Red alga: Wikis


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Red algae
Fossil range: Mesoproterozoic–present[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Protoctista
(unranked): Archaeplastida
Phylum: Rhodophyta
Wettstein, 1922

(There were formerly thought to be two classes, Florideophyceae and Bangiophyceae.)[2]

The Red algae (or Rhodophyta fuvk u, pronounced /roʊˈdɒfɨtə, ˌroʊdəˈfaɪtə/, from Greek: ῥόδον (rhodon) = rose + φυτόν (phyton) = plant, thus red plant) are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae,[2] and also one of the largest, with about 5,000–6,000 species [3] of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Other references indicate 10,000 species. [4]

The red algae form a distinct group characterized by the following attributes: eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, using floridean starch as food reserve, with phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments (giving them their red color), and with chloroplasts lacking external endoplasmic reticulum and containing unstacked thylakoids[4] Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and have sexual reproduction.

Many of the coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver (nori/gim) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisine and are used to make other products like agar, carrageenans and other food additives[5]

The first red algae to have its genome sequenced was Cyanidioschyzon merolae.


Fossil record

The oldest fossil identified as a red alga is also the oldest fossil eukaryote that belongs to a specific modern taxon. Bangiomorpha pubescens, a multicellular fossil from arctic Canada, strongly resembles the modern red alga Bangia despite occurring in rocks dating to 1200 million years ago. [1]

Red algae are important builders of limestone reefs. The earliest such coralline algae, the solenopores, are known from the Cambrian Period. Other algae of different origins filled a similar role in the late Paleozoic, and in more recent reefs.

There are also calcite crusts which have been interpreted as the remains of coralline red algae dating to the terminal Proterozoic.[6] Thallophytes resembling coralline red algae are known from the late Proterozoic Doushantuou formation.[7]


The red algae are classified in the Archaeplastida, along with the glaucophytes and Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants).

Below are two valid published taxonomies of the red algae, although neither necessarily has to be used, as the taxonomy of the algae is still in a state of flux (with classification above the level of order having received little scientific attention for most of the 20th century).[8] If one defines the kingdom Plantae to mean the Archaeplastida, the red algae will be part of that kingdom; but if Plantae are defined more narrowly, to be the Viridiplantae, then the red algae might be considered their own kingdom[8] or part of the kingdom Protista. The two classification systems below place the red algae in the plant kingdom.

According to synthesis in Lee (2008)[2] Classification system according to
Hwan Su Yoon et al. 2006[9]
Classification system according to
Saunders and Hommersand 2004[8]
Domain Eukaryota (Corticata)
  • Kingdom Chromalveolata Cavalier-Smith, 1998
    • Phylum Rhodophyta
      • Class Rhodophytina
        • Orders
          • Cyanidiales
          • Porphyridiales
          • Bangiales
          • Acrochaetiales
          • Batrachospermales
          • Nemaliales
          • Corallinales
          • Gelidiales
          • Gracilariales
          • Ceramiales
Kingdom Plantae Haeckel
  • Subkingdom Biliphyta Wettstein
    • Phylum Rhodophyta Wettstein
      • Subphylum Cyanidiophytina subphylum novus
        • Class Cyanidiophyceae Merola et al.
      • Subphylum Rhodophytina subphylum novus
Kingdom Plantae Haeckel
  • Subkingdom Rhodoplantae
    • Phylum Cyanidiophyta
      • Class Cyanidiophyceae Merola et al.
    • Phylum Rhodophyta Wettstein
      • Subphylum Rhodellophytina
        • Class Rhodellophyceae Cavalier-Smith
      • Subphylum Metarhodophytina
        • Class Compsopogonophyceae Saunders et Hommersand
      • Subphylum Eurhodophytina
        • Class Bangiophyceae Wettstein
        • Class Florideophyceae Cronquist
          • Subclass Hildenbrandiophycidae
          • Subclass Nemaliophycidae
          • Subclass Ahnfeltiophycidae
          • Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae

Species of red algae

There are around 6,500 to 10,000 known species, [4][5] nearly all of which are marine, with about 200 that only live in fresh water. However, estimates of the number of real species vary by 100%. [4]

