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Reference ranges edit
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Reference ranges for blood test are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Contents

Interpretation

The range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval), or two standard deviations from the mean, although the definition may differ (see Definition of reference range). It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood

All values (except the exceptions below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60-100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

  • All values in Hematology - red blood cells (except hemoglobin in plasma)
  • All values in Hematology - white blood cells
  • Platelet count (Plt)

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:

  • Vitamin B9 (Folic acid/Folate) in red blood cells
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Units

Arterial or venous

If not else specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays).[3] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.[3]

Inaccuracy

References range will vary with age, sex, race, diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs, stress and even the instruments used. The samples may deviate from normal distribution. Furthermore, reference ranges only denote what are usual values in the population, and do not directly correlate with the ranges for optimal health. In case of substantial difference, there may additionally be an optimal range specified for the substance. Finally, the test procedure itself may be erroneous or inaccurate.

Sorted by concentration

A separate printable combined image is available for mass and molarity

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard "usual" reference range.

By mass and molarity

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (μg/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or μmol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

To translate a substance from the molar to the mass concentration scale above:

  • Numerically: molar concentration x molar mass = mass concentration
  • Measured directly in distance on the scales:

\log_{10} \frac{molar~mass}{1000} = distance~to~right~(decades)

, where distance is in number of decades or "octaves" to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend (molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540[4], is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have "negative" distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven't been added to the article.

By units

Units don't necessarily tell anything about molarity or mass.

Reference ranges for blood tests - by units.png

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity

Reference ranges for blood tests - by enzyme activity.png

White blood cells

Reference ranges for blood tests - white blood cells.png

Clinical biochemistry

Clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry") is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

Electrolytes and Metabolites

Electrolytes and Metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

Test [5] Patient type Lower limit [5] Upper limit[5] Unit Comments
Sodium (Na) 135[6], 137[7][2] 145[7][2], 147[6] mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
31[8] , 32[8] 33[8] , 34[8] mg/dl
Potassium (K) 3.5[6][2] , 3.6[7] 5.0[6][7][2] , 5.1 mmol/L or mEq/L[6] See hypokalemia or hyperkalemia
14[9] 20[9] mg/dl
Chloride (Cl) 95[6], 98[10], 100[2] 105[6], 106[10], 110[2] mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
340[11] 370[11] mg/dl
Osmolality 275[6], 280[12], 281[2] 295[6], 296[12], 297[2] mOsm/kg Plasma weight excludes solutes
Osmolarity Slightly less than osmolality mOsm/l Plasma volume includes solutes
Urea 1.2[6], 3.0[13] 3.0[6], 7.0[13] mmol/L BUN - blood urea nitrogen
7[6] 18[6], 21[7] mg/dL
* Uric acid[7] 0.18[6] 0.48[6] mmol/L
Female 2.0[12] 7.0[12] mg/dL
Male 2.1 [12] 8.5[12] mg/dL
Creatinine male 60[2] , 68[14] 90[2] , 118[14] μmol/L May be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7[15] , 0.8[15] 1.0[15] , 1.3[15] mg/dL
female 50[2] , 68[14] 90[2] , 98[14] μmol/L
0.6[15] , 0.8[15] 1.0[15] , 1.1[15] mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 5[12] 35[12] -
Plasma glucose (fasting) 3.8[6] , 4.0[2] 6.0[2] , 6.1[16] mmol/L See also glycosylated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65[7], 70[6], 72[17] 100[16], 110[12] mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting) 3.3[2] 5.6[2] mmol/L
60[17] 100[17] mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) male 65[18], 76[7] 176[18], 198[7] µg/dL
11.6[19][20] , 13.6[20] 30[19], 32[20], 35[20] μmol/L
female 26[7], 50[18] 170[7][18] µg/dL
4.6[20] , 8.9[19] 30.4[19] μmol/L
newborns 100[18] 250[18] µg/dL
18[20] 45[20] µmol/L
children 50[18] 120[18] µg/dL
9[20] 21[20] µmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 240[18], 262[7] 450[18], 474[7] μg/dL
43[20] , 47[20] 81[20] , 85[20] µmol/L
Transferrin 190[21], 194[2], 204[7] 326[2], 330[21], 360[7] mg/dL
25[22] 45[22] μmol/L
Transferrin saturation[18] 20 50  %
Ferritin Male 12[23] 300[23] ng/mL
27 [24] 670[24] pmol/L
Female 12[23] 150[23] ng/mL
27 [24] 330[24] pmol/L
Ammonia 10[25], 20[26] 35[25], 65[26] μmol/L
17[27] , 34[27] 60[27] , 110[27] μg/dL
Copper 70[12] 150[12] µg/dL
11 [28] 24[28] μmol/L
Ceruloplasmin 15[12] 60[12] mg/dL
1 [29] 4[29] μmol/L
Lactate (Venous) 4.5[12] 19.8[12] mg/dL
0.5[30] 2.2[30] mmol/L
Lactate (Arterial) 4.5[12] 14.4[12] mg/dL
0.5[30] 1.6[30] mmol/L
Pyruvate 300[12] 900[12] μg/dL
34 [31] 102[31] μmol/L

