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Human red blood cells
.Red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues via the blood flow through the circulatory system.^ The Blood is an intricate part of the Circulatory System.

^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemoglobin The component of red blood cells that carries oxygen.

.They take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it while squeezing through the body's capillaries.^ The cells are flexible so as to fit through tiny capillaries , where they release their oxygen load.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are responsible for normal oxygen transport from the lungs to the rest of the body.
  • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the capillaries, the oxygen is released to be used by the cells of the body.

.These cells' cytoplasm is rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the blood's red color.^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemoglobin The component of red blood cells that carries oxygen.

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

.In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible biconcave disks that lack a cell nucleus and most organelles.^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shemin, D, Rittenberg, D. The life span of the human red blood cell.
  • Red blood cell survival: Normal values and measurement 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells slide .

.The cells develop in the bone marrow and circulate for about 100–120 days in the body before their components are recycled by macrophages.^ The average life of a red blood cell is about 120 days.
  • Red blood cell (erythrocyte) - Health.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.health.com [Source type: News]
  • Red blood cell (erythrocyte) - Revolution Health 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood cells are produced in bone marrow .

^ Hematopoiesis Formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

.Each circulation takes about 20 seconds.^ Scientists have estimated that it takes about 30 seconds for a given portion of the blood to complete the entire cycle: from lungs to heart to body, back to the heart and out to the lungs.
  • The Heart and Circulation of Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC lsa.colorado.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I feel physically better each time I donate.It is not very painful and only takes about 20 to 40 minutes.
  • Donating Blood, Double Red Cells, Plasma, and Platelets - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ About 1% of the circulating erythrocytes are replaced each day and in the process, approximately 3 million new erythrocytes enter the circulation each second.
  • Red Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.innvista.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Approximately a quarter of the cells in the human body are red blood cells.^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How does the body recognize old red blood cells?
  • Edward Boas -- How does the body recognize old red blood cells? 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1][2]
.Red blood cells are also known as RBCs, red blood corpuscles (an archaic term), haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow", with cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage).^ Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) — Infoplease.com .
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0856945.html 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

.The capitalized term Red Blood Cells is the proper name in the US for erythrocytes in storage solution used in transfusion medicine.^ Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) — Infoplease.com .
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0856945.html 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Contents

History

.The first person to describe red blood cells was the young Dutch biologist Jan Swammerdam, who had used an early microscope in 1658 to study the blood of a frog.^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] Unaware of this work, Anton van Leeuwenhoek provided another microscopic description in 1674, this time providing a more precise description of red blood cells, even approximating their size, "25,000 times smaller than a fine grain of sand".
.In 1901 Karl Landsteiner published his discovery of the three main blood groups - A, B, and C (which he later renamed to O).^ In 1909, Karl Landsteiner , a Professor and biochemical researcher from Vienna, classified the blood into the A, B, AB, and O groups and showed that transfusions between individuals of groups A or B do not result in the destruction of new blood cells; that this destruction occurs only when a person is transfused with the blood of a person belonging to a different group.
  • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The three main types of cells making up our Blood are the White Blood cells, Red Blood cells and Platelets: .
  • Blood Facts - BloodBook, Blood Information for Life 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bloodbook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, or high rates of red blood cell destruction.
  • Hemolytic anemia, red blood cell loss 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Landsteiner described the regular patterns in which reactions occurred when serum was mixed with red blood cells, thus identifying compatible and conflicting combinations between these blood groups.^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These precursor red blood cells are called nucleated red blood cells.
  • Cerebral Palsy Video Nucleated Red Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.neatlounge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A year later Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli, two colleagues of Landsteiner, identified a fourth blood group - AB.
In 1959, by use of X-ray crystallography, Dr. Max Perutz was able to unravel the structure of hemoglobin, the red blood cell protein that carries oxygen.[5]

Vertebrate erythrocytes

.
There is an immense size variation in vertebrate erythrocytes, as well as a correlation between cell and nucleus size.
^ There is a correlation between indices and morphology.
  • Usefulness of reporting RBC morphology.(Answering yourquestions)(red-blood-cell )(Column) - Entrepreneur.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.entrepreneur.com [Source type: General]

^ In the blood, there are immature cells as well.
  • The Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Database of vertebrate erythrocyte sizes .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Mammalian erythrocytes, which do not contain nuclei, are considerably smaller than those of most other vertebrates.^ Erythrocytes are smaller than leukocytes.
  • Blood 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.pc.ctc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The erythrocytes of all non-mammalian vertebrates ( i.e.
  • Cohen - et al. 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC hermes.mbl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A. Erythrocytes of non-mammalian vertebrates .
  • Cohen - et al. 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC hermes.mbl.edu [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.Erythrocytes consist mainly of hemoglobin, a complex metalloprotein containing heme groups whose iron atoms temporarily bind to oxygen molecules (O2) in the lungs or gills and release them throughout the body.^ In the lungs, where there is a lot of oxygen, the hemoglobin molecules loosely bind with oxygen.
  • Red Gold . Blood Journey . Phase 1 | PBS 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They contain a special molecule called hemoglobin, which carries the oxygen.
  • Red Gold . Blood Journey . Phase 1 | PBS 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemoglobin contains heme units.
  • Sensational dinosaur blood report! 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC creation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oxygen can easily diffuse through the red blood cell's cell membrane.^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemoglobin The component of red blood cells that carries oxygen.

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

.Hemoglobin in the erythrocytes also carries some of the waste product carbon dioxide back from the tissues; most waste carbon dioxide, however, is transported back to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs as bicarbonate (HCO3-) dissolved in the blood plasma.^ This allows oxygen to be exchanged for carbon dioxide, and nutrients to be exchanged for waste products.
  • http://www.geocities.com/jw31645/blood.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the lungs hemoglobin releases carbon dioxide which we exhale.
  • http://www.geocities.com/jw31645/blood.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary function of the red blood cells , or erythrocytes , is to carry oxygen from the lungs to body tissues and to transfer carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
  • The Doctors' Medical Library - Red Blood Count, rbc, cbc, Health and Medical Information, medical library 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]

.Myoglobin, a compound related to hemoglobin, acts to store oxygen in muscle cells.^ A related compound, myoglobin , acts to store oxygen in muscle cells.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Anemia is defined by a reduced amount of red blood cell volume and a decline in hemoglobin, the part of blood that carries oxygen to the body's tissues.

^ Hemoglobin, a protein molecule present in all red blood cells, is responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the tissues around the body.

[7]
.The color of erythrocytes is due to the heme group of hemoglobin.^ The color of erythrocytes is due to the heme group of hemoglobin .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Erythrocytes consist mainly of hemoglobin , a complex molecule containing heme groups whose iron atoms temporarily link to oxygen molecules in the lungs or gills and release them throughout the body.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ About 20% of the carbon dioxide transported in the blood combines with hemoglobin (forming carbaminohemoglobin), but it binds to the amino acids of globin rather than with the heme group.

.The blood plasma alone is straw-colored, but the red blood cells change color depending on the state of the hemoglobin: when combined with oxygen the resulting oxyhemoglobin is scarlet, and when oxygen has been released the resulting deoxyhemoglobin is of a dark red burgundy color, appearing bluish through the vessel wall and skin.^ The parasite infects red blood cells.
  • Researchers Find How Malaria Parasite Disperses From Red Blood Cells | Science Blog 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (DPG) plays a role in the red blood cell's ability to release oxygen.
  • Methods for separating, collecting and storing red blood cells - Patent 6527957 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pulse oximetry takes advantage of this color change to directly measure the arterial blood oxygen saturation using colorimetric techniques.^ Pulse oximetry takes advantage of this color change to directly measure the arterial blood oxygen saturation using colorimetric techniques.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since they have the advantage of not requiring an embryo, iPSCs could potentially be used to make blood of all types without the moral dilemmas associated with using embryos.
  • First red blood cells grown in the lab - 19 August 2008 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ The blood plasma is straw-colored alone, but the red blood cells change colors depending on the state of the hemoglobin : when combined with oxygen the resulting oxyhemoglobin is scarlet and when oxygen has been released, the resulting deoxyhemoglobin is darker, appearing bluish through the blood vessel walls.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.The sequestration of oxygen carrying proteins inside specialized cells (rather than having them dissolved in body fluid) was an important step in the evolution of vertebrates as it allows for less viscous blood, higher concentrations of oxygen, and better diffusion of oxygen from the blood to the tissues.^ Hemoglobin measures the amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood.

^ Hemoglobin The component of red blood cells that carries oxygen.

