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Reference Daily Intake(or Recommended Daily Intake) (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined) to be sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and sex group. The RDI is used to determine the Daily Value which is printed on food labels in the U.S., Canada, and Australia. RDIs are based on the older Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) from 1968.[1] Newer RDA's have since been introduced in the Dietary Reference Intake system, but the RDIs are still used for nutrition labeling.

Contents

Food labeling reference tables

The FDA uses Daily Values (DVs) for food labeling. DVs for the following macronutrients are Daily Reference Values (DRVs).[1][2] The DV's used by the FDA for vitamins and minerals are the RDIs listed here.

For people 4 years or older, eating 2,000 calories per day, the RDIs are:

Total Fat 65 g
Saturated Fatty Acids 20 g
Cholesterol 300 mg
Sodium 2300 mg
Potassium 4700 mg
Total Carbohydrate 300 g
Fiber 25 g
Protein 50 g

For vitamins and minerals, the RDIs are given in the following table, along with the more recent RDAs of the Dietary Reference Intakes (maximized over sex and age groups):[2]

Nutrient RDI highest RDA of DRI
Vitamin A 3000 IU 10,000 IU
Vitamin C 60 mg 90 mg
Calcium 1000 mg 1300 mg
Iron 18 mg 18 mg
Vitamin D 400 IU 600 IU
Vitamin E 30 IU 15 mg (33 IU of synthetic)
Vitamin K 80 μg 120 μg
Thiamin 1.5 mg 1.2 mg
Riboflavin 1.7 mg 1.3 mg
Niacin 20 mg 16 mg
Vitamin B6 2 mg 1.7 mg
Folate 400 μg 400 μg
Vitamin B12 6 μg 2.4 μg
Biotin 300 μg 30 μg
Pantothenic acid 10 mg 5 mg
Phosphorus 1000 mg 1250 mg
Iodine 150 μg 150 μg
Magnesium 400 mg 420 mg
Zinc 15 mg 11 mg
Selenium 70 μg 55 μg
Copper 2 mg 900 μg
Manganese 2 mg 2.3 mg
Chromium 120 μg 35 μg
Molybdenum 75 μg 45 μg
Chloride 3400 mg 2300 mg

History

The RDA was developed during World War II by Lydia J. Roberts, Hazel Stiebeling and Helen S. Mitchell, all part of a committee established by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in order to investigate issues of nutrition that might "affect national defense" (Nestle, 35). The committee was renamed the Food and Nutrition Board in 1941, after which they began to deliberate on a set of recommendations of a standard daily allowance for each type of nutrient. The standards would be used for nutrition recommendations for the armed forces, for civilians, and for overseas population who might need food relief. Roberts, Stiebeling, and Mitchell surveyed all available data, created a tentative set of allowances for "energy and eight nutrients", and submitted them to experts for review (Nestle, 35). The final set of guidelines, called RDAs for Recommended Dietary Allowances, were accepted in 1941. The allowances were meant to provide superior nutrition for civilians and military personnel, so they included a "margin of safety." Because of food rationing during the war, the food guides created by government agencies to direct citizens' nutritional intake also took food availability into account.

The Food and Nutrition Board subsequently revised the RDAs every five to ten years. In the early 1950s, USDA nutritionists made a new set of guidelines that also included the number of servings of each food group in order to make it easier for people to receive their RDAs of each nutrient.

In 1997 at the suggestion of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy RDA became one part of a broader set of dietary guidelines called the Dietary Reference Intake used by both the United States and Canada.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.fda.gov/FDAC/special/foodlabel/dvs.html
  2. ^ http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=8c5344f04a8ae103e5b0ff5a17c7fa97&rgn=div8&view=text&node=21:2.0.1.1.2.4.1.1&idno=21

Nestle, Marion. Food Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. ISBN 9790520224659.

External links

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