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Illustration of a redox reaction
.Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed.^ Using oxidation states to describe redox changes in a given reaction equation .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Balance the atoms that change their oxidation states.

^ The oxidation state of all of the atoms add up to zero.
  • CHEMTUTOR REDOX AND ELECTROPLATING 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This can be either a simple redox process such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), or it can be a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body through a series of complex electron transfer processes.^ Process for the preparation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrogen .
  • Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (US6221280) 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.delphion.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant .
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Within each complex, electrons pass sequentially through a series of electron carriers.
  • Electron Transfer Chain 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The term redox comes from the two concepts of reduction and oxidation.^ The term redox comes from the two concepts of red uction and ox idation.
  • Redox reaction - Chemistry References 17 September 2009 1:38 UTC www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de [Source type: Reference]
  • PhysOrg.com - oxidation 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]
  • Redox 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.bio-medicine.org [Source type: Academic]
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The term redox comes from the two concepts reduction and oxidation .
  • Redox - BBWiki 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC bbwiki.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Because both red uction and ox idation are going on side-by-side, this is known as a redox reaction.
  • Definitions of oxidation and reduction (redox) 17 September 2009 1:38 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

It can be explained in simple terms:
  • Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.
  • Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.
.Though sufficient for many purposes, these descriptions are not precisely correct.^ While the above description contains many particulars, these should not be consider limitations on the scope of the invention, but rather a demonstration of embodiments thereof.
  • PROCESS CONTROL OXIDATION - Patent application - The present disclosure provides for a system and method that intensely oxidizes water as it navigates through a system and 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Oxidation and reduction properly refer to a change in oxidation number — the actual transfer of electrons may never occur.^ The oxidation number of an atom refers to the number of electrons it has lost or gained.
  • Oxidation State 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC science.jrank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reduction - The gain of an electron by a species (a decrease in oxidation number).
  • SparkNotes: Galvanic Cells: Terms and Formulae 17 September 2009 1:38 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Electron transfer oxidation.
  • Oxidation, Volume 7 - Elsevier 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.elsevier.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, oxidation is better defined as an increase in oxidation number, and reduction as a decrease in oxidation number.^ H – increase in oxidation number O – decrease in oxidation number Try Question 3.
  • Redox Reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oxidation number of zinc has increased from 0 to 2+ Reduction .

^ Thus it would have an oxidation number of 1.

.In practice, the transfer of electrons will always cause a change in oxidation number, but there are many reactions that are classed as "redox" even though no electron transfer occurs (such as those involving covalent bonds).^ If no reaction occurs, write "no reaction".

^ Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions are an important, general kind of reaction, one involving the transfer of electrons.
  • Equations, Chemical - Chemistry Encyclopedia - Half-Reaction Method, Oxidation Number Method 17 September 2009 1:38 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, the transfer of electrons will always cause a change in oxidation number, but there are many reactions which are classed as "redox" even though no electron transfer occurs (such as those involving covalent bonds).
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Non-redox reactions, which do not involve changes in formal charge, are known as metathesis reactions.^ These changes indicate that this reaction is a redox reaction.

^ Only the species of atom that is involved in a change is in a half reaction.
  • CHEMTUTOR REDOX AND ELECTROPLATING 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In each of the following examples, we have to decide whether the reaction involves redox, and if so what has been oxidised and what reduced.
  • Oxidation states (oxidation numbers) 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The two parts of a redox reaction
Rusting iron
A bonfire. Combustion consists of redox reactions involving free radicals.

Contents

Oxidizing and reducing agents

.The chemical way to look at redox processes is that the reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant.^ Collectively, oxidation and reduction are known as redox , or an electron transfer reaction.
  • Oxidation-Reduction Reactions - ChemWiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Contributors Oxidation-reduction reactions, redox reactions, are an example of electron transfer reactions.
  • Oxidation-Reduction Reactions - ChemWiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The term “oxidation” originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance, but its usage has long been broadened to include any reaction in which electrons are transferred.
  • Chemistry Equations, Oxidation States, Balancing Equations 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemistry.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, in the reaction, the reductant or reducing agent loses electrons and is oxidized, and the oxidant or oxidizing agent gains electrons and is reduced.^ Specifically, one reactant is oxidized (loses electrons) and one is reduced (gains electrons).
  • 4-16 Chemical Reduction/Oxidation 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.frtr.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Every time a reducing agent loses electrons, it forms an oxidizing agent that could gain electrons if the reaction were reversed.

^ Practice Problem 3: Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent in the following reaction.

.The pair of an oxidizing and reducing agent that are involved in a particular reaction is called a redox pair.^ Notice that the substance that is reduced is the oxidizing agent and the substance that is oxidized is the reducing agent.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Practice Problem 3: Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent in the following reaction.

^ Thus, H 2 is the reducing agent in this reaction, and CuO acts as an oxidizing agent.

