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Sexual morality varies greatly over time and between cultures. A society's sexual norms — standards of sexual conduct — can be linked to religious beliefs, or social and environmental conditions, or all of these. Sexuality and reproduction are fundamental elements in human interaction and society worldwide. Furthermore, "sexual restrictions" is one of the universals of culture peculiar to all human societies.[1] Accordingly, most religions have seen a need to address the question of a "proper" role for sexuality in human interactions. Different religions have different codes of sexual morality, which regulate sexual activity or assign normative values to certain sexually charged actions or thoughts.

Contents

Overview

The views of religions and religious believers range widely, from holding the belief that sex and the flesh are negative, to the belief that sex is the highest expression of the divine. Views on sexuality may not even be shared among adherents of a particular sect. Some religions distinguish between sexual activities that are practiced for biological reproduction (sometimes allowed only when in formal marital status and at a certain age), and other activities practiced for sexual pleasure as immoral.

A 2005 summary of various studies found that rates of sexually transmitted diseases, abortion, and early adolescent pregnancy are in fact lower in secular societies. [2] There are many possible reasons for this conclusion.

Abrahamic religions

Heterosexuality, and specifically procreation, is currently viewed as the ideal by some members of the Abrahamic religions. They sanction monogamous and committed heterosexual relationships within marriage. The Jewish Hebrew Bible prohibits adultery and heterosexual intercourse during the period of Niddah or menses.

Judaism

In the perspective of traditional Judaism, sex and reproduction are the holiest of acts one can do, the act through which one can imitate God, "The Creator", and in order to preserve its sanctity there are many boundaries and guidelines. However, within the boundaries, there are virtually no outright strictures, and is in fact obligatory. It prohibits sexual relations outside of heterosexual marriage, maintains biblical strictures on relations within marriage including observance of Niddah, a prohibition on relations for a period including the menstrual period, and Tzniut, requirements of modest dress and behavior. Traditional Judaism views adultery, incest, and male homosexuality as grave sins. See Jewish views of homosexuality. Judaism permits relatively free divorce, with Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism requiring a religious divorce ceremony for a divorce to be religiously recognized. More liberal branches of Judaism have adapted perspectives more consistent with contemporary general secular culture. Some Reform rabbis also perform homosexual marriages.[citation needed]

Orthodox

There are several levels to the observance of physical and personal modesty (tzniut) according to Orthodox Judaism as derived from various sources in halakha. Observance of these rules varies from aspirational to mandatory to routine across the spectrum of Orthodox stricture and observance.

  • A prohibition on dwelling on lascivious or immoral thoughts.
  • A prohibition on staring at members of the opposite sex, particularly at the reproductive anatomy.
  • A requirement to keep most of one's body clothed in respectable clothing.
  • A requirement to avoid the company of uncouth individuals and avoid frequenting places where an atmosphere of levity and depravity prevails.
  • A prohibition on looking at pictures or scenes that will be sexually arousing.
  • A prohibition on touching a person of the opposite sex, especially in a lingering arousing manner (shaking hands very quickly in greeting between sexes is a point of dispute, and depends on one's rabbi's halachic decision). See Negiah.
  • A prohibition on wearing the clothing of a member of the opposite sex.
  • A prohibition on looking at animals copulating.
  • A prohibition on erotically hugging (chibuk) or kissing (nishuk) one's spouse in public,
  • A prohibition on sexual contact or touching between spouses when the wife is a niddah ("menstruant") or has not immersed in a mikvah following the niddah period.
  • A prohibition on seclusion with a person of the opposite sex who is not a spouse or close relative (Yichud)
  • A requirement that men and women be separated during prayer, dancing, and on certain other occasions (Mechitza)
  • A prohibition on hotza'at zera levatala -- "secreting semen in vain" by men. There is no equivalent prohibition for women since there is no secretion. However, masturbation by women is considered by most Rabbis[citation needed] to be a lewd act and is thus included in the general commandment "And you shall be holy".
  • A prohibition on sex between men, or with any type of animal, or with a corpse.

Orthodox Judaism also maintains a strong prohibition on interfaith sexual relations and marriage.

