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Rehoboam
King of Judah
Rehoboam. Fragment of Wall Painting from Basel Town Hall Council Chamber, by Hans Holbein the Younger..jpg
Rehoboam. Fragment of the wall painting in the Great Council Chamber of Basel Town Hall. Painting on plaster, 28 × 41.5 cm, Kunstmuseum Basel.
Reign c.922 BC - 915 BC or c.932 BC others 914 BC
Born unknown
Birthplace probably Jerusalem
Died unknown
Place of death possibly Jerusalem
Predecessor Solomon, his father
his son Abijam, by Maacah, grand-daughter of Absalom, David's son.
Successor Abijam
Consort eighteen wives, sixty concubines, including Maacah, grand-daughter of Absalom, David's son.
Royal House House of David
Father Solomon
Mother Naamah the Ammonite
Kings of Judah

SaulDavidSolomonRehoboamAbijamAsaJehoshaphatJehoramAhaziahAthaliahJ(eh)oashAmaziahUzziah/AzariahJothamAhazHezekiahManassehAmonJosiahJehoahazJehoiakimJeconiah/JehoiachinZedekiah


According to the Hebrew Bible, Rehoboam (Hebrew: רְחַבְעָם‎, Rehav'am, meaning "he who enlarges the people"; Greek: Ροβοαμ; Latin: Roboam) was a king of ancient Israel and later king of the Kingdom of Judah after the ten northern tribes of Israel rebelled in 932/931 BC to form the independent Kingdom of Israel.

He was a son of Solomon and a grandson of David. His mother was Naamah the Ammonite.[1]

Contents

Biblical narrative

Conventional Bible chronology dates the start of Rehoboam's reign to the mid 10th century BC. His reign is described in 1 Kings 12 and 14:21-31 and in 2 Chronicles 10-12

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Early reign

See: 10th century BC; Shishaq; Shishaq Relief

According to the Hebrew Bible, Rehoboam was forty-one years old when he ascended the throne, and he reigned for seventeen years.[1] The people, led by Jeroboam, feared that Rehoboam would continue to tax them heavily - as had his father Solomon. Jeroboam and the people promised their loyalty in return for lesser burdens. The older men counseled Rehoboam to at least speak to the people in a civil manner (it is not clear whether they counseled him to accept the demands), but the king sought advice from the people he had grown up with; they advised him to show no weakness to the people, and to tax them even more, which Rehoboam did. He proclaimed to the people, "Whereas my father laid upon you a heavy yoke, so shall I add tenfold thereto. Whereas my father chastised (tortured) you with whips, so shall I chastise you with scorpions. For my littlest finger is thicker than my father's loins; and your backs, which bent like reeds at my father's touch, shall break like straws at my own touch." Jeroboam and the people angrily rebelled; the ten northern tribes broke away and formed a separate kingdom, Israel, which came to be also known as Samaria (during the time of Jesus Christ), or Ephraim (in the Book of Mormon).[2] The realm Rehoboam was left with was called Judah, after the Tribe of Judah that formed the largest part of the population.

Rehoboam organized his armies and decided to go to war against the new kingdom of Israel. However, he was advised against fighting his brethren, and so returned to Jerusalem. He built elaborate defenses and strongholds, along with fortified cities. The text reports that Israel and Judah were in a state of war throughout his seventeen year reign.

Shishak

Shishaq Relief showing cartouches of Sheshonq I mentioning the invasion from the Egyptian perspective.

In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign Shishaq, king of Egypt, brought a huge army and took many cities. When they laid siege to Jerusalem, Rehoboam gave them all of the treasures out of the temple as a tribute. Judah became a vassal state of Egypt. The account of this invasion from the Egyptian perspective can be found in the Shishaq Relief at the Bubastis Portal near the Temple of Amun at Karnak.

Succession

Rehoboam had eighteen wives and sixty concubines, who bore him eighty-eight children. When he died he was buried beside his ancestors in Jerusalem. He was succeeded by his son Abijah.

Dating

The United Kingdom of Solomon breaks up, with Jeroboam ruling over the Northern Kingdom of Israel (in green on the map).

Using the information in Kings and Chronicles Edwin Thiele has calculated the date for the division of the kingdom is 931-930 BC. Thiele noticed that for the first seven kings of Israel (ignoring Zimri's inconsequential seven-day reign), the synchronisms to Judean kings fell progressively behind by one year for each king. Thiele saw this as evidence that the northern kingdom was measuring the years by a non-accession system (first partial year of reign was counted as year one), whereas the southern kingdom was using the accession method (it was counted as year zero). Once this was understood, the various reign lengths and cross-synchronisms for these kings was worked out, and the sum of reigns for both kingdoms produced 931/930 BC for the division of the kingdom when working backwards from the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.

