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Reggae
Stylistic origins R&B • Jazz • Blues • Mento • Calypso • Ska • Rocksteady • Soul
Cultural origins Late 1960s Jamaica, especially Kingston
Typical instruments Bass - Drums - Guitar - Organ - Brass instrument - Melodica
Mainstream popularity Early 1970s onward, varied
Derivative forms Dancehall - Dub
Subgenres
Roots reggae • Lovers rock • Reggae en Español
(complete list)
Fusion genres
Reggaeton • Reggae fusion • Seggae • 2 Tone • Samba reggae
Regional scenes
Africa - Australia - Nigeria - Panama
Other topics
Music of Jamaica - List of reggae musicians
.Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s.^ First held in 1998, the event has honoured several pioneers of reggae music including Seaga, Jamaica’s fifth prime minister; Theophilus Beckford; Marcia Griffiths; Toots Hibbert and Leroy Sibbles.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

^ In this same vein, Lion of Judah's DJ Frost revolutionized gospel reggae with the genre's first various artist soundsystem styled mixtape, "Streetlight".
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Prince Buster and U-Roy of Jamaica brought Ska to the UK in the early 1960s where it has been a major inspiration to many bands, such as the Specials, Madness, UB40 and many other underground music acts from dance to reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.While sometimes used in a broader sense to refer to most types of Jamaican music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style that originated following on the development of ska and rocksteady.^ Ska and Rocksteady are 1960's precursors of reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ As time passed Ska slowed the beat, lost it's brass sound and morphed into "Rocksteady", performed with fewer musicians and using more harmony vocals.

^ Rootz Magazine Presents Roots Reggae & Kulcha With reggae music, interviews, reviews, Bob Marley and more Visit IrieJamaicanCafe.com .
  • The Reggae Boyz News -Jamaica Football 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.thereggaeboyz.com [Source type: General]

Reggae is based on a rhythmic style characterized by accents on the off-beat, known as the skank. .Reggae is normally slower than ska but faster than rocksteady.^ Ska and Rocksteady are 1960's precursors of reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, Early Reggae, Roots Reggae, Dub, Dancehall, Modern Roots, Ragga and a whole heap more, including informative chat and enthusiastic sillyness.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reggae : The Rough Guide 100% Dynamite!: Ska, Soul, Rocksteady, & Funk in Jamaica [Amazon US] 100% Dynamite explores the links between Reggae, Jazz, Funk and Soul.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Reggae usually accents the second and fourth beat in each bar, with the rhythm guitar also either emphasising the third beat or holding the chord on the second beat until the fourth is played.^ The music of ska is known for the placement of the accented guitar and piano rhythms on the upbeats.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ While the most important component, the rhythm guitar, Played two strokes to th beat, instead of the one found in Rock Steady.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Other notable differences are the Caribbean dialects/accents (that occasionally slip out), and the major chord reggae rhythms that are thrown in here and there.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.It is mainly this "third beat", its speed and the use of complex bass lines that differentiated reggae from rocksteady, although later styles incorporated these innovations separately.^ As time passed Ska slowed the beat, lost it's brass sound and morphed into "Rocksteady", performed with fewer musicians and using more harmony vocals.

^ Rocksteady: This style is a pit stop located exactly half way on the drive from Ska to Reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Dynamics and Federal, and later Randy's were the main studios for all the independent producers, these musicians in whatever combination, took the speed of Ska and the electric bass of Rock Steady and came up with a sound that conquered the world.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Etymology

.The 1969 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a recently estab.^ This is the definitive dictionary of Jamaican English.
  • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dictionary of Jamaican English.
  • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row".[1]
.Reggae as a musical term first appeared in print with the 1968 rocksteady hit "Do the Reggay" by The Maytals, but it was already being used in Kingston, Jamaica as the name of a slower dance and style of rocksteady.^ Dancehall: A name that is used to designate not only a musical style but also a place.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Around 1968 the influences of Rastafari and Africanism along with political and social unrest in Jamaica gave birth to "Reggae", with a slower, stripped-down, less "Pop-like" sound often with accents added on the 3rd beat.

^ Reggae's introduction, in Jamaica, is dated to the song 'Do the Reggay' (1968) by Toots (Hibbert) and the Maytals, but its pre-history lies in a fusion of the indigenous calypso form 'mento' with US rhythm and blues, jump blues and shuffles, emerging first (ca 1957) as the upbeat, largely instrumental, horn-dominated 'ska' and then (ca 1966) in the slower, subtler songs of 'rock steady.'

[2] As Reggae artist Derrick Morgan stated:
.We didn't like the name rock steady, so I tried a different version of "Fat Man". It changed the beat again, it used the organ to creep.^ While the most important component, the rhythm guitar, Played two strokes to th beat, instead of the one found in Rock Steady.
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^ He had a big hit for the Ska Beat label with 'Rudy A Message To You' in 1967, followed by an album 'Rock Steady With Dandy'.
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.Bunny Lee, the producer, liked that.^ He was the mixer of choice for producers like Lee Perry, Augustus Pablo and Bunny Lee as his customers in the mid to late 70s.

^ By late 1971 he was working with producers such as Bunny Lee, Lee Perry, Glen Brown, Augustus Pablo and "Prince" Tony Robinson.

^ Bunny Lee once said of him “He could mix music outta the mistakes people bring him – like every spoil is a style to King Tubby.

.He created the sound with the organ and the rhythm guitar.^ Jackie Jackson - bass, Winston Grennan - drums, Rad Bryan - rhythm Guitar, Hux Brown - lead guitar, Winston Wright - organ, Gladstone Anderson - piano.
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^ Alva Lewis - lead/rhythm guitar, Glen Adams - organ.
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^ Bass, Drums, Rhythm Guitar, Lead Guitar, Organ and Piano.
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.It sounded like ‘reggae, reggae' and that name just took off.^ If old school reggae is the root, dancehall is an offshoot--a rebellious branch that every day seems to sound less and less like its parent and more and more like Hip Hop.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ People just like you make Reggae News on Topix better every day.
  • Reggae News - Topix 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]
  • Reggae News - Topix 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ Finally, King Tubby , well if you like Reggae you have heard his name before.

Bunny Lee started using the world
[sic] and soon all the musicians were saying ‘reggae, reggae, reggae.[2]
.Reggae historian Steve Barrow credits Clancy Eccles with altering the Jamaican patois word streggae ("loose woman") into reggae.^ By the time of the reggae era, Clancy Eccles had been in the business in one form or another for the best part of 12 years.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ As far as Jamaican record-buyers are concerned, the word reggae was coined on a 1968 Pyramid dance single, "Do the Reggay (sic)," by Toots and the Maytals.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ The Rough Guide to Reggae by Steve Barrow [Amazon.com] Finally, a comprehensive guide covering the entire span of Jamaican music, from the 1950s mento and R&B through dub, dancehall and ragga.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

[2] However, Toots Hibbert said:
.There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called 'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say 'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy.^ Lee Perry “As a producer, there is none in the world… If you put him against producers like Quincy Jones and those guys he make them look like rubbish.

^ In the Jamaican sense of the word, a DJ is an MC or rapper, whereas the DJ is called (music) selector in Jamaica.
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^ I usually don’t like sitting that far from the stage but the sound was great up there and we could see really well.

The girls would say that about the men too. .This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said, 'OK man, let's do the reggay.'^ It will be a blast… But let’s start from the beginning: a couple of friends stopped by my place at about 7 and we hung out for a while getting ready for the show.

^ While the most important component, the rhythm guitar, Played two strokes to th beat, instead of the one found in Rock Steady.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Said Trinity is actually one of my favorite DJ’s, I really like his harsh, scratchy voice, which is perfect for this kind of music.

It was just something that came out of my mouth. So we just start singing 'Do the reggay, do the reggay' and created a beat. People tell me later that we had given the sound it's name. Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records.
[3]
Bob Marley is said to have claimed that the word reggae came from a Spanish term for "the king's music".[4] The liner notes of To the King, a compilation of Christian gospel reggae, suggest that the word reggae was derived from the Latin regi meaning "to the king".

Precursors

Music of Jamaica
Anglophone Caribbean music
Anguilla - Antigua and Barbuda - Bahamas - Barbados - Bermuda - Caymans - Grenada - Jamaica - Montserrat - St. Kitts and Nevis - St. Vincent and the Grenadines - Trinidad and Tobago - Turks and Caicos - Virgin Islands
Other Caribbean music
Aruba and the Dutch Antilles - Cuba - Dominica - Dominican Republic - Haiti - Hawaii - Martinique and Guadeloupe - Puerto Rico - St. Lucia - United States - United Kingdom
.Although strongly influenced by traditional African and Caribbean music, as well as by American rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the progressive development of ska and rocksteady in 1960s Jamaica.^ The origins of Reggae can be found in traditional African Caribbean music as well as US Rhythm & Blues .
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Combining elements of traditional mento and calypso with an American jazz and rhythm and blues sound, it was a precursor in Jamaica to rocksteady and later reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Ska and Rocksteady are 1960's precursors of reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Ska music first arose in the studios of Jamaica over the years 1959 and 1961, itself a development of the earlier mento genre.^ Ska: Popular music originating in Jamaica in the 1960s, having elements of rhythm and blues, jazz, and calypso and marked by a fast tempo and a strongly accented offbeat.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to that many of Jamaica's top session players cut their teeth at Studio One's School Of Music.
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^ In effect, they’re seeking sponsorship similar to the US$500,000 (J$44.5 million) that was gifted to the annual Jamaica Jazz Festival earlier this year.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

[2] .Ska is characterized by a walking bass line, accentuated guitar or piano rhythms on the offbeat, and sometimes jazz-like horn riffs.^ The music of ska is known for the placement of the accented guitar and piano rhythms on the upbeats.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Jackie Jackson - bass, Winston Grennan - drums, Rad Bryan - rhythm Guitar, Hux Brown - lead guitar, Winston Wright - organ, Gladstone Anderson - piano.
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^ Dubwise: A musical section that is heavy on drum and bass and dub effects with very sparse rhythm (keys and guitar).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Aside from its massive popularity amidst the Jamaican rude boy fashion, it had gained a large following among Mods in Britain by 1964. According to Barrow, rude boys began deliberately playing their ska records at half speed, preferring to dance slower as part of their tough image.^ Mrs Pottinger had a preference for The Hippy Boys then, even recording an instrumental album with them.
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^ He has recorded a few tunes over the years and his outings still remain popular with the reggae massive.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Ska is a form of Jamaican music that began in the late 1950s.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.By the mid-1960s, many musicians had begun playing the tempo of ska slower, while emphasizing the walking bass and offbeats.^ Guitarist Ernest Ranglin said that "the offbeat guitar scratching that he and other musicians played was referred to as 'skat!
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Ska: Popular music originating in Jamaica in the 1960s, having elements of rhythm and blues, jazz, and calypso and marked by a fast tempo and a strongly accented offbeat.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1960s it was overshadowed by ska and reggae, but it is still played in Jamaica, especially in areas frequented by tourists.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.The slower sound was named rocksteady, after a single by Alton Ellis.^ Rocksteady - Alton Ellis & The Flames 45.