Acid-base and blood gases

If arterial/venous is not specified for a acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[3] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[32]

Test Arterial/Venous Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
pH Arterial 7.34[7], 7.35[6] 7.44[7], 7.45[6]
Venous 7.31[33] 7.41[33]
[H+] Arterial 36[6] 44[6] nmol/L
3.6 [34] 4.4[34] ng/dL
Base excess Arterial & venous[33] -3[33] +3[33] mEq/L
oxygen pressure (pO2) Arterial 10[6] , 11[35] 13[35] , 14[6] kPa
75[6][7], 83[12] 100[7], 105[6] mmHg or torr
Venous 4.0[35] 5.3[35] kPa
30[33] 40[33] mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturation Arterial 94[33], 95[10], 96[12] 100[10][12]  %
Venous Approximately 75[10]
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Arterial 4.4[6], 4.7[35] 5.9[6] , 6.0[35] kPa Designated pCO2
33[6], 35[7] 44[6], 45[7] mmHg or torr
23[33] 30[33] mmol/L
100[36] 132[36] mg/dL
Venous 5.5[35] 6.8[35] kPa
41[33] 51[33] mmHg or torr
Bicarbonate (HCO3, ) Arterial & venous 18[12] 23[12] mmol/L
110[37] 140[37] mg/dL
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe) Arterial & venous 21, 22[6] 27, 28[6] mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
134[37] 170[37] mg/dL

Liver function

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Total Protein 60[6], 63[7] 78[6], 82[7], 84[12] g/L see hypoproteinemia
Albumin 35[6][38] 48[7], 55[6] g/L see hypoalbuminemia
3.5[7] 4.8[7], 5.5[6] U/L
540[39] 740[39] μmol/L
Globulins 23[6] 35[6] g/L
Total Bilirubin 1.7[40], 2[6], 3.4[40], 5[2] 17[6][40], 22[40], 25[2] μmol/L
0.1[6], 0.2[7], 0.29[41] 1.0[6][12], 1.3[7], 1.4[41] mg/dL
Direct/Conjugated Bilirubin 0.0[6] or N/A[2] 5[6] , 7[40][2] μmol/L
0[6][7] 0.3[6][7], 0.4[12] mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[2]) 1[10], 5[42], 7[7], 8[6] 20[6], 21[10], 56[7] U/L Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Female 0.15[2] 0.75[2] µkat/L
Male 0.15[2] 1.1[2]
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[2]) Female 6[43] 34[43] IU/L Also called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
0.25[2] 0.60[2] µkat/L
Male 8[43] 40[43] IU/L
0.25[2] 0.75[2] µkat/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) Female 42[42] 98[42] U/L
Male 53[42] 128[42]
(Enzyme activity) 0.6[2] 1.8[2] µkat/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) 5[42] , 8[7] 40[42], 78[7] U/L