Oxidizers

.Substances that have the ability to oxidize other substances are said to be oxidative and are known as oxidizing agents, oxidants, or oxidizers.^ Which substance is the best oxidizing agent?
  • oxidation reduction honors 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemcool.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Notice that the substance that is reduced is the oxidizing agent and the substance that is oxidized is the reducing agent.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Especially effective as the oxidizing agent to be added is a nitrate ion (NO 3 .sup.-)-containing substance.
  • Anodic oxidation coating remover composition and method of removing anodic oxidation coatings - Patent application 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Put another way, the oxidant removes electrons from another substance, and is thus itself reduced.^ The term “oxidation” originally meant a reaction in which oxygen combines chemically with another substance, but its usage has long been broadened to include any reaction in which electrons are transferred.
  • Chemistry Equations, Oxidation States, Balancing Equations 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemistry.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a mobile reduced segment, represented by “e − ”-labelled oval, and a mobile oxidized segment, represented by an unlabelled oval, are within a distance δ of one another, as shown in state 54 , an electron is transferred, as shown in state 56 .
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When one substance has donated a hydrogen atom, carrying with it the electron, another substance will accept the hydrogen atom and the corresponding carried electron.

.And, because it "accepts" electrons, it is also called an electron acceptor.^ Because of manganese's flexibility in accepting many oxidation states, it is a good example to describe general trends and concepts behind electron configurations.
  • Oxidation States of The Transition-metal Elements - ChemWiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The transition metals show such a range of oxidation states because their partially filled d orbitals can accept or donate electrons in chemical reactions.

.Oxidants are usually chemical substances with elements in high oxidation numbers (e.g., H2O2, MnO4, CrO3, Cr2O2−7, OsO4) or highly electronegative substances that can gain one or two extra electrons by oxidizing a substance (O, F, Cl, Br).^ Determine the oxidation number for each element in the compound: .
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most electronegative element in a compound has a negative oxidation number.

^ One compound is oxidized (loses electrons) and the other is reduced (gains electrons).
  • BrownFields 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.eugris.info [Source type: Academic]

Reducers

.Substances that have the ability to reduce other substances are said to be reductive and are known as reducing agents, reductants, or reducers.^ Notice that the substance that is reduced is the oxidizing agent and the substance that is oxidized is the reducing agent.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reducing agents other than stannous chloride (e.g.
  • Alcohol Reactivity 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ An example of a metal, such as sodium, acting as a reducing agent in an organic reaction is the Birch reduction of aromatic compounds, such as naphthalene, in a weakly protic solvent.

.In other words, the reductant transfers electrons to another substance, and is thus itself oxidized.^ In other words, what is oxidized is the reducing agent and what is reduced is the oxidizing agent.
  • Oxidation-Reduction Reactions - ChemWiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Important; what is often missed (including by myself in earlier research), is that although you may test and for instance find high calcium levels in an aquarium via a GH over 300, that does not necessarily mean you have any Redox reduction as I should point out that very basic fact of Redox reduction is the donor (such as calcium) transfers electrons to another substance, and is, thus, oxidized itself.
  • How Aquarium Redox Balance, Potential, & Reduction relates to aquatic health 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Click graph to enlarge Here are a few reducers, in other words, elements or processes that transfer electrons to another substance; Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, and the process of Photosynthesis involve both oxidation and reducing.
  • How Aquarium Redox Balance, Potential, & Reduction relates to aquatic health 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And, because it "donates" electrons it is also called an electron donor.^ The transition metals show such a range of oxidation states because their partially filled d orbitals can accept or donate electrons in chemical reactions.

^ Because of their chromanol ring structure, tocopherols are capable of donating a single electron to form the resonance - stabilized tocopheroxyl radical [ 44 ].
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Reductants in chemistry are very diverse.^ Reductants in chemistry are very diverse.

^ Some Very Fundamental Chemistry Concepts Even You Can Understand Kangen Water – Unbiased Review Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) And Your Health Kangen water?
  • Oxidation | Alkaline Water Facts 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC alkaline-water.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Electropositive elemental metals, such as lithium, sodium, magnesium, iron, zinc, or aluminium, are good reducing agents.^ I Elemental sodium is a strong reducing agent .
  • oxidation reduction honors 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemcool.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Which metal is the weakest reducing agent?

^ Which metal is the strongest reducing agent?

.These metals donate or give away electrons readily.^ Metals at the top of the series are good at giving away electrons.
  • the electrochemical series 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ These metals are very eager to give away electrons.

^ These metals donate or give away electrons readily.
  • Redox reaction - Chemistry References 17 September 2009 1:38 UTC www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de [Source type: Reference]
  • Redox - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Hydride transfer reagents, such as NaBH4 and LiAlH4, are widely used in organic chemistry,[1][2] primarily in the reduction of carbonyl compounds to alcohols.^ There are a number of reduction methodologies which use a metal dissolved in a polar solvent: aqueous acid, water, ammonia, alcohols, amines, etc.