.This phase of Jamaican music lasted only until 1968, when musicians began to slow the tempo of the music again, and added yet more effects.^ As time passed Ska slowed the beat, lost it's brass sound and morphed into "Rocksteady", performed with fewer musicians and using more harmony vocals.

^ Rocksteady lasted until the emergence of reggae in 1968.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ D ancehall quartet T.O.K. began filming the music video for their acclaimed single, Guardian Angel , during the last leg of their United States tour .
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

This led to the creation of reggae.

History

Bob Marley in 1980.
.The shift from rocksteady to reggae was illustrated by the organ shuffle pioneered by Bunny Lee, and featured in the transitional singles "Say What You're Saying" (1967) by Clancy Eccles, and "People Funny Boy" (1968) by Lee "Scratch" Perry.^ When he joined Lee Gopthal's Trojan label in 1968, he quickly adapted to the new reggae beat .
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^ Dave Barker made a great album for Lee Perry 'Prisoner Of Love' where you can hear him singing, and the other one was with Ansel Collins.
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^ Bunny Lee once said of him “He could mix music outta the mistakes people bring him – like every spoil is a style to King Tubby.

.The Pioneers' 1967 track "Long Shot Bus' Me Bet" has been identified as the earliest recorded example of the new rhythm sound that became known as reggae.^ The first couple of tunes for Beverley's and producer Leslie Kong were not that successful, then they recorded 'Long Shot Kick The Bucket'.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Well everyone involved in the creation of the reggae sound that was to emerge in 1967 all had experience of the business, some back to it very creation.
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^ I have been a long time fan of the dub-vocalist Tikiman from Caribbean Island of Dominica, especially his collaboration with the Berlin-minimalists Rhythm and Sound.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

[5] .Early 1968 was when the first genuine reggae records came into being: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall and "No More Heartaches" by The Beltones.^ Nanny Goat - Larry & Alvin Marshall 54.

^ As far as Jamaican record-buyers are concerned, the word reggae was coined on a 1968 Pyramid dance single, "Do the Reggay (sic)," by Toots and the Maytals.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Mark Mohr (AKA Tansoback) was the first to record gospel dancehall in the early 90's with Christafari.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.American artist Johnny Nash's 1968 hit "Hold Me Tight" has been credited with first putting reggae in the American listener charts.^ In this same vein, Lion of Judah's DJ Frost revolutionized gospel reggae with the genre's first various artist soundsystem styled mixtape, "Streetlight".
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ These were massive international hits-, instead they ended up holding him back in some strange way, forever entrapped in the reggae era.
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^ They started listening to reggae first by listening to, of course, Bob Marley, then to the two records of the Mystic Revelation of Rastafari.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

[6]. .Also in 1968 was "The Israelites" by Desmond Dekker of Jamaica.^ Israelites - Desmond Dekker & the Aces    3.

.Reggae was starting to surface in rock music; an example of a rock song featuring reggae rhythm is 1968's "Ob-La-Di , Ob-La-Da."^ Every era of the music always starts with a change of the beat or rhythm.
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^ Today the term "Reggae" applies broadly to all the Jamaican born music that contains the original afterbeat rhythm.

^ The origins of Reggae can be found in traditional African Caribbean music as well as US Rhythm & Blues .
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

by The Beatles.[7]
.The Wailers, a band that was started by Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer in 1963, are generally agreed to be the most easily recognised group worldwide that made the change through all three stages — from ska hits like "Simmer Down", through slower rocksteady, to reggae.^ Three of its members, Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer, became reggae superstars a decade later.
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^ Reggae's most transcendent and iconic figure, Bob Marley was the first .
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^ War - Bob Marley & the Wailers 91.

.In addition to the Wailers, other significant pioneers include Prince Buster, Desmond Dekker, Jackie Mittoo and several others.^ FIRST WAVE: (Artists like Prince Buster, The Skatalites, The Wailers and Desmond Dekker).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ 'Let Your Yeah Be Yeah' and 'You Can Get If You Really Want' were hits for the Pioneers and Desmond Dekker respectively, but here are the originals.
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.Jamaican producers were influential in the development of ska into rocksteady and reggae in the 1960s.^ Ska and Rocksteady are 1960's precursors of reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ As time passed Ska slowed the beat, lost it's brass sound and morphed into "Rocksteady", performed with fewer musicians and using more harmony vocals.

^ Rocksteady: This style is a pit stop located exactly half way on the drive from Ska to Reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Some of the many notable Jamaican producers in the 1960s include Coxsone Dodd, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Leslie Kong, Duke Reid, Joe Gibbs and King Tubby.^ Leslie Kong's main artistic rival was Lee Perry, Scratch The Upsetter.
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^ Nicky moved over to producer Joe Gibbs .
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^ All of them were more or less trying to achieve the same status of th e new innovators the big three, Leslie Kong, Lee Perry, and Clancy Eccles, who had the pushed likes of Coxson Dodd, Duke Reid and Prince Buster aside.
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.An early producer was Chris Blackwell, who founded Island Records in Jamaica in 1960, then relocated to England in 1962, where he continued to promote Jamaican music.^ So smitten was Blackwell that he commissioned the band to record for his primarily rock-oriented Island Records label.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Collection - Blessed Love Jamaica Producers 1960-1...
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

^ The intimate and organic nature of the band's compositions coupled with its trademark mantra-like rhythms attracted the attention of producer and musical entrepreneur Chris Blackwell.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.He formed a partnership with Trojan Records, founded by Lee Gopthal in 1968. Trojan released recordings by reggae artists in the UK until 1974, when Saga bought the label.^ When he joined Lee Gopthal's Trojan label in 1968, he quickly adapted to the new reggae beat .
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ As far as Jamaican record-buyers are concerned, the word reggae was coined on a 1968 Pyramid dance single, "Do the Reggay (sic)," by Toots and the Maytals.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ He made music for Coxsone and Prince Buster , before joining up with Bunny Lee, with whom he recorded for extensively as a solo artist, and as a member of the Uniques.
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.Around 1960, in the slums of Kingston Jamaica, local drummers mixed sounds from American R&B, Pan-African, and the Caribbean’s to produce a musical mixture called Reggae [8].^ Background: Reggae - Around 1960, in the slums of Kingston Jamaica, where the local bands were playing a musical mixture of American R&B, Caribbean, and pan-African sounds, drummers began to emphasize the afterbeat, the 2nd and 4th beats (4/4 time) in unison with the piano and guitar while the bass played walking quarter notes.

^ Around 1968 the influences of Rastafari and Africanism along with political and social unrest in Jamaica gave birth to "Reggae", with a slower, stripped-down, less "Pop-like" sound often with accents added on the 3rd beat.

^ Featuring resident sound Guiding Star Hi-Fi and guests from near and far playing the best in reggae, bashment inna mix and blend style.

.Drummers began to emphasize the after-beat, the 2nd and 4th beats, in unison with the guitar and piano while the bass played the contrary quarter notes.^ Background: Reggae - Around 1960, in the slums of Kingston Jamaica, where the local bands were playing a musical mixture of American R&B, Caribbean, and pan-African sounds, drummers began to emphasize the afterbeat, the 2nd and 4th beats (4/4 time) in unison with the piano and guitar while the bass played walking quarter notes.

^ Jackie Jackson - bass, Winston Grennan - drums, Rad Bryan - rhythm Guitar, Hux Brown - lead guitar, Winston Wright - organ, Gladstone Anderson - piano.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ While the most important component, the rhythm guitar, Played two strokes to th beat, instead of the one found in Rock Steady.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

.This sound was described as “upside-down R&B” which eventually received a deviated name, SKA [8].^ It would not be accurate to describe Christian ska as being its own wave (as is sometimes the case), as it does not differ significantly in geography, occurrence in time, or overall sound.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The musicians called the sound "Upside-down R&B".

.The Jamaican born music, Reggae, all started with Coxson Dodd’s birth of the sound systems in 1950 which promoted new records and hosted local dances.^ Scratch had started out as part of the Coxsone's sound system crew.
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^ Jam Jah Sound plays roots, reggae and dancehall from across time, to end the week end or start the week.

^ As far as Jamaican record-buyers are concerned, the word reggae was coined on a 1968 Pyramid dance single, "Do the Reggay (sic)," by Toots and the Maytals.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Although it has been said that the sound-system dances existed only to promote the sell of liquor and beer, the defining aspect of them in the crux of the ghetto life was that they were cultural, in contrary to being merely a culture [9].^ Although in sound their style was very roots, lyrically they were very close to The Pioneers.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Explosion Sound System presents Belfast's only regular Reggae night at the Menagerie playing Ska, Rocksteady, Reggae, Dub and beyond .

