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Refrigerator van for the transportation of bananas

A refrigerated van (also called a refrigerator van or wagon or car) is a railway goods wagon with cooling equipment. Today they are designated by the International Union of Railways (UIC) as Class I.

Contents

History

The first wagons were cooled with ice that had been cut in winter from special pools or lakes. It was Gustavus Swift who succeed in the winter of 1877 for the first time in developing an efficient cooling system for railway wagons for Chicago businesses and meat producers. This enabled the circulation of air that through the ice and then the entire wagon in order to cool it down. This system was the basis of the success of the Union Stock Yard, the Chicago slaughterhouses. The cooled wagons made it possible for the first time to transport meat from slaughtered animals to the who of the USA.[1] Later manufactured ice was used, but this rapidly gave way to other means of cooling; the simplest was the subsitution of normal (water) ice by dry ice. With the increasing reliability of combustion engines, engine-powered refrigerator vans emerged. There are even vans whose cooling is achieved by the evaporation of liquid gas.

Construction

Compared with machine-cooled vans, ice-cooled wagons have the disadvantage of uneven temperature control, because the cooling effect is only achieved by air circulation. On the other machine-cooled wagons are expensive to maintain and operate, but can be set to the desired temperature and maintained at that temperature throughout the entire journey. They are also better suited for transporting goods at deep-freeze temperatures of around -30 °C, whereas evaporators and ice-cooling is more suited for temperatures around 0 °C. Banana transport wagons with gas evaporators have an optimum internal temperature of +14,4 °C.

In addition to proper refrigerated vans there are covered wagons with thermal insulation and, in some cases, even those equipped with a refrigerating set. These wagens can only operate at temperatures between 0 °C and +20 °C, where a constant internal temperature is desired.

Use

In long-distance trains in the former Eastern Block countries, refrigerator trains were used that comprised a refrigeration plant wagon, a guards van and several refrigerated vans.

Most food is transported by road nowadays due to the shorter journey times. The stock of refrigerated vans owned by railway companies has therefore shrunk considerably. Most refrigerated vans in Europe today are operated by Interfrigo. These wagons are easy to tell apart externally: white vans are normal refrigerated wagons, blue ones with white stripes along the side are machine-cooled refrigerator vans.

Types

Almost all refrigerated vans currently in service are built to UIC standard classes. The two-axled wagons have the same overall dimensions as the covered goods wagons of classes Gbs or Hbfs.

UIC 571-3: Special classes
Class two-axle refrigerated vans four-axle refrigerated vans
Standardwagen Ferry wagons 1st Variant 2nd Variant
Class1) Ibbs / Ibbgs Ibfs / Ibfgs Ias / Iags
Axle base 8.00 m
Bogie pivot pitch 15.80 m 16.80 m
Length over buffers 14.02 m 21.04 m 22.24 m
Loading length, min.1) 10.50 m / 11.00 m 16.40 m / 16.80 m 17.80 m / 18.00 m
Loading area, ca.1) 27 m² / 28 m² 23 m² / 24 m² 42 m² / 43 m² 45 m² / 46 m²
Unladen weight, max.1) 15,5 t / 18.5 t 31.0 t / 35.0 t 32.0 t / 36.0 t
Door height 1.90 m
Door width 2,70 m

1) Refrigerated and insulated vans / Refrigerated vans with cooling equipment

External links

References

  1. ^ [http://www.brandeins.de/ximages/27336_114schlach.pdf History of the Union Stock Yard at www.brandeins.de
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