^ Redox reactions in Inorganic Chemistry sections 5-7 The concepts of oxidation, reduction, oxidation state/number and redox reactions were introduced and explained using a variety of examples in Part 1 sections 1-4 .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather than transferring pollutants from the gas phase to the solid phase, PCO provides a reduction of absolute toxicity as the gaseous products from the complete photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds are carbon dioxide and water.
  • Photocatalytic Oxidation of Organic Pollutants Associated with Indoor Air Quality 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC carbon.cudenver.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Another method of reduction involves the use of hydrogen gas (H2) with a palladium, platinum, or nickel catalyst.^ The use of palladium rather than platinum, or Pt/Pd blends, had been suggested as a means of sulfate suppression.
  • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst [subscription] 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Porous or sheet metal electrodes produced by methods known to the art are suitable, such as carbon-based graphite, platinum, palladium, titanium, Raney catalyst metals and the like.
  • Electrically rechargeable anionically active reduction-oxidation electrical storage-supply system - Patent 4485154 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synthesis of compound F: Compound F was synthesized from compound E (5 g) and 6-aminocaproic acid methyl ester (6 g) using the palladium-catalyzed amination method of aryl bromides described by Hartwig et al.
  • Redox Polymers - Patent application - Novel transition metal complexes of iron, cobalt, ruthenium, osmium, and vanadium are described 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.These catalytic reductions are primarily used in the reduction of carbon-carbon double or triple bonds.^ These catalytic reductions are primarily used in the reduction of carbon-carbon double or triple bonds.
  • Redox reaction - Chemistry References 17 September 2009 1:38 UTC www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de [Source type: Reference]
  • Redox - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Redox 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.bio-medicine.org [Source type: Academic]
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Other kinds of reductants are hydride transfer reagents (NaBH 4 , LiAlH 4 ), these reagents are widely used in organic chemistry [1] [2] , primarily in the reduction of carbonyl compounds to alcohols.
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Other kinds of reductants are hydride transfer reagents (NaBH 4 , LiAlH 4 ), these reagents are widely used in organic chemistry , primarily in the reduction of carbonyl compounds to alcohols .

Examples of redox reactions

A good example is the reaction between hydrogen and fluorine in which hydrogen is being oxidized and fluorine is being reduced:
H2 + F2 → 2 HF
We can write this overall reaction as two half-reactions: the oxidation reaction:
H2 → 2 H+ + 2 e
and the reduction reaction:
F2 + 2 e → 2 F
.Analyzing each half-reaction in isolation can often make the overall chemical process clearer.^ Write the overall balanced chemical reaction.

^ Many familiar chemical processes belong to a class of reactions called Oxidation-Reduction, or Redox, reactions.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is interesting to note that the chelating agents do not appear in the process chemistry, and in the overall chemical reaction, the iron cancels out.
  • LO-CAT Liquid Redox Hydrogen Sulfide Removal 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.gtp-merichem.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because there is no net change in charge during a redox reaction, the number of electrons in excess in the oxidation reaction must equal the number consumed by the reduction reaction (as shown above).^ There is no change in the oxidation states of the substances.

^ Notice that the sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a species is equal to the net charge on that species.

^ A redox reaction is made up a oxidation reaction and reduction reaction occuring simultaneously.
  • Redox Chemistry - ChemWiki 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elements, even in molecular form, always have an oxidation number of zero.^ Determine the oxidation number for each element in the compound: .
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxygen in a compound always has an oxidation number of -2 .

^ First, the oxidation number of each atom in a pure element is defined as zero.
  • Chemistry: Oxidation Numbers - CliffsNotes 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Reference]

In the first half-reaction, hydrogen is oxidized from an oxidation number of zero to an oxidation number of +1. In the second half-reaction, fluorine is reduced from an oxidation number of zero to an oxidation number of −1.
When adding the reactions together the electrons cancel:
H2 2 H+ + 2 e
F2 + 2 e 2 F

H2 + F2 2 H+ + 2 F
And the ions combine to form hydrogen fluoride:
H2 + F2 → 2 H+ + 2 F → 2 HF

Displacement reactions

.Redox occurs in single displacement reactions or substitution reactions.^ Nevertheless, a complete redox reaction has occurred.

^ The titanium itself is extracted via another redox reaction by displacement with a more reactive metal .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ When an exchange of hydrogen atoms does not occur, the redox reaction is considered pH independent.

.The redox component of these types of reactions is the change of oxidation state (charge) on certain atoms, not the actual exchange of atoms in the compounds.^ Using oxidation states to describe redox changes in a given reaction equation .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, the redox reaction transpires as a result of the exchange of hydrogen atoms.