Orthodox Jews tend to have a lower intermarriage rate than their Conservative and Reform counterparts. The 1990 National Jewish Population Survey indicated that of all the Jewish denominations, Orthodox Jews alone had a lower intermarriage rate in the 18-39 age category (3%) vs. the 40+ category (10%), compared with 37% vs. 10% for Conservative Jews, 53% vs. 10% for Reform Jews, and 72% vs. 39% for secular Jews.[3] A Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs report showed that Orthodox Judaism had doubled among synagogue-affiliated Jews in the United States, from 10% in 1990 to 21.8% in 2001, and that most of this growth was in the stricter Haredi Judaism as opposed to Modern Orthodox Judaism. It speculated that this trend may have been related to a general trend towards greater religious and social traditionalism, as well as due to earlier marriage and higher birth rates in Orthodox families consistent with more traditional sexual behavior.[4] Orthodox Judaism, alone of all the Jewish denominations, retains relatively mild traditional disabilities on divorce, including a Biblical prohibition on a Kohen (priestly descendant of Aaron) marrying a divorcee or a women who has engaged in certain types of sexual misconduct. These strictures, while observed, are generally regarded as matters of personal status rather than morality. An Orthodox bill of divorce is required for a divorce to be recognized.

Conservative

Conservative Judaism, consistent with its general view that Halakha (Jewish law) is a binding guide to Jewish life but subject to periodic revision by the Rabbinate, has lifted a number of strictures observed by Orthodox Judaism. In particular, in December 2006, Conservative Judaism's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards adopted responsa presenting diametrically opposed views on the issue of homosexuality. It adopted an opinion restricting a prior prohibition on homosexual conduct to male-male anal sex only, which it declared to be the only Biblical prohibition, declaring all other prohibitions (e.g. male-male oral sex or lesbian sex) rabbinic, and lifting all rabbinic restrictions based on its interpretation of the Talmudic principle of Kevod HaBriyot ("human dignity"). While declining to develop a form of religious gay marriage, it permitted blessing lesbian and gay unions and ordaining openly lesbian and gay rabbis who agree not to engage in male-male anal sex.[5] It also adopted two traditionalist opinions, an opinion upholding all traditional prohibitions on homosexual activity, also adopted as a majority opinion,[6] and a minority opinion urging homosexuals wishing to live as religious Jews to seek treatment.[citation needed] The approach permits individual rabbis, congregations, and rabbinical schools to set their own policy on homosexual conduct. It reflects a profound change from a prior blanket prohibition on male homosexual practices. It acknowledges a sharp divergence of views on sexual matters within Conservative Judaism, such that there is no single Conservative Jewish approach to matters of sexuality. Conservative Judaism currently straddles the divide between liberal and traditional opinion on sexual matters within contemporary American society, permitting both views.[7]

Conservative Judaism has maintained on its books a variety of modesty requirements and prohibitions, including a requirement that married women observe the laws of Niddah (refraining from sex during and shortly after their menstrual period and immersing in a Mikvah prior to resuming relations) and a general prohibition on non-marital heterosexual conduct. On the same day as the CJLS released its homosexuality responsa, it released multiple opinions on the subject of Niddah including a responsum lifting certain traditional restrictions on husband-wife contact during the niddah period while maintaining a prohibition on sexual relations. The permissive responsum on homosexuality used the Conservative movement's approach to Niddah as an analogy for construing the Biblical prohibition against male homosexual conduct narrowly and lifting restrictions it deemed Rabbinic in nature. The responsum indicated it would be making a practical analogy between an approach in which male homosexual couples would be on their honor to refrain from certain acts and its approach to Niddah:

We expect homosexual students to observe the rulings of this responsum in the same way that we expect heterosexual students to observe the CJLS rulings on niddah. We also expect that interview committees, administrators, faculty and fellow students will respect the privacy and dignity of gay and lesbian students in the same way that they respect the privacy and dignity of heterosexual students.

The responsum enjoined young people not to be "promiscuous" and to prepare themselves for "traditional marriage" if possible, while not explicitly lifting or re-enforcing any express strictures on non-marital heterosexual conduct.[5].

Even before this responsum, strictures on pre-marital sex had been substantially ignored, even in official circles. For example, when the Jewish Theological Seminary proposed enforcing a policy against non-marital cohabitation by rabbinical students in the 1990s, protests by cohabiting rabbinical students resulted in a complete rescission of the policy.

Conservative Judaism formally prohibits interfaith marriage and its standards currently indicate it will expel a Rabbi who performs an interfaith marriage. It maintains a variety of formal strictures including a prohibition on making birth announcements in synagogue bulletins for children on non-Jewish mothers and accepting non-Jewish individuals as synagogue members. However, interfaith marriage is relatively widespread among the Conservative laity, and the Conservative movement has recently adapted a policy of being more welcoming of interfaith couples in the hopes of interesting their children in Judaism, and is considering relaxing some of its strictures.