Cardiac tests

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Creatine kinase (CK) - male 24[44], 38[7], 60[42] 174[12] , 320[42] U/L
or ng/mL
Creatine kinase (CK) - female 24[44], 38[7], 96[12] 140[12] , 200[42]
CK-MB 0 3[7], 3.8[2], 5[42] ng/mL or μg/L[2]

Troponin Values 12 hrs after onset of pain:

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Troponin-T 0.02[45] ng/mL or μg/L Upper limit of normal
Troponin-I 0.2[45] ng/mL or μg/L Upper limit of normal
Troponin-T 0.02[45] 0.10[45] ng/mL or μg/L Acute Coronary Syndrome
Troponin-I 0.2[45] 1.00[45] ng/mL or μg/L Acute Coronary Syndrome
Troponin-T 0.10[45] n/a[45] ng/mL or μg/L Myocardial Infarction likely
Troponin-I 1.00[45] n/a[45] ng/mL or μg/L Myocardial Infarction likely

Other enzymes and proteins

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 50[12] 150[12] U/L
0.4[42] 1.7[42] μmol/L
LDH (enzyme activity) 1.8[2] 3.4[2] µkat/L < 70 years old[2]
Amylase 25[6], 30[7], 53[12] 110[7], 120[46], 123[12], 125[6], 190[42] U/L
0.15[2] 1.1[2] µkat/L
C-reactive protein (CRP) n/a 5[2][47], 6[48] mg/L
200[49] , 240[49] nmol/L
D-dimer n/a 500[50] ng/mL Higher in pregnant women[51]
0.5[2] mg/L
Lipase 7[7], 10[12], 23[42] 60[7], 150[12], 208[42] U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 23[42] 57[42] U/L
Acid phosphatase 3.0[42] ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) 2.3[2] 16[2] µg/L

Other ions and trace metals

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Ionized calcium (Ca) 1.03[52] , 1.10[2] 1.23[52] , 1.30[2] mmol/L
4.1 [53] , 4.4[53] 4.9 [53] , 5.2[53] mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca) 2.1[6][54] , 2.2[2] 2.5[54][2], 2.6[54], 2.8[6] mmol/L
8.4[6], 8.5[12] 10.2[6], 10.5[12] mg/dL
Phosphate (HPO42−) 0.8 1.5 [55] mmol/L
Inorganic phosphorus (serum) 1.0[6] 1.5[6] mmol/L
3.0[6] 4.5[6] mg/dL
Copper (Cu) 11[56] 24 μmol/L
Zinc (Zn) 60 [57] , 72[58] 110[58] , 130[57] μg/dL
9.2[59] , 11[2] 17[2] , 20[59] µmol/L
Magnesium 1.5[12] , 1.7[60] 2.0[12] , 2.3[60] mEq/L or mg/dL
0.6[61] , 0.7[2] 0.82[61] , 0.95[2] mmol/L
Selenium (optimal range) 120[62] μg/L

Lipids

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit Therapeutic target
Triglycerides 10 – 39 years 54[12] 110[12] mg/dL < 100 mg/dL[62]
or 1.1[62] mmol/L
0.61[63] 1.2 [63] mmol/L
40 – 59 years 70[12] 150[12] mg/dL
0.77[63] 1.7[63] mmol/L
> 60 years 80[12] 150[12] mg/dL
0.9[63] 1.7[63] mmol/L
Total cholesterol 3.0[64] , 3.6[6][64] 5.0[2][65], 6.5[6] mmol/L < 3.9 [62]
120[7], 140[6] 200[7], 250[6] mg/dL < 150 [62]
HDL cholesterol female 1.0[66], 1.2[2], 1.3[64] 2.2[66] mmol/L > 1.0 mmol/L [66]
> 40 or 60[67] mg/dL
40[68] , 50[69] 86[68] mg/dL
HDL cholesterol male 0.9[66][2] 2.0[66] mmol/L
35[68] 80[68] mg/dL
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0[66], 2.4[65] 3.0[65][2] , 3.4[66] mmol/L < 2.5 [66]
80[68] , 94[68] 120[68] , 130[68] mg/dL < 100[68]
LDL/HDL quotient n/a 5[2] (unitless)