^ Any ion has the oxidation state that is the charge of that ion.
  • CHEMTUTOR REDOX AND ELECTROPLATING 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, in the reaction between iron and copper(II) sulfate solution:
Fe + CuSO4FeSO4 + Cu
The ionic equation for this reaction is:
Fe + Cu2+ → Fe2+ + Cu
As two half-equations, it is seen that the iron is oxidized:
Fe → Fe2+ + 2 e
And the copper is reduced:
Cu2+ + 2 e → Cu

Other examples

  • The oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III) by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an acid:
Fe2+ → Fe3+ + e
H2O2 + 2 e → 2 OH
Overall equation:
2 Fe2+ + H2O2 + 2 H+ → 2 Fe3+ + 2 H2O
2 NO3 + 10 e + 12 H+ → N2 + 6 H2O
  • Oxidation of elemental iron to iron(III) oxide by oxygen (commonly known as rusting, which is similar to tarnishing):
4 Fe + 3 O2 → 2 Fe2O3

Redox reactions in industry

.The primary process of reducing ore to produce metals is discussed in the article on Smelting.^ Upon ignition or detonation of the EDE formulation, the finely particulate metal oxide and the reducing metal will react to produce a metal and a new oxide by reacting the oxygen of the finely particulate metal oxide with the reducing metal.

^ A munitions payload comprising: a primary explosive; a metal oxide dispersed within the primary explosive; and a reducing metal dispersed within the primary explosive, for reacting with the metal oxide; wherein a mechanical bond is formed between the reducing metal and the metal oxide using boric oxide.

^ Exemplary embodiments of the invention have ingredients including a reducing metal and a particulate metal oxide dispersed throughout a primary explosive material.

.Oxidation is used in a wide variety of industries such as in the production of cleaning products and oxidising ammonia to produce nitric acid, which is used in most fertilizers.^ When Wentworth and colleagues tested the ability of a wide variety of non-antibody proteins to catalyze H 2 O 2 production, the only other protein that produced H 2 O 2 at a physiologically significant rate was the purified αβ T cell receptor.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide - From Oxidative Stressor to Redox Regulator 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.cellscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a keen interest in the refinement or further development of such sensors for chemical and biological assays, including the development of electrodeposition processes used to produce the sensors.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ FAD has a more positive reduction potential than NAD + so it is used for more "demanding" oxidation reactions, such as dehydrogenation of a C-C bond to form an alkene.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Redox reactions are the foundation of electrochemical cells.^ It focuses on important cellular mechanisms, such as redox reactions related to thioredoxin (TRX)/adult T-cell leukemia-derived factor (ADF).
  • CRC Press Online - Book: Redox Regulation of Cell Signaling and Its Clinical Application 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.crcpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ See also Equilibria Part 7 Redox Reactions for Half cell equilibria, electrode potential, standard hydrogen electrode, Simple cells and notation, Electrochemical Series, E cell for reaction feasibility, 'batteries' and fuel cell systems etc.
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ AS-A2 * See also Equilibria Part 7 Redox Reactions for Half cell equilibria, electrode potential, standard hydrogen electrode, Simple cells and notation, Electrochemical Series, E cell for reaction feasibility, 'batteries' and fuel cell systems etc.
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

.The production of compact discs depends on a redox reaction, which coats the disc with a thin layer of metal film.^ For example, in a glucose biosensor, a working electrode coated with a redox polymer film that electrically connects or “wires” reaction centers of an enzyme, such as glucose oxidase, to the electrode, can be used to glucose that is electrocatalytically oxidized by the “wired” enzyme at the electrode surface.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thin films of transition metal complex-based redox polymers are electrodeposited on electrodes via application of fixed or cycled potential.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The development of means for electrodepositing useful coatings, such as thin, redox polymer films, on electrode surfaces, and particularly, on a mass-production basis, is similarly of interest.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Redox reactions in biology

.Many important biological processes involve redox reactions.^ Note in the table below that many of the half reactions involve protons.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Probably because of that, when I was learning biochemistry, I found the presentation of these different enzymes involved in redox reactions to be very confusing.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many familiar chemical processes belong to a class of reactions called Oxidation-Reduction, or Redox, reactions.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cellular respiration, for instance, is the oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) to CO2 and the reduction of oxygen to water.^ Cellular respiration is the process by which food molecules react with oxygen and are broken down to carbon dioxide and water with a net gain of captured energy in the form of ATP molecules.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide - From Oxidative Stressor to Redox Regulator 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.cellscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This amount of water, to be treated from said water source, has an oxidation reduction potential.
  • PROCESS CONTROL OXIDATION - Patent application - The present disclosure provides for a system and method that intensely oxidizes water as it navigates through a system and 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Aw TY. Molecular and cellular responses to oxidative stress and changes in oxidation-reduction imbalance in the intestine.
  • Cellular Redox: A Modulator of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Proliferation -- Aw 18 (5): 201 -- Physiology 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

The summary equation for cell respiration is:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
.The process of cell respiration also depends heavily on the reduction of NAD+ to NADH and the reverse reaction (the oxidation of NADH to NAD+).^ It and its reduction product, NADH, exists in the cells as interconvertible members of a pool whose total concentration does not vary significantly with time.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A mechanism must be be present to regenerate NAD + from NADH if oxidation is to continue.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ FAD has a more positive reduction potential than NAD + so it is used for more "demanding" oxidation reactions, such as dehydrogenation of a C-C bond to form an alkene.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

Photosynthesis is essentially the reverse of the redox reaction in cell respiration:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
.Biological energy is frequently stored and released by means of redox reactions.^ Upon detonation of the explosive, the reducing metal and the particulate metal oxide combine in a “redox”, or “thermite”, reaction and add energy to the event.