^ Now usually the major Producers would be the first to notice this (they all had sound systems) but by now they were no longer running them.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

.In This Is Reggae Music, Derrick Harriot who is a prosperous music entrepreneur, described the atmosphere of the sound-system dances during his downtown teenage years to be more than just a sound of music.^ Rootz Magazine Presents Roots Reggae & Kulcha With reggae music, interviews, reviews, Bob Marley and more Visit IrieJamaicanCafe.com .
  • The Reggae Boyz News -Jamaica Football 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.thereggaeboyz.com [Source type: General]

^ Explosion Sound System presents Belfast's only regular Reggae night at the Menagerie playing Ska, Rocksteady, Reggae, Dub and beyond .

^ It is generally forgotten that the very first DJs were Jamaicans operating the mobile sound systems during the fifties and sixties.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

“The equipment was so powerful and the vibe was so strong that they could feel it, as if when they were dancing and were actually part of it” [9]. .Expressing the idea that Reggae music is more than just a sound produced, it was the life and soul of the Jamaican people.^ Reggae music at it very soulful best.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Rootz Magazine Presents Roots Reggae & Kulcha With reggae music, interviews, reviews, Bob Marley and more Visit IrieJamaicanCafe.com .
  • The Reggae Boyz News -Jamaica Football 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.thereggaeboyz.com [Source type: General]

^ She seems to have tired of his sound “Vintage Soul” and now feel it is strongly influenced by reggae, ”said the source.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

.You can feel their emotions, experience their culture and truly understand the love and sincerity they receive from their music.^ Soundsystem: To truly understand the soundsystem phenomenon, you must appreciate Jamaican music culture.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Add to this; an uncanny ability to comunicate such rich emotion through his music, and you have one sensational piece of music.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ That their deaths went largely unnoticed really tells you a great deal about the way the music has been reported over they years.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

.The 1972 film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff, generated considerable interest and popularity for reggae in the United States, and Eric Clapton's 1974 cover of the Bob Marley song "I Shot the Sheriff" helped bring reggae into the mainstream.^ Harder They Come - Jimmy Cliff 11.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1972, Jimmy again caused a stir as he starred in the Perry Henzell classic reggae film, “The Harder They Come” and scored big with the subsequent album.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

^ Rootz Magazine Presents Roots Reggae & Kulcha With reggae music, interviews, reviews, Bob Marley and more Visit IrieJamaicanCafe.com .
  • The Reggae Boyz News -Jamaica Football 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.thereggaeboyz.com [Source type: General]

[2] .By the mid 1970s, reggae was getting radio play in the UK on John Peel's radio show, and Peel continued to play reggae on his show throughout his career.^ Log on to http://www.reggaeworldmusic.com every Friday between 7-9pm UK time to hear the House of Reggae shows streamed live.

^ Log on to Reggae World Music every Friday between 7-9pm UK time to hear the House of Reggae shows streamed live.

What is called the "Golden Age of Reggae" corresponds roughly to the heyday of roots reggae. .In the second half of the 1970s, the UK punk rock scene was starting to form, and some punk DJs played reggae songs during their sets.^ Jam Jah Sound plays roots, reggae and dancehall from across time, to end the week end or start the week.

^ 'Absolutely' the groups debut album find them in the rock steady and reggae eras, and is a classic set.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Combining elements of ska with rock, punk, and jazz, musicians of the third wave created a style of ska some say lost all of its Jamaican elements.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Some punk bands incorporated reggae influences into their music.^ Unlike the more traditional Jamaican-flavored ska sounds offered by those bands, the English Beat was not afraid to acknowledge its pop and punk influences.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ As a sampler of the ever evolving international reggae community, World Reggae opens a wide window into some fascinating new music.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ A reggae deejay/vocalist calls this out to his band (or deejay) in a live performance situation as a cue to abruptly stop the music in a free-jazz sort of way.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.At the same time, reggae began to enjoy a revival in the UK that continued into the 1980s, exemplified by groups like Steel Pulse, Aswad, UB40, and Musical Youth.^ All the tunes mentioned are available on the groups album 'Sufferer' released on Trojan at the time, and recently re-released by the same company.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ The Ethiopians, (Leonard Dillion and Stephen Taylor) like all the other vocal groups of the Reggae era.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ The proximity of the West Indies to the USA meant that many Jamaican musicians would continue to be influenced by American styles of music whilst at the same time continuing to define new styles of their own such as Ska, Rocksteady and Dub.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Other artists who enjoyed international appeal in the early 1980s include Third World, Black Uhuru and Sugar Minott.^ The artist used the fact that the Caribbean to record some songs for their third album and follow up its successful”Black To Black”.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

^ Guess Who's Coming to Dinner - Black Uhuru 19.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

The Grammy Awards introduced the Best Reggae Album category in 1985.

Musical characteristics

.Reggae is either played in 4/4 time or swing time, because the symmetrical rhythmic pattern does not lend itself to other time signatures such as 3/4 time.^ Jam Jah Sound plays roots, reggae and dancehall from across time, to end the week end or start the week.

^ Steppers: A driving, roots reggae groove that has the kick drum playing a four-on-the-floor pattern.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ These patterns run through performances as a repeating rhythmic baseline that organizes the other, often very complex, rhythms that are being performed around them.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Harmonically, the music is often very simple, and sometimes a whole song will have no more than one or two chords.^ No one could envisage the importance of these sessions, but with hindsight we can point back to them as the inception of Jamaican dancehall music.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Punk and reggae became intertwined beecause to two of punks influential stars, Mr Rotten and the boys in the Clash, reggae was very much a part of their musical scene and growing up and each vied to say they loved it more than the other as an influence.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ But where this music lacks in production quality and originality, it more than makes up for in spirit and emotion.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

These simple repetitive chord structures add to reggae's sometimes hypnotic effects.

Drums and other percussion

.A standard drum kit with is generally used in reggae, but the snare drum is often tuned very high to give it a timbale-type sound.^ The difference in sound is subtle and mostly related to the more centered and in-your-face drum-kit.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ A signature sound in roots reggae, flatpicking is a muted guitar picking style that often shadows the bassline.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Often, these sound system operators removed labels from the most popular records, in order to enjoy a monopoly on the best-liked tunes and draw the most customers.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Some reggae drummers use an additional timbale or high-tuned snare to get this sound.^ Rebel Music Sound System playing special mixes of roots reggae tunes and exclusive dubplates.

^ Well everyone involved in the creation of the reggae sound that was to emerge in 1967 all had experience of the business, some back to it very creation.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Some people even call this genre "reggae-lite," or "diet-reggae," because of its saccharine sounds.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Cross stick technique on the snare drum is commonly used, and tom-tom drums are often incorporated into the drumbeat itself.
.Reggae drumbeats fall into three main categories: One drop, Rockers and Steppers.^ Trojan's forays into the worlds of calypso, novelty, and pop music were horribly misguided, and disc three is full of them (including a horrific reggae and yodeling matchup).
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ The Biggest Reggae One Drop Anthems 2008 .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Reggae One Drop Vol 2 (Its Raining Riddim) 2005 .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

.With the One drop, the emphasis is entirely on the third beat of the bar (usually on the snare, or as a rim shot combined with bass drum).^ Drums played on the rim, rim shot drumming.Very simple bass lines, The Maytals - '54-46' being the best example of this.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ It was a clean sound driven along by the Beverleys All Stars, characterised by a bouncing bass line, picking guitar, and rim shot drumming, and no horns.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

.Beat one is completely empty, which is unusual in popular music.^ Every city in Jamaica has at least one soundsystem and these sounds that sometimes play until dawn are the pulse of popular music in the Caribbean.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Konpa: This Haitian popular music became one of the sounds that changed the musical landscape of the Caribbean during the 1970s and 80s.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio is one of the most popular Jamaican music shows on the internet!
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is some controversy about whether reggae should be counted so that this beat falls on three, or whether it should be counted half as fast, so it falls on two and four.^ Time for part two and at a wopping two and a half hours long, you sure gonna get some dubwise now people!
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result puts the USA, who beat Jamaica 3-0 in the opening game, on top of the group on four points, followed by Jamaica on three, Honduras on two and El Salvador on one.
  • The Reggae Boyz News -Jamaica Football 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.thereggaeboyz.com [Source type: General]

^ This night has been running for two and a half years and is committed to playing classic tunes from across the reggae spectrum.

.Leroy "Horsemouth" Wallace calls the beat the "two-four combination".[citation needed] Many credit Carlton Barrett of The Wailers as the creator of this style, although it may actually have been invented by Winston Grennan.^ A popular movie filmed in Jamaica in 1977 named after a specific style of reggae starring Leroy "Horsemouth" Wallace, Richard "DirtyHarry" Hall, Jacob Miller, Gregory Isaacs, Burning Spear, Kiddus I, Leroy Smart, and more..
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Combining elements of ska with rock, punk, and jazz, musicians of the third wave created a style of ska some say lost all of its Jamaican elements.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Barrett and his drummer brother Carlton soon joined the Wailers full- .
  • Reggae | ReleaseWeb 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC releaseweb.pl [Source type: General]

Hugh Malcolm and Joe Isaacs were also active Kingston studio drummers at the time. .An example played by Barrett can be heard in the Bob Marley and the Wailers song "One Drop". Barrett often used an unusual triplet cross-rhythm on the hi-hat, which can be heard on many recordings by Bob Marley and the Wailers, such as "Running Away" on the Kaya album.^ While the disc is perhaps a little light on variety, it's still a Bob Marley album and thus as good as the best work of many other artists.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ UPRISING is Marley's final album, and it's also one of his best.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Out on his own following the defection of Bunny Wailer and Peter Tosh, this album saw Marley utilizing the talents of the I-Threes for the first time.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

