6–7
  45. ^ Randolph Campbell, Gone to Texas 2003 p. 276.
  46. ^ Rhodes (1920) v 6 p. 199
  47. ^ Georgia had a Republican governor and legislature, but the Republican hegemony was tenuous at best, and Democrats continued to win presidential elections there. See 1834 March 28 article in This Day in Georgia History compiled by Ed Jackson and Charles Pou; cf. Rufus Bullock.
  48. ^ Foner 1988 ch 7; Foner, Freedom's Lawmakers, introduction.
  49. ^ The statistics of the population of the United States, embracing the tables of race, nationality, sex, selected ages, and occupations. To which are added the statistics of school attendance and illiteracy, of schools, libraries, newspapers, periodicals, churches, pauperism and crime, and of areas, families, and dwellings Table 1. United States Census Bureau. Last Retrieved 2007-10-20
  50. ^ W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880. (1935)
  51. ^ James D. Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935. (1988), pp. 6–15
  52. ^ Foner 365–8
  53. ^ Franklin 139
  54. ^ McAfee 1998
  55. ^ a b Lynch 1913
  56. ^ Foner 387
  57. ^ Franklin pp 141–48; Summers 1984
  58. ^ Stover 1955
  59. ^ Franklin p147–8
  60. ^ Foner 375
  61. ^ Foner 376
  62. ^ Foner 415–16
  63. ^ Fleming online at
  64. ^ T. Harry Williams, An Analysis of Reconstruction Attitudes" Jstor
  65. ^ Walter Lynwood Fleming, Documentary History of the Reconstruction (Cleveland, 1907), II, pp. 328–9
  66. ^ Oberholtzer, vol 1 p 485
  67. ^ J. W. Schuckers, The Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase, (1874). p. 585; letter of May 30, 1868 to August Belmont
  68. ^ McPherson 1975
  69. ^ Foner 537–41
  70. ^ Foner 374–5
  71. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, pp. 10 and 27, accessed 10 Mar 2008
  72. ^ Lynch 1915
  73. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, pp. 12–13, accessed 10 Mar 2008
  74. ^ Perman 1984, ch 3
  75. ^ Foner, ch 9
  76. ^ Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, Pbk. 2007, pp. 15–21
  77. ^ Foner p 443
  78. ^ Foner p545–7
  79. ^ Danielle Alexander, "Forty Acres and a Mule: The Ruined Hope of Reconstruction", Humanities, January/February 2004, vol.25/No.1, accessed 14 Apr 2008
  80. ^ Foner 555–56
  81. ^ George C. Rable, But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984, p.132
  82. ^ Foner ch 11
  83. ^ Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, paperback, 2007, p.174
  84. ^ Foner 604
  85. ^ Nicole Etcheson, "Reconstruction and the Making of a Free-Labor South," Reviews in American History, Volume 37, Number 2, June 2009
  86. ^ Foner, A Short History of Reconstruction (1990) p. 255. Foner adds, "What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the accomplishments that endured." p. 256
  87. ^ Fletcher M. Green, "Walter Lynwood Fleming: Historian of Reconstruction," The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 2, No. 4. (Nov., 1936), pp. 497–521.
  88. ^ Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington in Perspective (1988) p. 164; A. A. Taylor, "Historians of the Reconstruction," The Journal of Negro History Vol. 23, No. 1. (Jan., 1938), pp. 16–34.
  89. ^ Richard H. Pildes, Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon, Constitutional Commentary, vol. 17, 2000, pp. 13–14 Accessed 10 Mar 2008
  90. ^ Williams 1946 p. 473; Green (1936).
  91. ^ Williams 1946 p470
  92. ^ Foner 1982; Montgomery, vii–ix)
  93. ^ Williams, 469; Foner p. xxii
  94. ^ Glenn Feldman, The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, pp. 135–136
  95. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, p.27, accessed 15 Mar 2008
  96. ^ Bruce E. Baker, What Reconstruction Meant: Historical Memory in the American South (2007); Thomas J. Brown, ed. Reconstructions: New Perspectives on the Postbellum United States (2008)
  97. ^ See, e.g., Orville Vernon Burton, The Age of Lincoln (2007), p. 312.
  98. ^ See Vernon Burton, "Civil War and Reconstruction," in William L. Barney, ed. A Companion to 19th-century America (2006) pp 54-56.

