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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gustaf Mannerheim as regent of Finland (sitting) and his adjutants (from the left) Lt.Col. Lilius, Cap. Kekoni, Lt. Gallen-Kallela, Ensign Rosenbröijer.

A regent, from the Latin regens "that who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state (ruling or not) because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated.[1]

In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out. This was the case in Finland and Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944.

In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795), kings were elective, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Polish Roman Catholic Primate who served as the regent, termed the "interrex" (Latin: ruler "between kings" as in ancient Rome).

Currently there are only two ruling Regencies in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein and the Malaysian constitutive state of Terengganu (see below).

Contents

Regents in various current monarchies

It should be noted that those who held a regency briefly, for example during surgery, are not necessarily listed, particularly if they performed no official acts; this list is also not complete, presumably not even for all monarchies included. The list includes some figures who acted as regent, even if they did not themselves hold the title of regent.

Belgium

Japan

Jordan

  • Prince Nayeff bin Abdullah from the 20th July to 5 September 1951, due to the schizophrenia of King Talal, who was in a Swiss mental hospital.
    • A regency council (Ibrahim Hashim, Suleiman Toukan, Abdul Rahman Rusheidat and chairing Queen-mother Zein al-Sharaf) took over after the king's forced abdication and remained in office from 4 June 1952 to 2 May 1953, until King Hussein came of age.
  • Crown Prince Hassan, from 4 July 1998 to 19 January 1999 while his brother King Hussein was undergoing cancer treatments.

Liechtenstein

Luxembourg

Malaysia and its constitutive monarchies

Terengganu

  • Tengku Muhammad Ismail (eight-years of age) co-reigns with the three-member Regency Advisory Council (Majlis Penasihat Pemangku Raja). His father, Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin the Sultan of Terengganu was elected as 13th King of Malaysia. The Malaysian constitution does not allow a simultaneous reign as both the King of Malaysia and as Monarch of the King's native state (deemed absent on the State throne). Sultan Mizan was crowned as King on 13 December 2006 and the prince as the Regent (Pemangku Raja) of Terengganu effective on the same date.

Monaco

Netherlands

Norway

Oman

  • for the minor Hami Sa`id (II) ibn Sultan (b. 1790 – succeeded 20 November 1804 – d. 19 Oct 1856) : 20 November 1804 – 31 July 1806 Badr ibn Sayf (d. 1806)
  • for Sultan Turki ibn Sa`id (b. 1832 – succeeded 30 January 1871 – died 4 Jun 1888) : August – December 1875 Abdul-Aziz ibn Said – (b. 1850 – d. 1907)

Qatar

  • H.E. Shaikh 'Abdu'llah bin Jasim Al-Thani was proclaimed as regent when his father Sheikh Qasim ibn Muhammad Al Thani became incapacitated, 13 May 1913; succeeded on his death, 17 July 1913

Saudi Arabia

Spain

Sweden

Thailand

  • for the minor Chulalongkorn (Rama V) (18 October 1868 – 23 October 1910) : 18 October 1868 – 16 November 1873 Chao Praya Siri Suriyawongse (d. 1882)
  • for Prajadhipok (Rama VII) (26 November 1925 – 2 March 1935; in self-imposed exile from 12 Jan 1934) : 12 January 1934 – 2 March 1935 Prince Naritsaranuwatiwong Chitchalerm
  • for Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) (2 March 1935 – 9 June 1946; in Switzerland to 5 December 1945) :
    • 2 March 1935 – 12 August 1935 Prince Oscar Anuvatana (president of Council of Regency)
    • 12 August 1935 – 1944 Prince Aditya Dibabha (president of Council of Regency)
    • 1944 – 9 June 1946 Pridi Banomyong –Regent
  • for present king Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) (b. 9 June 1946) :
    • 16 June 1946 – 1946 Prince Rangsit, Prince of Jainart –Regent (from 1947, president of Supreme Council of State)
    • 1946 – 5 May 1950 Prince Dhanivat Bidyalabh Bridhyakon "Prince Dhani" –Regent (president of Supreme Council of State)
    • 22 October 1956 – 7 December 1956 Queen Sirikit -Regent

United Kingdom and its constitutive realms

England

Scotland

Regents in various former Monarchies

The same notes apply; inclusion in this list reflects the political reality, regardless of claims to the throne.

Afghan monarchies

Before the 1881 unification, there were essentially four rulers' capitals: Kabul, Herat, Qandahar and Peshawar (the last now in Pakistan); all their rulers belonged to the Abdali tribal group, whose name was changed to Dorrani with Ahmad Shah Abdali. They belong either to the Saddozay segment of the Popalzay clan (typically styled padshah, king) or to the Mohammadzay segment of the Barakzay clan (typically with the style Amir, in full Amir al-Mo´menin "Leader of the Faithful"). The Mohammadzay also furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counselors, who served occasionally as (Minister-)regents, identified with the epithet Mohammadzay.