Conservative Judaism, which was for much of the 20th century the largest Jewish denomination in the United States declined sharply in synagogue membership in the United States the 1990s, from 51% of synagogue memberships in 1990 to 33.1% in 2001, with most of the loss going to Orthodox Judaism and most of the rest to Reform. The fracturing in American society of opinion between increasingly liberal and increasingly traditionalist viewpoints on sexual and other issues, as well as the gap between official opinion and general lay practice vis-a-vis the more traditionalist and liberal denominations, may have contributed to the decline.[8].

Reform and Reconstructionist

Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism do not observe or require traditional sexuality rules and have welcomed non married and homosexual couples and endorsed homosexual commitment ceremonies and marriages.

Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism are more tolerant of interfaith marriage, and many rabbis in both communities will perform one. Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism also do not require a religious divorce ceremony separate from a civil divorce.

It has been speculated that the more tolerant attitudes of Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism towards both sexual diversity and interfaith marriage may have contributed to the rise in their popularity during the 1990s, from about 33% of affiliated households to 38%, making it pass Conservative Judaism as the largest Jewish denomination in the United States.[8]

Christianity

Historical background

The Apostle Paul, while allowing that sex within marriage was acceptable for those who could not otherwise restrain themselves ("it is better to marry than to burn with passion"),[9] regarded celibacy as the ideal state while awaiting the Second Coming; all other forms of sex were condemned.[10] The later Church took Paul's condemnation of sex outside marriage even further: marital sex itself came to be seen as a concession, permitted only for procreation, never for pleasure.[11] A couple who scrupulously followed the Church's guidance would have been restricted to sexual relations no more than four times a month, while making every effort to avoid pleasure in the act.[12] Non-marital sex, of any variety, was forbidden and severely penalised, although the penalties can seem inexplicable to modern eyes: simple fornication, for example, carried a penalty of two years of fasting, halved if the female partner was a servant-girl, but increased to twelve years if the male partner were a bishop.[13] Masturbation attracted a penalty of 30 days fasting for boys and 40 for young men, but only three weeks if the offender were a priest;[14]; oral sex, whether heterosexual or homosexual, usually attracted heavier penalties than anal sex, with sliding scales of penance depending on the age of the offender;[15] sex with farm animals appears to have been relatively common, to judge from the frequency with which it is mentioned, and attracted penances roughly on a par with anal sex.[16] By the tenth century aversion to sex had become a central feature of Christian thought.[17]

From the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Catholic Church formally recognized marriage between a freely consenting, baptized man and woman as a sacrament—an outward sign communicating a special gift of God's love . The Council of Florence in 1438 gave this definition, following earlier Church statements in 1208, and declared that sexual union was a special participation in the union of Christ in the Church.[18] During the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther and John Calvin denied the sacramentality of marriage, but not the understanding that sexual intercourse was reserved for marriage. Otherwise, Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant views on human sexuality remained almost identical until 1930. Simply stated, this view was that all sexuality was reserved for marriage and all other forms of human sexuality, as well as divorce, were condemned. In defense of this traditional view, Charles Gore, Anglican Bishop of Oxford, noted that Christian churches always taught:

1. That the Church has steadily and constantly taught that generation is the primary end of marriage.
2. That the Church has always declined to say that progeneration is the only end.
3. That married intercourse was never prohibited when the laws of nature make generation improbable or impossible.
4. That sexual intercourse of married people has other recognized ends than the production of offspring.
5. That the attempt to use any devices to separate absolutely the satisfaction of the physical desire from its chief end is to be condemned as sin.
6. That methods of Birth Prevention are not wrong because they are mechanical, but because they do not promote the ends of nature and obstruct and defeat them.
7. That Birth Prevention is sinful because, like other sensual practices commonly called unnatural, it is a deliberate enterprise taken in hand to separate enjoyment of the sexual act from its possible natural result. It is thus regarded as 'unfruitful works of darkness.'
8. That Christians are always and rightly bidden to effect what we propose to do and not isolate our private interest from the general interests of the kingdom of God.[19]

This unanimity was broken at the 1930 Lambeth Conference, the quadrennial meeting of the worldwide Anglican Communion, creating divisions in that denomination. After World War II, divergence in Protestant teaching on sexuality accelerated. Today, liberal Christians in a wide number of denominations advocate that the teachings against premarital sex, divorce, and homosexuality were either misread throughout previous centuries or that they applied to ancient, not current, circumstances. Fundamentalist Christians tend to hold onto the idea that homosexuality and premarital sex are wrong based on numerous passages in the Bible that condemn sodomy and fornication. However, even conservative Protestant Christians in Western countries have largely downplayed the importance of Bible verses that condemn remarriage after divorce as adultery.[20]

Scriptures in the New Testament dealing with sexuality are extensive. Subjects include: the Apostolic Decree's (Acts 15) ban of fornication, divine love (1 Corinthians 13), mutual self-giving (1 Corinthians 7), bodily membership between Christ and between husband and wife (1 Corinthians 6:15-20), honor versus dishonor of adultery (Hebrews 13:4), and condemnation of sexual immorality including homosexuality (although some argue otherwise) (Romans 1:24-32).