^ Blood carries oxygen and nutrients .
  • Are Your Red Blood Cells Aging You Too Fast? | Anti Aging Nutrition News 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC antiagingnutritionnews.com [Source type: General]

.The size of erythrocytes varies widely among vertebrate species; erythrocyte width is on average about 25% larger than capillary diameter and it has been hypothesized that this improves the oxygen transfer from erythrocytes to tissues.^ These erythrocytes are also larger in size than the mammalian erythrocytes.
  • Connective Tissue II 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Database of vertebrate erythrocyte sizes .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Leukocytes are slightly larger than erythrocytes.
  • http://www.geocities.com/jw31645/blood.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.The only known vertebrates without erythrocytes are the crocodile icefishes (family Channichthyidae); they live in very oxygen rich cold water and transport oxygen freely dissolved in their blood.^ Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), function to transport oxygen in the blood.
  • Blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.biosbcc.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxygen transport for the blood .
  • CaridianBCT :: Blood Products :: Red Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.caridianbct.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ruud, JT. Vertebrates without erythrocytes and blood pigment.
  • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .While they don't use hemoglobin anymore, remnants of hemoglobin genes can be found in their genome.^ They’re inorganic, meaning that they don’t contain the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms found in all organic compound.
  • Iron: Essential Element for Energy and Red Blood Cells - For Dummies 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, they can pass the defective hemoglobin S gene to their children.
  • Health: Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle cell disease changes normal, round red blood cells ... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But a big barrier to using induced cells for therapy is that they are created by adding genes to the skin cell using a virus.
  • Stem Cells Might Lead to Red Blood Cells for Transfusions - NYTimes.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Stem Cells Might Lead to Red Blood Cells for Transfusions - NYTimes.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Nucleus

.Erythrocytes in mammals are anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus.^ Mature erythrocytes are small and lack a nucleus.
  • Healthy Blood Health Healthy Blood Cells Healthy Blood Count Low Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.getwellnatural.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mature erythrocytes are anucleated and lack organelles.
  • Cellular Components of Blood 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC ect.downstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Erythrocytes in mammals are anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus and thus have no DNA .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.In comparison, the erythrocytes of other vertebrates have nuclei; the only known exceptions are salamanders of the Batrachoseps genus and fish of the Maurolicus genus with closely related species.^ In comparison, the erythrocytes of nearly all other vertebrates have nuclei; the only known exception is salamanders of the Batrachoseps genus.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That quirk shows you’re a mammal—other vertebrates such as fish and birds have red cells that contain nuclei that are inactive.
  • Whitehead Institute - There will be blood stem cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.wi.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As in other vertebrates the circulatory system of fish is comprised of both static and dynamic components.
  • The Earth Life Web, The Circulatory System of Fish 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.earthlife.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11][12]

Secondary functions

.When erythrocytes undergo shear stress in constricted vessels, they release ATP which causes the vessel walls to relax and dilate so as to promote normal blood flow.^ They release chemicals that dilate and constrict blood flow.
  • Theory of the Red Blood Cells | Scientia Press 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scientiapress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore they are pushed out from the center of flowing blood to the wall of the blood vessel.
  • Platelets 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ouhsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previous studies have indicated that the release of ATP is related to "shear stress," the frictional force created by the flow of blood through the blood vessel.
  • University of California - Science Today | How Red Blood Cells Control Blood Pressure 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ucop.edu [Source type: Academic]

[13]
.When their hemoglobin molecules are deoxygenated, erythrocytes release S-nitrosothiols which also acts to dilate vessels,[14] thus directing more blood to areas of the body depleted of oxygen.^ Hemoglobin is the molecule that allows erythrocytes to bind oxygen.
  • Connective Tissue II 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.uoguelph.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As blood passes through the lungs, oxygen molecules attach to the hemoglobin and are released as the blood passes through the body's tissue.

^ Hemoglobin The molecule in the red blood cell that carries oxygen.

.It has been recently demonstrated that erythrocytes can also synthesize nitric oxide enzymatically, using L-arginine as substrate, just like endothelial cells.^ PfEMP1 is an adhesin which confers on the infected erythrocyte the capacity to auto-agglutinate, to adhere to uninfected red blood cells or to be sequestered on vascular endothelial cells in diverse tissues.
  • immstr 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.pasteur.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ These include endothelial cell desquamation, oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, increased monocyte adhesion to the vessel wall, and impaired vascular response to the endothelium-dependent relaxing factor nitric oxide.

^ Look just like a red blood cell (erythrocyte), only a few million times actual size ...
  • Giant Microbes Plush Toy - Red Blood Cell 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC shop.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

[15] .Exposure of erythrocytes to physiological levels of shear stress activates nitric oxide synthase and export of nitric oxide,[16] which may contribute to the regulation of vascular tonus.^ Endothelium/vascular type/nitric oxide .
  • Hypoxic Vasodilation by Red Blood Cells: Evidence for an S-Nitrosothiol-Based Signal -- Diesen et al. 103 (5): 545 -- Circulation Research 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC circres.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NO is physiologically produced by a family of enzymes, collectively termed nitric oxide synthases (NOS), that catalyze the O 2 – and NADPH-dependent oxidation of L-arginine to L-citrulline and · NO. In a healthy human adult, · NO production by NOS amounts to ~1.0 mmol/day ( 63 ).
  • Transport and Peripheral Bioactivities of Nitrogen Oxides Carried by Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin: Role in Oxygen Delivery -- Sonveaux et al. 22 (2): 97 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Web of Science] [Medline] SingelDJ, Stamler JS. Chemical physiology of blood flow regulation by red blood cells: the role of nitric oxide and S-nitrosohemoglobin.
  • Transport and Peripheral Bioactivities of Nitrogen Oxides Carried by Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin: Role in Oxygen Delivery -- Sonveaux et al. 22 (2): 97 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Erythrocytes can also produce hydrogen sulfide, a signalling gas that acts to relax vessel walls.^ In response to these signals, the WBCs leave the blood vessel by squeezing through holes in the blood vessel wall.
  • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Heparanase Enzyme produced by tumor cells that promotes angiogenesis by loosening the "glue" that holds cells of blood vessel walls together.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These asymmetric cells tank-tread because asymmetric viscous forces—produced by the cell’s asymmetric shape or the nonsymmetric position of the cell relative to the long axis of the vessel—act on the membrane.
  • Physics - Slipping through blood flow 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physics.aps.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is believed that the cardioprotective effects of garlic are due to erythrocytes converting its sulfur compounds into hydrogen sulfide.^ The rest is converted — following the equation above — by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase into bicarbonate ions that diffuse back out into the plasma and hydrogen ions (H + ) that bind to the protein portion of the hemoglobin (thus having no effect on pH).
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.Erythrocytes also play a part in the body's immune response: when lysed by pathogens such as bacteria, their hemoglobin releases free radicals which break down the pathogen's cell wall and membrane, killing it.^ Lymphocytes are involved in the immune responses of the body.

^ These cells play an important role in our immune response.
  • BLOOD CELLS 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White blood cells are part of the immune response .
  • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[18][19]

Mammalian erythrocytes

.
Typical mammalian erythrocytes: (a) seen from surface; (b) in profile, forming rouleaux; (c) rendered spherical by water; (d) rendered crenate by salt.
^ Some surface proteins of the merozoite, the erythrocyte-invading form of Plasmodium , are promising anti-malaria vaccine candidates.
  • immstr 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.pasteur.fr [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically, the polyfunctional molecule covalently bonds with an amino or a sulfhydryl group on X of the polypeptide and on the surface of the erythrocytes.
  • Method for preparing targeted carrier erythrocytes - Patent 5328840 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Image:Gray453.png Erythrocytes: (a) seen from surface; (b) in profile, forming rouleaux; (c) rendered spherical by water; (d) rendered crenate by salt.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

(c) and (d) do not normally occur in the body.
.Mammalian erythrocytes are unique among the vertebrates as they are non-nucleated cells in their mature form.^ The erythrocytes of all non-mammalian vertebrates ( i.e.
  • Cohen - et al. 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC hermes.mbl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagrammatic representation of the cytoskeletal system of nucleated erythrocytes in all non-mammalian vertebrates.
  • Cohen - et al. 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC hermes.mbl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A. Erythrocytes of non-mammalian vertebrates .
  • Cohen - et al. 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC hermes.mbl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These cells have nuclei during early phases of erythropoiesis, but extrude them during development as they mature in order to provide more space for hemoglobin.^ These are developing blood cells.

^ Infants who have inherited sickle cell disease, then, do not develop symptoms of the illness while they still have HbF. People with the sickle cell gene who continue to carry some fetal hemoglobin are better protected, therefore, from severe forms of the disease.
  • Sickle Cell Disease - Introduction 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These leukocytes are the phagocytic cells of the immune system and they utilize NADPH to generate superoxide radicals from molecular oxygen in a reaction catalyzed by NADPH oxidase.

.In mammals, erythrocytes also lose all other cellular organelles such as their mitochondria, golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.^ Any mammal can be the source of such erythrocytes.
  • Method for preparing targeted carrier erythrocytes - Patent 5328840 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In comparison, the erythrocytes of nearly all other vertebrates have nuclei; the only known exception is salamanders of the Batrachoseps genus.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mammalian erythrocytes also lose their other organelles including their mitochondria and produce energy by fermentation , via glycolysis of glucose followed by lactic acid production.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.As a result of not containing mitochondria, these cells use none of the oxygen they transport; instead they produce the energy carrier ATP from glucose by a glycolysis pathway that ends with lactic acid production.^ The primary function of these cells is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
  • BLOOD CELLS 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ATP is produced when the red blood cells metabolize glucose.
  • Methods for separating, collecting and storing red blood cells - Patent 6527957 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The oxygen is used in the mitochondria , the power source within all cells.
  • Sickle Cell Disease - Introduction 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Furthermore, red blood cells do not have an insulin receptor and thus their glucose uptake is not regulated by insulin.^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells slide .

^ The functions of red blood cells .
  • The functions of red blood cells - by Erich Rosenberger M.D. - Helium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.helium.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because of the lack of nuclei and organelles, mature red blood cells do not contain DNA and cannot synthesize any RNA, and consequently cannot divide and have limited repair capabilities.^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells slide .

