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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Red triangle slug
Two individuals of the green form of Triboniophorus graeffei, in the forest in Chatswood West, New South Wales. The slug on the right is starting to become active, the other is in the contracted state
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
informal group Pulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
clade Elasmognatha
Superfamily: Athoracophoroidea
Family: Athoracophoridae
Genus: Triboniophorus
Species: T. graeffei
Binomial name
Triboniophorus graeffei
Humbert, 1863[1]

The red triangle slug, scientific name Triboniophorus graeffei, is a species of air-breathing land slug, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Athoracophoridae, the leaf-veined slugs.

This large (up to 14 cm), often colorful and striking-looking species is found in eastern Australia. It is Australia's largest native land slug.[2] It is a common part of the fauna.

Triboniophorus graeffei is the type species of the genus Triboniophorus.[3]



This slug species occurs on the east coast of Australia, from New South Wales to Queensland.[4]

Solem (1959)[3] mentioned a possible introduction of this species to the New Hebrides, but no material was available from him to confirm it.


Red triangle slugs are found in damp situations in various habitats, including city gardens, forests, woodland and heaths.[2]

Life habits

Triboniophorus graeffei with grazing marks from its radula, on the trunk of eucalyptus tree in Sydney Blue Gum, near Dungog, Australia

These slugs graze on algae which grows on the surface of the smooth bark of some eucalyptus trees and on rocks. Sometimes the slugs enter houses[4] and have been known to graze on the mold that grows on bathroom walls.[2][5]


These slugs have two, not four, tentacles, and like other leaf-vein slugs they have an indented pattern on their dorsum which resembles that of a leaf. The body length is up to 14 com.

They are very variable in color. Individual slugs can be white, or off-white, yellow, dark or light grey, beige, pink, red, or olive green.[4] All the color forms have a red (or orange, or magenta, or maroon) triangle on the mantle surrounding the pneumostome, and a red line at the edge of the foot. The texture of the dorsum of the slug can be smooth or very rough.

Research is being carried out to try to determine if some of the different forms might actually represent different species or subspecies.[4]


Various shots of Triboniophorus graeffei on the bark of Sydney Blue Gums, near Dungog, Australia, showing color variation, varying degrees of contraction and body shape.


  1. ^ Humbert A. (December 31) 1863. Études sur quelques mollusques terrestres nouveaux ou peu connus. Mem. Soc. Phys. Nat. Hist. Geneve, 17, (1), 109-128. Description at page 119.
  2. ^ a b c Red Triangle Slug Fact File. Australian Museum, 2009, accessed 22 February 2009.
  3. ^ a b Solem A. 1959. Systematics of the land and fresh-water mollusca of the New Hebrides. Fieldiana Zoology, volume 43, number 1, Chicago Natural History Museum, page 45-46
  4. ^ a b c d (June) 2004. Red Triangle Slug Diversity. An Australian Museum Website, Australian Museum, accessed 22 February 2009.
  5. ^ Stephanie Pain (July) 2000. Hate housework? Can't find a reliable cleaner? Try a slug. New Scientist Magazine, Melissa Kaplan's Herp Care Collection, Last updated April 19, 2007. Accessed 22 February 2009.

Further reading

  • (German) Pfeiffer W. 1898. Anatomische und histologische Bemerkungen über Triboniophorus Graeffei Humbert. Sitzber. Ges. natf. Freunde, Berlin.

External links

Photographs on the life history etc:

Photographs of the various different color forms:

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