Tumour markers

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) 0 44[7] ng/mL
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG) n/a 5[7] IU/l or mU/ml in male and non-pregnant female
CA19-9 n/a 40[7] U/ml
CA-125 n/a 30[70] , 35[71] kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 50 years
n/a 3.4[2] , 3.6 [72] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 70 years
n/a 4.1[72] μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - smokers n/a 5[73] μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) n/a 2.5[2] , 4[7] μg/L[7][2] or ng/mL[12] below age 45 <2,5 μg/L
PAP 0 3[12] units/dL (Bodansky units)

Thyroid hormones

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults -
standard range
0.3[2], 0.4[7], 0.5[12], 0.6[74] 4.0[2], 4.5[7], 6.0[12] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults -
optimal range
0.3[75] , 0.5[76] 2.0[76] , 3.0[75] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Infants 1.3[77] 19[77] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Free thyroxine (FT4) Normal adult 0.7[78] ,0.8[7] 1.4[78], 1.5[7] ng/dL
9[79][2], 10[80], 12 [81] 18[2][79] , 23[81] pmol/L
Infant 0-3 d 2.0[78] 5.0[78] ng/dL
26[79] 65[79] pmol/L
Infant 3-30 d 0.9[78] 2.2[78] ng/dL
12[79] 30[79] pmol/L
Child/Adolescent
31 d - 18 y
0.8[78] 2.0[78] ng/dL
10[79] 26[79] pmol/L
Pregnant 0.5[78] 1.0[78] ng/dL
6.5[79] 13[79] pmol/L
Total thyroxine 60[80][81] 140[80], 160[81] nmol/L
4[80], 5.5[7] 11[80], 12.3[7] μg/dL
Free triiodothyronine (FT3) Normal adult 0.2[80] 0.5[80] ng/dL
3.1[82] 7.7[82] pmol/L
Children 2-16 y 0.1[83] 0.6[83] ng/dL
1.5[82] 9.2[82] pmol/L
Total triiodothyronine 0.9[2] , 1.1[80] 2.5[2] , 2.7[80] nmol/L
60[7], 75[80] 175[80], 181[7] ng/dL
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) 12[7] 30[7] mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg) 1.5[80] 30[80] pmol/L
1[80] 20 [80] μg/L

Sex hormones

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Testosterone Male, overall 8 [84] , 10[85] 27 [84] , 35[85] nmol/L
230 [86] , 300 [87] 780[86] - 1000[87] ng/dL
Male < 50 years 10[2] 45[2] nmol/L
290[86] 1300[86] ng/dL
Male > 50 years 6.2[2] 26[2] nmol/L
180[86] 740[86] ng/dL
Female 0.7[85] 2.8[85] - 3.0[2] nmol/L
20[87] 80[87] - 85[86] ng/dL
17 Hydroxyprogesterone male 0.06[12] 3.0[12] mg/L
Female (Follicular phase) 0.2[12] 1.0[12] mg/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Prepubertal <1 [88] 3[88] IU/L
Adult male 1[88] 8 [88]
Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)
1[88] 11[88]
Adult female (Ovulation) 6[88]
95% PI (standard)
26[88]
95% PI)
5[89]
90% PI (used in diagram)
15[89]
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female 30[88] 118[88]
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Female, peak 20[89]
90% PI (used in diagram)
75[89]
(90% PI)
IU/L
Female, post-menopausal 15[90] 60 [90]
Estradiol (an estrogen) Adult male 50[91] 200 [91] pmol/L
1.4[92] 5.5[92] ng/dL
Adult female (follicular phase, day 5) 70[91]
95% PI (standard)
500 [91]
95% PI
pmol/L
110[89]
90% PI (used in diagram)
220[89]
90% PI
1.9[92] (95% PI) 14[92] (95% PI) ng/dL
3.0[92] (90% PI) 6.0[92] (90% PI)
Adult female (preovulatory peak) 400[91] 1500[91] pmol/L
11[92] 41[92] ng/dL
Adult female (luteal phase) 70[91] 600[91] pmol/L
1.9[92] 16[92] ng/dL
Post-menopausal female N/A [91] < 130[91] pmol/L
N/A[92] < 3.5[92] ng/dL
Progesterone Female at day of ovulation 2.2[89] (90% PI) 9[89] (90% PI) nmol/L
70[93] (90% PI) 280[93] (90% PI) ng/dL
Androstenedione Adult male and female 60[90] 270[90] ng/dL
Post-menopausal female < 180[90]
Prepubertal < 60[90]