Some examples of species and genera of red algae are:


Algal group δ13C range[10]
HCO3-using red algae −22.5‰ – −9.6‰
CO2-using red algae −34.5‰ – −29.9‰
Brown algae −20.8‰ – −10.5‰
Green algae −20.3‰ – −8.8‰

The δ13C values of red algae reflect their lifestyles. The largest difference results from their photosynthetic metabolic pathway: algae which use HCO3 as a carbon source have far more negative δ13C values than those which only use CO2.[10] An additional difference of about 1.71‰ separates groups which are intertidal from those below the lowest tide line, which are never exposed to atmospheric carbon. The latter group use the more 13C negative CO2 which is dissolved in sea water, whereas those with access to atmospheric carbon reflect the more positive signature of this reserve.


Red algae have a double cell wall.[11] The outer layer are usually composed of "pectic substances", from which agar can be manufactured.[11] The internal wall is mostly cellulose.[11]

Pit connections and pit plugs


Pit connections

Pit connections and pit plugs are unique and distinctive features of red algae that form during the process of cytokinesis following mitosis. In red algae, cytokinesis is incomplete. Typically, a small pore is left in the middle of the newly formed partition. The pit connection is formed where the daughter cells remain in contact.

Shortly after the pit connection is formed cytoplasmic continuity is blocked by the generation of a pit plug, which is deposited in the wall gap that connects the cells.

Connections between cells having a common parent cell are called primary pit connections. Because apical growth is the norm in red algae, most cells have two primary pit connections, one to each adjacent cell.

Connections that exist between cells not sharing a common parent cells are labeled secondary pit connections. These connections are formed when an unequal cell division produced a nucleated daughter cell that then fuses to an adjacent cell. Patterns of secondary pit connections can be seen in the order Ceramiales.

Pit plugs

After a pit connection is formed, tubular membranes appear. A granular protein, called the plug core, then forms around the membranes. The tubular membranes eventually disappear. While some orders of red algae simply have a plug core, others have an associated membrane at each side of the protein mass, called cap membranes. The pit plug continues to exist between the cells until one of the cells dies. When this happens, the living cell produce a layer of wall material that seals off the plug.


It is thought that the pit connections function as structural reinforcement, and as an avenue for cell to cell communication and/or symplastic transport in red algae.[citation needed] While the presence of the cap membrane could inhibit this transport between cells, it has been hypothesized that the tubular plug cores serve as a means of transport.


The reproductive cycle of red algae may be triggered by factors such as day length.[2]


Red algae lack motile sperm. Hence they rely on water currents to transport their gametes to the female organs – although their sperm are capable of "gliding" to a carpogonium's trichogyne.[2]

The trichogyne will continue to grow until it encounters a spermatium; once it has been fertilised, the cell wall at its base progressively thickens, separating it from the rest of the carpogonium at its base.[2]

Upon their collision, the walls of the spermatium and carpogonium dissolve. The male nucleus divides and moves into the carpogonium; one half of the nucleus merges with the carpogonium's nucleus.[2]

The polyamine spermine is produced which triggers carpospore production.[2]

Spermatangia may have long delicate appendages, which increase their chances of "hooking up".[2]

Alternation of phases

They display alternation of phases; as well as a gametophyte phase, many have two sporophyte phases, the carposporophyte producing carpospores, which germinate into a tetrasporophyte – this produces spore tetrads, which dissociate and germinate into gametophytes.[2] The gametophyte is typically (but not always) identical to the tetrasporophyte.[12]

Carpospores may also germinate directly into thalloid gametophytes, or the carposporophytes may produce a tetraspore without going through a (free living) tetrasporophyte phase.[12] Tetrasporangia may be arranged in a row (Zonate), in a cross (cruciate), or in a tetrad.[2]

The carposporophyte may be enclosed within the gametophyte, which may cover it with branches to form a cystocarp.[12]

A couple of case studies may be helpful to understand some of the life histories algae may display.

In a simple case, such as Rhodochorton investiens:

In the Carposporophyte: a spermatium merges with a trichogyne (a long hair on the female sexual organ), which then divides to form carposporangia – which produce carpospores.