[20]
.Mammalian erythrocytes are typically shaped as biconcave disks: flattened and depressed in the center, with a dumbbell-shaped cross section, and a torus-shaped rim on the edge of the disk.^ Mammalian erythrocytes are biconcave disks: flattened and depressed in the center, with a dumb-bell shaped cross section.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their typical shape is that of a cake depressed in the center (fig.
  • The Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen in normal, round RBCs.
  • Health Los Angeles - Red blood cells, spherocytosis. Spherocytosis is a... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.uclahealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.This distinctive biconcave shape optimises the flow properties of blood in the large vessels, such as maximization of laminar flow and minimization of platelet scatter, which suppresses their atherogenic activity in those large vessels.^ In addition to synthesizing particles that mimic the shape and properties of healthy RBCs, the technique described in the paper can also be used to develop particles that mimic the shape and properties of diseased cells, such as those found in sickle-cell anemia and hereditary eliptocytosis.
  • Red blood cell-mimicking synthetic biomaterial particles 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC nextbigfuture.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Synthetic Red Blood Cells Developed | Naples News 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.naplesnews.org [Source type: News]

^ Blood cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells (neutrophils), and platelets all divide quickly and are also killed by chemotherapy drugs.
  • Low Red Blood Cell Counts (Anemia) - TBRHSC 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.tbrhsc.net [Source type: General]

^ Apheresis (ay-fur-ee-sis) is a special kind of blood donation that allows a donor to give specific blood components, such as platelets.

[21] .However, there are some exceptions concerning shape in the artiodactyl order (even-toed ungulates including cattle, deer, and their relatives), which displays a wide variety of bizarre erythrocyte morphologies: small and highly ovaloid cells in llamas and camels (family Camelidae), tiny spherical cells in mouse deer (family Tragulidae), and cells which assume fusiform, lanceolate, crescentic, and irregularly polygonal and other angular forms in red deer and wapiti (family Cervidae).^ Erythrocytes are circular, except in the camel family Camelidae , where they are oval.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In other areas there are cells that are staining vivid red.

^ This goal generally requires some form of red cell exchange.

Members of this order have clearly evolved a mode of RBC development substantially different from the mammalian norm.[6][22] .Overall, mammalian erythrocytes are remarkably flexible and deformable so as to squeeze through tiny capillaries, as well as to maximize their apposing surface by assuming a cigar shape, where they efficiently release their oxygen load.^ The cells are flexible so as to fit through tiny capillaries , where they release their oxygen load.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They stick to the walls and cannot squeeze through the capillaries.
  • Sickle Cell Disease - Introduction 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By changing shape, individual RBCs can squeeze through capillaries as narrow as 4 m.
  • Red Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.innvista.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.In large blood vessels, red blood cells sometimes occur as a stack, flat side next to flat side.^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells slide .

.This is known as rouleaux formation, and it occurs more often if the levels of certain serum proteins are elevated, as for instance during inflammation.^ This is known as rouleaux formation , and it occurs more often if the levels of certain serum proteins are elevated, as for instance during inflammation .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Elevated serum levels occur when there is bone destruction.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This activity prevents the formation of the critical stem loop configuration to which the elongation factor 2 is known to bind during translation.
  • Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense - Detection Of Ricin By Comparative Indirect ELISA Using Fluorescence Probe In Blood And Red Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.jmedcbr.org [Source type: Academic]

.The spleen acts as a reservoir of red blood cells, but this effect is somewhat limited in humans.^ Shemin, D, Rittenberg, D. The life span of the human red blood cell.
  • Red blood cell survival: Normal values and measurement 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells slide .

^ With the exception of red blood cells , human cells are eukaryotic.
  • Human Blood: Glossary of Terms 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In some other mammals such as dogs and horses, the spleen sequesters large numbers of red blood cells which are dumped into the blood during times of exertion stress, yielding a higher oxygen transport capacity.^ Hemoglobin The component of red blood cells that carries oxygen.

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells slide .

.
Scanning electron micrograph of blood cells.
^ This scanning electron micrograph (courtesy of Drs.
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After one year, the unburied peccary blood smear and the buried gazelle smear were coated with gold and then examined by a scanning electron microscope.
  • Association for Environmental Archaeology 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.envarch.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The background cells in this micrograph are erythrocytes (red blood cells).
  • BLOOD CELLS 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From left to right: human erythrocyte, thrombocyte (platelet), leukocyte.

Human erythrocytes

Two drops of blood are shown with a bright red oxygenated drop on the left and a deoxygenated drop on the right.
.
An animation of a typical human red blood cell cycle in the circulatory system.
^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Shemin, D, Rittenberg, D. The life span of the human red blood cell.
  • Red blood cell survival: Normal values and measurement 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With the exception of red blood cells , human cells are eukaryotic.
  • Human Blood: Glossary of Terms 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: Academic]

This animation occurs at real time (20 seconds of cycle) and shows the red blood cell deform as it enters capillaries, as well as changing color as it alternates in states of oxygenation along the circulatory system.
.A typical human erythrocyte has a disk diameter of 6–8 µm and a thickness of 2 µm, being much smaller than most other human cells.^ The erythrocytes are the most numerous blood cells i.e.
  • The Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RBCs are smaller than most other human cells and are binconcave discoid in shape.
  • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The diameter of a typical human erythrocyte disk is much smaller than most other human cells .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.These cells have a volume of about 90 fL with a surface of about 136 μm2, and can swell up to a sphere shape containing 150 fL, without membrane distension.^ The largest RBCs belong to the salamander Amphiuma ; these average 65 x 30 x 13.5 µm (volume ~10,000 fL), compared to the typical human RBC diameter of 7 µm (volume ~90 fL).
  • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) are present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs.
  • Red blood cells, sickle cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Plasma - Also known as an internal transport system,  plasma is a straw-colored, liquid portion of the blood, transporting the components, water and  nutrients to all cells of the body.  Plasma makes up about 55 percent of the  total volume of blood.    .

.Adult humans have roughly 2–3 × 1013 (20-30 trillion) red blood cells at any given time, comprising approximately one quarter of the total human body cell number (women have about 4 to 5 million erythrocytes per microliter (cubic millimeter) of blood and men about 5 to 6 million; people living at high altitudes with low oxygen tension will have more).^ Shemin, D, Rittenberg, D. The life span of the human red blood cell.
  • Red blood cell survival: Normal values and measurement 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells slide .

^ Red blood cells live for approximately four months in the bloodstream.
  • The Doctors' Medical Library - Red Blood Count, rbc, cbc, Health and Medical Information, medical library 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]

.Red blood cells are thus much more common than the other blood particles: there are about 4,000–11,000 white blood cells and about 150,000–400,000 platelets in each microliter of human blood.^ Platelets are produced in the bone marrow, the same as the red cells and most of the white blood cells.
  • Platelets 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ouhsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The transfusable parts of whole blood are red blood cells, plasma and platelets.

.Human red blood cells take on average 20 seconds to complete one cycle of circulation.^ Take care not to disturb the pellet of red blood cells.
  • 8. Preparation of washed chicken red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On average it takes more than ten seconds for a blood cell to travel one centimeter in the capillaries.
  • Theory of the Red Blood Cells | Scientia Press 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scientiapress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][2][24] .As red blood cells contain no nucleus, protein biosynthesis is currently assumed to be absent in these cells, although a recent study indicates the presence of all the necessary biomachinery in human red blood cells for protein biosynthesis.^ Human red blood cells (4,000× magnification).
  • red blood cell (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It agglutinates rabbit but not human red blood cells.
  • Lectins in Edible Foods & ABO Reactions | Owen Foundation Website 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.owenfoundation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells are called erythrocytes .
  • http://www.geocities.com/jw31645/blood.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.The blood's red color is due to the spectral properties of the hemic iron ions in hemoglobin.^ Hemoglobin is rich in iron, which is what imparts the characteristic red color to blood.
  • Red cell diseases - Diseases of the Blood - pain, body, ulcer, levels, low, infection, children, cure, disorder 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Red cells contain iron in the hemoglobin.

^ The red color of blood is primarily due to oxygenated red cells.
  • Human Blood: Blood Components 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Each human red blood cell contains approximately 270 million of these hemoglobin biomolecules, each carrying four heme groups; hemoglobin comprises about a third of the total cell volume.^ The red cells are non-motile and serve simply as carriers of hemoglobin.

^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

.This protein is responsible for the transport of more than 98% of the oxygen (the remaining oxygen is carried dissolved in the blood plasma).^ Hemoglobin Oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Red blood cells are responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide .
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemoglobin allows the blood to transport 30 to 100 times more oxygen than could be dissolved in the plasma alone.

.The red blood cells of an average adult human male store collectively about 2.5 grams of iron, representing about 65% of the total iron contained in the body.^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Shemin, D, Rittenberg, D. The life span of the human red blood cell.
  • Red blood cell survival: Normal values and measurement 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The red cells are severally microcytic on average....
  • AccessMedicine | dimorphic red blood cell population 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.accessmedicine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25][26] (See Human iron metabolism.)

Life cycle

.Human erythrocytes are produced through a process named erythropoiesis, developing from committed stem cells to mature erythrocytes in about 7 days.^ Erythrocytes are produced through a process called erythropoesis.
  • Blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.biosbcc.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Megakaryocytes mature in about 10 days, from a large stem cell, the megakaryoblast.
  • Formation of Blood Cells (haemopoiesis) 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reticulocytes are in the blood for about 2 days before developing into mature red blood cells.
  • Reticulocyte Count - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When matured, these cells live in blood circulation for about 100 to 120 days.^ Red Blood cells live about 120 days in our bodies.
  • Blood Facts - BloodBook, Blood Information for Life 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bloodbook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mature neutrophil is about twice the size of the red blood cell.