References

  • Barnes, William H., ed. .History of the Thirty-ninth Congress of the United States. (1868) useful summary of Congressional activity.
  • Barney, William L. Passage of the Republic: An Interdisciplinary History of Nineteenth Century America (1987).^ American Stories: A History of the United States concentrates on the topics most commonly taught in an American history survey course, with a focus on the major themes and the connections between them.
    • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American anthropology since the 1950s ) automotive industry ( in automobile: The United States ; in automobile: V-8s and chrome in America ) aviation and space .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ March 4, 1877 - William Wheeler is sworn in as the 19th Vice President of the United States.
    • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

    D. C. Heath ISBN 0669047589
  • Berlin, Ira, ed. .Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861–1867 (1982), 970 pp of archival documents; also Free at Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War ed by Ira Berlin, Barbara J. Fields, and Steven F. Miller (1993)
  • Blaine, James.^ Civil War History 28 (1982): 5-27.
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Civil War History 19 (September 1973): 197-218.
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Civil War History 42 (June 1996): 133-53.
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Twenty Years of Congress: From Lincoln to Garfield. With a review of the events which led to the political revolution of 1860 (1886). By Republican Congressional leader
  • Donald, David H. et al. .Civil War and Reconstruction (2001), standard textbook
  • Etcheson, Nicole.^ "Free Labor Ideology and Its Exponents in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction" (paper presented before the OAH, 1984) (typescript).
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In short, by the 1890s the South, a poor and backward region, had yet to recover from the ravages of the Civil War or to reconcile itself to the readjustments required by the Reconstruction era.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Civil War - - Reconstruction .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Reconstruction and the Making of a Free-Labor South," Reviews in American History, Volume 37, Number 2, June 2009 in Project MUSE
  • Fitzgerald, Michael W. Splendid Failure (2007) Historical analysis of the Reconstruction and politics involved.^ American Historical Review 45 (July 1940): 807-27.
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Journal of American History 56 (June 1969): 41-58.
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Organization of American Historians (Formed in 1907; American history) Southern Historical Association (Formed in 1934; history of the American South) SHOT: Society for the History of Technology (Formed in 1958; an interdisciplinary organization to encourage the study of the development of technology and its relations with society and culture.
    • History (Non-United States) - SubjectGuides 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.auburn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 978-1-56663-734-3
  • Fleming, Walter L. Documentary History of Reconstruction: Political, Military, Social, Religious, Educational, and Industrial 2 vol (1906).^ For documentary material, W.L. Fleming, _Documentary History of Reconstruction_ (2 vols., 1906-7), is essential.
    • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 27 (Jan.-June 1906): 135-147.
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The history of the effects of the war and of reconstruction on the political status of the negro has been concisely summarized as falling into three periods.
    • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Presents a broad collection of primary sources; vol 1 on national politics; vol 2 on states
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed.^ Archive Finder An online directory to over 5500 repositories and over 161,000 collections of primary source materials in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ireland.
    • History (Non-United States) - SubjectGuides 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.auburn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the interwar period, the politics of these states were often dominated by economic hardship, competing nationalisms and overlapping territorial claims.
    • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The 1916 Rising: Personalities and Perspectives Digitized primary source documents from the National Library of Ireland relating to the Easter Rising of 1916.
    • History (Non-United States) - SubjectGuides 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.auburn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. (2005).^ The Civil War - - Reconstruction .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION .
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Russ, William A. "Was There Danger of a Second Civil War During Reconstruction?"
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .518 pp
  • Memoirs of W. W. Holden (1911), North Carolina Scalawag governor
  • Hyman, Harold M., ed.^ Hyman, Harold M. " Chase, Salmon P. " In Leonard W. Levy, ed., Encyclopedia of the American Constitution (Macmillan, 1986).
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The Radical Republicans and Reconstruction, 1861–1870.^ After long and acrimonious quarrels between Radical and moderate Republicans, the party leaders finally produced a compromise plan in the First Reconstruction Act of 1867.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(1967), collection of long political speeches and pamphlets.
  • Lynch, John R. The Facts of Reconstruction. (New York: 1913)Full text online One of first black congressmen during Reconstruction.
  • Edward McPherson, The Political History of the United States of America During the Period of Reconstruction (1875), large collection of speeches and primary documents, 1865–1870, complete text online.^ Series AA - United States - History - Reconstruction Era, 1865-1877.
    • John E.T. Milsaps Collection: An Inventory of his Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library (part 6 of 7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Series BB: United States - History - 1866-1899 Pamphlets .
    • John E.T. Milsaps Collection: An Inventory of his Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library (part 6 of 7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Reconstruction and the New South, 1865–1900 .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [The copyright has expired.]
  • Palmer, Beverly Wilson and Holly Byers Ochoa, eds. .The Selected Papers of Thaddeus Stevens 2 vol (1998), 900pp; his speeches plus and letters to and from Stevens
  • Palmer, Beverly Wilson, ed/ The Selected Letters of Charles Sumner 2 vol (1990); vol 2 covers 1859–1874
  • Pike, James Shepherd, The prostrate state: South Carolina under negro government (1874)
  • Reid, Whitelaw.^ Stuffing the ballot box was common in South Carolina and other states.
    • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Under his direction each state was to frame and adopt a new constitution which must provide for negro suffrage.
    • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ South Carolina, one of the thirteen colonies, became the eighth state on May 23, 1788.
    • Chronological History Timeline of the United States - SHG Resources 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