Even with the large number of Bible passages that address issues of sexuality, interpretation of these verses can vary. The issue of premarital sex is good example of how the same verse can be viewed in different ways. In modern English, fornication typically refers to voluntary sexual intercourse between persons not married to each other. Given that modern definition, a verse that condemns fornication (such as 1 Corinthians 6:9 which is often cited by various denominations as biblical opposition to pre-marital sex) would appear to be clear. However, in the New Testament, fornication is the word used to translate the Koine Greek word porneia into English. In Ancient Greek, the word porneia meant "sexual immorality" or "sexual perversions". Early Christians understood this word to encompass activities such as: prostitution, adultery, homosexuality, incest, and bestiality. Modern fundamentalist Christians tend to prefer the modern meaning of the word as premarital sex, or will even choose to broaden the term to also include activities such as masturbation and pornography, while progressive Christians tend to limit the interpretation of the word to illegal sexual activities such as incest, prostitution, bestiality, and pedophilia.

Protestant and Anglicanism

In most Lutheran, Reformed and United churches of the EKD in Germany and in the Netherlands and Switzerland view homosexuality as a violation of the 7th commandment. In these Lutheran, United and Reformed churches (Luther/Calvin) gay ministers are not permitted in ministry and gay couples are not allowed in their churches.

In the Anglican church there is a large discussion over the blessing of gay couples and over tolerance of homosexuality. In some dioceses, Anglican (Episcopal) churches in Canada and the USA permit openly gay priests in ministry and allow same-sex blessings, which has drawn much criticism from other parts of the Anglican Communion. Anglican churches in parts of Africa are extremely conservative in their attitude towards homosexuality. Gay priests in most Anglican churches must be celibate if they wish to continue their work as priests.

Most evangelical churches, such as Southern Baptists, for example, point out that the Bible says homosexuality is a sin. Although Leviticus calls for the killing of anyone who commits a homosexual act, evangelicals believe that this was part of the Mosaic law. They point out that in the new testament, Romans 1:27, while it is still a sin, sinners have a chance for forgiveness. The theme of Leviticus, death, is not echoed in this reading.

Catholic and Orthodox

The Catholic Church affirms the sanctity of all human life, from conception to natural death. The Church believes that each person is made in the "image and likeness of God", and that human life should not be weighed against other values such as economy, convenience, personal preferences, or social engineering. Therefore, the Church opposes activities that they believe destroy or devalue divinely created life, including euthanasia, eugenics, death penalty and abortion.

The Church teaches that Manichaeism, the belief that the spirit is good while the flesh is evil, is a heresy. Therefore, the Church does not teach that sex is sinful or an impairment to a grace-filled life. "And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good."[21] then the human body and sex must likewise be good. The Catechism teaches that "the flesh is the hinge of salvation."[22]

However the Church does teach that sexual intercourse outside of marriage is contrary to its purpose. The "conjugal act" aims at a deeply personal unity, a unity that, beyond union in one flesh, leads to forming one heart and soul" (Catechism 1643) since the marriage bond is to be a sign of the love between God and humanity (Catechism 1617).

Pope John Paul II's first major teaching was on the Theology of the Body. Over the course of five years he elucidated a vision of sex that was not only positive and affirming but was about redemption, not condemnation. He taught that by understanding God's plan for physical love we could understand "the meaning of the whole of existence, the meaning of life."[23] He taught that human beings were created by God who is love for a purpose: to be loving persons who freely choose to love, to give themselves as persons who express their self-giving through their bodies. Thus, sexual intercourse between husband and wife is a symbol of their total mutual self-donation, and further fosters, strengthens and enriches it not just for the present but also for the future.