^ Therefore, the cells only have a short lifespan of about 120 days.
  • Blood cells - Part two - Red blood cells | Practice | Nursing Times 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.nursingtimes.net [Source type: Academic]

.At the end of their lifespan, they become senescent, and are removed from circulation.^ They speculate that this is a protective alternative pathway that removes the toxic metal from the circulation.
  • Transerrin and Iron Transport Physiology 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC sickle.bwh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

Erythropoiesis

.Erythropoiesis is the development process in which new erythrocytes are produced, through which each cell matures in about 7 days.^ Erythrocytes are produced through a process called erythropoesis.
  • Blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.biosbcc.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Erythrocytes develop from stem cells through reticuloctyes to mature erythrocytes in about 7 days and live a total of about 120 days.
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The process by which red blood cells are produced is called erythropoiesis .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Through this process erythrocytes are continuously produced in the red bone marrow of large bones, at a rate of about 2 million per second in a healthy adult.^ Erythrocytes are produced through a process called erythropoesis.
  • Blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.biosbcc.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a red bone marrow section.

^ Erythrocytes are formed in the red marrow of bones by a process called erythropoiesis .
  • http://www.geocities.com/jw31645/blood.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(In the embryo, the liver is the main site of red blood cell production.^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of red blood cells is increased in: .
  • Blood Cell Counts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red Blood Cells, lyophilized .
  • Red Blood Cell (RBC) antibodies and Stabilized Red Blood Cells from RDIDivision of Fitzgerald Industries Intl 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.researchd.com [Source type: Academic]

) .The production can be stimulated by the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), synthesised by the kidney.^ Stimulated with EPO from kidneys.
  • Rahul's Noteblog: Red Blood Cell Disorders 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.rahulgladwin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The kidneys produce erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates production of red cells in the bone marrow.
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kidney disease can interfere with the production of this hormone.
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just before and after leaving the bone marrow, the developing cells are known as reticulocytes; these comprise about 1% of circulating red blood cells.^ Platelets are produced in the bone marrow, the same as the red cells and most of the white blood cells.
  • Platelets 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ouhsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These erythrocytes leave the bone marrow and move into the blood stream.
  • Blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.biosbcc.net [Source type: Academic]

Functional lifetime

.This phase lasts about 100–120 days, during which the erythrocytes are continually moving by the blood flow push (in arteries), pull (in veins) and squeezing through microvessels such as capillaries as they compress against each other in order to move.^ They stick to the walls and cannot squeeze through the capillaries.
  • Sickle Cell Disease - Introduction 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike erythrocytes which must go with the flow of blood, leukocytes can move to where they are needed.
  • http://www.geocities.com/jw31645/blood.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red blood cells (erythrocytes) moving through arteries and capillaries.
  • red blood cell (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

Senescence

.The aging erythrocyte undergoes changes in its plasma membrane, making it susceptible to selective recognition by macrophages and subsequent phagocytosis in the reticuloendothelial system (spleen, liver and bone marrow), thus removing old and defected cells and continually purging the blood.^ These cells form the mononuclear phagocytic cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (reticuloendothelial system) in bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes.
  • Formation of Blood Cells (haemopoiesis) 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hematopoiesis Formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Erythropoiesis The production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

.This process is termed eryptosis, or erythrocyte programmed cell death.^ Apoptosis Programmed (natural) cell death.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Erythropoietin retards DNA breakdown and prevents programmed death in erythroid progenitor cells.
  • WikiGenes - Erp1 - erythrocyte protein 1 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When erythrocytes are produced and released into the circulation in a normal fashion, the process of erythropoiesis is termed "effective".
  • Transerrin and Iron Transport Physiology 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC sickle.bwh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This process normally occurs at the same rate of production by erythropoiesis, balancing the total circulating red blood cell count.^ Red blood cell product .
  • STEMCELL :: products & services :: Options for human red blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.stemcell.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Definition of White blood cell count .
  • White Blood Cell - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Description of Red blood cell enlarged .
  • Red blood cell enlarged - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Much of the resulting important breakdown products are recirculated in the body.^ Most normocytic anemias appear to be the result of impaired production of red cells, and in renal failure there is a deficiency of erythropoietin , the factor in the body that normally stimulates red cell production.
  • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.The heme constituent of hemoglobin are broken down into Fe3+ and biliverdin.^ The heme constituent of hemoglobin is eventually excreted as bilirubin .
  • Red blood cells - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Old or damaged RBCs are removed from the circulation by macrophages in the spleen and liver, and the hemoglobin they contain is broken down into heme and globin.
  • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The globin protein may be recycled, or broken down further to its constituent amino acids, which may be recycled or metabolized.
  • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The biliverdin is reduced to bilirubin, which is released into the plasma and recirculated to the liver bound to albumin.^ The liver synthesizes transferrin and secretes it into the plasma.
  • Transerrin and Iron Transport Physiology 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC sickle.bwh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The iron is released into the plasma to be recirculated by a carrier protein called transferrin.^ Non-transferrin plasma iron [editorial].
  • Transerrin and Iron Transport Physiology 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC sickle.bwh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A new role for the transferrin receptor in the release of iron from transferrin.
  • Transerrin and Iron Transport Physiology 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC sickle.bwh.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They migrate in the order alpha globulins (e.g., the proteins that transport thyroxine and retinol [vitamin A]) beta globulins (e.g., the iron-transporting protein transferrin ) gamma globulins .
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

.Almost all erythrocytes are removed in this manner from the circulation before they are old enough to hemolyze.^ Almost all vertebrates have evolved elaborate systems for controlling the production and removal of RBCs, and most of hematology is devoted to the study of RBCs in health and disease.
  • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The removal of old and dying erythrocytes is carryied out by the spleen.
  • Blood cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.biosbcc.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In some states, all infants are tested for sickle cell disease before they go home from the hospital.
  • Health: Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle cell disease changes normal, round red blood cells ... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hemolyzed hemoglobin is bound to a protein in plasma called haptoglobin which is not excreted by the kidney.^ Systemic NOS activity ( reaction 1 ) and, to a lesser extent, food intake determine plasma NO 2 – supply, and NO 2 – clearance is primarily by its oxidation to inactive NO 3 – , which is excreted by the kidneys.
  • Transport and Peripheral Bioactivities of Nitrogen Oxides Carried by Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin: Role in Oxygen Delivery -- Sonveaux et al. 22 (2): 97 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main function of erythrocytes is to contain a protein that transports Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide called Hemoglobin.
  • What is Life? 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thrombocytes release an enzyme called thrombin which causes a plasma protein called fibrogen to form fibrin .
  • http://www.geocities.com/jw31645/blood.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Membrane composition

.The membrane of the red blood cell plays many roles that aid in regulating their surface deformability, flexibility, adhesion to other cells and immune recognition.^ (DPG) plays a role in the red blood cell's ability to release oxygen.
  • Methods for separating, collecting and storing red blood cells - Patent 6527957 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Description of Red blood cell enlarged .
  • Red blood cell enlarged - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetylcholinesterase, red blood cell measurement .
  • Lab Test - Acetylcholinesterase, red blood cell measurement 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.muschealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These functions are highly dependent on its composition, which defines its properties. .The red blood cell membrane is composed of 3 layers: the glycocalyx on the exterior, which is rich in carbohydrates; the lipid bilayer which contains many transmembrane proteins, besides its lipidic main constituents; and the membrane skeleton, a structural network of proteins located on the inner surface of the lipid bilayer.^ From genes to structural morphogenesis: The genesis and epigenesis of a red blood cell.
  • CohLit.html 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC hermes.mbl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Description of Red blood cell enlarged .
  • Red blood cell enlarged - WrongDiagnosis.com 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Red Blood Cells, lyophilized .
  • Red Blood Cell (RBC) antibodies and Stabilized Red Blood Cells from RDIDivision of Fitzgerald Industries Intl 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.researchd.com [Source type: Academic]

.In human erythrocytes, like in most mammal erythrocytes, half of the membrane mass is represented by proteins and the other half are lipids, namely phospholipids and cholesterol.^ Lateral mobility of human erythrocyte integral membrane proteins.
  • WikiGenes - Erythrocytes 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Amyloid protein Fiber-like substance, often composed of light chains and other proteins, that can accumulate in and damage various tissues and organs.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The tight junction is mediated by receptor-ligand interactions between erythrocyte surface proteins and intergral parasite membrane proteins exposed by microneme discharge.
  • Cell Biology of Plasmodium 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: Academic]

[28]

Membrane lipids

.
The most common erythrocyte cell membrane lipids, schematically disposed as they are distributed on the bilayer.
^ The most common types of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes ("B cells").
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The erythrocytes are the most numerous blood cells i.e.
  • The Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Storage-dependent remodeling of the red blood cell membrane is associated with increased immunoglobulin G binding, lipid raft rearrangement, and caspase activation.
  • Red blood cell survival: Normal values and measurement 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