Sly Dunbar
.An emphasis on beat three is in all reggae drumbeats, but with the Rockers beat, the emphasis is also on beat one (usually on bass drum).^ The album is a textbook study in reggae's sultry rhythmic power, and the Barrett Brothers (Aston "Family Man" Barrett on bass and Carlton on drums) demonstrate throughout why they are regarded as one of the most influential rhythm sections of all time.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ It was a clean sound driven along by the Beverleys All Stars, characterised by a bouncing bass line, picking guitar, and rim shot drumming, and no horns.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Layered over the driving kick drum and bubbling bass line are syncopated up-tempo chutney beats accentuated by militant snare stabs.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.This beat was pioneered by Sly and Robbie, who later helped create the "Rub-a-Dub" sound that greatly influenced dancehall.^ Unlike the more traditional Jamaican-flavored ska sounds offered by those bands, the English Beat was not afraid to acknowledge its pop and punk influences.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Early dancehall was notorious for its computerized beats by producers like Steely and Clevie, Bobby Digital and the legendary Sly and Robby (The Riddim Twins).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Konpa and the later konpa-direk influenced the sound of zouk ( see entry on Zouk) and also had a formative influence on Dominican cadence-lypso, which, in turn was an early influence on soca.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.The prototypical example of the style is found in Sly Dunbar's drumming on "Right Time" by the Mighty Diamonds.^ Ten years later Sly Dunbar played the same thing on the drums and called it 'Bouncers'.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Right Time - The Mighty Diamonds 5.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.The Rockers beat is not always straightforward, and various syncopations are often included.^ Maroons also influenced (though not always directly) various Afrocentric political and religious movements, including the Rastafarians.
  • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

An example of this is the Black Uhuru song "Sponji Reggae."
.In Steppers, the bass drum plays four solid beats to the bar, giving the beat an insistent drive.^ Drums played on the rim, rim shot drumming.Very simple bass lines, The Maytals - '54-46' being the best example of this.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

.An example is "Exodus" by Bob Marley and the Wailers.^ Equal Rights was to be the album that propelled Peter Tosh to the top of the reggae world -- the rival to onetime fellow Wailer Bob Marley.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Johnny Too Bad Riddim Toots & The Maytals "Struggle" Pressure Drop Bob Marley & The Wailers "Keep On Moving" .

^ Capturing Bob Marley and the Wailers at their creative peak, BABYLON BY BUS is a righteously grooving collection of recordings from the group's 1978 European tour.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.Another common name for the Steppers beat is the "four on the floor."^ Steppers: A driving, roots reggae groove that has the kick drum playing a four-on-the-floor pattern.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Burning Spear's 1975 song "Red, Gold, and Green" (with Leroy Wallace on drums) is one of the earliest examples.^ A popular movie filmed in Jamaica in 1977 named after a specific style of reggae starring Leroy "Horsemouth" Wallace, Richard "DirtyHarry" Hall, Jacob Miller, Gregory Isaacs, Burning Spear, Kiddus I, Leroy Smart, and more..
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ He also produced other singers, Tony Tribe's very successful 'Red Red Wine' being one example.
  • Reggae 67-70 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC niceup.com [Source type: General]

^ Burning Spear, U-Roy, Yabby You, The Gladiators, Clinton Fearon, Leroy "Horsemouth" Wallace, Tamara, Big Youth, Ken Boothe, Yami Bolo, and more.
  • Him's Reggae Concert Photographs, pictures of your favorite Reggaeartists on stage. 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaephotos.com [Source type: General]

.The Steppers beat was adopted (at a much higher tempo) by some 2 Tone ska revival bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s.^ Unlike the more traditional Jamaican-flavored ska sounds offered by those bands, the English Beat was not afraid to acknowledge its pop and punk influences.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Beginning in the late 1980s and gaining popularity in the early 1990s, the third wave of ska moved across the Atlantic Ocean and became hugely popular in the United States.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ With the group's 1980 debut, I JUST CAN'T STOP IT, the English Beat single-handedly defined the high-spirited ska revival sound that later gained immense popularity in the late '90s.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

An unusual characteristic of reggae drumming is that the drum fills often do not end with a climactic cymbal. A wide range of other percussion instrumentation is used in reggae. .Bongos are often used to play free, improvised patterns, with heavy use of African-style cross-rhythms.^ Goombay: Goombay is a rhythm played on a goat-skinned drum in the Bahamas, but it is also the name of a style of Bahamian music that is very calypso-like.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Cowbells, claves and shakers tend to have more defined roles and a set pattern.

Bass

Robbie Shakespeare
.The bass guitar often plays a very dominant role in reggae, and the drum and bass is often called the riddim (rhythm).^ A rhythm, riddim in reggae vocabulary, is a rhythm pattern.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Their relationship is often compared to that of John Lennon and Paul McCartney, with Tosh playing the role of the cynical Lennon to Marley's love-song-oriented McCartney.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ The record features some very tasty guitar, good vocal performances and the always rock-steady rhythm section of the Barrett brothers.
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.Several reggae singers have released different songs recorded over the same riddim.^ In Jamaica, the earliest gospel reggae releases were recorded by Lester Lewis and Change.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Amy chose to record the new songs on instruments of reggae, who did not like much the idea were the executives of their label, Island Records, who rejected all subjects recorded the singer on the island.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

^ Around 1969 Kingston-based reggae producers started to issue singles with instrumental "versions" on the flipside of vocal releases, which were actually the basic riddim tracks.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.The central role of the bass can be particularly heard in dub music — which gives an even bigger role to the drum and bass line, reducing the vocals and other instruments to peripheral roles.^ The vocals and dubs were mated for a musical extravaganza.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Dubwise: A musical section that is heavy on drum and bass and dub effects with very sparse rhythm (keys and guitar).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Drum and Bass: (drum n bass, DnB) An electronic music style.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The bass line is often a simple two-bar riff that is centred around its thickest and heaviest note.

Guitars

.The guitar in reggae usually plays the chords on beats two and four, a musical figure known as skank or the 'bang'. It has a very dampened, short and scratchy chop sound, almost like a percussion instrument.^ Featuring resident sound Guiding Star Hi-Fi and guests from near and far playing the best in reggae, bashment inna mix and blend style.

^ Rebel Music Sound System playing special mixes of roots reggae tunes and exclusive dubplates.

^ I usually don’t like sitting that far from the stage but the sound was great up there and we could see really well.

.Sometimes a double chop is used when the guitar still plays the off beats, but also plays the following 8th beats on the up-stroke.^ The artist used the fact that the Caribbean to record some songs for their third album and follow up its successful”Black To Black”.
  • REGGAE EUROPE 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaeeurope.com [Source type: General]

^ Good build up play by Nigeria, patient and stroking the bal around until Obinna brings down Claud Davis after mis-controling the ball.
  • The Reggae Boyz News -Jamaica Football 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.thereggaeboyz.com [Source type: General]

An example is the intro to "Stir It Up" by The Wailers. .Artist and producer Derrick Harriott says, “What happened was the musical thing was real widespread, but only among a certain sort of people.^ Hell, even my beloved book by Lloyd Bradley let’s me down on this one, the only thing that he mentions about them except that these recordings were there peak is that the fellow artists that Derrick Harriott produced at this time included Toots and the Maytals, the Melodians, Desmond Dekker and the Pioneers.

^ Between 1968 and 1970 they recorded under the supervision of producer Derrick Harriott their best sides like "Singer Man", "Sufferer" and "Winey Winey".

^ There music is great, but what really makes them stand out is the complex stage show with all sort of acting, audience members on stage an other little skits.

.It was always a down-town thing, but more than just hearing the music.^ But where this music lacks in production quality and originality, it more than makes up for in spirit and emotion.
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^ MIDAS MORE THAN JUST A FACE .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

The equipment was so powerful and the vibe so strong that we feel it.” [10]

Keyboards

.From the late 1960s through to the early 1980s, a piano was generally used in reggae to double the rhythm guitar's skank, playing the chords in a staccato style to add body, and playing occasional extra beats, runs and riffs.^ The music of ska is known for the placement of the accented guitar and piano rhythms on the upbeats.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The vocal style of a dancehall deejay that raps staccato lyrics in thick Jamaican Patios (Creole) over syncopated Caribbean beats.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ A signature sound in roots reggae, flatpicking is a muted guitar picking style that often shadows the bassline.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

The piano part was widely taken over by synthesizers during the 1980s, although synthesizers have been used in a peripheral role since the 1970s to play incidental melodies and countermelodies. Larger bands may include either an additional keyboardist, to cover or replace horn and melody lines, or the main keyboardist filling these roles on two or more keyboards.
The reggae-organ shuffle is unique to reggae. .Typically, a Hammond organ-style sound is used to play chords with a choppy feel.^ Featuring resident sound Guiding Star Hi-Fi and guests from near and far playing the best in reggae, bashment inna mix and blend style.

This is known as the bubble. There are specific drawbar settings used on a Hammond console to get the correct sound. This may be the most difficult reggae keyboard rhythm. The 8th beats are played with a space-left-right-left-space-left-right-left pattern, where the spaces represent downbeats not played—that is the left-right-left falls on the ee-and-a.

Horns

.Horn sections are frequently used in reggae, often playing introductions and counter-melodies.^ In the 1960s it was overshadowed by ska and reggae, but it is still played in Jamaica, especially in areas frequented by tourists.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Instruments included in a typical reggae horn section include saxophone, trumpet or trombone.^ Additional personnel includes: Glen DaCosta (tenor saxophone); David Madden (trumpet); Nambo (trombone); Devon Evans (percussion).
  • Reggae Music Stores Online - Compare Prices, Reviews and Store Ratings at BizRate 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.In more recent times, real horns are sometimes replaced in reggae by synthesizers or recorded samples.^ Reggae Sample Pack - Acapellas Classic Voices Horn...
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

The horn section is often arranged around the first horn, playing a simple melody or counter melody. The first horn is usually accompanied by the second horn playing the same melodic phrase in unision, one octave higher. The third horn usually plays the melody an octave and a fifth higher than the first horn. The horns are generally played fairly softly, usually resulting in a soothing sound. .However, sometimes punchier, louder phrases are played for a more up-tempo and aggressive sound....^ The band that played with him was pretty good and I enjoyed the show a lot, however, it was a little sad that he did not play more of his 70’s stuff.