For John Paul II, "The body, and it alone, is capable of making visible what is invisible: the spiritual and divine." He says there is no other more perfect image of the unity and communion of God in mutual love than the sexual act of a married couple, whereby they give themselves in a total way—exclusively to one another, and up to end of their lives, and in a fruitfully generous way by participating in the creation of new human beings. Through this perspective, he understands the immorality of extra marital sex. It falsifies the language of the human body, a language of total love worthy of persons by using the body for selfish ends, thus treating persons as things and objects, rather than dealing with embodied persons with the reverence and love that incarnate spirits deserve. John Paul II stresses that there is great beauty in sexual love when done in harmony with the human values of freely chosen total commitment and self-giving. For him, this sexual love is a form of worship, an experience of the sacred.[24][25]

The Catechism of the Catholic Church indicates that sexual relationships in marriage as a way of imitating in the flesh the Creator's generosity and fecundity [1] and lists fornication as one of the "Offenses Against Chastity" [2] and calls it "an intrinsically and gravely disordered action" because "use of the sexual faculty, for whatever reason, outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its purpose."[26]

Islam

Islam discourages celibacy as a form of religious practice, and considers marriage as the best form that regulates the sexual relationship of human beings.

Qur'anic verses made it legal for Muslim men to marry women from other Abrahamic religions (i.e. Jews and Christians), provided that the women are faithful (adherent) to their own religious beliefs. Contemporary scholars have upheld this ruling, but many view inter-faith marriages as unwise (as it leads to many problems such as determination of religion of children, etc), albeit legal.

A Muslim woman, on the other hand, is only allowed to marry a Muslim man, one of the reasons being, to marry a non-Muslim man would mean that the children would grow up as non-Muslims. A marriage contract between a Muslim woman and a non-Muslim man is traditionally considered illegal and void, and hence legally an adulterous affair. The same holds true for a marriage contract between a Muslim man and a woman from a faith scholars of shari'a regard as non-Monotheistic, such as Hinduism or Buddhism.[citation needed]

The Qur'an states the following conditions for men with regard to marriage:

4:22 And marry not women whom your fathers married save for what is past: it is shameful and odious—indeed an abominable custom.

4:23 Prohibited to you (For marriage) are:- Your mothers, daughters, sisters; father's sisters, Mother's sisters; brother's daughters, sister's daughters; foster-mothers, foster-sisters; your wives' mothers; your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives to whom ye have gone in,- no prohibition if ye have not gone in;- (Those who have been) wives of your sons proceeding from your loins; and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time save for what is past; for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

4:24 Also (prohibited are) women already married. Thus hath God ordained (Prohibitions) against you: Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek (them in marriage) with gifts from your property: desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that ye derive benefit from them, give them their dowers (at least) as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree mutually (to vary it), there is no blame on you. And God is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

4:25 If any of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess. And God hath full knowledge about your faith. Ye are one from another: wed them with the leave of their owners, and give them their dowers, according to what is reasonable. They should be chaste, not lustful, nor taking paramours: when they are taken in wedlock, if they fall into shame, their punishment is half that for free women. This (permission) is for those among you who fear sin; but it is better for you that ye practice self-restraint. And God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

4:26 Allah doth wish to make clear to you and to show you the ordinances of those before you; and (He doth wish to) turn to you (In Mercy): And God is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

Most forms of sexual contact within a marriage are allowed. Sex is considered a pleasurable, even spiritual activity, and a duty. At least one hadith explicitly states that for a married couple to have sex is a good deed rewarded by God. Another hadith suggests that a man should not leave the proverbial bed until the woman is satisfied, a reference many say points to orgasm.

Adultery warrants severe punishment. Pre-marital sex is also considered sinful, albeit less severe. All shari'a laws regulating sexual conduct apply to both men and women equally, apart from those concerning menstruation.

Forbidden sexual contact includes genital contact with a woman while she is menstruating. In such case, other sexual contact (such as kissing and any sexual activity that does not include vaginal contact) is explicitly allowed. Anal sex, whether it be between a married couple or not, is forbidden by all scholars according to the hadeeth "Cursed is the one who approaches his wife in her rectum" [27] Temporary marriage (Mut'a, marriage designated for a preset period of time) is not allowed by the majority Sunni schools, but is allowed by Shia schools. Debate continues on its validity.

There are dissenting views on the topic of masturbation. While some scholars consider it unlawful and thus prohibited according to Islamic doctrine, others (such as those of the Hanbali doctrine) believe that those who masturbate out of fear of committing fornication or fear for their bodies have done nothing wrong and are not punished if (and only if) they are unable to marry. According to some hadiths however, men are encouraged to fast in order to avoid fornication and tempting oneself with sexual thoughts or conversations with opposite sex outside marriage is strongly discouraged.