Relative abundances are not at scale.
.The erythrocyte cell membrane comprises a typical lipid bilayer, similar to what can be found in virtually all human cells.^ Agglutination: It agglutinates all human and rabbit erythrocytes.
  • Lectins in Edible Foods & ABO Reactions | Owen Foundation Website 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.owenfoundation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agglutination: It agglutinates all types of human erythrocytes.
  • Lectins in Edible Foods & ABO Reactions | Owen Foundation Website 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.owenfoundation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The human red cell leaves the bone marrow in the form of the reticulocyte; within one day, or up to 2.5 days in the presence of anemia, the circulating reticulocyte becomes a mature erythrocyte.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.Simply put, this lipid bilayer is composed of cholesterol and phospholipids in equal proportions by weight.^ These organic substances are composed of glucides (glucose), lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, lecithin, fats), proteins (globulins, albumins, fibrinogen), glycoproteins, hormones (gonadothropins, erythropoietin, thrombopoietin), amino acids and vitamins.
  • The Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lipid composition is important as it defines many physical properties such as membrane permeability and fluidity.^ This membrane, as with other biologic membranes, has numerous properties that arise in part from specialized interactions between specific membrane proteins or lipids, or both [ 1 ].
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is generally accepted that cell membranes do not represent important obstacles for · NO diffusion because · NO is equally soluble in aqueous and lipid compartments and, therefore, freely permeates membranes.
  • Transport and Peripheral Bioactivities of Nitrogen Oxides Carried by Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin: Role in Oxygen Delivery -- Sonveaux et al. 22 (2): 97 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mohandas, N, Chasis, JA. Red cell deformability, membrane material properties and shape: Regulation by transmembrane, skeletal and cytosolic proteins and lipids.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, the activity of many membrane proteins is regulated by interactions with lipids in the bilayer.^ INTRODUCTION STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION Lipid bilayer Membrane lipids Types of membrane proteins Integral membrane proteins Band 3 Glycophorins Other Peripheral membrane proteins Spectrin Actin Protein 4.1 Adducin Ankyrin Dynamic regulation of protein interactions REFERENCES GRAPHICS .
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The tight junction is mediated by receptor-ligand interactions between erythrocyte surface proteins and intergral parasite membrane proteins exposed by microneme discharge.
  • Cell Biology of Plasmodium 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Adhesive activity of Lu glycoproteins is regulated by interaction with spectrin.
  • A primer of red blood cell antigens and antibodies 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

Unlike cholesterol which is evenly distributed between the inner and outer leaflets, the 5 major phospholipids are asymmetrically disposed, as shown below:
Outer monolayer
Inner monolayer
.This asymmetric phospholipid distribution among the bilayer is the result of the function of several energy-dependent and energy-independent phospholipid transport proteins.^ As a result, the distribution of both membrane lipids and proteins is highly asymmetric.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NH2 -terminal half is hydrophilic and faces the cytoplasmic surface, and its COOH-terminal half spans the phospholipid bilayer several times The erythrocyte anion transport protein is contranslationally inserted into microsomes.
  • WikiGenes - Erp1 - erythrocyte protein 1 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main function of erythrocytes is to contain a protein that transports Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide called Hemoglobin.
  • What is Life? 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proteins called “Flippases” move phospholipids from the outer to the inner monolayer while others called “floppases” do the opposite operation, against a concentration gradient in an energy dependent manner.^ The translocation of Pf EMP1 to the erythrocyte surface depends in part on another erythrocyte membrane associated protein called Pf EMP3 ( Waterkeyn 2000 ).
  • Cell Biology of Plasmodium 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Kragsbjerg P, Holmberg H. Serum concentrations of interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-a, and C-reactive protein in patients undergoing major operations.
  • C-Reactive Protein and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Orthopaedics pg. 13--16 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.uphs.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We know where the energy moves to, the density of that energy and the kind of movement of that energy, but we cannot distinguish a molecular structure or a kind of energy called life.
  • What is Life? 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, there are also “scramblase” proteins that move phospholipids in both directions at the same time, down their concentration gradients in an energy independent manner.^ Diet & Nutrition Glossary glutamic acid A nonessential amino acid abundant in both animal and vegetable proteins and found in high concentrations in the human brain.
  • Iron: Essential Element for Energy and Red Blood Cells - For Dummies 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this perspective, the RBCs' biophotons interact with the DNA and proteins in the astrocytes to lay down memories, transfer them from short-term to long-term memory, and retrieve them-all in real time.
  • Theory of the Red Blood Cells | Scientia Press 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scientiapress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, the white blood cells can also be counted in the non-focused flow aperture by a third direct current impedance measurement.
  • Method of analyzing nucleated red blood cells in a blood sample - Patent 6472215 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is still considerable debate ongoing regarding the identity of these membrane maintenance proteins in the red cell membrane.^ Steck, TL. The organization of proteins in the human red cell membrane.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These crescent or sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBCs) are present with Sickle cell anemia, and stand out clearly against the normal round RBCs.
  • Red blood cells, sickle cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ With this Blood disorder, patients not only have more red cells, that is, hematocrits can almost double in some cases, but there is also a slow, steady buildup of white cells and platelets.
  • Blood Disorders and Diseases - BloodBook, Blood Information for Life 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bloodbook.com [Source type: Academic]

The maintenance of an asymmetric phospholipid distribution in the bilayer (such as an exclusive localization of PS and PIs in the inner monolayer) is critical for the cell integrity and function due to several reasons:
.
  • Macrophages recognize and phagocytose red cells that expose PS at their outer surface.^ Red blood cells have surface antigens that differ between people and that create the so-called blood groups such as the ABO system and the Rh system.
    • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ See a macrophage phagocytose a red blood cell in Albert's Molecular Biology of the Cell .
    • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A long-recognized type of hemolytic anemia is that associated with the transfusion of incompatible red cells.
    • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Thus the confinement of PS in the inner monolayer is essential if the cell is to survive its frequent encounters with macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system, especially in the spleen.
  • Premature destruction of thallassemic and sickle red cells has been linked to disruptions of lipid asymmetry leading to exposure of PS on the outer monolayer.
  • An exposure of PS can potentiate adhesion of red cells to vascular endothelial cells, effectively preventing normal transit through the microvasculature.^ Discocytes are normally-shaped red cells.
    • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In vitro experiments with sickle trait red cells showed that under low oxygen tension, cells infected with P. falciparum parasites sickle at a faster rate than do uninfected cells (Roth Jr., et al., 1978).Destruction of sickle cells, which takes place in the reticuloendothelial system, clears up the parasite alongside.These people, in contrast to the ones without or with two Haemoglobin S allele, have an advantage in survival through an acute malarial infections.
    • How Sickle Cell Trait Protects Against Malaria ? | Interesting Health Articles & Facts 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.interesting-health-facts.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It was proposed that a superoxide anion channel allows the transport of superoxide and other free radicals into the red cell, where they are deactivated by the erythrocyte antioxidant system which effectively prevents extensive oxidative damage to tissues ( 26 ).
    • ISPUB - Improved Preservation Of Erythrocyte Antioxidant Capacity With Ascorbic Acid Reperfusion After Ischemia: A Comparative Study In A Rat Hindlimb Model 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Thus it is important that PS is maintained only in the inner leaflet of the bilayer to ensure normal blood flow in microcirculation.
  • Both PS and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) can regulate membrane mechanical function, due to their interactions with skeletal proteins such as spectrin and protein 4.1R.^ Implications for their role in regulation of skeletal protein interactions.
    • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A possible mechanism for the participation of oxygen in local regulation of blood flow.
    • Transport and Peripheral Bioactivities of Nitrogen Oxides Carried by Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin: Role in Oxygen Delivery -- Sonveaux et al. 22 (2): 97 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Several membrane and intracellular proteins contribute to the overall shape, including glycophorin A , band 3 , spectrin , and ezrin .
    • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    Recent studies have shown that binding ofspectrin to PS promotes membrane mechanical stability. PIP2 enhances the binding of protein band 4.1R to glycophorin C but decreases its interaction with protein band 3, and thereby may modulate the linkage of the bilayer to the membrane skeleton.
.The presence of specialized structures named "lipid rafts" in the erythrocyte membrane have been described by recent studies.^ In this study, we could not detect ricin in RBC ghosts (i.e., in erythrocyte membranes that remain intact after hemolysis) at different time intervals of incubation.
  • Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense - Detection Of Ricin By Comparative Indirect ELISA Using Fluorescence Probe In Blood And Red Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.jmedcbr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Membrane studies in Huntington's disease: steady-state fluorescence studies of intact erythrocytes.
  • WikiGenes - Erythrocytes 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This membrane, as with other biologic membranes, has numerous properties that arise in part from specialized interactions between specific membrane proteins or lipids, or both [ 1 ].
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.These are structures enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids associated with specific membrane proteins, namely flotillins, stomatins (band 7), G-proteins, and β-adrenergic receptors.^ Several membrane and intracellular proteins contribute to the overall shape, including glycophorin A , band 3 , spectrin , and ezrin .
  • Red Blood Cells - Medpedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The tight junction is mediated by receptor-ligand interactions between erythrocyte surface proteins and intergral parasite membrane proteins exposed by microneme discharge.
  • Cell Biology of Plasmodium 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, these parasite proteins are probably involved in receptor-ligand interactions with proteins exposed on the erythrocyte surface.
  • Cell Biology of Plasmodium 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Lipid rafts that have been implicated in cell signaling events in nonerythroid cells have been shown in erythroid cells to mediate β2-adregenic receptor signaling and increase cAMP levels, and thus regulating entry of malarial parasites into normal red cells.^ Increased red blood cell destruction .
  • Anemia - Blood Disorders, Blood Cells - Life Extension Health Concern 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mammalian red cell is further adapted by lacking a nucleus—the amount of oxygen required by the cell for its own metabolism is thus very low, and most oxygen carried can be freed into the tissues.
  • red blood cell (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Persons whose anemia is due to increased destruction of red cells appear to be slightly jaundiced .
  • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[29][30]