Vocals

UB40's former frontman Ali Campbell performing in 2009.
.The vocals in reggae are less of a defining characteristic of the genre than the instrumentation and rhythm, as almost any song can be performed in a reggae style.^ Dub is an instrumental sub-style of reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ The resulting guide is a combination of fascinating historical tidbits, scholarly attention to musical detail, and a definitive treatment of reggae's genre, artists, albums, and songs.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ This rhythm is most characteristically performed by the batucada ( see entry on batucada).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

However, it is very common for reggae to be sung in Jamaican Patois, Jamaican English, and Iyaric dialects. .Vocal harmony parts are often used, either throughout the melody (as with bands such as the Mighty Diamonds), or as a counterpoint to the main vocal line (as with the backing group I-Threes).^ Ska groups like Clement Dodd's house band, The Skatalites often did instrumental ska versions of popular American and British music, such as Beatles tunes, movie themes, or surf instrumentals.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

The British reggae band Steel Pulse used particularly complex backing vocals. .An unusual aspect of reggae singing is that many singers use tremolo (volume oscillation) rather than vibrato (pitch oscillation).^ Culture is also used to describe songs in which a singer and a deejay join together for a combination over a roots reggae riddim.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Notable exponents of this technique include Dennis Brown and Horace Andy.^ Many of Jamaica's leading artists have been part of Coxsone's musical family in some stage of their career, for example Bob Marley & The Wailers, Horace Andy, Bob Andy, Dennis Brown, Freddie McGregor, Lee Perry etc.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.The toasting vocal style is unique to reggae, originating when DJs improvised along to dub tracks, and it is generally considered to be a precursor to rap.^ Dub is an instrumental sub-style of reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Reggae Jamdown Friday Sept 12 2008 2-4PM PST DJ Dub Cowboy .

^ Reggae Jamdown Friday Oct 31 2008 2-4PM PST DJ Dub Cowboy .

It differs from rap mainly in that it is generally melodic, while rap is generally more a spoken form without melodic content.

Lyrical themes

.Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love, and socializing.^ Although the treatment of such subjects in mento is comparatively innocent, their appearance has sometimes been seen as a precursor of the 'slackness' found in of modern dancehall.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Lovers Rock: A mellow style of traditional roots reggae that sings primarily of love and heartbreak.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Night Shift - New Reggae Love Songs Vol 1 .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

.Many early reggae bands also covered Motown or Atlantic soul and funk numbers.^ Prince Buster and U-Roy of Jamaica brought Ska to the UK in the early 1960s where it has been a major inspiration to many bands, such as the Specials, Madness, UB40 and many other underground music acts from dance to reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Reggae : The Rough Guide 100% Dynamite!: Ska, Soul, Rocksteady, & Funk in Jamaica [Amazon US] 100% Dynamite explores the links between Reggae, Jazz, Funk and Soul.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Fourteen tracks of music that show the influence that American Jazz, Funk and Soul music has had on Jamaican Reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

Some reggae lyrics attempt to raise the political consciousness of the audience, such as by criticizing materialism, or by informing the listener about controversial subjects such as Apartheid. .Many reggae songs promote the use of cannabis (also known as herb or ganja), considered a sacrament in the Rastafari movement.^ Culture is also used to describe songs in which a singer and a deejay join together for a combination over a roots reggae riddim.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Nyabinghi drums are used to accompany both Rastafari gatherings and roots oriented reggae recordings.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.There are many artists who utilize religious themes in their music — whether it be discussing a religious topic, or simply giving praise to the Rastafari God Jah.^ Many are associated with the music of religious traditions that have African roots.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ In Jamaican music, Selectors are artists in their own right who, through their charisma and virtuosity, command the respect of audiences in live dancehall settings.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ There was a great demand for the R&B type of music, but unfortunately there were no local Jamaican bands which could play this type of music as well as the black American artists.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Other common socio-political topics in reggae songs include black nationalism, anti-racism, anti-colonialism, anti-capitalism, criticism of political systems and "Babylon", and promotion of caring for needs of the younger generation.It also allowed the soul parts of reggae to be placed on display.^ Dub poets are most often concerned with religion, social justice and political issues although they sometimes address other topics.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Rewind: A common term in reggae and dancehall music that is a request to "Bring that beat back"--to stop the song and start it over again.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Black Diamond Sound - Reggae And Souls Showcase Mi...
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

Criticism of dancehall and ragga lyrics
.Some dancehall or ragga artists have been criticised for homophobia[11][12], sometimes including threats of violence.^ Since then, many artists have moved back and forth between ragga and dancehall and the difference between the two has become more difficult to hear.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, Early Reggae, Roots Reggae, Dub, Dancehall, Modern Roots, Ragga and a whole heap more, including informative chat and enthusiastic sillyness.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] Buju Banton's song "Boom Bye-Bye" states that gays "haffi dead" ("have to be dead"). .Other dance hall artists who have been accused of homophobia include Elephant Man ("When you hear a lesbian getting raped / It's not our fault ...^ Elephant Man - Dancing christmas .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Click on the description you want to hear or on the artist's name to listen to all songs .
  • Reggae Sound Station 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.ireggae.com [Source type: General]

Two women in bed / That's two Sodomites who should be dead."), .Bounty Killer (who in a song urges listeners to burn "Mister Fagoty") and Beenie Man.^ A few years later, Snow, Buju Banton, Beenie Man and Bounty Killer all took their unique voices to the American airwaves with a few sparse hits.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Burning Flames One Song Pan Man (Soca) .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Beenie Man & Bounty Killer at Roseland Ballroom Ne...
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

The controversy surrounding anti-gay lyrics led to the cancellation of UK tours by Beenie Man and Sizzla. .After lobbying from the Stop Murder Music coalition, the dance hall music industry agreed in 2005 to stop releasing songs that promote hatred and violence against gay people.^ Can anybody please tell me wha;'s the name of the fourth song "" Fresh Fresh"" wicked sond 2009 Music Releases .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

[14][15] .In June 2007, Beenie Man, Sizzla and Capleton signed up to the Reggae Compassionate Act — in a deal brokered with top dance hall promoters and Stop Murder Music activists — renouncing homophobia, and agreeing to "not make statements or perform songs that incite hatred or violence against anyone from any community". Five artists targeted by the anti-homophobia campaign did not sign up to the act, including Elephant Man, TOK, Bounty Killa, Vybz Kartel and Buju Banton.^ Elephant Man - Dancing christmas .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

^ A few years later, Snow, Buju Banton, Beenie Man and Bounty Killer all took their unique voices to the American airwaves with a few sparse hits.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Prince Buster and U-Roy of Jamaica brought Ska to the UK in the early 1960s where it has been a major inspiration to many bands, such as the Specials, Madness, UB40 and many other underground music acts from dance to reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

[16]
.Toronto, Canada, home of Caribana ("the largest Caribbean festival in North America"[17]), has also seen the cancellation of concerts due to artists such as Elephant Man[18] and Sizzla[19] refusing to conform to similar censorship pressures.^ Bell patterns are also found in the Caribbean (such as soca) and in Latin America.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Nottinghill Carnival, celebrated in London during August each year, has North American counterparts in New York (Labor Day Parade), and Toronto (Caribana) and many similar festivals are springing up in cities around the world.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Subgenres

Peter Tosh performing with his band in 1978.

Early reggae

.Early reggae, sometimes dubbed "skinhead reggae" due to its popularity among the working class subculture in the UK, started in the late 1960s, as the influence of funk music from American labels such as Stax began to permeate the playing of studio musicians.^ Ska groups like Clement Dodd's house band, The Skatalites often did instrumental ska versions of popular American and British music, such as Beatles tunes, movie themes, or surf instrumentals.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The proximity of the West Indies to the USA meant that many Jamaican musicians would continue to be influenced by American styles of music whilst at the same time continuing to define new styles of their own such as Ska, Rocksteady and Dub.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Prince Buster and U-Roy of Jamaica brought Ska to the UK in the early 1960s where it has been a major inspiration to many bands, such as the Specials, Madness, UB40 and many other underground music acts from dance to reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.The characteristic defining early reggae from rock steady is the "bubbling" organ, a percussive style of playing that brought to closer light the eighth-note subdivision within the groove.^ From the pre-ska years of the late 1950s to the dawning of the digital age in the mid-1980s, Solid Foundation charts the evolution of ska, rock steady, traditional and untraditional reggae styles, and the sub-genres of dub, deejay, and dancehall.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Although El Salvador controlled much of the early play, the Reggae Boyz were able to penetrate their opponents defence on a number of occasions.
  • The Reggae Boyz News -Jamaica Football 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.thereggaeboyz.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the most characteristic styles they play is called quelbe ( see entry on quelbe).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.The guitar "skanks" on the second and fourth note of the bar were more frequently doubled up in recording studios using electronic tape echo effects, thus complementing the double-time feel of the organ bubble.^ Classic dub makes extensive use of analog studio gear like tube powered pre-amps, spring reverb units, tape echoes, reel to reel decks and analog phasers to explore and highlight the sonic possibilities of any given record.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Bubble Up Riddim Soca (More) .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Full Up - More Hits From Studio One - 2006 .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

.Overall more emphasis was on the groove of the music; the growing trend of recording a "version" on the B-side of a single produced countless instrumentals led by a horn or organ.^ Between 1968 and 1970 they recorded under the supervision of producer Derrick Harriott their best sides like "Singer Man", "Sufferer" and "Winey Winey".

