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Regensburg
Coat of arms of Regensburg
Regensburg is located in Germany
Regensburg
Coordinates 49°1′0″N 12°5′0″E / 49.016667°N 12.083333°E / 49.016667; 12.083333
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Oberpfalz
District Urban district
City subdivisions 18 districts
Lord Mayor Hans Schaidinger (CSU)
Basic statistics
Area 80.76 km2 (31.18 sq mi)
Elevation 326 - 471 m
Population 130,080  (30 September 2006)
 - Density 1,611 /km2 (4,172 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate R
Postal codes 93001–93059
Area code 0941
Website www.regensburg.de
Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Regensburg
State Party  Germany
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 1155
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 2006  (30th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
Reichsstadt Regensburg
Imperial City of Regensburg
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bavaria
1245–1803 Archbishopric of Regensburg
Capital Regensburg
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 - First settled Stone Age
 - Gained Reichsfreiheit¹ 1245
 - City annexed by Bavaria 1486–1496
 - City adopted Reformation 1542
 - Made permanent seat
    of the Reichstag
 
1663–1806
 - Mediatised to new
    Archbishopric²
 
1803 1803
 - Ceded to Bavaria on
    Imperial collapse
 
1806
1: The Bishopric of Regensburg acquired Reichsfreiheit around the same time as the City. Of the three Imperial Abbeys in Regensburg, Niedermünster had already acquired Reichsfreiheit in 1002, St. Emmeram's Abbey did in 1295 and Obermünster in 1315.
2: The Bishopric, the Imperial City and all three Imperial Abbeys were mediatised simultaneously.

Regensburg (German pronunciation: [ˈreːɡnsbʊɐk]; also Ratisbon, Latin: Ratisbona, Austro-Bavarian: ['rɛŋʃbʊɐ̯k], Czech: Řezno, originally Castra Regina) is a city (population 131,000 in 2007) in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate. The large medieval center of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Contents

History

The first settlements in Regensburg date to the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest name given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90 the Romans built a small "cohort-fort" in what would now be the suburbs.

In 179 the Roman fort Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen") was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.[1] It was an important camp on the most northern point of the Danube: it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg's Altstadt ("Old City") east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and West of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that even in late Roman times it was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739.

From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of the Agilolfing ruling family, and in 843, Regensburg was the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. In 1135–1146 a bridge across the Danube, the Steinerne Brücke, was built. This stone bridge opened major international trade routes between Northern Europe and Venice, and this started Regensburg's golden age as a city of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural center of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics.

The remains of the East Tower of Porta Praetoria from Ancient Roman times

In 845, fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there. This was the starting point of Christianization of the Czech people, and the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as consequently they were incorporated in the Roman Catholic and not into the Slavic-Orthodox world. The fact is well remembered, and a memorial plate at St John's Church (the alleged place of the baptism) was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.

In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of Crusaders who attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted.[2]

In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade center before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria in 1486, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1496.

The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542, and its Town Council remained entirely Lutheran until the incorporation of the city into the Principality of Regensburg under Carl von Dalberg in 1803. A minority of the population stayed Roman Catholic and Roman Catholics were excluded from civil rights ("Bürgerrecht"). The town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial diet (Reichstag). So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states" (in terms of the Holy Roman Empire): the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric and the three monasteries mentioned above.

From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire. Thus Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. In 1803 the city lost its status as a free city. It was handed over to the Archbishop of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for Mainz, which had become French under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monsteries and the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg (Fürstentum Regensburg). Dalberg strictly modernised public life. Most importantly he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by the towns of Fulda and Hanau being given to him under the title of "Grand Duke of Frankfurt".

Between April 19 and April 23, 1809, Regensburg was the scene of the Battle of Ratisbon between forces commanded by Baron de Coutaud (the 65th Ligne) and retreating Austrian forces. It was eventually overrun after supplies and ammunition ran out. The city suffered severe damage during the fight with about 150 houses being burnt and others being looted.

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World War II

Regensburg was a WWII Area Headquarters of Military District XIII (German: Wehrkreis XIII) commanded by Lieutenant General Bruno Edler von Kiesling auf Kieslingstein. The headquarters was in command of the military forces of Regensburg, Passau, Straubing, Weiden in der Oberpfalz and Amberg. Regensburg also had a Messerschmitt Bf 109 aircraft factory and an oil refinery, and was bombed on August 17, 1943, by the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission and on February 5, 1945, during the Oil Campaign of World War II. Unlike most other major German cities, Regensburg had little damage from the Strategic bombing during World War II and the nearly intact medieval city center is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The most important cultural loss was the Romanesque church of Obermünster, which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and never rebuilt(the belfry survived). Also Regensburg's slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down to be replaced by newer buildings. When the upswing came to Regensburg in the late 1960s, the mindset had turned in favor of preserving the heritage.