    After the war: a southern tour, May 1, 1865 to May 1, 1866. (1866) by Republican editor
  • Charles Sumner, "Our Domestic Relations: or, How to Treat the Rebel States" Atlantic Monthly September 1863, early Radical manifesto

Newspapers and magazines

.
  • DeBow's Review major Southern conservative magazine; stress on business, economics and statistics
  • Harper's Weekly leading New York news magazine; pro-Radical
  • Nast, Thomas.^ New York Times Book Review (5 August 1962): 22-3.
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Though whites were in the majority in all but two of the Southern states, the conservative regimes did not attempt to disfranchise African Americans.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Harper's New Monthly Magazine 47 (Oct.
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    magazine cartoons pro-Radical editorial cartoons
  • Primary sources from Gilder-Lehrman collection
  • The New York Times daily edition online through ProQuest at academic libraries

Basic further reading

For much more detail see Reconstruction: Bibliography
  • Brown, Thomas J., ed. .Reconstructions: New Perspectives on Postbellum America (2006) essays by 8 scholars excerpt and text search
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880 (1935), Counterpoint to Dunning School explores the economics and politics of the era from Marxist perspective
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. "Reconstruction and its Benefits," American Historical Review, 15 (July, 1910), 781—99 online edition
  • Dunning, William Archibald.^ American Historical Review 45 (July 1940): 807-27.
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ American Historical Review 92 (Feb.
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ American Historical Review 95 (Feb.
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Reconstruction: Political & Economic, 1865-1877 (1905).^ Swenson, Philip D. "Reform, Reconstruction, and Illinois Politics, 1865-1871" (paper presented before the SHA, 1973) (typescript).
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Series AA - United States - History - Reconstruction Era, 1865-1877.
    • John E.T. Milsaps Collection: An Inventory of his Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library (part 6 of 7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The United States has provided political and economic support for the new government and its program for reconstruction and long-term development.
    • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Influential summary of Dunning School; blames Carpetbaggers for failure of Reconstruction. .online edition
  • Fitzgerald, Miachael W. Splendid Failure: Postwar Reconstruction in the American South (2007), 224pp; excerpt and text search
  • Walter Lynwood Fleming The Sequel of Appomattox, A Chronicle of the Reunion of the States(1918).^ Skip this Advertisement Encyclopædia Britannica Reconstruction and the New South 1865 1900 CREATE MY United State...
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Though the period has sometimes been labeled “Black Reconstruction,” the Radical governments in the South were never dominated by African Americans.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia Search Site: Advanced Search .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    From Dunning School[3].
  • Foner, Eric and Mahoney, Olivia. .America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War. ISBN 0-8071-2234-3, short well-illustrated survey
  • Foner, Eric.^ The close of the Civil War found the nation as well as the several sections of the country facing a variety of complicated and pressing social, economic and political problems.
    • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Free Labor Ideology and Its Exponents in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction" (paper presented before the OAH, 1984) (typescript).
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The issue before the people--Another civil war--The proof from their own record.
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 (1988) ISBN 0-06-015851-4. Pulitzer-prize winning history and most detailed synthesis of original and previous scholarship.
  • Foner, Eric.^ The Agony of Reconstruction, 1863–1877, 416 .
    • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ America ; in publishing, history of: The paperback revolution ) broadcasting .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. 2005. 268 pp.
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed. .A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. Blackwell, 2005. 518 pp.
  • Franklin, John Hope.^ "Free Labor Ideology and Its Exponents in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction" (paper presented before the OAH, 1984) (typescript).
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In short, by the 1890s the South, a poor and backward region, had yet to recover from the ravages of the Civil War or to reconcile itself to the readjustments required by the Reconstruction era.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Civil War - - Reconstruction .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Reconstruction after the Civil War (1961), 280 pages.^ Civil War Round Table, 15 September 1961) (typescript).
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Free Labor Ideology and Its Exponents in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction" (paper presented before the OAH, 1984) (typescript).
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In short, by the 1890s the South, a poor and backward region, had yet to recover from the ravages of the Civil War or to reconcile itself to the readjustments required by the Reconstruction era.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0226260798. Explores the brevity of the North’s military occupation of the South, limited power of former slaves, influence of moderate southerners, flaws in constitutions drawn by Radical state governments, and reasons for downfall of Reconstruction.
  • Henry, Robert Selph.^ In December 1863 Lincoln announced a general plan for the orderly Reconstruction of the Southern states, promising to recognize the government of any state that pledged to support the Constitution and the Union and to emancipate the slaves if it was backed by at least 10 percent of the number of voters in the 1860 presidential election.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But we need not be inhibited in supporting values that have proved universal -- political and human rights, democratic limits on the powers of government, judicial independence, free press and free speech.
    • NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OF THE UNITED STATES -- AUGUST 1991 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To be sure, slavery was abolished; but each reconstructed Southern state government proceeded to adopt a “ Black Code ,” regulating the rights and privileges of freedmen.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Story of Reconstruction (1938).
  • Jenkins, Wilbert L. Climbing up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction. SR Books, 2002. 285 pp.
  • Litwack, Leon.^ A unique pedagogical program developed and implemented by instructional designers provides a consistent structure for students as the story of American history unfolds.
    • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Stories: A History of the United States concentrates on the topics most commonly taught in an American history survey course, with a focus on the major themes and the connections between them.
    • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Civil War History 42 (June 1996): 116-32.
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Been in the Storm So Long (1979). Pulitzer Prize; social history of the Freedmen
  • McPherson, James and James Hogue. .Ordeal By Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction (2009)
  • Milton, George Fort.^ The Civil War - - Reconstruction .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Russ, William A. "Was There Danger of a Second Civil War During Reconstruction?"
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In short, by the 1890s the South, a poor and backward region, had yet to recover from the ravages of the Civil War or to reconcile itself to the readjustments required by the Reconstruction era.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Age of Hate: Andrew Johnson and the Radicals. (1930).^ Trefousse, Hans L. "The Acquittal of Andrew Johnson and the Decline of the Radicals."
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    online edition; from Dunning School
  • Perman, Michael. Emancipation and Reconstruction (2003). .144 pp.
  • Randall, J. G. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1953).^ The Civil War - - Reconstruction .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION .
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Free Labor Ideology and Its Exponents in the South during the Civil War and Reconstruction" (paper presented before the OAH, 1984) (typescript).
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Long the standard survey, with elaborate bibliography
  • Rhodes, James G. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 6. (1920).^ Series Y - United States - History - 1850 - 1860.
    • John E.T. Milsaps Collection: An Inventory of his Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library (part 6 of 7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Stories: A History of the United States concentrates on the topics most commonly taught in an American history survey course, with a focus on the major themes and the connections between them.
    • CourseSmart - 9780205697366 - American Stories: A History of the United States 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.coursesmart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That year, in several respects, was a turning point in the history of immigration into the United States.
    • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    1865-72; Volume: 7. (1920). .1872-77; Highly detailed narrative by Pulitzer prize winner; argues was a political disaster because it violated the rights of white Southerners.^ Most important of all, Johnson shared the white Southerners’ attitude toward African Americans , considering black men innately inferior and unready for equal civil or political rights.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The southern whites began to invent methods for overcoming the power of the freedmen in politics and for insuring themselves against possible danger of violence at the hands of the blacks.
    • The United States Since The Civil War by Charles Ramsdell Lingley - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/9) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Southern whites wished to keep African Americans in a condition of quasi-servitude, extending few civil rights and firmly rejecting social equality .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    vol 6 1865-1872 online; vol 7 online vol 6 online at Google.books vol 7 in Google.books
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. .West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War (2007)
  • Simpson, Brooks D. The Reconstruction Presidents (2009)
  • Stalcup, Brenda.^ The Civil War - - Reconstruction .
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION .
    • File Box 8 - Civil War and Reconstruction 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Russ, William A. "Was There Danger of a Second Civil War During Reconstruction?"
    • Hyman Collection - File Box 10 - Post-Reconstruction Era 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.pvamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ed. Reconstruction: Opposing Viewpoints (Greenhaven Press: 1995). .Uses primary documents to present opposing viewpoints.
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (1967); short survey; rejects Dunning School analysis.
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. and Leon M. Litwack, eds.^ Series AA - United States - History - Reconstruction Era, 1865-1877.
    • John E.T. Milsaps Collection: An Inventory of his Records at the Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library (part 6 of 7) 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School Reproduces important documents in law, history, and diplomacy from the Code of Hammurabi through the present.
    • History (Non-United States) - SubjectGuides 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.lib.auburn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In short, by the 1890s the South, a poor and backward region, had yet to recover from the ravages of the Civil War or to reconcile itself to the readjustments required by the Reconstruction era.
    • United States :: Reconstruction and the New South, 1865-1900 -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 9 January 2010 16:57 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Reconstruction: An Anthology of Revisionist Writings," (1969), essays by scholars
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction Greenwood (1991), 250 entries

External links


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