Other hormones

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 4.4[94] 18[95] ,22[94] pmol/L
20[7] 80[96] , 100[7] pg/mL
Cortisol 09:00 am 140[97] 700[97] nmol/L
5[98] 25[98] μg/dL
Midnight 80[97] 350[97] nmol/L
2.9[98] 13[98] μg/dL
Growth hormone (fasting) 0 5[6] ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation) 7[6] n/a ng/mL
Prolactin Female n/a 20[7] ng/mL or µg/L[2]
Male 15[7]
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 10[99] , 17[100] 65[99] , 70[100] pg/mL
1.1[2] , 1.8[101] 6.9[2] , 7.5[101] pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
-Standard reference range
8[12][102] , 9[102] 40[102] , 80[12] ng/mL
20[103] , 23[104] 95[104] , 150[103] nmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol
-Therapeutic target range
30[105] , 40[106] 65[106] , 100[105] ng/mL
85[62] , 100[106] 120[62] , 160[106] nmol/L

Amino acids

Test Sex Age Lower limit Upper limit Unit Elevated Therapeutic target
Homocysteine Female 12–19 years 3.3 [107] 7.2[107] μmol/L > 10.4 μmol/L
or
> 140 μg/dl
< 6.3 μmol/L [62]
or
< 85 μg/dL[62]
45[108] 100[108] μg/dL
>60 years 4.9 [107] 11.6 [107] μmol/L
66[108] 160[108] μg/dL
Male 12–19 years 4.3 [107] 9.9 [107] μmol/L > 11.4 μmol/L
or
> 150 μg/dL
60[108] 130[108] μg/dL
>60 years 5.9 [107] 15.3 [107] μmol/L
80[108] 210[108] μg/dL

Vitamins

Test Patient type Standard range Unit Optimal range
Lower limit Upper limit Lower limit Upper limit
Vitamin A 30[12] 65[12] µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Serum
Age > 1year 3.0[109] 16[109] ng/mL or μg/L 5 [110]
6.8[111] 36[111] nmol/l 11[111]
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Red blood cells
200[109] 600[109] ng/mL or μg/L
450[111] 1400[111] nmol/L
Pregnant ng/mL or μg/L 400[109]
nmol/L 900[109]
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) 130 [112] , 160[113] 700[112] , 950[113] ng/L
100[114] , 120[2] 520[114] , 700[2] pmol/L
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 0.4[12] 1.5[12] mg/dL 0.9[62]
23[115] 85[115] μmol/L 50[62]
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D) 8[12][102] , 9[102] 40[102] , 80[12] ng/mL 30[105] , 40[106] 65[106] , 100[105]
20[103] , 23[104] 95[104] , 150[103] nmol/L 85[62] , 100[106] 120[62] , 160[106]
Vitamin E μmol/L 28[62]
mg/dL 1.2[62]

Toxins

Test Limit type Limit Unit
Lead Optimal health range < 20[10] or 40[12] µg/dL
Ethanol Limit for drunk driving 0[116], 0.2[116], 0.8[116] or g/L
17.4[117] mmol/L

Hematology

Hematology is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases.