Rehoboam
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Solomon
King of Judah
932 – 915 BC
Succeeded by
Abijam

References


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.REHOBOAM (Heb. rehab`am, probably "the clan is enlarged," see Ecclus. xlvii. 23, although on the analogy of Rehabiah and Bab. ra'bi-ilu, `Am may represent some god; Septuagint reads po f 30a,u), son of Solomon and first king of Judah. On the events which led to his accession and the partition of the Hebrew monarchy, see Jeroboam, Solomon. Although his age is given as forty-one (i Kings xiv. 21), the account of his treatment of the Israelite deputation (i Kings xii.), as also 2 Chron. xiii. 7, give an impression of youth. He was partly of Ammonite origin (1 Kings xiv. 21), and, like his father, continued the foreign worship which his connexions involved. The chief event of his reign was the incursion of Egypt under Sheshonk (Shishak) I., who came up against Judah and despoiled the temple about 930 B.C. (see Egypt, History, § " Deltaic Dynasties"). That this invasion is to be connected with the friendly relations which are said to have subsisted between the first of the Libyan dynasty and Rehoboam's rival is unlikely. Sheshonk has figured his campaign outside the great temple of Karnak with a list of some 150 places which he claims to have conquered, but it is possible that these were only tributary, and the names may be largely based upon older lists. Towns of both Judah and Israel are incorporated, and it is possible that Jerusalem once stood where now the stone is mutilated.' The book of Chronicles enumerates several Judaean cities fortified by Rehoboam (not necessarily connected with Sheshonk's campaign), and characteristically regards the invasion as a punishment (2 Chron. xi. 5 sqq., xii. 1-15; for the prophet Shemaiah see 1 Kings xii. 21-24). Of Rehoboam's successor Abijah (or Abijam) little is known except a victory over Jeroboam recorded in 2 Chron. xiii. See further ASA, Omri, and Jews (History), §§ 7, 9.


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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Kings of Judah
David
Solomon
Rehoboam
Abijah
Asa
Jehoshaphat
Jehoram
Ahaziah
Athaliah
Jehoash
Amaziah
Uzziah
Jotham
Ahaz
Hezekiah
Manasseh
Amon
Josiah
Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim
Jehoiachin
Zedekiah

Meaning: he enlarges the people

The successor of Solomon on the throne of Israel, and apparently his only son. He was the son of Naamah "the Ammonitess," some well-known Ammonitish princess (1 Kg 14:21; 2Chr 12:13). He was forty-one years old when he ascended the throne, and he reigned seventeen years (B.C. 975-958). Although he was acknowledged at once as the rightful heir to the throne, yet there was a strongly-felt desire to modify the character of the government. The burden of taxation to which they had been subjected during Solomon's reign was very oppressive, and therefore the people assembled at Shechem and demanded from the king an alleviation of their burdens. He went to meet them at Shechem, and heard their demands for relief (1 Kg 12:4). After three days, having consulted with a younger generation of courtiers that had grown up around him, instead of following the advice of elders, he answered the people haughtily (1 Kg 12:6ff). "The king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the Lord" (comp. 1 Kg 11:31). This brought matters speedily to a crisis. The terrible cry was heard (comp. 2 Sam 20:1):

"What portion have we in David? Neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: To your tents, O Israel: Now see to thine own house, David" (1 Kg 12:16).

And now at once the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam was appalled, and tried concessions, but it was too late (18). The tribe of Judah, Rehoboam's own tribe, alone remained faithful to him. Benjamin was reckoned along with Judah, and these two tribes formed the southern kingdom, with Jerusalem as its capital; while the northern ten tribes formed themselves into a separate kingdom, choosing Jeroboam as their king. Rehoboam tried to win back the revolted ten tribes by making war against them, but he was prevented by the prophet Shemaiah (21-24; 2 Chr. 11:1-4) from fulfilling his purpose.

In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak, one of the kings of Egypt of the Assyrian dynasty, stirred up, no doubt, by Jeroboam his son-in-law, made war against him. Jerusalem submitted to the invader, who plundered the temple and virtually reduced the kingdom to the position of a vassal of Egypt (1 Kg 14:25f; 2Chr 12:5ff). A remarkable memorial of this invasion has been discovered at Karnak, in Upper Egypt, in certain sculptures on the walls of a small temple there. These sculptures represent the king, Shishak, holding in his hand a train of prisoners and other figures, with the names of the captured towns of Judah, the towns which Rehoboam had fortified (2Chr 11:5ff).

The kingdom of Judah, under Rehoboam, sank more and more in moral and spiritual decay. "There was war between Rehoboam and Jeroboam all their days." At length, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, Rehoboam "slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David" (1 Kg 14:31). He was succeeded by his son Abijah.

Ruled from 931/30 to 913.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Facts about RehoboamRDF feed
Child of Solomon  +
Parent of Abijah  +
Rule end 913  +
Rule start 931  +
Ruler of Israel  +, and Judah  +

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