^ Scratch's story is more or less the story of Jamaican music: from humble beginnings, the groove takes root, grows strong and wide, and contains many branches.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Around 1969 Kingston-based reggae producers started to issue singles with instrumental "versions" on the flipside of vocal releases, which were actually the basic riddim tracks.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Major skinhead reggae artists include John Holt, Toots & the Maytals, The Pioneers and Symarip.^ As far as Jamaican record-buyers are concerned, the word reggae was coined on a 1968 Pyramid dance single, "Do the Reggay (sic)," by Toots and the Maytals.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the predominant form of music listened to by the Rudeboy, Mod, and Skinhead movements, amongst others, with artists such as Symarip, Laurel Aitken, The Charmers and The Pioneers aiming songs at these groups as far back as the 1960s.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Cover versions of Motown, Stax and Atlantic Records soul songs were common in skinhead reggae, reflecting the popularity of soul music with skinheads and Mods.^ He's currently writing sleeve notes for Soul Jazz records and an upcoming release of some Dancehall Reggae music, related to Beth Kingston's book 'Dancehall' that Soul Jazz brought out last year.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reggae is an African Caribbean style of music developed on the island of Jamaica and is closely linked to the religion Rastafarianism, though not universally popular among its members.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ He has recorded a few tunes over the years and his outings still remain popular with the reggae massive.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

Roots reggae

.Roots reggae is a spiritual type of music whose lyrics are predominantly in praise of Jah (God).^ Dub: A type of instrumental reggae music with little or no lyrics.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Roots: The truest form of reggae music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Dub Poetry: Poetry performed to the rhythms and sounds of roots reggae music.
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Recurrent lyrical themes include poverty and resistance to government and racial oppression. .Many of Bob Marley's and Peter Tosh's songs can be called roots reggae.^ Peter Tosh: The last words and violent death of a reggae hero.” Musician 100: 21, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 40, 121.
  • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides being a renowned and seminal reggae musician, the late Peter Tosh was a sharp-tongued wit in a Rasta style.
  • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since I post only pictures taken by me (with only a few exceptions), I will not have any Bob Marley or Peter Tosh photos on my site.
  • Him's Reggae Concert Photographs, pictures of your favorite Reggaeartists on stage. 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaephotos.com [Source type: General]

.The creative pinnacle of roots reggae was in the late 1970s[citation needed] with singers such as Burning Spear, Gregory Isaacs, Freddie McGregor, Johnny Clarke, Horace Andy, Ijahman Levi, Barrington Levy, Big Youth, and Linval Thompson, and bands like Culture, Israel Vibration, the Meditations, and Misty in Roots, teaming up with various studio producers including Lee 'Scratch' Perry and Coxsone Dodd.^ Norrisman, Freddie McGregor & the Millennium band .
  • Him's Reggae Concert Photographs, pictures of your favorite Reggaeartists on stage. 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaephotos.com [Source type: General]

^ Johnnie Clarke - Reggae Rebel 1982 .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Burning Spear and band .
  • Him's Reggae Concert Photographs, pictures of your favorite Reggaeartists on stage. 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaephotos.com [Source type: General]

.Musically, on the song "Roots, Rock, Reggae" Marley devised a new style of "off beat" music where a bar of six beats is played, with the guitar skanking on the fourth and sixth beat.^ It can mean a style of upbeat reggae, or a reggae club that plays loud music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Roots: The truest form of reggae music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The resulting guide is a combination of fascinating historical tidbits, scholarly attention to musical detail, and a definitive treatment of reggae's genre, artists, albums, and songs.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Although entirely separate from the beats of ska, rock steady, reggae, skank, flyers, rockers and all later styles, this unique beat seems to have been so closely associated with Marley that few others adopted it.^ A few years later, Snow, Buju Banton, Beenie Man and Bounty Killer all took their unique voices to the American airwaves with a few sparse hits.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ From the pre-ska years of the late 1950s to the dawning of the digital age in the mid-1980s, Solid Foundation charts the evolution of ska, rock steady, traditional and untraditional reggae styles, and the sub-genres of dub, deejay, and dancehall.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Rocksteady: This style is a pit stop located exactly half way on the drive from Ska to Reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Dub

.Dub is a genre of reggae that was pioneered in the early days by studio producers Lee 'Scratch' Perry and King Tubby.^ Scratch collaborated on some of the Wailers' best early stuff, and indeed, Marley's "career was largely shaped by creative interaction with Perry."
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ The San Diego Reggae Meetup WorldBeat Center is the premier producer of Reggae in Southern California producing the annual Bob Marley Day in San Diego and Tijuana.
  • Reggae Meetup Groups - Reggae Meetups 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggae.meetup.com [Source type: General]

^ Eventually, all of the island's key producers came on board, notably Lee "Scratch" Perry during his close collaboration with Bob Marley and the Wailers.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.It involves extensive remixing of recorded material, and particular emphasis is placed on the drum and bass line.^ Layered over the driving kick drum and bubbling bass line are syncopated up-tempo chutney beats accentuated by militant snare stabs.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.The techniques used resulted in an even more visceral feel described by King Tubby as sounding "jus’ like a volcano in yuh head."^ Bunny Lee once said of him “He could mix music outta the mistakes people bring him – like every spoil is a style to King Tubby.

^ If old school reggae is the root, dancehall is an offshoot--a rebellious branch that every day seems to sound less and less like its parent and more and more like Hip Hop.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, King Tubby , well if you like Reggae you have heard his name before.

.Augustus Pablo and Mikey Dread were two of the early notable proponents of this music style, which continues today.^ Reggae Music spars Ian 'Rankin' Causer and Bigmikey 'Mikey' the tonsils Dread 'Murphy' meet at a small rural railway station.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Big Mikey Dread aka Mike Murphy plays Jamaican Music from the 1950s to the Present day.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In part, the differences stem from the differing colonial histories of the two West Indian Islands, as Jamaican Music lacks the Spanish influences found in other Caribbean musical styles.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Rockers

The rockers style was created in the mid-1970s by Sly & Robbie. .Rockers is described as a flowing, mechanical, and aggressive style of playing reggae.^ It can mean a style of upbeat reggae, or a reggae club that plays loud music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

[20] One article calls the rockers era the "Golden Age of Reggae".[21]

Lovers rock

The lovers rock subgenre originated in South London in the mid-1970s. The lyrics are usually about love. It is similar to rhythm and blues. .Notable lovers rock artists include: Gregory Isaacs, Freddy McGregor, Dennis Brown, Maxi Priest and Beres Hammond.^ The most popular secular lovers rock artists are Gregory Isaacs, Freddy McGregor and the late Dennis Brown.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of Jamaica's leading artists have been part of Coxsone's musical family in some stage of their career, for example Bob Marley & The Wailers, Horace Andy, Bob Andy, Dennis Brown, Freddie McGregor, Lee Perry etc.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Freddie Mcgregor And Dennis Brown - Giants (2009) .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

Newer styles and spin-offs

Hip hop and rap

.Toasting is a style of chanting or talking over the record that was first used by 1960s Jamaican deejays such as U-Roy and Dennis Alcapone.^ In any case, the toasting or dee jaying of raggamuffin reggae - first used by artists such as Dillinger or Yellowman - had a world-wide impact because Jamaican DJ Kool Herc used them as he came up with a new style later called Hip hop or rap music.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Sing-jay: A melodic dancehall vocal style that is a cross between a singer and deejay toasting.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The vocal style of a dancehall deejay that raps staccato lyrics in thick Jamaican Patios (Creole) over syncopated Caribbean beats.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.This style greatly influenced Jamaican DJ Kool Herc, who used the style in New York City in the late 1970s to pioneer the hip hop and rap genres.^ In any case, the toasting or dee jaying of raggamuffin reggae - first used by artists such as Dillinger or Yellowman - had a world-wide impact because Jamaican DJ Kool Herc used them as he came up with a new style later called Hip hop or rap music.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ DJ Kool Herc is credited with bringing this to the United States, when he left for New York in 1967, creating rap music in the proces.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ The proximity of the West Indies to the USA meant that many Jamaican musicians would continue to be influenced by American styles of music whilst at the same time continuing to define new styles of their own such as Ska, Rocksteady and Dub.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Mixing techniques employed in dub music have also influenced hip hop.^ Now, over 20 years since their inception, these musical siblings have been sanctified for Christ through Lion of Zion's " Raggamuffin Hip Hop" album series.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Originally an offshoot of the United Kingdom breakbeat hardcore and rave scene, it came into existence when people mixed reggae basslines with sped-up hip-hop breakbeats and influences from techno.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1970's (the golden age of dub), these famous producers and engineers would sit behind the mixing board, and dare to stretch the limits of reggae music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Dancehall

.The dancehall genre was developed around 1980, with exponents such as Yellowman, Super Cat and Shabba Ranks.^ Shabba Ranks was undoubtedly the first dancehall artist to win a Grammy and earn global recognition with "Mr.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.The style is characterized by a deejay singing and rapping or toasting over raw and fast rhythms.^ Sing-jay: A melodic dancehall vocal style that is a cross between a singer and deejay toasting.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The vocal style of a dancehall deejay that raps staccato lyrics in thick Jamaican Patios (Creole) over syncopated Caribbean beats.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Chatting: Also called deejaying, chanting, toasting or reggae rapping.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Ragga (also known as raggamuffin) and reggae fusion, are subgenres of dancehall where the instrumentation primarily consists of electronic music and sampling.^ Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, Early Reggae, Roots Reggae, Dub, Dancehall, Modern Roots, Ragga and a whole heap more, including informative chat and enthusiastic sillyness.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Jamaican reggae sound-system culture of the '70s, the unique vocal approach known as "rapping" was initially created, remaining on the island to evolve into dancehall (raggamuffin).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The Rough Guide to Reggae by Steve Barrow [Amazon.com] Finally, a comprehensive guide covering the entire span of Jamaican music, from the 1950s mento and R&B through dub, dancehall and ragga.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

Notable ragga artists include Shinehead and Buju Banton.
In February 2009, Dancehall with lyrical content "deemed explicitly sexual and violent" was banned from the airwaves by the Broadcasting Commission of Jamaica.[22][23]