Red blood cells

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Haemoglobin (Hb) male 2.0[118] , 2.1[6] 2.5[118] , 2.7[6] mmol/L Higher in neonates, lower in children.
130[2], 132[7], 135[6] 162[7], 170[2], 175[6] g/L
female 1.8[118] , 1.9[6] 2.3[118] , 2.5[6][118] mmol/L Sex difference negligible until adulthood.
120[2] [6][7] 150[2], 152[7], 160[6][12] g/L
Hemoglobin in plasma 0.16[6] 0.62[6] μmol/L Normally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
1 4 mg/dL
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 50 years 3.6[2] 5.0[2]  % of Hb
> 50 years 3.9[2] 5.3[2]
Haptoglobin < 50 years 0.35[2] 1.9[2] g/L
> 50 years 0.47[2] 2.1[2]
Haematocrit (Hct) male 0.39[2], 0.4[7], 0.41[6], 0.45[12] 0.50[2], 0.52[7],0.53[6] , 0.62[12]
female 0.35[2], 0.36[6],0.37[7][12] 0.46[6][7][2], 0.48[12]
Child 0.31[7] 0.43[7]
Mean cell volume (MCV) Male 76[12], 82[7] 100[12], 102[7] fL Cells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.
Female 78[7] 101[7] fL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 11.5[7] 14.5[7]  %
Mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) 0.39[6] 0.54[6] fmol/cell
25[6], 27[12][2] 32[12], 33[2], 35[6] pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 31[7], 32[12][2] 35[7], 36[12][2] g/dL
4.8 [119], 5.0[119] 5.4[119] , 5.6[119] mmol/L
Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC) male 4.2[12], 4.3[6][7][2] 5.7[2], 5.9[6], 6.2[7], 6.9[12] x1012/L
Female 3.5[6], 3.8[7], 3.9[2] 5.1[2], 5.5[6][7] x1012/L
Infant/Child 3.8[7] 5.5[7] x1012/L
Reticulocytes 26[2] 130[2] x109/L
Adult 0.5[6][7] 1.5[6][7]  % of RBC
Newborn 1.1[7] 4.5[7]  % of RBC
Infant 0.5[7] 3.1[7]  % of RBC

White blood cells

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test Patient type Lower limit Upper limit Unit
White Blood Cell Count (WBC.) Adult 3.5[2], 3.9[120], 4.1[7], 4.5[6] 9.0[2], 10.0[120], 10.9[7], 11[6]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
Newborn 9[121] 30[121]
1 year old 6[121] 18[121]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult 1.3[2], 1.8[120], 2[121] 5.4[2], 7[120], 8[121] x109/L
45-54[6] 62[6], 74  % of WBC
Newborn 6[121] 26[121] x109/L
Neutrophilic band forms Adult 0.7[121] x109/L
3[6] 5[6]  % of WBC
Lymphocytes Adult 0.7[2] , 1.0[120][121] 3.5[120], 3.9[2], 4.8[121] x109/L
16-25[6] 33[6], 45  % of WBC
Newborn 2[121] 11[121] x109/L
Monocytes Adult 0.1[2], 0.2[122][112] 0.8[112][121][2] x109/L
3[6], 4.0 7[6], 10  % of WBC
Newborn 0.4[121] 3.1[121] x109/L
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
Adult 1.5 5 x109/L
20 35  % of WBC
CD4+ cells Adult 0.4 [7] , 0.5[10] 1.5[10] , 1.8[7] x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytes Adult 0.0[2], 0.04[112] 0.44[112], 0.45[121], 0.5[2] x109/L
1[6] 3[6], 7  % of WBC
Newborn 0.02[121] 0.85[121] x109/L
Basophil granulocytes Adult 40[120] 100[112][2], 200[121], 900[120] x106/L
0.0 0.75[6], 2  % of WBC
Newborn 0.64 [121] x109/L

Coagulation

Test Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Platelet/Erythrocyte count (Plt) 140[7], 150[6][2] 350[12][2], 400[6], 450[7] x109/L
Prothrombin time (PT) 10[10], 11[6][123], 12[7] 13[10], 13.5[123], 14[7], 15[6] s PT reference varies between laboratory kits - INR is standardised
INR 0.9[2] 1.2[2] The INR is a corrected ratio of a patients PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) 18[7] , 30[10][2] 28[7], 42[2], 45[10] s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT) 11 18 s
Fibrinogen 1.7[7], 2.0[2] 3.6[2] , 4.2[7] g/L
Antithrombin 0.80[2] 1.2[2] kIU/L
Bleeding time 2 9 minutes
Viscosity 1.5[124] 1.72[124] cP