Membrane proteins

Red blood cell membrane proteins separated by SDS-Page and silverstained [31]
.The proteins of the membrane skeleton are responsible for the deformability, flexibility and durability of the red blood cell, enabling it to squeeze through capillaries less than half the diameter of the erythrocyte (7-8 μm) and recovering the discoid shape as soon as these cells stop receiving compressive forces, in a similar fashion to an object made of rubber.^ Red Blood Cells, lyophilized .
  • Red Blood Cell (RBC) antibodies and Stabilized Red Blood Cells from RDIDivision of Fitzgerald Industries Intl 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.researchd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
  • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Steck, TL. The organization of proteins in the human red cell membrane.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are currently more than 50 known membrane proteins, which can exist in a few hundred up to a million copies per erythrocyte.^ There currently is no known commercial control by which the foregoing, and other, factors can be eliminated as sources affecting test results.
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate control - Patent 6331435 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Using these existing drugs as a basis, Izraeli and his team are > confident that more powerful and safer leukemia drugs for children > are > only a few years away.
  • Leukemia IS .. Polycythemia - sci.med | Google Groups 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also known as erythrocytes, RBCs are the most common type of cell found in the blood, with each cubic millimeter of blood containing 4-6 million cells.
  • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Approximately 25 of these membrane proteins carry the various blood group antigens, such as the A, B and Rh antigens, among many others.^ Some antigens, such as those of the ABO blood group, are surface structures, while others (eg, Rh) are carried on molecules which span the width of the red cell membrane.
  • A primer of red blood cell antigens and antibodies 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amyloid protein Fiber-like substance, often composed of light chains and other proteins, that can accumulate in and damage various tissues and organs.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Westhoff, CM. The Rh blood group system in review: a new face for the next decade.
  • A primer of red blood cell antigens and antibodies 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.These membrane proteins can perform a wide diversity of functions, such as transporting ions and molecules across the red cell membrane, adhesion and interaction with other cells such as endothelial cells, as signaling receptors, as well as other currently unknown functions.^ Steck, TL. The organization of proteins in the human red cell membrane.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All of these proteins have domains that are presumably involved in cell-cell adhesion, as well as N-terminal signal sequences and trans-membrane domains at their C-termini.
  • Cell Biology of Plasmodium 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Proteins can serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules.
  • Human Blood: Glossary of Terms 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC anthro.palomar.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The blood types of humans are due to variations in surface glycoproteins of erythrocytes.^ All the various types of blood cells .
  • Blood 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agglutination: It agglutinates all types of human erythrocytes.
  • Lectins in Edible Foods & ABO Reactions | Owen Foundation Website 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.owenfoundation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lutheran blood group glycoprotein and its newly characterized mouse homologue specifically bind alpha5 chain-containing human laminin with high affinity.
  • A primer of red blood cell antigens and antibodies 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.Disorders of the proteins in these membranes are associated with many disorders, such as hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary stomatocytosis, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.^ Thalassemia, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and malaria are all characterized by abundant release of Hb from RBCs.
  • Transport and Peripheral Bioactivities of Nitrogen Oxides Carried by Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin: Role in Oxygen Delivery -- Sonveaux et al. 22 (2): 97 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ J. Med.  (1976) Molecular basis of hereditary elliptocytosis due to protein 4.1 deficiency.
  • WikiGenes - Erythrocytes 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hereditary spherocytosis is the most common disease involving the red cell membrane.
  • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[28][29]
The red blood cell membrane proteins organized according to their function:
Red Blood Cell membrane major proteins
Transport
.
Cell adhesion
.Structural role - The following membrane proteins establish linkages with skeletal proteins and may play an important role in regulating cohesion between the lipid bilayer and membrane skeleton, likely enabling the red cell to maintain its favorable membrane surface area by preventing the membrane from collapsing (vesiculating).^ Steck, TL. The organization of proteins in the human red cell membrane.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dendritic cell Immune cell that plays an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Implications for their role in regulation of skeletal protein interactions.
  • Red blood cell membrane dynamics and organization 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Ankyrin-based macromolecular complex - proteins linking the bilayer to the membrane skeleton through the interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with Ankyrin.^ The tight junction is mediated by receptor-ligand interactions between erythrocyte surface proteins and intergral parasite membrane proteins exposed by microneme discharge.
    • Cell Biology of Plasmodium 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The 245kD protein of the dogfish erythrocyte cytoskeleton (a membrane skeleton component) binds calmodulin strongly.
    • Cohen - et al. 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC hermes.mbl.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Moreover, the cell surface integral membrane proteins of erythrocytes provide a convenient scaffold for cross-linking targeting molecules.
    • Method for preparing targeted carrier erythrocytes - Patent 5328840 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    .
    • Band 3 - also assembles various glycolytic enzymes, the presumptive CO2 transporter, and carbonic anhydrase into a macromolecular complex termed a “metabolon,” which may play a key role in regulating red cell metabolism and ion and gas transport function);
    • RhAG - also involved in transport, defines associated unusual blood group phenotype Rhmod.
  • Protein 4.1R-based macromolecular complex - proteins interacting with Protein 4.1R.^ (DPG) plays a role in the red blood cell's ability to release oxygen.
    • Methods for separating, collecting and storing red blood cells - Patent 6527957 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
    • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ ATP is produced when the red blood cells metabolize glucose.
    • Methods for separating, collecting and storing red blood cells - Patent 6527957 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Separation and blood doping

.Red blood cells can be obtained from whole blood by centrifugation, which separates the cells from the blood plasma.^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
  • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Red blood cells (erythrocytes or red corpuscles).

^ Enhanced membrane separation of plasma from red blood cells (and platelets and leukocytes) occurs.
  • Methods for separating, collecting and storing red blood cells - Patent 6527957 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.During plasma donation, the red blood cells are pumped back into the body right away and the plasma is collected.^ Red Blood Cells, lyophilized .
  • Red Blood Cell (RBC) antibodies and Stabilized Red Blood Cells from RDIDivision of Fitzgerald Industries Intl 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.researchd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
  • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ High red blood cell count .
  • High red blood cell count - Valley Health System 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some athletes have tried to improve their performance by blood doping: first about 1 litre of their blood is extracted, then the red blood cells are isolated, frozen and stored, to be reinjected shortly before the competition.^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
  • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Red blood cells with lymphocytes.
  • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Red blood cells (erythrocytes or red corpuscles).

.(Red blood cells can be conserved for 5 weeks at −79 °C.) This practice is hard to detect but may endanger the human cardiovascular system which is not equipped to deal with blood of the resulting higher viscosity.^ Red Blood Cells, lyophilized .
  • Red Blood Cell (RBC) antibodies and Stabilized Red Blood Cells from RDIDivision of Fitzgerald Industries Intl 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.researchd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
  • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Smokers also have a higher number of red blood cells than non-smokers.
  • The Doctors' Medical Library - Red Blood Count, rbc, cbc, Health and Medical Information, medical library 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]

Artificially grown red blood cells

.In 2008 it was reported that human embryonic stem cells had been successfully coaxed into becoming erythrocytes in the lab.^ Once collected, stem cells are usually infused immediately into the patient, where they migrate to the bone marrow and "settle in" or engraft.
  • Blood Stem Cell Transplants - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Development of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis from nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells in vitro.
  • PLoS ONE: Establishment of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Erythroid Progenitor Cell Lines Able to Produce Functional Red Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is what occurs when a blood stem cell preparation with "non-self" antigens is transplanted into a patient whose "self" antigens are very different.
  • Blood Stem Cell Transplants - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The difficult step was to induce the cells to eject their nucleus; this was achieved by growing the cells on stromal cells from the bone marrow.^ The bone marrow responds to increased destruction of red cells by increasing the rate of their production.
  • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Erythrocytes are produced from cells of the marrow called Myeloblasts, which lost their genetic material when they reach a youthful step called Normoblast.
  • What is Life? 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.biocab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these cases there is increased oxygen affinity, limiting proper delivery of oxygen to tissues and thereby stimulating the bone marrow to increase red cell production.
  • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is hoped that these artificial erythrocytes can eventually be used for blood transfusions.^ Not surprisingly, a substantial proportion of all blood transfused in the United States, 10% to 15%, is used in the care of trauma patients.
  • Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion in the Intensive Care Unit: Limitations and Consequences -- Gould et al. 16 (1): 39 -- American Journal of Critical Care 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC ajcc.aacnjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These measurements, known as erythrocyte or red blood cell indices, provide important information about various types of anemias.
  • The Doctors' Medical Library - Red Blood Count, rbc, cbc, Health and Medical Information, medical library 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These strategies include the use of hemostatic agents, hemoglobin substitutes and blood salvage techniques, the reduction of blood loss associated with diagnostic testing, the use of erythropoietin and the use of restrictive blood transfusion triggers.
  • Blood conservation strategies to reduce the need for red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients -- Tinmouth et al. 178 (1): 49 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

[34]