Homosexuality is forbidden in Islam; acts of sodomy are explicitly punishable by death in accordance with the Hadith: "Whomever you find doing the deed of the People of Lot, then kill both the doer and whomever he is doing it to." The four Caliphs upheld this ruling, as did all of the Prophet's companions. Sodomy is a capital crime in Iran, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Sudan, and Mauritania.

Unitarian Universalism

While Unitarianism and Universalism are terms used to express Christian theological ideas, since the 1950s it has changed to be less focused on Scripture and the traditions of Christianity and started to draw from a wider range of sources.

Unitarian Universalists have advocated for many decades for same-sex marriage. The Canadian Unitarian Council was given Intervenor status to argue in support of same-sex marriage in the debates before legalisation in 2005.

The Unitarian Universalist Association and the United Church of Christ partnered to create Our Whole Lives, a comprehensive sexuality curricula that has modules from Kindergarten/Grade 1 through adult. This program is an abstinence-based program that focuses on comprehensive sexual education (as opposed to the abstinence-only programs often taught in the United States).

Unitarian Universalism advocates freedom for people to choose which sexual acts are morally and personally permissible, and to express one's sexual orientation and gender openly.

Hinduism

Erotic sculptures in Khajuraho

In Hinduism, views of sexual morality differ widely depending on the region and sect. Hindu scriptures themselves are often vague about sexuality. There are temples depicting sexual activity openly (examples include temple complexes at Ajanta and Ellora, and at Khajuraho, which has the largest[citation needed] group of medieval Hindu and Jain temples, with their erotic sculpture), and sexual imagery is not sacrilege, but sexual self-restraint (as well as in other aspects of life) are considered essential to a Hindu's well being and dharmic/karmic duties.

Religiously speaking, Hindus begin life at the Brahmacharya or "student" stage, in which they are directed to chastely advance themselves educationally and spiritually to prepare themselves for a life of furthering their dharma (societal, occupational, parental, etc. duties) and karma (right earthly actions); only once they reach the Grihastya or "householder" stage can they seek kama (physical pleasure) and artha (worldly achievement, material prosperity) through their vocations.

In general, however, Hindu society has been influenced by Islamic and colonial British viewpoints to reflect their quite conservative attitudes in matters pertaining to sex. Among more traditional elements of Hindu society, such concepts as pre-marital sex(Western notions) are still anathema.

Most culturally-sensitive Hindus adhere to sexual standards akin to Victorian morality, with both pre-marital and extramarital sex perceived to be immoral and shameful. In the religion's teachings, the prohibition against sex outside of marriage is largely related to the prescribed life stages Hindus are bound to follow if they are to attain moksha (the same as the Buddhist concept of nirvana, or enlightenment of the soul).

Indian law (influencing the highest concentration of Hindus) considers married heterosexual monogamy to be legal, heterosexual live-in relationships are legal with limited respect of Domestic Violence (although several court interpretations have defined "long" monogamous live-in relationships equivalent to marriage) and India does not recognize same sex unions. Additionally, while there are no restrictions on particular kinds of sexual activity, it is considered a highly private affair. Most Hindus are quite averse to openly address anything related to sexuality as such discussion or publicly romantic displays are viewed as extremely distasteful.

The Kama Sutra (Aphorisms of Love) by Vatsayana, widely believed to be just a manual for sexual congress, offers an insight into sexual mores, ethics and societal rules that were prevalent at that time (ca. 5 CE). Shrungara Ras (Romance, one of the nine rasas or emotions). A drama in Sanskrit, Shakuntalam by Kalidasa, cited as one of the best examples of Shrungara Ras, talks of the love story of Dushyanta and Shakuntala.

Buddhism

Asian societies shaped by Buddhist traditions takes a strong ethical stand in human affairs and sexual behavior in particular. However, unlike most other world religions, most variations of Buddhism do not go into details regarding what is right and what is wrong within the mundane activities of life. Details of accepted or unaccepted human sexual conduct is not specifically mentioned in any of the religious scriptures. The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics are the Five Precepts and the Eightfold Path, which say that one should neither be attached to nor crave sensual pleasure. These precepts take the form of voluntary, personal undertakings, not divine mandate or instruction. The third of the Five Precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct.[28] However, the "sexual misconduct" is such a broad term, and is subjected to interpretation relative to the social norms of the followers. In fact, Buddhism in its fundamental form, does not define what is right and what is wrong in absolute terms for lay followers. Therefore the interpretation of what kinds of sexual activity is acceptable for a layperson, is not a religious matter as far as Buddhism is concerned.