^ Redox is the term used to describe electrochimical reactions in which energy is stored in two solutions with electrochemical potentials sufficiently separated from each other to provide an electromotive force to drive the oxidation-reduction reactions.

^ Thus, the redox reaction injects energy into the detonation reaction quickly enough to promote increases in both peak detonation pressure and blast impulse magnitudes.

.Photosynthesis involves the reduction of carbon dioxide into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen.^ Ex 5.3 The oxidation of ammonia with molecular oxygen .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Other exemplary second target oxidation reduction set points may be achieved in accordance with variables such as water profiles into which effluent water is to be released and/or the presence of flora and/or fauna in areas into which treated water may be released.
  • PROCESS CONTROL OXIDATION - Patent application - The present disclosure provides for a system and method that intensely oxidizes water as it navigates through a system and 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Cellular respiration is the process by which food molecules react with oxygen and are broken down to carbon dioxide and water with a net gain of captured energy in the form of ATP molecules.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide - From Oxidative Stressor to Redox Regulator 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.cellscience.com [Source type: Academic]

.The reverse reaction, respiration, oxidizes sugars to produce carbon dioxide and water.^ The combustion produced 1.10g of carbon dioxide and 0.45g of water.
  • SgForums :: Singapore's Online Community - 'A' & 'O' Level Chemistry Qns (A Collection) 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.sgforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reverse reaction, respiration , oxidizes sugars to produce carbon dioxide and water.
  • Redox - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Candles and people both produce carbon dioxide and water vapor.
  • TOPScience: Oxidation #11 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC topscience.org [Source type: Academic]

.As intermediate steps, the reduced carbon compounds are used to reduce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which then contributes to the creation of a proton gradient, which drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is maintained by the reduction of oxygen.^ Stimulation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate supply.
  • Thiol/Disulfide Redox Status Is Oxidized in Plasma and Small Intestinal and Colonic Mucosa of Rats with Inadequate Sulfur Amino Acid Intake -- Nkabyo et al. 136 (5): 1242 -- Journal of Nutrition 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dichromate is the reduction step or dichromate is reduced .
  • Step 5: Balance Oxygen by: 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.hccbrandon.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather they use nicotinamide adeninine dinucleotide (NAD + ) or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as oxidizing agents, which get reduced.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In animal cells, mitochondria perform similar functions.^ In animal cells, mitochondria perform similar functions.
  • Redox - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Redox 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.bio-medicine.org [Source type: Academic]
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.See Membrane potential article.^ See Membrane potential article.
  • Redox - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.The term redox state is often used to describe the balance of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH in a biological system such as a cell or organ.^ Adaptation of tobacco plants to elevated CO 2 : influence of leaf age on changes in physiology, redox states and NADP-malate dehydrogenase activity.
  • Strategies to maintain redox homeostasis during photosynthesis under changing conditions -- Scheibe et al. 56 (416): 1481 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a keen interest in the refinement or further development of such sensors for chemical and biological assays, including the development of electrodeposition processes used to produce the sensors.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ FAD has a more positive reduction potential than NAD + so it is used for more "demanding" oxidation reactions, such as dehydrogenation of a C-C bond to form an alkene.
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The redox state is reflected in the balance of several sets of metabolites (e.g., lactate and pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), whose interconversion is dependent on these ratios.^ This, in turn, can only be achieved when the relatively small pools of ATP/ADP, NAD(P)H/NAD(P) and other redox carriers, as well as cellular pH, remain at balanced ratios.
  • Strategies to maintain redox homeostasis during photosynthesis under changing conditions -- Scheibe et al. 56 (416): 1481 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been suggested that the GSH/GSSG ratio, indicative of the cellular redox balance, may be involved in ROS perception [ 63 , 64 ].
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Transient short-term changes can be balanced by a set of protection systems which stabilize the redox poise in the electron transport chains and modulate light-use efficiency.
  • Strategies to maintain redox homeostasis during photosynthesis under changing conditions -- Scheibe et al. 56 (416): 1481 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.An abnormal redox state can develop in a variety of deleterious situations, such as hypoxia, shock, and sepsis.^ The development of means for electrodepositing useful coatings, such as thin, redox polymer films, on electrode surfaces, and particularly, on a mass-production basis, is similarly of interest.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Redox reactions in Inorganic Chemistry sections 5-7 The concepts of oxidation, reduction, oxidation state/number and redox reactions were introduced and explained using a variety of examples in Part 1 sections 1-4 .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the present invention, a thin, redox polymer film may be electrodeposited on a surface any of a variety of electrodes, such as vitreous carbon electrodes or graphite electrodes.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Redox signaling involves the control of cellular processes by redox processes.^ However, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of cell death by redox signaling are still far from being understood.
  • University of Nebraska Redox Biology Center 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.unl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Related functioning processes for main antioxidants and redox signaling in plant cells were summarized in Figure 1 .
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Redox signalling is a definition that can be used to indicate any physiological or pathophysiological condition in which a process can be regulated or modulated by a signal that is delivered through redox chemistry [ 14 - 18 ].
  • Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair | Full text | Redox mechanisms in hepatic chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.fibrogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Redox proteins and their genes must be co-located for redox regulation according to the CoRR hypothesis for the function of DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts.^ Link G. Redox regulation of chloroplast transcription .
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pfannschmidt T, Liere K. Redox regulation and modification of proteins controlling chloroplast gene expression .
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, more isoforms of thioredoxin and related proteins such as glutaredoxins, peroxiredoxins, and cyclophilins, are also localized in the cytosol and mitochondria (Dietz, 2003 ), probably functioning in other redox-dependent processes (Meyer et al.
  • Strategies to maintain redox homeostasis during photosynthesis under changing conditions -- Scheibe et al. 56 (416): 1481 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Redox cycling