Main sights

A panoramic view of central Regensburg at twilight
Dom—the Regensburg Cathedral
Side view of the Regensburg Cathedral
Photo-textured 3D laser scan image of medieval Regensburg Stone Bridge facing the historic Salzstadl
Kohlenmarkt with Town Hall
City wall tower and gate
St. Emmeram's Abbey, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, a huge palace
Dampfnudel bakery in the Baumburger Turm
Klenze's Walhalla, built in 1842
  • The Dom (Cathedral) is a very interesting example of pure German Gothic and counts as the main work of Gothic architecture in Bavaria. It was founded in 1275 and completed in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished in 1869. The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, including one of Peter Vischer's masterpieces. Adjoining the cloisters are two chapels of earlier date than the cathedral itself, one of which, known as the old cathedral, goes back perhaps to the 8th century. The official choir for the liturgical music at St Peter's Cathedral are the famous Regensburger Domspatzen.
  • The Stone Bridge, built 1135–1146, is a highlight of medieval bridge building. The knights of the 2nd and 3rd crusade used it to cross the Danube on their way to the Holy Land.
  • Remains of the roman fortress' walls including the porta praetoria
  • The Church of St. James, also called Schottenkirche, a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines (Scoti) to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very singular grotesque carvings. It stands next to the Jakobstor, a mediæval city gate named after it.
  • The old parish church of St. Ulrich is a good example of the Transition style of the 13th century, and contains a valuable antiquarian collection. It houses the diocesan museum for religious art.
  • Examples of the Romanesque basilica style are the church of Obermünster, dating from 1010, and the abbey church of St. Emmeram, built in the 13th century, remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached bell tower. The beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in fair preservation. In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • The Adler-Apotheke, located nearby the Regensburg Cathedral, was founded in 1610 and is one of the oldest Pharmacies in Regensburg. Even today you can take a look at the ancient interior and historical vessels.
  • Wealthy patrician families competed against each other to see who would be able to build the highest tower of the city. In 1260, the Goldener Turm (golden tower) was built on Wahlenstraße.
  • The Town Hall, dating in part from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806.
  • A historical interest is also attached to the Gasthof zum Goldenen Kreuz (Golden Cross Inn), where Charles V made the acquaintance of Barbara Blomberg, the mother of Don John of Austria (born 1547).
  • Perhaps the most pleasant modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of Bavaria on the bank of the Danube.
  • Among the public institutions of the city are the public library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for the making of stained glass. The city's Gymnasien (high schools) include an episcopal clerical seminary, and a school of church music.
  • The Botanischer Garten der Universität Regensburg is a modern botanical garden located on the University of Regensburg campus. Herzogspark also contains several small botanical gardens.
  • St. Emmeram's Abbey, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, is a huge castle owned by the powerful Thurn and Taxis family.

Near Regensburg there are two very imposing Classical buildings, erected by Ludwig I of Bavaria as national monuments of German patriotism and greatness. The more imposing of the two is the Walhalla, a costly reproduction of the Parthenon, erected as a Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the Danube at Donaustauf, 15 km to the east. The interior, which is as rich as coloured marble, gilding, and sculptures can make it, contains the busts of more than a hundred German worthies. The second of King Ludwig's buildings is the Befreiungshalle at Kelheim, 30 km above Regensburg, a large circular building which has for its aim the glorification of the heroes of the 1813 War of Liberation.

Geography

Regensburg is situated on the northernmost part of the Danube river at the geological crossroads of four distinct landscapes:

  • to the north and northeast lies the Bavarian Forest (Bayerischer Wald) with granite and gneiss mountains and wide forests.
  • to the east and south-east is the fertile Danube plain (Gäuboden) which are highly cultivated loess plains
  • the south is dominated by the tertiary hill country (Tertiär-Hügelland), a continuation of the alpine foothills
  • to the West is the Franconian Jura (Fränkische Jura)

Economy

BMW operates an automobile production plant in Regensburg; the Regensburg BMW plant produces approximately 1,000 3-series and 1-series BMW vehicles per day. Other major employers are Siemens with its subsidiary Osram Opto-Semiconductors and Siemens VDO (now Continental AG) with the headquarters of its car component business. Infineon, the former Siemens semiconductor branch, has a medium-sized factory in Regensburg. Other well known companies such as Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen, Toshiba or KRONES have built plants in or near Regensburg.