Buddhist monks and nuns of most traditions are expected to refrain from all sexual activity (Japanese Buddhism being a notable exception), and the Buddha is said to have admonished his followers to avoid unchastity "as if it were a pit of burning cinders."[29]

A core teaching of Buddha's foundational first sermon is that "one should not pursue sensual pleasure (kama-sukha), which is low, vulgar, coarse, ignoble and unbeneficial." (Samyutta Nikaya V:420, Sutta Pitaka). This is reinforced in many passages of the Sutta Pitaka, such as the Simile of the Quail (Sutta 66 of the Majjhima Nikaya) where Buddha teaches that sensual pleasures are "filthy, coarse, and ignoble" and "should not be pursued, developed, or cultivated; they should be feared."

In addition, the second of the Four Noble Truths states that the ultimate cause of all suffering is attachment and unquenchable desire (tanha), and the third states that the way to eliminate suffering is to eliminate attachment and desire. Sexual practices (heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality or others) are characterised as both attachment (kama-upadana) and desire (kama-tanha). Sensual desire (kama-cchanda) is also the first of the Five Hindrances, which must be eradicated if one is to progress spiritually. Of the three kinds of cchanda, kama-cchanda is the one that is ethically immoral.ref

Buddhist scriptures are attentive to issues of sex, usually in relation to concrete such as desire and power; and not sex per se. Along with hatred and ignorance, desire is one of the three passions, and both pollutes human existence and maintains it by means of the process of rebirth. [30]

Neopaganism

Neopagan religions tend to be permissive about sexuality, and are almost unanimous in their acceptance of same-sex relationships as equal to heterosexual ones. Most Neopagan religions have the theme of fertility (both physical and creative/spiritual) as central to their practices, and as such encourage what they view as a healthy sex life, consensual sex between adults, regardless of gender or age. Specifically in the Wiccan tradition of modern witchcraft, one of the widely accepted pieces of Craft liturgy, the Charge of the Goddess instructs that "...all acts of love and pleasure are [the Goddess'] rituals",[31] giving validity to all forms of sexual activity for Wiccan practitioners.

In the Gardnerian and Alexandrian forms of Wicca, the "Great Rite" is a sex ritual much like the hieros gamos, performed by a priest and priestess who are believed to embody the Wiccan God and Goddess. The Great Rite is almost always performed figuratively using the athame and chalice as symbols of the penis and vagina. The literal form of the ritual is always performed by consenting adults, by a couple who are already lovers and in private. The Great Rite is not seen as an opportunity for casual sex.[32]

Wicca, like other religions, has adherents with a broad spectrum of views ranging from conservative to liberal. It is a largely undogmatic religion and has no prohibitions against sexual intercourse outside of marriage or relationships between members of the same sex. The religion's ethics are largely summed up by the Wiccan Rede: "An it harm none, do as thou wilt", which is interpreted by many as allowing and endorsing responsible sexual relationships of all varieties.

Bahá'í faith

In the Bahá'í Faith, sexual relationships are permitted only between a husband and wife. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith in his book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, forbid extramarital sexual intercourse.[33][34] The Baha'i understanding of sex is that chastity should be practised by both sexes before marriage because it is commendable ethically and that it leads to a happy and successful marital life. The Bahá'í Faith recognizes the value of the sex impulse, but that its proper use is within the institution of marriage; Baha'is do not believe in the suppression of the sex impulse but in its regulation and control.[35]

Spread to non-adherents

Many cultures attempt to codify their prescriptions concerning individual sexual behaviours. Such codifications are frequently enacted as laws, extending their application beyond the culture to other cultures under the purview of the laws, including dissenters.