.A wide variety of aromatic compounds are enzymatically reduced to form free radicals that contain one more electron than their parent compounds.^ A free radical is a molecule that can exist independently and contains one or more unpaired electrons.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide - From Oxidative Stressor to Redox Regulator 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.cellscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How is the Tyr free radical formed?
  • BC Online: 8B - Dehydrogenases, Mono and Diooxygenases, and Oxidases 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One compound is oxidized (loses electrons) and the other is reduced (gains electrons).
  • BrownFields 25 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.eugris.info [Source type: Academic]

In general, the electron donor is any of a wide variety of flavoenzymes and their coenzymes. .Once formed, these anion free radicals reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide, and regenerate the unchanged parent compound.^ Xu Y, Rojkind M, Czaja MJ: Regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 by cytokines and oxygen free radicals in rat hepatic fat-storing cells.
  • Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair | Full text | Redox mechanisms in hepatic chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.fibrogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because these latter molecules are highly reactive (with hydroxyl radicals being the most reactive of all reactive oxygen species), H 2 O 2 is used as a powerful oxidizing agent.
  • Hydrogen Peroxide - From Oxidative Stressor to Redox Regulator 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.cellscience.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acting essentially as a reductant and reacting with and scavenging many types of free radicals, AA reacts non-enzymatically with superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and singlet oxygen.
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

.The net reaction is the oxidation of the flavoenzyme's coenzymes and the reduction of molecular oxygen to form superoxide.^ A redox reaction is a reaction in which we have oxidation and reduction.

^ The net reaction is the oxidation of the flavoenzyme's coenzymes and the reduction of molecular oxygen to form superoxide.
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ What is oxidation-reduction reactions?
  • oxidation and reduction Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about oxidation and reduction 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This catalytic behavior has been described as futile cycle or redox cycling.^ This catalytic behavior has been described as futile cycle or redox cycling.
  • What is Redox? | Kangen Water Report 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.kangenwaterreport.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Redox: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Merely by way of example, cycling comprising anywhere from about 10 to about 200 redox cycles, or from about 50 to about 60 redox cycles, are suitable.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Another redox cycle involving glutathione is described in glutathione redox reactions II .
  • MetaCyc glutathione redox reactions I 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Examples of redox cycling-inducing molecules are the herbicide paraquat and other viologens and quinones such as menadione.^ As for various parameters including a redox electric potential or a pH value and/or other parameters, the therapeutic parameters (for example, warming conditions, situations, period etc.
  • Thermotherapy System Based on Redox Potential - Patent application 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These functional segments, or redox complexes, have labile ligands, such as chloride anions, for example, in their inner coordination spheres.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Where pre-oxidation is desired, the electrode surface may be oxidized in a variety of ways, for example, naturally, such as by the exposure of graphite planes at the surface of a graphite electrode to air; induced by exposure of the electrode to a plasma, such as by the exposure of a vitreous carbon electrode to an oxidizing plasma; induced by electrochemical means, such as by electrooxidization of a vitreous carbon electrode; or accomplished by other means.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[3]