Brazil

  • John, Prince Regent, was responsible for elevating Brazil to the status of Kingdom in 1815. One year later, he was acclaimed King of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
  • Pedro I, Prince Regent, was responsible for declaring the independence of Brazil, in 1822, during his regency (1820–1822), after his father, John VI, returned to Portugal. Some months later, he would be acclaimed Emperor of Brazil.
  • Maria Leopoldina, Empress consort of Brazil, acted as Empress Regent while her husband, Pedro I, was away – specially during the war against Uruguay.
  • Provisional triumviral regency – from 7 April to 18 June 1831, comprised José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos, marquess de Caravelas, Nicolau Pereira de Campos Vergueiro and Francisco de Lima e Silva, baron of Barra Grande, was formed to control the country after the abdication of Peter I.
  • Permanent triumviral regency – from 18 June 1831 to 12 October 1835, comprised the baron of Barra Grande as well as José da Costa Carvalho, marquess of Monte Alegre, and João Bráulio Muniz.
  • Diogo António Feijó – from 12 October 1835 to 19 September 1837, during what was considered the advance of the Liberal Party
  • Pedro de Araújo Lima, Marquis of Olinda – from 1838 to 1840, during what was considered the retaken of the Conservative Party.
  • Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, was Princess Regent of the Empire of Brazil three times (1871–1872; 1876–1877; 1887–1888) while her father travelled abroad. During her last regency, she signed the abolition of slavery in Brazil (known as the "Lei Áurea", or "Golden Law"), on 13 May 1888, whereby Isabel got the sobriquet Isabel the Redeemer. For the act of signing the Golden Law, she was awarded the Golden Rose by Pope Leo XIII.

Bulgaria

  • Stefan Stambolov, during the absence of Prince Alexander Battenberg from the Bulgarian throne between 28 August 1886 and 3 September 1886 and the vacancy of the throne between 7 September 1886 and 14 August 1887.
  • Prince Kyril of Preslav, during the minority of his dead brother (Boris III)'s son, Simeon II (1943–1944).

China

Egypt

Ethiopia

  • Menen Liben Amede from 1831 during the minority of her son Ali II of Yejju
  • Ras Tessema Nadew in 1913 during the minority of Iyasu who would have been crowned as Iyasu V
  • Tafari Makonnen from 1916 to 1931 during the reign of a female, Empress Zewditu (Queen of Kings, Negus Negest). Upon her death, the regent himself ascended the throne and was crowned as Emperor Haile Selassie I (King, Negus)

Finland

After the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia, the throne of the Grand Duke of Finland was vacant and according to the constitution of 1772, a regent was installed by the Finnish Parliament during the first two years of Finnish independence, before the country was declared a republic.

France

Greece

German monarchies

Anhalt

Baden

Bavaria

Brunswick

Hanover

Hesse-Kassel

  • Electoral Prince Frederick William (1831–1847), due to the incapacity of his father, Elector William II

Lippe

Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Prussia

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

  • Prince Ernst of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1900–1905), during the minority of his cousin Duke Charles Edward

Saxe-Meiningen

  • Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe (1803–1821), during the minority of her son, Duke Bernard II

Saxe-Weimar

Waldeck

  • Emma of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1845–1852), during the minority of her son, Prince George Victor

Hawaii

  • Queen Kaʻahumanu, between 1824–1832 during the rule of the infant Kamehameha III; she was also Kuhina Nui (co-ruler), regent, of Kamehameha II
  • Elizabeth Kīnaʻu, between 5 June 1832–17 March 1833 after Kaʻahumanu's death and before Kamehameha III became 20 years old[2]

Hungary

Iceland

India

Vakataka Kingdom

Madurai

Travancore

Both before and during the British raj (colonial rule), most of India was ruled by several hundred native princely houses, many of which have known regencies, under the raj subject to British approval

Iraq

In the short-lived Hashemite kingdom, there were three regencies in the reign of the third and last king Faysal II (b. 1935 – d. 1958; also Head of the 'Arab Union', a federation with the Hashemite sister-kingdom Jordan, from 14 February 1958) :

  • 4 April 1939 – 1 April 1941 Abdul Ilah (1st time) (b. 1913 – d. 1958)
  • 1 April 1941 – 1 June 1941 Sharaf ibn Rajih al-Fawwaz (b. 1880 – d. 1955)
  • 1 June 1941 – 2 May 1953 Abdul Ilah (2nd time)

Italian former principalities

Parma

  • Louise of Artois (1854–1859), during the minority of her son duke Robert I.

Savoy

Korea

Mongolia

Portugal

Romania

Russia

Serbia

Yugoslavia

Other uses

In the ancient independent miniature republic of San Marino, a landlocked enclave within central Italy, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually (they serve a six-month term) as joint heads of state and of government.

Occasionally, the term regent refers to positions lower than the ruler of a country.