The University of Regensburg and trading also play a major role in Regensburg's economy. Some Hightech-Biotech Companies were also founded in Regensburg and have their headquarters and laboratories in the "BioPark".

CipSoft GmbH is an video game company which is at Regensburg.

Transport

Regensburg can easily be reached from Munich by train, which takes about 1.5 hours. The city lies also on two motorways, the A3 from Cologne and Frankfurt to Vienna, and the A93 from Munich to Dresden. The city is also connected by "Bundestraßen", namely the B8, B15, and B16. The local transport is carried out by an intensive bus network.

Notable residents

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Regensburg is twinned with:

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests". BeerAdvocate. http://beeradvocate.com/news/stories_read/668. Retrieved 2006-06-02.  
  2. ^ Herald of Destiny by Berel Wein. New York: Shaar Press, 1993, page 144.
  3. ^ "Who is Aberdeen twinned with?". Aberdeen City Council. http://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/acci/web/includes/template/ShowFAQ.asp?qid=8962. Retrieved 2008-03-02.  


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Regensburg [1], in Bavaria, Germany, is one Germany's oldest towns, founded by the Romans in 179 A.D. Today Regensburg is a prosperous city of about 150,000 inhabitants, 3 universities and many landmarks, most dated to the Middle Ages (e.g. the Cathedral of St. Peter, Old City Hall and Imperial Diet, and the Stone Bridge). Since July 2006 the old city of Regensburg has been a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Regensburg cathedral
Regensburg cathedral
  • around 5000 B.C. neolithic settlement in the area of the town
  • 1st millennium B.C. Celtic settlement, „Radasbona“, „Ratasbona“ or „Ratisbona"
  • 1st century A.D. Roman Fortress "Kastell Kumpfmühl", destroyed around 170 A.D. by Germanic tribes
  • 179 A.D. The Romans built the Fortress "Castra Regina" at the most northernmost end of the Danube river.
  • 739 A bishopric is established in Regensburg. Several older cathedrals are destroyed before construction of the present one begins in 1273, taking nearly 600 years to complete.
  • 1146 The Steinerne Brücke (Stone Bridge) is completed. Trade connections to Paris, Venice and even Novgorod have made Regensburg a prosperous city.
  • 1245 Having been one of the largest German cities during the Middle Ages, Regensburg becomes a free imperial city.
  • 1663–1806: Regensburg is the seat of the Perpetual Imperial Diet (Reichstag) of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
  • 1806: Holy Roman Empire dissolved in Regensburg during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • 1995: 750th anniversary of free imperial city status.

Get in

By plane

Within 100 km there are two international airports, both linked by public transport systems or motorway connections:

  • Munich (IATA: MUC) By road via autobahn A93/A9 or by bus 635 from the airport to Freising and train from Freising to Regensburg Hauptbahnhof.
  • Nuremberg (IATA: NUE) via autobahn A3

Transfer time to both airports is about 45 min up to 1 hour.

By train

Regensburg Hauptbahnhof (main train station) is located in the city centre and splendidly connected to the German rail network by ICE-, EC-, and IC-trains:

International connections:

National Connections (hourly service):

The main station has a traveler-friendly infrastructure including several restaurants, a tourist office and a Deutsche Bahn ticket and travel agency.

By car

Regensburg is easily accessible via the German autobahn road network:

There are also national highway connections to:

  • B8: Nuremberg - Neumarkt - Regensburg - Straubing - Passau
  • B15: Weiden - Schwandorf - Regensburg - Landshut
  • B16: Ingolstadt - Regensburg - Cham

By barge

Regensburg is located on the Danube river leading to Vienna and the Black Sea. Via the Main-Danube Canal Regensburg is connected to the Rhine.

Get around

Regensburg has a comprehensive public bus network. Buses are frequent (10 minute intervals during peak hours) and run until around midnight every day. The centre of the bus network is the "Albertstrasse" station just opposite the train station. The main thing to keep in mind is that the university and residential areas lie south of the rail tracks, the old town lies north of the the rail tracks and ends at the Danube river.

The city centre is reasonable compact and mostly pedestrianised, so is best explored on foot. There is also an "Altstadtbus" that travels around the old city centre, and from there to and from the train station.

Driving in or into the city centre is very difficult, but anywhere else it's no problem to go around by car. Boat trips are available along the river Danube to explore nearby tourist attractions, such as the Walhalla.