Diseases and diagnostic tools

Affected by Sickle-cell disease, red blood cells alter shape and threaten to damage internal organs.
Blood diseases involving the red blood cells include:
  • Anemias (or anaemias) are diseases characterized by low oxygen transport capacity of the blood, because of low red cell count or some abnormality of the red blood cells or the hemoglobin.
  • Iron deficiency anemia is the most common anemia; it occurs when the dietary intake or absorption of iron is insufficient, and hemoglobin, which contains iron, cannot be formed
    .
  • Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disease that results in abnormal hemoglobin molecules.^ Sickle cell disease may cause: .
    • Health: Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle cell disease changes normal, round red blood cells ... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ How is sickle cell disease treated?
    • Health: Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle cell disease changes normal, round red blood cells ... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Learning about sickle cell disease: .
    • Health: Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle cell disease changes normal, round red blood cells ... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

    .When these release their oxygen load in the tissues, they become insoluble, leading to mis-shaped red blood cells.^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
    • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Red blood cells with lymphocytes.
    • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the blood, they are much less numerous than red cells.
    • The Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    These sickle shaped red cells are rigid and cause blood vessel blockage, pain, strokes, and other tissue damage.
  • Thalassemia is a genetic disease that results in the production of an abnormal ratio of hemoglobin subunits.
  • Spherocytosis is a genetic disease that causes a defect in the red blood cell's cytoskeleton, causing the red blood cells to be small, sphere-shaped, and fragile instead of donut-shaped and flexible.
    .
  • Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease wherein the body lacks intrinsic factor, required to absorb vitamin B12 from food.^ Vitamin B12 In pernicious anemia, the body lacks intrinsic factor, which is needed to carry vitamin B12 from the digestive tract into the bloodstream.
    • Anemia - Blood Disorders, Blood Cells - Life Extension Health Concern 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Besides a lack of intrinsic factor, pernicious anemia can be caused by Crohn's disease, stomach surgery, or a strict vegetarian diet.
    • Anemia - Blood Disorders, Blood Cells - Life Extension Health Concern 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pernicious anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency) —It is estimated that 300,000 to 3 million people in the United States have a vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (Diamond AL et al 2004).
    • Anemia - Blood Disorders, Blood Cells - Life Extension Health Concern 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

    Vitamin B12 is needed for the production of hemoglobin.
.
Effect of osmotic pressure on blood cells
  • Hemolysis is the general term for excessive breakdown of red blood cells.^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
    • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Red blood cells with lymphocytes.
    • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Red blood cells .
    • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    It can have several causes and can result in hemolytic anemia.
    .
  • The malaria parasite spends part of its life-cycle in red blood cells, feeds on their hemoglobin and then breaks them apart, causing fever.^ White blood cells and red blood cells...
    • White Blood Cell - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Life-saving red blood cell transfusions may be required.
    • Parvovirus B19 Infections - October 1, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Picture of red blood cells not white blood cells .
    • Red blood cell Stock Photo Images. 103 Red blood cell royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    Both sickle-cell disease and thalassemia are more common in malaria areas, because these mutations convey some protection against the parasite.
.
  • Polycythemias (or erythrocytoses) are diseases characterized by a surplus of red blood cells.^ Polycythemia Diseases related to white blood cells .
    • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An increase in red blood cell mass is known as polycythemia.
    • The Doctors' Medical Library - Red Blood Count, rbc, cbc, Health and Medical Information, medical library 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Red blood cells* .
    • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    The increased viscosity of the blood can cause a number of symptoms.
  • In polycythemia vera the increased number of red blood cells results from an abnormality in the bone marrow.
.
  • Several microangiopathic diseases, including disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombotic microangiopathies, present with pathognomonic (diagnostic) RBC fragments called schistocytes.^ Disseminated intravascular coagulation - - Thrombosis .
    • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ RBCs or hemolymphatic cells are present throughout the bodies of animals, thus accounting for the "sightings" of the magnetoreceptor in many locations, including in the eyes.
    • Theory of the Red Blood Cells | Scientia Press 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.scientiapress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Such anemias may be severe but often can be controlled by the administration of adrenocorticosteroids (which interfere with the destructive process) and treatment of the underlying disease, if one is present.
    • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    .These pathologies generate fibrin strands that sever RBCs as they try to move past a thrombus.
  • Inherited hemolytic anemias caused by abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane comprise an important group of inherited disorders.^ Other causes of hemolytic anemia in severe liver disease include...
    • White Blood Cell - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Treatment varies with the cause of the hemolytic anemia.
    • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These neuro-hormonal factors regulating cellular magnesium content are very important to appreciate the significance of the variations of erythrocyte magnesium concentrations in case of several pathological or iatrogenic disturbances such as diabetes mellitus, phaeochromocytoma or stress pathology 38-40 .
    • Red Blood Cell Magnesium Concentrations 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

    These disorders are characterized by clinical and biochemical heterogeneity and also genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by recent molecular studies.
    .
  • The Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) syndromes are a group of inherited disorders characterized by the presence of spherical-shaped erythrocytes on the peripheral blood smear.^ The lectin will agglutinate A1B erythrocytes significantly more weakly than erythrocytes of B and A2B blood groups.
    • Lectins in Edible Foods & ABO Reactions | Owen Foundation Website 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.owenfoundation.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The porphyrias are a group of inherited disorders in which the synthesis of heme is disrupted.
    • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Anemia is a common blood disorder characterized by a decrease in the amount of red blood cells, or a decrease in the capacity of red blood cells to transport oxygen.
    • Anemia - Blood Disorders, Blood Cells - Life Extension Health Concern 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

    HS is found worldwide. .It is the most common inherited anemia in individuals of northern European descent, affecting approximately 1 in 1000-2500 individuals depending on the diagnostic criteria.^ Another inherited anemia that particularly affects individuals of Mediterranean descent is thalassemia.
    • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The most common and serious problems caused by sickle cell disease are anemia, pain, and organ failure.
    • Health: Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle cell disease changes normal, round red blood cells ... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A form of hemolytic anemia that is relatively common depends on the formation of antibodies within the patient’s body against his own red cells ( autoimmune hemolytic anemia ).
    • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The primary defect in hereditary spherocytosis is a deficiency of membrane surface area.^ Hereditary spherocytosis is the most common disease involving the red cell membrane.
    • blood disease :: Disorders affecting red blood cells -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Partial deficiency of erythrocyte spectrin in hereditary spherocytosis.
    • WikiGenes - Erp1 - erythrocyte protein 1 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Decreased surface area may produced by two different mechanisms: 1) Defects of spectrin, ankyrin, or protein 4.2 lead to reduced density of the membrane skeleton, destabilizing the overlying lipid bilayer and releasing band 3-containing microvesicles.^ Fetal hemoglobin differs from adult hemoglobin in that it contains two gamma chains instead of two beta chains.
    • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Targeted disruption of the murine erythroid band 3 gene results in spherocytosis and severe haemolytic anaemia despite a normal membrane skeleton.
    • WikiGenes - Erythrocytes 12 September 2009 8:26 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Alternatively, the two half-molecules may be specific for the same or different epitopes of the analyte.
    • Erythrocyte agglutination assay - Patent 5413913 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    2) Defects of band 3 lead to band 3 deficiency and loss of its lipid-stabilizing effect. This results in the loss of band 3-free microvesicles. .Both pathways result in membrane loss, decreased surface area, and formation of spherocytes with decreased deformability.^ These alterations may result in part from loss of availability of the cognate thiol in AE-1 secondary to oxidation, for example in membrane-associated hemichrome complexes.
    • Transport and Peripheral Bioactivities of Nitrogen Oxides Carried by Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin: Role in Oxygen Delivery -- Sonveaux et al. 22 (2): 97 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Genet.  (2000) Anion exchanger 1 (band 3) is required to prevent erythrocyte membrane surface loss but not to form the membrane skeleton.
    • WikiGenes - Erp1 - erythrocyte protein 1 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A decreased number of RBCs results from either acute or chronic blood loss.
    • Red Blood Cell Count: The Test 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

    These deformed erythrocytes become trapped in the hostile environment of the spleen where splenic conditioning inflicts further membrane damage, amplifying the cycle of membrane injury.
  • Hereditary elliptocytosis
  • Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis
  • Hereditary stomatocytosis[35]
  • Hemolytic transfusion reaction is the destruction of donated red blood cells after a transfusion, mediated by host antibodies, often as a result of a blood type mismatch.
.Several blood tests involve red blood cells, including the RBC count (the number of red blood cells per volume of blood), the hematocrit (percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells), and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.^ Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) The number of white blood cells in the blood that are neutrophils.
  • Glossary 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.themmrf.org [Source type: Academic]