Raggamuffin

.Raggamuffin, usually abbreviated as ragga, is a sub-genre of reggae that is closely related to dancehall and dub.^ Dub is an instrumental sub-style of reggae.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ From the pre-ska years of the late 1950s to the dawning of the digital age in the mid-1980s, Solid Foundation charts the evolution of ska, rock steady, traditional and untraditional reggae styles, and the sub-genres of dub, deejay, and dancehall.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, Early Reggae, Roots Reggae, Dub, Dancehall, Modern Roots, Ragga and a whole heap more, including informative chat and enthusiastic sillyness.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term raggamuffin is an intentional misspelling of ragamuffin, and the term raggamuffin music describes the music of Jamaica's "ghetto youths". The instrumentation primarily consists of electronic music.^ Clave: A type of percussion instrument but also a term that identifies a very specific type of bell pattern ( see entry on bell pattern) prevalent in Afro-Cuban music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ An old-school reggae term used to describe a ragamuffin deejay.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Sampling often serves a prominent role as well. .As ragga matured, an increasing number of dancehall artists began to appropriate stylistic elements of hip hop music, while ragga music, in turn, influenced more and more hip hop artists.^ Since then, many artists have moved back and forth between ragga and dancehall and the difference between the two has become more difficult to hear.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Now, over 20 years since their inception, these musical siblings have been sanctified for Christ through Lion of Zion's " Raggamuffin Hip Hop" album series.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ If old school reggae is the root, dancehall is an offshoot--a rebellious branch that every day seems to sound less and less like its parent and more and more like Hip Hop.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Ragga is now mainly used as a synonym for dancehall reggae or for describing dancehall with a deejay chatting rather than deejaying or singing on top of the riddim.^ Toasting: An old-school term used to describe deejaying or chatting over a reggae/ dancehall riddim.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Oftentimes the words reggae and dancehall are synonymous.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Another term used to describe deejaying, chatting, toasting or reggae rapping.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Reggaeton

.Reggaeton is a form of urban music that first became popular with Latin American youths in the early 1990s.^ Cinquillo: A very specific rhythmic pattern prevalent in a range of Caribbean musical styles that was first made popular in the Cuban Danzon of the 19th Century.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Cumbia: A style that grew out of Colombia and became popular throughout Latin America and the Caribbean starting in the 1950s.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ First developed in the 1960s, the style has become incredibly popular throughout Latin/o America.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Reggaeton's predecessor originated in Panama as reggae en español. .After the music's gradual exposure in Puerto Rico, it eventually evolved into reggaeton.^ Bomba is not very popular today, but is recognized as one of the important strands of musical heritage in Puerto Rico.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

[24]. .It blends West-Indian reggae and dancehall with Latin American genres such as bomba, plena, salsa, merengue, Latin pop, cumbia and bachata, as well as hip hop, contemporary R&B and electronica.^ The cuatro accompanies jibaro music as well as plena and salsa and is called a cuatro because of the tuning, not the amount of strings.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ If old school reggae is the root, dancehall is an offshoot--a rebellious branch that every day seems to sound less and less like its parent and more and more like Hip Hop.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Reggaeton: Initially called "underground", reggaeton (pronounced ray-gay-tone) is a gritty hybrid of hip-hop and dancehall reggae set to primarily Spanish lyrics.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Modern reggaeton beats follow the structure of the Dem Bow Riddim, a beat created by Jamaican producers Steely & Clevie in the late 80s and early 90s.^ Early dancehall was notorious for its computerized beats by producers like Steely and Clevie, Bobby Digital and the legendary Sly and Robby (The Riddim Twins).
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Soundsytem scene in Kingston to the creation of the Jamaican music industry at the turn of the century all the way to the creation of modern Dancehall after the digital invasion.

Reggae fusion

.Reggae fusion is a mixture of reggae or dancehall with elements of other genres, such as hip-hop, R&B, jazz, rock, drum and bass, punk or polka.^ From the pre-ska years of the late 1950s to the dawning of the digital age in the mid-1980s, Solid Foundation charts the evolution of ska, rock steady, traditional and untraditional reggae styles, and the sub-genres of dub, deejay, and dancehall.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ Add to this beat throbbing sustained bass notes, synth parts that sound more hip hop or techno then reggae and yelling group vocals on the chorus and you have reggaeton.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ If old school reggae is the root, dancehall is an offshoot--a rebellious branch that every day seems to sound less and less like its parent and more and more like Hip Hop.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

[25] .Although artists have been mixing reggae with other genres from as early as the early 1970s, it was not until the late 1990s when the term was coined.^ In this same vein, Lion of Judah's DJ Frost revolutionized gospel reggae with the genre's first various artist soundsystem styled mixtape, "Streetlight".
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ These artists also incorporated the sounds of other musical influences, including reggae Afrobeat, and funk, into juju.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The resulting guide is a combination of fascinating historical tidbits, scholarly attention to musical detail, and a definitive treatment of reggae's genre, artists, albums, and songs.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

Reggae outside the Caribbean

.Reggae has spread to many countries across the world, often incorporating local instruments and fusing with other genres.^ Rasta Talk is not spoken by non-Rastafarians, but many words from Rasta Talk have entered other registers in JC; this is mainly due to the international popularity of reggae music and its linkage with Rastafarianism.
  • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is music for the church and often incorporates a dash of country, bluegrass, and r&b with a lot of black gospel.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1950s, electric instruments were incorporated into the juju sound and, by the 1970s and 80s, artists like King Sunny Ade and I.K. Dairo were making the genre hugely popular on the world music scene.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Americas

.Reggae en Español started in Panama in the mid 1970s and later expanded to the rest of Latin America.^ Cumbia: A style that grew out of Colombia and became popular throughout Latin America and the Caribbean starting in the 1950s.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

It does not have any specific characteristics other than being sung in Spanish, usually by artists of Latin American origin. .By the end of the 1980s, the local music scene in Hawaii was dominated by Jawaiian music, a local form of Reggae.^ Roots: The truest form of reggae music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ If you think reggae music begins and ends with Bob Marley, play the Upsetters for yourself, and enjoy.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

Samba reggae originated in Brazil as a blend of Samba with Jamaican reggae

Europe

.Caribbean music in the United Kingdom, including reggae, has been popular since the late 1960s, and has evolved into several subgenres and fusions.^ Cinquillo: A very specific rhythmic pattern prevalent in a range of Caribbean musical styles that was first made popular in the Cuban Danzon of the 19th Century.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Every city in Jamaica has at least one soundsystem and these sounds that sometimes play until dawn are the pulse of popular music in the Caribbean.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Reggae is an African Caribbean style of music developed on the island of Jamaica and is closely linked to the religion Rastafarianism, though not universally popular among its members.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

.Since the early 1990s, several Italian reggae bands have emerged, including Sud Sound System, Pitura Freska, Almamegretta, Africa Unite and B.R. Stylers.^ These artists also incorporated the sounds of other musical influences, including reggae Afrobeat, and funk, into juju.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ It was repopularized by the Jolly Boys in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the release of four recordings on First Warning Records/Rykodisc and a tour that included the United States.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

In Sweden, the Uppsala Reggae Festival attracts attendees from across Northern Europe, and features Swedish reggae bands such as Rootvälta and Svenska Akademien. The first homegrown Polish reggae groups started in the 1980s. .German reggae artist Gentleman rose to popularity with his album Confidence in 2004. Furthermore the Summerjam, europe's biggest Reggaefestival, taking place in Cologne, Germany.^ A soundsystem usually wins a soundclash if they have the best dubplates by the biggest artists singing the most popular songs.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ The resulting guide is a combination of fascinating historical tidbits, scholarly attention to musical detail, and a definitive treatment of reggae's genre, artists, albums, and songs.
  • A history of reggae 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.jahsonic.com [Source type: General]

^ A classic style of roots reggae made popular by artists like Bunny Wailer and Jacob miller.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Africa

Nigerian reggae developed in the 1970s. In South Africa, Lucky Dube recorded 25 albums, fusing reggae with Mbaqanga. Reggae in Cape Town is notable in South Africa. In Ethiopia, Dub Collosus emerged in 2008 and has received wide acclaim.[26][27] .In Mali, Askia Modibo fuses reggae with Malian music, and is described by Last FM as "the most significant African reggae musician to emerge internationally within the past five years."^ He's currently writing sleeve notes for Soul Jazz records and an upcoming release of some Dancehall Reggae music, related to Beth Kingston's book 'Dancehall' that Soul Jazz brought out last year.
  • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peter Tosh: The last words and violent death of a reggae hero.” Musician 100: 21, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 40, 121.
  • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the past 100 years this school has produced many great singers and musicians that have been the very foundation from where so many classic ska, rocksteady and reggae records have been created, aswell as producing legendary jazz musicians like Joe Harriott and Dizzy Reece.

[28] In Malawi, Black Missionaries produced five albums. .In Ivory Coast, Tiken Jah Fakoly fuses reggae with traditional music.^ Tiken Jah Fakoly - Le Cameleon .
  • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

Asia

.In the Phillipines, several bands and sound systems play reggae and dancehall music in a style faithful to its expression in Jamaica.^ It can mean a style of upbeat reggae, or a reggae club that plays loud music.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Dancehall: A name that is used to designate not only a musical style but also a place.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

^ Prince Buster and U-Roy of Jamaica brought Ska to the UK in the early 1960s where it has been a major inspiration to many bands, such as the Specials, Madness, UB40 and many other underground music acts from dance to reggae.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

.Their music is called Pinoy reggae.^ A reggae deejay/vocalist calls this out to his band (or deejay) in a live performance situation as a cue to abruptly stop the music in a free-jazz sort of way.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Japanese reggae emerged in the early 1980s.