  • In the Dutch republic of the United Provinces, the members of the ruling class, not formally hereditary but de facto patricians, were known collectively as regenten (the Dutch plural for regent)
  • In the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized 'state' as a regentschap (see that term). Consequently, in the successor state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English to mean a bupati (local government official).
  • Also used in private spheres, for instance, some university managers in North America are called regents, or the members of certain governing bodies of lofty institutions, such as the national banks, in France and (imitating) Belgium.
  • Again in Belgium and France, but far lower on the social ladder, (Régént in French; or in Dutch) Regent is the official title of a secondary school teacher of the lower years (equivalent to junior high school), who does not require a college degree but is trained solely for education in a specialized écôle normale = normal school.
  • A management board for a college or university; this is commonly stated as: "Board of Regents".
  • In the Philippines, specifically, the University of Santo Tomas, the Father Regent, who must be a Dominican priest and is often also a teacher, serves as the College/Faculty/Institute's Spiritual Head and the "owner" of that college, faculty or institution as the Dominican representative. They also form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university.
  • In the Turkey and Syria, the term vekil can be used for a type of regent

See also

Sources and references

  1. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "A person appointed to administer a State because the Monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."
  2. ^ "Kuhina Nui 1819-1864". Centennial Exhibit. State of Hawaii Department of Accounting and General Services. http://hawaii.gov/dags/archives/centennial/kunina-nui. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Regent [1] is a small farming community in Hettinger County, in the southwest quadrant of North Dakota. The population of Regent is only about 250 people. It was founded in 1910. The surrounding area is a popular fishing and hunting destination. Longitude: W102.61, Latitude: N46.44.

Grasshopper sculpture, Enchanted Highway, ND
Grasshopper sculpture, Enchanted Highway, ND

Get in

Regent is accessible by automobile via the Enchanted Highway heading south, about 30 miles from the Gladstone exit #72 on I-94. It can also be reached by state highway 21, between New England (North Dakota) and Mott

Get around

In this wide open country, the most popular local transportation is the pickup truck. Local guides are available for hunters and fishers.

See

The Enchanted Highway (Official Site) is a rural road that is adorned with large-scale metal sculptures related to the local area: Deer Crossing, Giant Grasshoppers, the Tin Family, Theodore Roosevelt Rides Again, Phaesant Family, and Geese in Flight, by Gary Geff. Coming soon: Fisherman's Dream.

  • Fishing on Larson Lake, Indian Creek Dam, Castle Rock Dam, Blickensderfer Dam, Mott Watershed Dam and Cannonball River for pike, walleye, perch, bluegill, trout, largemouth and smallmouth bass. State Fish & Game Site
  • Hunting for Ringneck Phaesant, Sharptail Grouse, Hungarian Partridge. Also: Antelope, Coyote, Fox, Jack Rabbit, Whitetail and Mule Deer, Mink, Beaver, Muskrat, Raccoon, and Skunk (about $75-125/day)
  • The Regent Consumers Co-Op for groceries and general supplies. Tel: (701)563-4489
  • The Enchanted Highway Gift Shop is your source of local souvenirs.
  • Regent Cafe on Main Street. Tel. (701) 563-4485
  • Cannonbal Saloon Tel. (701) 563-4485
  • Prairie Vista B&B, Box 211, Regent, ND 58650 at the end of "The Enchanted Highway". Ranch style home with 7 bedrooms, 3 baths, sauna, indoor swimming pool. Tel: (701) 563-4542. Fax: (701) 563-4519.
  • T Bar L Lodging [2] - temporary accommodation houses available in Hettinger, ND. Tel (701) 567-2129
  • Niemeyer's Ringneck Lodge 9-bed lodging in Mott, ND, hunting packages available. Tel: (701) 824-2372. niemeyer69@hotmail.com
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Noun

Singular
Regent

Plural
Regents

Regent (plural Regents)

  1. (British) a member of the British Royal Family who rules in a de facto fashion because the official king or queen is unable to do so for whatever reason.

Proper noun

Singular
Regent

Plural
-

Regent

  1. (Should we delete(+) this sense?) (British) King George IV of the United Kingdom during the Regency period.

Anagrams


Simple English

]]

A regent is a position of government in a country where there is a monarchy (like a king or queen). He (or she) is an "acting king", and does the job of a king where the real king is either too young, sick or cannot do what he is meant to for some other reason.

They may also be voted in if there are no monarchs in line to the throne, for instance, if the current king or queen does not have any relatives when s/he dies.

Regency period

The Regency period was nine years from 1811 to 1820 in Great Britain. The future George IV of the United Kingdom was Prince Regent during the long illness of George III. He was crowned after George III's death in 1820. The Regency era was notable for its excesses, its political uncertainty, and its style. Beau Brummell, Lord Byron and the architect John Nash were important figures.

The era saw the final defeat of Napoleon. A rapid growth in population led to the growth of criminal rookeries in cities like London. It was a great period for architecture.








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