See

The main attraction of Regensburg is its excellently preserved medieval city centre with the cathedral and the stone bridge being the highlights. As one of the few cities in Germany largely undamaged during the Second World War, Regensburg boasts the largest preserved medieval city centre in Germany. It is sometimes called "the northernmost city of Italy" due to the lively places and streets with lovely outdoor cafes during summer, as well as the large number of Italian-style medieval merchant houses and towers. The historic centre lies next to the river Danube (Donau), and crossing the medieval stone bridge into the town provides a perfect entrance to the city.

  • Take one of the excellent guided tours such as "Stadtmaus" tours.
  • Visit a mass in the cathedral on Sunday morning when the famous boys' choir "Domspatzen" is singing.

Buy

Regensburg made its fortune trading in salt, however it is unlikely that you will be taking this home as a souvenir. Regensburg has many centuries worth of old breweries, so perhaps some local beer, or perhaps a litre Stein (glass) would be a good purchase. Try some "Händlmeier Senf", the typical sweet mustard that is usually served with white sausages. If you need to kill some time at the train station, the footpath leading across the railway tracks also connects the train station to a shopping mall.

Eat

Regensburg has a superb variety of places to eat, from snacks, to traditional brewery fare, past international cuisine to high-class restaurants. There is sure to be something to please every taste. One famous place is the "Wurstkuchl" [2], just at the Steinerne Bruecke (Stone Bridge), thought to be the oldest fast food restaurant in the world. There is a small beer-garden right at the river bank where you can enjoy the sausage specialties served by waiters in medieval dress. For Bavarian specialties, try the "Kneitinger" on Arnulfsplatz.

Drink

Although some wine is still grown on the river banks in Regensburg, its main drink is surely beer. The city boasts 3 functioning breweries and 2 brew pubs, producing a variety of beer styles, from lighter Pils to heavy Dunkels; Wheat beer (Weizen) is also locally made. A typical pub to visit would be the "Kneitinger" at the Arnulfsplatz 3. Also the beergardens near the Danube "Alte Linde" and "Spital Garten", both reachable from the Stone Bridge, offer a perfect way to taste Regensburg-brewed beer. The Bischofshof beer can be tasted next to the cathedral in the court of the "Bischofshof", where the brewery used to be.

The beer from the Thurn and Taxis brand is primarily no longer brewed in Regensburg, but an exception is the Thurn and Taxis brew pub "Fürstliches Brauhaus" in the Waffnergasse 6.

Sleep

There are a large number of hotels in the city. There is also a youth hostel and campsite on the "Oberer Whörd", an island in the middle of the Danube, just north of the city centre. Contact the tourist office on the Alter Rathausplatz for help finding the accommodation you need.

  • Brook Lane Hostel in Obere Bachgasse is the typical backpackers place [3]

Get out

Munich, Bavaria's capital is 90 minutes away by train. Other historic cities of Passau, Landshut and Straubing make good day trips. Danube Gorge and Kloster Weltenburg.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Regensburg

Plural
-

Regensburg

  1. a city in Bavaria, Germany, also called Ratisbon

Translations


German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Regensburg

Wikipedia de

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Regensburg n.

  1. Regensburg, Ratisbon (city in southern Germany)

Simple English

Regensburg

Regensburg
Coordinates 49°1′0″N 12°5′0″E / 49.016667°N 12.083333°E / 49.016667; 12.083333
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Oberpfalz
District Urban district
City subdivisions 18 districts
Lord Mayor Hans Schaidinger (CSU)
Basic statistics
Area 80.76 km2 (31.18 sq mi)
Elevation 326 - 471 m
Population 130,080  (30 September 2006)
 - Density 1,611 /km2 (4,172 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate R
Postal codes 93001 – 93059
Area code 0941
Website www.regensburg.de
Reichsstadt Regensburg
Imperial City of Regensburg

City-state

1245 – 1803

Capital Regensburg
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 - First settled Stone Age
 - Gained Reichsfreiheit¹ 1245
 - City annexed by Bavaria 148696
 - City adopted Reformation 1542
 - Made permanent seat
    of the Reichstag
 
16631806
 - Mediatised to new
    Archbishopric²
 
1803
 - Ceded to Bavaria on
    Imperial collapse
 
1806
1: The Bishopric of Regensburg acquired Reichsfreiheit around the same time as the City. Of the three Imperial Abbeys in Regensburg, Niedermünster had already acquired Reichsfreiheit in 1002, St. Emmeram's Abbey did in 1295 and Obermünster in 1315.
2: The Bishopric, the Imperial City and all three Imperial Abbeys were mediatised simultaneously.

Regensburg (Czech Řezno) is a city in the south of Germany, in the east of the state of Bavaria. It has about 130,000 inhabitants and a university.


frr:Regensbörj


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