Immunology

Category Test Patient Lower limit Upper limit Unit Comments
Acute phase protein
markers of Inflammation
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(ESR)
Male 0 Age÷2[125] mm/hr ESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.[126]
Female (Age+10)÷2 [125]
C-reactive protein (CRP) n/a 5[47], 6[48] mg/L
200[49] , 240[49] nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) 20[127] , 22[128] 38[128] , 53[127] μmol/L
89[129] , 97[2] 170[2] , 230[129] mg/dL
Immunoglobulins IgA Adult 70[2] , 110[130] 360[2] , 560[130] mg/dL
IgD 0.5[130] 3.0[130]
IgE 0.01[130] 0.04[130]
IgG 800[130] 1800[130]
IgM 54[130] 220[130]
Autoantibodies Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)
Extractable nuclear antigen (ENA)
Rheumatoid factor (RF) 0 20-30[7] IU/mL High levels not specific for Rheumatoid Arthritis alone.
Serology Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT)
Preschoolers n/a 100 units/mL
School age 250[7]
Adult 125[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology By Richard C. Dart Edition: 3, illustrated Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN 0781728452, 9780781728454 1914 pages
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital ("Laborationslista"). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  3. ^ a b c Arterial versus venous reference ranges - Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour
  4. ^ PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  5. ^ a b c Unless else specified in boxes, then ref is: Ashwood, Edward R.; Tietz, Norbert W.; Burtis, Carl A. (1994). Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-4472-4. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-149868-0. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  8. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g•mol−1
  9. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g•mol−1
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  11. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g•mol−1
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Blood Test Results - Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com
  13. ^ a b Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). "Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town". J. Clin. Pathol. 33 (4): 380–5. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMID 7400337.& PMC 1146084. http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7400337. 
  14. ^ a b c d Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). "Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance". Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37 ( Pt 1): 49–59. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373. http://acb.rsmjournals.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10672373. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  16. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test
  17. ^ a b c Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Slon S (2006-09-22). "Serum Iron". University of Illinois Medical Center. http://uimc.discoveryhospital.com/main.php?t=enc&id=1456. Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  19. ^ a b c d Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay July 15, 2005
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g•mol−1
  21. ^ a b Table 1. Page 133. Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  22. ^ a b Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
  23. ^ a b c d Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network
  24. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g•mol−1
  25. ^ a b Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). "Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 1084–7. PMID 11473464. http://journals.allenpress.com/jrnlserv/?request=get-abstract&issn=0003-9985&volume=125&page=1084. 
  26. ^ a b Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P (July 1995). "Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion". Clin. Chem. 41 (7): 1048. PMID 7600690. 
  27. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  28. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g•mol−1
  29. ^ a b Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  30. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  31. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol
  32. ^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). "Agreement between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate". Emerg Med J 23 (8): 622–4. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMID 16858095. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates--> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  34. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g•mol−1
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  36. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  37. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  38. ^ Reference range (albumin) at GPnotebook
  39. ^ a b Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  40. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  41. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3437151207, 9783437151200. Length: 1288 pages
  43. ^ a b c d GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009
  44. ^ a b Creatine kinase at GPnotebook
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j South London Healthcare NHS Trust
  46. ^ Reference range (amylase) at GPnotebook
  47. ^ a b C-reactive protein at GPnotebook
  48. ^ a b 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  49. ^ a b c d Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  50. ^ Plasma Measurement of D-Dimer Levels for the Early Diagnosis of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Walter Ageno, MD; Sergio Finazzi, MD; Luigi Steidl, MD; Maria Grazia Biotti, MD; Valentina Mera, MD; GianVico Melzi d'Eril, MD; Achille Venco, MD. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2589-2593.
  51. ^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). "D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed". Clinical chemistry 51 (5): 825–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641. http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/51/5/825. 
  52. ^ a b Larsson L, Ohman S (November 1978). "Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism". Clin. Chem. 24 (11): 1962–5. PMID 709830. http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=709830. 
  53. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  54. ^ a b c Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  55. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 849
  56. ^ Reference range for copper at GPnotebook
  57. ^ a b http://www.dlolab.com/PDFs/DLO-OCTOBER-2008-LAB-UPDATE.pdf
  58. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  59. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  60. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  61. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Adëeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  63. ^ a b c d e f Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  64. ^ a b c Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 39, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  65. ^ a b c Reference range (cholesterol) at GPnotebook