Australasia

Reggae in Australia originated in the 1980s. .New Zealand reggae has seen many bands emerging since 2000, often involving fusion with electronica.^ Just as reggae has transformed drastically since it's inception, soca has also witnessed many of changes and it's aggressive offspring ragga- soca is a good example of this trend.
  • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

Footnotes

  1. ^ 1967 Dictionary of Jamaican English
  2. ^ a b c d e f History of Jamaican Music 1953–1973
  3. ^ Sturges, Fiona (2004) "Frederick "Toots" Hibbert: The reggae king of Kingston", The Independent, 4 June 2004, retrieved 11 December 2009; cf. many similar statements by Hibbert in recent years. In earlier interviews, Hibbert used to claim the derivation was from English 'regular', in reference to the beat.
  4. ^ Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley, Timothy White, p. 16
  5. ^ "Shocks Of Mighty: An Upsetting Biography"
  6. ^ "A brief summary of Jamaican music" - excerpted from A History of Popular Music by Piero Scaruffi (2002)
  7. ^ Reggae [Relation to Rock & Roll] Richie Unterberger All Music Guide
  8. ^ a b King, Stephen A. Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control. University press of Mississippi. Jackson, 2002. web.
  9. ^ a b Bradley, Lloyd. This Is Reggae Music: The Sotry of Jamaica’s Music. New York: Bradley, 2000. Print.
  10. ^ Bradley, Lloyd. This Is Reggae Music:The Story Of Jamaica's Music. New York:Grove Press, 2001
  11. ^ LOGOonline.com: NewNowNext Blog: Reggae Stars Sign On To Cut Out Homophobic Lyrics
  12. ^ Reggae Stars Renounce Homophobia, Condemn Anti-gay Violence
  13. ^ "The Most Homophobic Place on Earth?". Time. 2006-04-12. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1182991,00.html. 
  14. ^ Flick, Larry, "Gay vs. reggae: the reggae music industry makes changes in response to gay activists' protesting violently homophobic lyrics. The artists have no comment", The Advocate, April 12, 2005
  15. ^ "Sizzl - Reggae Industry to Ban Homophobia"
  16. ^ "Reggae stars renounce homophobia - Beenie Man, Sizzla and Capleton sign deal"
  17. ^ "SCOTIABANK CARIBANA FESTIVAL 2009 "
  18. ^ "Toronto - Reggae's Elephant Man nixed from Toronto concert"
  19. ^ "Sizzla Refuses To ‘Bow’ – Toronto Show Cancelled"
  20. ^ Dick Hebdige, Cut 'n' Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music p.67
  21. ^ Reggae-Shack, Rockers - The Golden Age Of Reggae
  22. ^ Wright, André (2009) "Slack song ban - Kartel's 'Rampin' Shop' among explicit lyrics outlawed", Jamaica Gleaner, February 7, 2009, retrieved 2010-01-31
  23. ^ Richards, Peter (2009) "JAMAICA: Women Cheer Ban on Sexually Degrading Song Lyrics", Inter Press Service, February 11, 2009, retrieved 2010-01-31
  24. ^ AskMen.com - "5 Things You Didn't Know About Reggaeton"
  25. ^ Big D (2008-05-08). "Reggae Fusion". Reggae-Reviews. http://www.reggae-reviews.com/fusion.html. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 
  26. ^ Pitchfork media review of Ethiopia's Dub Collosus
  27. ^ The Guardian's review of Dub Collosus
  28. ^ Askia Modibo at Last FM

Bibliography

  • Jérémie Kroubo Dagnini (2008). Les origines du reggae: retour aux sources. .Mento, ska, rocksteady, early reggae, L'Harmattan, coll.^ Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, Early Reggae, Roots Reggae, Dub, Dancehall, Modern Roots, Ragga and a whole heap more, including informative chat and enthusiastic sillyness.
    • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Univers musical. ISBN 978-2-296-06252-8 (French)
  • Manuel, Peter, with Kenneth Bilby and Michael Largey (2006). .Caribbean Currents: Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (2nd edition).^ If reggae music is the heartbeat of the Caribbean, then soca is the pulse.
    • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

    .Temple University Press, 2006
    .
    ^ Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 416 pp.
    • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.^ Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 416 pp.
    • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 1-59213-463-7. 
  • O'Brien Chang, Kevin & Chen, Wayne (1998). .Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music.^ Mento: A style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced reggae music.
    • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He co-wrote the Rough Guide To Reggae, a bible for all Jamaican music fans.
    • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio is one of the most popular Jamaican music shows on the internet!
    • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Ian Randle Publishers. ISBN 976-8100-67-2.
     
  • Larkin, Colin (ed.) (1998). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Reggae. Virgin. ISBN 0-7535-0242-9. 
  • Barrow, Steve & Dalton, Peter (2004 for the 3rd edition). .The Rough Guide to Reggae.^ He co-wrote the Rough Guide To Reggae, a bible for all Jamaican music fans.
    • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-329-4.
     
  • Morrow, Chris (1999). Stir It Up: Reggae Cover Art. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28154-8. 
  • Jahn, Brian & Weber, Tom (1998). .Reggae Island: Jamaican Music in the Digital Age.^ Mento: A style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced reggae music.
    • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the 1970's (the golden age of dub), these famous producers and engineers would sit behind the mixing board, and dare to stretch the limits of reggae music.
    • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He co-wrote the Rough Guide To Reggae, a bible for all Jamaican music fans.
    • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Da Capo Press.^ Garden City, New York: Da Capo Press, 2 nd edition.
    • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-306-80853-6.
     
  • Hurford, Ray (ed.) (1987). More Axe. Erikoispaino Oy. ISBN 951-99841-4-3. 
  • Potash, Chris (ed.) (1997). .Reggae, Rasta, Revolution: Jamaican Music from Ska to Dub.^ October 25, 2008 01:15 AM PDT The House of Reggae is back for another 60 minutes of supercalifragilisticexpialidocious Jamaican music.

    ^ September 25, 2008 10:40 AM PDT The House of Reggae invites you along for the ride for another 60 minutes of fine Jamaican music..….

    ^ Mento, Ska, Rocksteady, Early Reggae, Roots Reggae, Dub, Dancehall, Modern Roots, Ragga and a whole heap more, including informative chat and enthusiastic sillyness.
    • PodOmatic | Podcast - Bigmikeydread Reggae Radio 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC bigmikeydread.podomatic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-8256-7212-0.
     
  • Baek, Henrik & Hedegard, Hans (1999). .Dancehall Explosion, Reggae Music Into the Next Millennium.^ ReggaeTopSite.com The Latest Dancehall & Reggae Music Ward 21 - Suspicious .
    • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Rewind: A common term in reggae and dancehall music that is a request to "Bring that beat back"--to stop the song and start it over again.
    • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

    ^ These artists also incorporated the sounds of other musical influences, including reggae Afrobeat, and funk, into juju.
    • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

    Samler Borsen Publishing, Denmark. ISBN 87-981684-3-6.
     
  • Katz, David (2000). .People Funny Boy: The Genius of Lee Scratch Perry.^ Lee "Scratch" Perry .
    • Him's Reggae Concert Photographs, pictures of your favorite Reggaeartists on stage. 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaephotos.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This sound was pioneered by the likes of King Tubby, Scientist, Prince Jammy, Augustus Pablo, Bunny Lee and Lee Scratch Perry.
    • GospelReggae dot COM Sanctified Reggae Store - Glossary of Terms 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC www.gospelreggae.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Lee Scratch Perry - The Mighty Upsetter (Retail) -...
    • ReggaeTopSite.com | Latest Reggae & Dancehall Downloads 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC reggaetopsite.com [Source type: General]

    Payback Press, UK. ISBN 0-86241-854-2.
     
  • Lesser, Beth (2002). King Jammy's. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-525-1. 
  • Stolzoff, Norman C. (2000). Wake The Town And Tell The People. .Duke University Press, USA. ISBN 0-8223-2514-4. 
  • Davis, Stephen & Simon, Peter (1979).^ Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 214 pp.
    • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Stephen Davis & Peter Simon, eds.
    • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Davis, Stephen & Simon, Peter, eds.
    • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    Reggae Bloodlines: In Search of the Music and Culture of Jamaica. .Da Capo Press.^ Garden City, New York: Da Capo Press, 2 nd edition.
    • An annotated bibliography of Rastafarian Speech (Rasta Talk or Dread Talk) 6 January 2010 10:010 UTC thslone.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-306-80496-4. 
  • Katz, David (2003). Solid Foundation - An Oral history of Reggae. Bloomsburry, UK. ISBN 1-58234-143-5. 
  • de Koningh, Michael & Cane-Honeysett, Laurence (2003). Young Gifted and Black - The Story of Trojan Records. Sanctuary Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-86074-464-8. 
  • de Koningh, Michael & Griffiths, Marc (2003). Tighten Up - The History of Reggae in the UK. Sanctuary Publishing, UK. ISBN 1-86074-559-8. 
  • Bradley, Lloyd (2001). Bass Culture. When Reggae Was King. Penguin Books Ltd, UK. ISBN 0-14-023763-1. 
  • Bradley, Lloyd (2000). This Is Reggae Music. The Story of Jamica's Music. Penguin Books Ltd, UK. ISBN 0-802-3828-4. 
  • Chang, Jeff (2005). Can't Stop Won't Stop.. St. Martin's Press, 2005. ISBN 0-312-30143-X. 
  • Bader, Stascha (1988). Worte wie Feuer. Dance Hall-Reggae und Raggamuffin in Jamaika und England. Buchverlag Michael Schwinn, Neustadt, 2. Aufl. 1992. ISBN 3-925077-11-1. 

See also

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also reggae

German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Reggae
Wikipedia de

Noun

Reggae m.
  1. reggae

Simple English

Reggae is a kind of music from Jamaica. Most music from Jamaica can be called reggae. It started in the late 1960s. The music has regular chops on the back beat (off-beat). These are called “skank”, and are played by a rhythm guitarist. The bass drum hits on the second and fourth beat of each measure (each bar). These are called the “drop”. Reggae bands also use a bass, a keyboard or organ, and horns.

Reggae music is often used by Rastafarian groups. They are usually songs about religion, love and social problems. Bob Marley (1945-1981) was a famous reggae artist.

Famous instruments in reggae music are drums, guitar, saxophone, trumpet and trombone.

Reggae became very famous in the 1970's.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Reggae, which are similar to those in the above article.








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