Redox reactions in geology

A uranium mine, near Moab, Utah. Note alternating red and white/green sandstone. .This corresponds to oxidized and reduced conditions in groundwater redox chemistry.^ Redox signalling is a definition that can be used to indicate any physiological or pathophysiological condition in which a process can be regulated or modulated by a signal that is delivered through redox chemistry [ 14 - 18 ].
  • Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair | Full text | Redox mechanisms in hepatic chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.fibrogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The change in the ratio of its reduced (GSH) to oxidized (GSSG) form during the degradation of H 2 O 2 is important in certain redox signaling pathways [ 64 ].
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Preferred redox species exchange electrons rapidly between one another and the working electrode so that the redox complexes can be rapidly oxidized or reduced, and are coordinatively or covalently bound to the polymer.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The rock forms in oxidizing conditions, and is then "bleached" to the white/green state when a reducing fluid passes through the rock.^ Then the preheated VOC-laden air is passed through a bed of solid catalysts where the VOCs are rapidly oxidized.
  • 4-57 Oxidation 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.frtr.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When a mobile reduced segment, represented by “e − ”-labelled oval, and a mobile oxidized segment, represented by an unlabelled oval, are within a distance δ of one another, as shown in state 54 , an electron is transferred, as shown in state 56 .
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The change in the ratio of its reduced (GSH) to oxidized (GSSG) form during the degradation of H 2 O 2 is important in certain redox signaling pathways [ 64 ].
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

The reduced fluid can also carry uranium-bearing minerals.
.In geology, redox is important to both the formation of minerals, mobilization of minerals, and in some depositional environments.^ The deposited redox polymers generally provide for adequate transport of electrons or holes to and from the working electrode 12 , when the redox polymer includes active redox functional groups that are mobile.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One important advantage of at least some of the redox polymers is the increased mobility of the pendant transition metal complexes, resulting from the flexibility of the pendant groups.
  • Redox Polymers - Patent application - Novel transition metal complexes of iron, cobalt, ruthenium, osmium, and vanadium are described 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In general, the redox state of most rocks can be seen in the color of the rock.^ Redox state is the important part of the above cellular state and one of the most important indicators for evaluating the above state [ 4 , 9 , 14 - 16 ].
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When significant levels of ROS are generated in a biological system (that is, altering redox homeostasis), 'redox signalling' then represents the response or part of the response designed to 'reset' the original state of equilibrium.
  • Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair | Full text | Redox mechanisms in hepatic chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.fibrogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Red is associated with oxidizing conditions of formation, and green is typically associated with reducing conditions.^ Typically, the rate of self exchange, the process in which a reduced redox mediator transfers an electron to an oxidized redox mediator, is rapid.
  • Redox Polymers - Patent application - Novel transition metal complexes of iron, cobalt, ruthenium, osmium, and vanadium are described 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ ASC, ascorbate; DHA, dehydroascorbate; Fd ox , oxidized ferredoxin; Fd red , reduced ferredoxin; GSH, glutathione; GSSG, glutathione disulfide; TRX ox , oxidized thioredoxin; TRX red , reduced thioredoxin.
  • Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.biolsci.org [Source type: Academic]

White (bleached rock) can also be associated with reducing conditions. .Famous examples of redox conditions affecting geological processes include uranium deposits and Moqui marbles.^ Redox signalling is a definition that can be used to indicate any physiological or pathophysiological condition in which a process can be regulated or modulated by a signal that is delivered through redox chemistry [ 14 - 18 ].
  • Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair | Full text | Redox mechanisms in hepatic chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.fibrogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As for various parameters including a redox electric potential or a pH value and/or other parameters, the therapeutic parameters (for example, warming conditions, situations, period etc.
  • Thermotherapy System Based on Redox Potential - Patent application 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When the co-deposited film contains redox enzymes, for example, the modified electrode may be used to catalyze the electrooxidation or electroreduction of substrates of the enzymes.
  • Electrodeposition of redox polymers and co-electrodeposition of enzymes by coordinative crosslinking - Patent 7052591 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Balancing redox reactions

.Describing the overall electrochemical reaction for a redox process requires a balancing of the component half-reactions for oxidation and reduction.^ Write half equations, then write overall balanced Redox equation.
  • SgForums :: Singapore's Online Community - 'A' & 'O' Level Chemistry Qns (A Collection) 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.sgforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balance the following equation for a redox reaction.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balancing the net equation for a redox reaction also requires consideration of the ________________________________ in each of the half-reaction equations.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For reactions in aqueous solution, this generally involves adding H+, OH, H2O, and electrons to compensate for the oxidation changes.^ In general, the catalytic oxidation reaction includes the following three stages: .
  • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst [subscription] 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When sodium hydroxide is added to a green aqueous solution of a chromium(II) salt, followed by hydrogen peroxide solution, the yellow chromate(VI) ion is formed.
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The hydroxide ion (from aqueous sodium hydroxide added) then combines with the ammonium ion in an equilibirum reaction as follows : .
  • SgForums :: Singapore's Online Community - 'A' & 'O' Level Chemistry Qns (A Collection) 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.sgforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Acidic media

.In acidic media, H+ ions and water are added to half reactions to balance the overall reaction.^ If two of the ions can form (1) an insoluble material, (2) a covalent material such as water, or (2) a gas that can escape, it qualifies as a reaction.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add the equations for the two half-reactions to give the balanced redox equation: .
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Index of examples of constructing balanced ionic redox reaction equation from half-cell/E data .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