Most of the Islamic world has strict rules enforced with sometimes violent punishments to enforce Islamic moral codes, including sexual morality on their citizens, and often attempt to impose it on non-Muslims living within their societies. The same was true of various European Christian regimes at some stages in history, and some contemporary Christians support restrictions on the private expression of sexuality outside of marriage, ranging from prohibitions of prostitution to restrictions on oral sex and sodomy. Haredi Jews in Israel use various verbal and print media (newspapers, books, radio shows, websites, etc.) to try to encourage other Jews to follow the Jewish laws of sexuality.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1744457 accessed September 16, 2007
  2. ^ Paul, Gregory S.. "Cross-National Correlations of Quantifiable Societal Health with Popular Religiosity and Secularism in the Prosperous Democracies: A First Look". Journal of Religion and Society 7 (2005). http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2005/2005-11.html. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  3. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions on Intermarriage". Joint Commission on Response to Intermarriage. http://www.uscj.org/intmar/. Retrieved 2006-02-03. 
  4. ^ Waxman, Chaim I. "Winners and Losers in Denominational Memberships in the United States". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/cjc/cjc-waxman-f05.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  5. ^ a b Elliott N. Dorff, Daniel Evans, and Avram Reisner. Homosexuality, Human Dignity, and Halakha. Committee on Jewish Law and Standards, Rabbinical Assembly, December 6, 2006
  6. ^ Rabbi Joel Roth, Homosexuality Revisited, Committee on Jewish Law and Standards, Rabbinical Assembly, December 6, 2006
  7. ^ Conservative Panel Votes To Permit Gay Rabbis Jewish Daily Forward, December 7, 2006
  8. ^ a b Chaim Waxman, Winners and Losers in Denominational Memberships in the United States. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 2005
  9. ^ 1 Corinthians chapter 7
  10. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) pp.59-61
  11. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) pp.154-155
  12. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) p.160
  13. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) p.165
  14. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) p.164-165
  15. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) p.167
  16. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) p.168
  17. ^ James A. Brundage, "Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe" (University of Chicago Press, 1987) p.174
  18. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09707a.htm
  19. ^ The Resolution 15 of the Lambeth Conference
  20. ^ Matthew 5:31-32
  21. ^ Genesis 1:31
  22. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1015
  23. ^ Pope John Paul II (29 October 1980). "General Audience, 6". L'Osservatore Romano. http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/jp2tb45.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  24. ^ Theology of Marriage and Celibacy, Boston, St. Paul Books and Media 1986
  25. ^ Christopher West. "John Paul II's Theology of the Body". Catholic Education Resource Center. http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0055.htmlhttp://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=5603. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 
  26. ^ "Persona Humana:Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics, Section IX". Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. December 29, 1975. http://www.newadvent.org/library/docs_df75se.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-29. 
  27. ^ Reported by Imaam Ahmad, 2/479; see also Saheeh al-Jaami', 5865)
  28. ^ Higgins, Winton. "Buddhist Sexual Ethics". BuddhaNet Magazine. http://www.buddhanet.net/winton_s.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  29. ^ Saddhatissa, Hammalawa (December 1987). Buddhist Ethics: The Path to Nirvana. Wisdom Pubns; New Ed edition. pp. 88. ISBN 0-8617-1053-3. 
  30. ^ Olson, Carl. The Differnt Paths of Buddhism. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2005.
  31. ^ "Alternative Sexuality". Tangled Moon Coven. 2006-08-08. http://www.tangledmoon.org/sexuality.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 
  32. ^ "Sex, Wicca and the Great Rite". The Blade & Chalice Spring 1993 (3). 
  33. ^ Universal House of Justice (1992). The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 191. ISBN 0853989990. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/KA/ka-53.html. 
  34. ^ Bahá'u'lláh (1992) [1873]. The Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 26. ISBN 0853989990. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/b/KA/ka-4.html#gr19. 
  35. ^ Letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi September 5, 1938. Published in Compilations (1983). Hornby, Helen (Ed.). ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. pp. 344. ISBN 8185091463. http://bahai-library.com/?file=hornby_lights_guidance. 

Further reading

Buddhism
  • Bernard Faure. "The Red Thread: Buddhist Approaches to Sexuality." ISBN 0-6910-5998-5.
  • Philip T. Sudo. "Zen Sex: The Way of Making Love." ISBN 0-0607-5799-X.
Judaism
  • Shmuley Boteach. "Kosher Sex: A Recipe for Passion and Intimacy." ISBN 0-3854-9466-1.
  • Michael Gold. "Does God Belong in the Bedroom?" ISBN 0-8276-0421-1.
Critical perspectives
  • Demosthenes Savramis. "The satanizing of woman: Religion versus sexuality." ISBN 0-3850-4485-2.
Christianity
  • Miguel A. De La Torre. "A Lily Among the Thorns: Imagining a New Christian Sexuality." ISBN 978-0-7879-8146-4.
  • Jan Kern. "Seduced By Sex: Saved By Love." ISBN 0-7847-2158-2.
  • Andreas J. Köstenberger. "God, Marriage, and Family: Rebuilding the Biblical Foundation." ISBN 978-1-58134-580-3.

External links

References
  • James Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century, University Of Chicago Press, 1st ed. 1980 ISBN 0-226-06710-6, paperback Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-06711-4
  • Mathew Kuefler (editor), The Boswell Thesis : Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, University Of Chicago Press, Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-45741-9
  • Eckhart Tolle, The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment, New World Library, 1st ed. 1999, paperback 2004 ISBN 1-57731-480-8
Links







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