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  67. ^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i Derived from values in mmol/l (to mg/dl), by multiplying by 39, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  69. ^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol
  70. ^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  71. ^ ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  72. ^ a b Bjerner J, Høgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al. (June 2008). "Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study". Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 68: 1–12. doi:10.1080/00365510802126836. PMID 18609108. 
  73. ^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
  74. ^ The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006. About.com Health's Disease and Condition
  75. ^ a b 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  76. ^ a b The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006
  77. ^ a b Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer (2002). "LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease". National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/thyroid_LMPG_PDF.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-13.  - see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free UNC Health Care System
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays - Thyroid Disease Manager
  81. ^ a b c d Euthyroid Patient with Elevated Serum Free Thyroxine George van der Watt1,a, David Haarburger1 and Peter Berman
  82. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  83. ^ a b Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children Cioffi Michele; Gazzerro Patrizia; Vietri Maria Teresa; Magnetta Rosa; Durante Adriana; D'Auria Annamaria; Puca Giovanni Alfredo; Molinari Anna Maria ;
  84. ^ a b Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis
  85. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  86. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  87. ^ a b c d MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  88. ^ a b c d e f g h i j reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer. Reto Stricker, Raphael Eberhart, Marie-Christine Chevailler, Frank A. Quinn, Paul Bischof and Rene´ Stricker. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44(7):883–887 PMID: 16776638
  90. ^ a b c d e f New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h i j GPNotebook - reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  92. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  93. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  94. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  95. ^ "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal". WebMD. 09-03-2006. http://children.webmd.com/adrenocorticotropic-hormone?page=2. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  96. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  97. ^ a b c d Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  98. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  99. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  100. ^ a b Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). "Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone". Endocr Pract 12 (2): 137–44. PMID 16690460. 
  101. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  102. ^ a b c d e f Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  103. ^ a b c d Bender, David A. (2003). "Vitamin D". Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80388-8. http://books.google.com.br/books?id=pxEJNs0IUo4C.  Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  104. ^ a b c d Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Dietrich, T., Orav, J.E., Hu, F.B., Zhang, Y., Karlson, E., Dawson-Hughes, B. 2004. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with better lower extremity function in both active and inactive adults 60+ years of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80:752-758.
  105. ^ a b c d Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). "Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population". Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 402–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329. 
  106. ^ a b c d e f g h Letter: Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures. Data are not sufficient to show inefficacy Alex Vasquez, researcher. BMJ 2005;331:108-109 (9 July), doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b.
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h The Doctor's Doctor: Homocysteine
  108. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  109. ^ a b c d e f Central Manchester University Hospitals --> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  110. ^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  111. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  112. ^ a b c d e f g GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  113. ^ a b Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  114. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  115. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  116. ^ a b c For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country
  117. ^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  118. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol, according to Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. 
  119. ^ a b c d Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol (Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. ). 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  120. ^ a b c d e f g h lymphomation.org > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  121. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  122. ^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  123. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652
  124. ^ a b [1] Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  125. ^ a b Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (1983). "Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMID 6402065. 
  126. ^ Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). "Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age". Br Med J 2 (5544): 85–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMID 6020854. 
  127. ^ a b Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). "Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn". J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 25 (3): 274–5. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252. http://www.jpho-online.com/pt/re/jpho/fulltext.00043426-200303000-00019.htm. 
  128. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  129. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  130. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009

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