For example, when manganese(II) reacts with sodium bismuthate:
Unbalanced reaction: Mn2+(aq) + NaBiO3(s) → Bi3+(aq) + MnO4 (aq)
Oxidation: 4 H2O(l) + Mn2+(aq) → MnO4(aq) + 8 H+(aq) + 5 e
Reduction: 2 e + 6 H+ + BiO3(s) → Bi3+(aq) + 3 H2O(l)
The reaction is balanced by scaling the two half-cell reactions to involve the same number of electrons (multiplying the oxidation reaction by the number of electrons in the reduction step and vice versa):
8 H2O(l) + 2 Mn2+(aq) → 2 MnO4(aq) + 16 H+(aq) + 10 e
10 e + 30 H+ + 5 BiO3(s) → 5 Bi3+(aq) + 15 H2O(l)
Adding these two reactions eliminates the electrons terms and yields the balanced reaction:
14 H+(aq) + 2 Mn2+(aq) + 5 NaBiO3(s) → 7 H2O(l) + 2 MnO4(aq) + 5 Bi3+(aq) + 5 Na+(aq)

Basic media

.In basic media, OH ions and water are added to half reactions to balance the overall reaction.^ If two of the ions can form (1) an insoluble material, (2) a covalent material such as water, or (2) a gas that can escape, it qualifies as a reaction.
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add the equations for the two half-reactions to give the balanced redox equation: .
  • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Index of examples of constructing balanced ionic redox reaction equation from half-cell/E data .
  • REDOX 2. Inorganic Oxidation & Reduction half-cell reactions, writing and balancing redox reactions 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Academic]

For example, in the reaction between potassium permanganate and sodium sulfite:
Unbalanced reaction: KMnO4 + Na2SO3 + H2OMnO2 + Na2SO4 + KOH
Reduction: 3 e + 2 H2O + MnO4MnO2 + 4 OH
Oxidation: 2 OH + SO32−SO42− + H2O + 2 e
Balancing the number of electrons in the two half-cell reactions gives:
6 e + 4 H2O + 2 MnO4 → 2 MnO2 + 8 OH
6 OH + 3 SO32− → 3 SO42− + 3 H2O + 6 e
Adding these two half-cell reactions together gives the balanced equation:
2 KMnO4 + 3 Na2SO3 + H2O → 2 MnO2 + 3 Na2SO4 + 2 KOH

Mnemonic Devices

.
  • OIL RIG: Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain (of electrons, not to be confused with oxidation number)
  • LEO says GER: Loss of Electrons Oxidation, Gain of Electrons Reduction
  • RED CAT AN OX: REDuction CAThode and ANode OXidation
  • ReduCtion has a C(athode) but no A(node), and OxidAtion has a A(node) but no C(athode)
  • iROn is Oxidised to Rust, or IRON (Iron Rust is OxidatioN).^ LEO says GER .
    • Balancing Equations, Chemical Reaction Types & Redox Equations 2 February 2010 9:32 UTC www.avon-chemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Small NO x reductions, usually not more than a few percent, are sometimes measured over diesel oxidation catalysts.
    • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst [subscription] 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diesel oxidation formulations which contain components with lean NO x activity may facilitate some NO x reduction, especially at higher HC/NO x ratios.
    • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst [subscription] 2 February 2010 15:59 UTC www.dieselnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Fe → Fe2+ + 2e-

See also

References

  1. ^ Hudlický, Miloš (1996). Reductions in Organic Chemistry. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. pp. 429. ISBN 0-8412-3344-6. 
  2. ^ Hudlický, Miloš (1990). Oxidations in Organic Chemistry. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. pp. 456. ISBN 0-8412-1780-7. 
  3. ^ "gutier.doc". http://www.bioscience.org/2000/v5/d/gutier/gutier.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-30. PDF (2.76 MiB)
  • Schüring, J., Schulz, H. D., Fischer, W. R., Böttcher, J., Duijnisveld, W. H. (editors)(1999). Redox: Fundamentals, Processes and Applications, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 246 pp. ISBN 978-3540665281 (pdf 3,6 MB)

External links

.

Simple English

Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed.[1]

The term redox comes from the two concepts of reduction and oxidation. It can be explained in simple terms:

  • Oxidation describes the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion
  • Reduction describes the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion

But there are exceptions.[2]


.]]

References

  1. This can be a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide, the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), or a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body, through a series of very complex electron transfer processes.
  2. Oxidation and reduction properly refer to a change in oxidation number — the actual transfer of electrons may never occur. Thus, oxidation is better defined as an increase in oxidation number, and reduction as a decrease in oxidation number. In practice, the transfer of electrons will always cause a change in oxidation number, but there are many reactions which are classed as "redox" even though no electron transfer occurs (such as those involving covalent bonds).

Other pages

The English Wikibooks has more about this subject:

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Redox, which are similar to those in the above article.








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