Carpospores germinate into gametophytes, which produce sporophytes. Both of these are very similar; they produce monospores from monosporangia "just below a cross wall in a filament"[2] and their spores are "liberated through apex of sporangial cell."[2]

The spores of a sporophyte produce either tetrasporophytes. Monospores produced by this phase germinate immediately, with no resting phase, to form an identical copy of parent. Tetrasporophytes may also produce a carpospore, which germinates to form another tetrasporophyte.[2]

The gametophyte may replicate using monospores, but produces sperm in spermatangia, and "eggs"(?) in carpogonium.[2]

A rather different example is Porphyra gardneri:

In its diploid phase, a carpospore can germinate to form a filamentous "conchocelis stage", which can also self-replicate using monospores. The conchocelis stage eventually produces conchosporangia. The resulting conchospore germinates to form a tiny prothallus with rhizoids, which develops to a cm-scale leafy thallus. This too can reproduce via monospores, which are produced inside the thallus itself.[2] They can also reproduce via spermatia, produced internally, which are released to meet a prospective carpogonium in its conceptacle.[2]

Human Consumption

Some red algae are iridescent when not covered with water

Several species are used as food. Dulse (Palmaria palmata)[13] and Porphyra are the best known in the British Isles[14]

In East and Southeast Asia, agar is most commonly produced from Gelidium amansii. In Asia, rhodophytes are important sources of food, such as nori. The high vitamin and protein content of this food makes it attractive, as does the relative simplicity of cultivation, which began in Japan more than 300 years ago.

See also


  1. ^ a b N. J. Butterfield (2000). "Bangiomorpha pubescens n. gen., n. sp.: implications for the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the Mesoproterozoic/Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes". Paleobiology 26 (3): 386–404. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2000)026<0386:BPNGNS>2.0.CO;2. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Lee, R.E. (2008), Phycology, 4th edition, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521638838 
  3. ^ D. Thomas (2002). Seaweeds. Life Series. Natural History Museum, London. ISBN 0-565-09175-1. 
  4. ^ a b c d W. J. Woelkerling (1990). "An introduction". in K. M. Cole & R. G. Sheath. Biology of the Red Algae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 1–6. ISBN 0-521-34301-1. 
  5. ^ a b M. D. Guiry. "Rhodophyta: red algae". National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  6. ^ Grant, S. W. F.; Knoll, A. H.; Germs, G. J. B. (1991), "Probable Calcified Metaphytes in the Latest Proterozoic Nama Group, Namibia: Origin, Diagenesis, and Implications", Journal of Paleontology (JSTOR) 65 (1): 1–18, 
  7. ^ Yun, Z.; Xun-lal, Y. (1992), "New data on multicellular thallophytes and fragments of cellular tissues from Late Proterozoic phosphate rocks, South China", Lethaia 25 (1): 1–18, doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1992.tb01788.x 
  8. ^ a b c G. W. Saunders & M. H. Hommersand (2004). "Assessing red algal supraordinal diversity and taxonomy in the context of contemporary systematic data". American Journal of Botany 91: 1494–1507. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1494. 
  9. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, K. M. Müller, R. G. Sheath, F. D. Ott & D. Bhattacharya (2006). "Defining the major lineages of red algae (Rhodophyta)" (PDF). Journal of Phycology 42: 482–492. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00210.x. 
  10. ^ a b Maberly, S. C.; Raven, J. A.; Johnston, A. M. (1992), "Discrimination between 12C and 13C by marine plants", Oecologia 91: 481, doi:10.1007/BF00650320 
  11. ^ a b c Fritsch, F. E. (1945), The structure and reproduction of the algae, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, ISBN 0521050421, OCLC 223742770 
  12. ^ a b c Kohlmeyer, J. (1975), "New Clues to the Possible Origin of Ascomycetes" (PDF), BioScience 25 (2): 86–93, doi:10.2307/1297108, 
  13. ^ "Dulse: Palmaria palmata". Quality Sea Veg. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  14. ^ T. F. Mumford & A. Muira (1988). "Porphyra as food: cultivation and economics". in C. A. Lembi & J. Waaland. Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-32115-8. 

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