^ White blood cell count low .
  • White Blood Cell - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hematocrit is the percentage of RBCs in relation to the total volume of blood .
  • Blood and the cells it contains -- Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The blood type needs to be determined to prepare for a blood transfusion or an organ transplantation.^ Prospective evaluation of pre-transplant blood transfusions in cadaver kidney recipients.
  • Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion in the Intensive Care Unit: Limitations and Consequences -- Gould et al. 16 (1): 39 -- American Journal of Critical Care 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC ajcc.aacnjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Achieving surgical hemostasis is the most critical factor in stopping bleeding and reducing the need for blood transfusions.
  • Blood conservation strategies to reduce the need for red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients -- Tinmouth et al. 178 (1): 49 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Their use in critically ill patients could reduce the need for blood in patients requiring massive transfusions.
  • Blood conservation strategies to reduce the need for red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients -- Tinmouth et al. 178 (1): 49 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Laura Dean. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens
  2. ^ a b Pierigè F, Serafini S, Rossi L, Magnani M (January 2008). "Cell-based drug delivery". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 60 (2): 286–95. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2007.08.029. PMID 17997501. 
  3. ^ "Circular of Information for Blood and Blood Products" (pdf). American Association of Blood Banks, American Red Cross, America's Blood Centers. http://www.fda.gov/Cber/gdlns/crclr.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  4. ^ "Swammerdam, Jan (1637–1680)", McGraw Hill AccessScience, 2007. Accessed 27 December 2007.
  5. ^ Red Gold - Blood History Timeline, PBS 2002. Accessed 27 December 2007.
  6. ^ a b Gulliver, G. (1875). "On the size and shape of red corpuscles of the blood of vertebrates, with drawings of them to a uniform scale, and extended and revised tables of measurements". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 1875: 474–495. 
  7. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  8. ^ Snyder, Gregory K.; Sheafor, Brandon A. (1999). "Red Blood Cells: Centerpiece in the Evolution of the Vertebrate Circulatory System". Integrative and Comparative Biology 39: 189. doi:10.1093/icb/39.2.189. 
  9. ^ Ruud JT (May 1954). "Vertebrates without erythrocytes and blood pigment". Nature 173 (4410): 848–50. doi:10.1038/173848a0. PMID 13165664. 
  10. ^ Carroll, Sean (2006). The Making of the Fittest. W.W. Norton. ISBN 0393061639. 
  11. ^ Cohen, W. D. (1982). "The cytomorphic system of anucleate non-mammalian erythrocytes". Protoplasma 113: 23. doi:10.1007/BF01283036. 
  12. ^ Wingstrand KG (1956). "Non-nucleated erythrocytes in a teleostean fish Maurolicus mülleri (Gmelin)". Zeitschrift Für Zellforschung Und Mikroskopische Anatomie 45 (2): 195–200. doi:10.1007/BF00338830 (inactive 2009-12-02). PMID 13402080. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j943833n74065634. 
  13. ^ Wan J, Ristenpart WD, Stone HA (October 2008). "Dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from red blood cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (43): 16432–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805779105. PMID 18922780. 
  14. ^ Diesen DL, Hess DT, Stamler JS (August 2008). "Hypoxic vasodilation by red blood cells: evidence for an s-nitrosothiol-based signal". Circulation Research 103 (5): 545–53. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.176867. PMID 18658051. 
  15. ^ Kleinbongard P, Schutz R, Rassaf T, et al (2006). "Red blood cells express a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase". Blood 107: 2943–51. 
  16. ^ Ulker P, Sati L, Celik-Ozenci C, Meiselman HJ, Baskurt OK (2009). "Mechanical stimulation of nitric oxide synthesizing mechanisms in erythrocytes". Biorheology 46: 121–32. 
  17. ^ Benavides, Gloria A; Giuseppe L Squadrito, Robert W Mills, Hetal D Patel, T Scott Isbell, Rakesh P Patel, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jeannette E Doeller, David W Kraus (2007-11-13). "Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (46): 17977-17982. doi:10.1073/pnas.0705710104. http://www.pnas.org/content/104/46/17977.full. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  18. ^ Red blood cells do more than just carry oxygen. New findings by NUS team show they aggressively attack bacteria too., The Straits Times, 1 September 2007
  19. ^ Jiang N, Tan NS, Ho B, Ding JL (October 2007). "Respiratory protein-generated reactive oxygen species as an antimicrobial strategy". Nature Immunology 8 (10): 1114–22. doi:10.1038/ni1501. PMID 17721536. 
  20. ^ a b Kabanova S, Kleinbongard P, Volkmer J, Andrée B, Kelm M, Jax TW (2009). "Gene expression analysis of human red blood cells". International Journal of Medical Sciences 6 (4): 156–9. PMID 19421340. PMC 2677714. http://www.medsci.org/v06p0156.htm. 
  21. ^ Uzoigwe C (2006). "The human erythrocyte has developed the biconcave disc shape to optimise the flow properties of the blood in the large vessels". Medical Hypotheses 67 (5): 1159–63. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2004.11.047. PMID 16797867. 
  22. ^ Gregory TR (2001). "The bigger the C-value, the larger the cell: genome size and red blood cell size in vertebrates". Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases 27 (5): 830–43. doi:10.1006/bcmd.2001.0457. PMID 11783946. 
  23. ^ Goodman SR, Kurdia A, Ammann L, Kakhniashvili D, Daescu O (December 2007). "The human red blood cell proteome and interactome". Experimental Biology and Medicine 232 (11): 1391–408. doi:10.3181/0706-MR-156. PMID 18040063. 
  24. ^ Hillman, Robert S.; Ault, Kenneth A.; Rinder, Henry M. (2005). Hematology in Clinical Practice: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management (4 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 1. ISBN 0071440356. 
  25. ^ Iron Metabolism, University of Virginia Pathology. Accessed 22 September 2007.
  26. ^ Iron Transport and Cellular Uptake by Kenneth R. Bridges, Information Center for Sickle Cell and Thalassemic Disorders. Accessed 22 September 2007.
  27. ^ Föller M, Huber SM, Lang F (October 2008). "Erythrocyte programmed cell death". IUBMB Life 60 (10): 661–8. doi:10.1002/iub.106. PMID 18720418. 
  28. ^ a b c Yazdanbakhsh K, Lomas-Francis C, Reid ME (October 2000). "Blood groups and diseases associated with inherited abnormalities of the red blood cell membrane". Transfusion Medicine Reviews 14 (4): 364–74. doi:10.1053/tmrv.2000.16232. PMID 11055079. 
  29. ^ a b c Mohandas N, Gallagher PG (November 2008). "Red cell membrane: past, present, and future". Blood 112 (10): 3939–48. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-07-161166. PMID 18988878. 
  30. ^ Rodi PM, Trucco VM, Gennaro AM (June 2008). "Factors determining detergent resistance of erythrocyte membranes". Biophysical Chemistry 135 (1-3): 14–8. doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2008.02.015. PMID 18394774. 
  31. ^ Hempelmann E, Götze O (1984). "Characterization of membrane proteins by polychromatic silver staining". Hoppe Seyler's Z Physiol Chem 365: 241–242. 
  32. ^ Iolascon A, Perrotta S, Stewart GW (March 2003). "Red blood cell membrane defects". Reviews in Clinical and Experimental Hematology 7 (1): 22–56. PMID 14692233. 
  33. ^ Denomme GA (July 2004). "The structure and function of the molecules that carry human red blood cell and platelet antigens". Transfusion Medicine Reviews 18 (3): 203–31. doi:10.1016/j.tmrv.2004.03.006. PMID 15248170. 
  34. ^ First red blood cells grown in the lab, New Scientist News, 19 August 2008
  35. ^ An X, Mohandas N (May 2008). "Disorders of red cell membrane". British Journal of Haematology 141 (3): 367–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07091.x. PMID 18341630. 

External links

.
  • Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens by Laura Dean.^ Appropriateness of red blood cell transfusion in Australasian intensive care practice.
    • Blood conservation strategies to reduce the need for red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients -- Tinmouth et al. 178 (1): 49 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In response to hypoxia, the hormone erthyropoietin, secreted by the kidneys, stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.
    • The Doctors' Medical Library - Red Blood Count, rbc, cbc, Health and Medical Information, medical library 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.medical-library.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Besides the Th and B cells, there is a third population of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and lymphoid organs which do not have receptors for antigens.
    • The Blood Cells 10 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.funsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Searchable and downloadable online textbook in the public domain.
  • Database of vertebrate erythrocyte sizes.
  • Red Gold, PBS site containing facts and history

Simple English

[[File:|150px|right]] Red blood cells (also known as RBCs, red blood corpuscles or erythrocytes) are cells that make up blood. Red blood cells are very large in number; in women, there are 4.8 million red blood cells per microliter of blood. In men, there are 5.4 million red blood cells per microliter of blood[1]. Red blood cells are red because they have hemoglobin in them.

Function

The most important function of red blood cells is the transport of oxygen. The hemoglobin absorbs oxygen in the lungs, travels through blood vessels and brings oxygen to all other cells via the heart. A fact which makes human red blood cells different to all other cells is that red blood cells do not have a nucleus, since they need lots of room for hemoglobin. However, bird red blood cells have nucleus. Since the blood cells go through both the lungs (to collect oxygen), through the heart (to be pumped around the rest of the body to give all cells oxygen) and back to the heart to be re-pumped to the lungs (to again collect oxygen), it is said that the blood in your body travels in a double circuit, going through your heart twice before it completes one full circulation of the body.

Red blood cells are doughnut (without the hole) shaped. However, hereditary diseases such as sickle-cell disease can cause them to change shapes and stop blood flow in capillaries and veins. Red blood cells do not have some parts that normal cells have, such as the nucleus, which makes the doughnut shape we see.

Development

Like all cells in the body, red blood cells begin as a stem cell. This is called a hematopoietic stem cell. This cell can form lots of cell types that make up the blood. The red cell is only one of the possibilities. Although red cells are small cells, they are very big when they are young cells. Just like people, cells must mature. Blood cells get smaller as they get older. When they grow, they have to cut themselves in half to reproduce. They start off with a nucleus and are called erythroblasts. A "blast" is a baby cell. Erythroblasts are much bigger than red blood cells. These become polychromatophilic red blood cells. They are named that because they are seen with many colors when stained. After this, they eject their nucleus and change shape to become a red blood cell. [2]

References

  1. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/complete-blood-count-cbc?page=3
  2. http://www.som.tulane.edu/classware/pathology/Krause/Blood/EP.html



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