The Full Wiki

Religion in the United Kingdom: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Religion in the United Kingdom is about the development of religion in the United Kingdom since its formation in 1707. The Treaty of Union that led to the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain[1] (which became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801 when Great Britain signed an Act of Union with Ireland) ensured that there would be a Protestant succession as well as a link between church and state that still remains.

According to the 2001 UK census, Christianity remains the major religion, followed by Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Buddhism in terms of number of adherents. In the 2001 census, 71.6% of the population put themselves down as Christian. Though each country that makes up the UK has a long tradition of Christianity that pre-dates the UK itself, in practice all have relatively low levels of religious observance and today are secular societies.

Contents

England and Wales

Christianity is the main religion in England with the Church of England the Established Church.[2] It is the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion (except the Scottish Episcopal Church which has separate origins and is a Sister Church rather than a Daughter Church) and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national churches. It retains representation in the UK Parliament with the church's 26 bishops sitting in the House of Lords as Lords Spiritual, and the British monarch is a member of the church (required under Article 2 of the Treaty of Union) as well as its Supreme Governor. The Church of England also retains the right to draft legislative measures (related to religious administration) through the General Synod that can then be passed into law by Parliament. Christianity is also the main religion in Wales. In the 1920s, the Church in Wales became independent from the Church of England and became 'disestablished' but remains in the Anglican Communion.

Roman Catholic diocesan hierarchies were re-established in England and Wales in 1850 following an influx of Irish Catholics fleeing the Great Irish Famine. Today the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales is the second largest Christian church across England and Wales with around five million members, mainly in England. The Church has five provinces: Birmingham, Cardiff, Liverpool, Southwark and Westminster. There are 22 dioceses which are divided into parishes. In addition to these, there are two dioceses covering England and Wales for specific groups which are the Bishopric of the Forces and the Apostolic Exarchate for Ukrainians. The Catholic Bishops in England and Wales come together in the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales. Currently the Archbishop of Westminster, Vincent Nichols, is the ex officio President of the Conference.

Pentecostal churches are continuing to grow and, in terms of church attendance, are now third after the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church in England.[3] Other Christian groups include Salvation Army, United Reformed Church, Plymouth Brethren, Baptist Union, Baptist Union of Wales, Methodists, Congregationalists and house churches.

Advertisements

Notable places of worship

Religion and education

In England and Wales, a significant number of state funded schools are faith schools with the vast majority Christian (mainly either of Church of England or Roman Catholic) though there are also Jewish, Muslim and Sikh faith schools. Faith schools follow the same national curriculum as state schools, though with the added ethos of the host religion. Until 1944 there was no requirement for state schools to provide religious education or worship, although most did so. The Education Act 1944 introduced a requirement for a daily act of collective worship and for religious education but did not define what was allowable under these terms. The act contained provisions to allow parents to withdraw their children from these activities and for teachers to refuse to participate. The Education Reform Act 1988 introduced a further requirement that the majority of collective worship be "wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character"[4] . In recent years schools have increasingly failed to comply with the collective worship rules - in 2004 David Bell, the Chief Inspector of Schools said that "at present more than three-quarters of schools fail to meet this requirement."[5] Religious studies is still an obligatory subject in the curriculum, but tends to aim at providing an understanding of the main faiths of the world rather than at instilling a strictly Christian viewpoint.

Northern Ireland

St. Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh.

Christianity is the main religion in Northern Ireland though the main denominations are organised on an all-Ireland basis. After that, though dwarfed by the Christian churches, the country also has small Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist and Jewish communities. The 2001 UK census found that 40.3% of the population claimed Roman Catholic affiliation, 20.7% in the Presbyterian Church, 15.3% with the Church of Ireland and 3.5% with the Methodist Church. About 13.8% stated no religion, and members of other religions constituted 0.3%.

Christianity

The Roman Catholic Church in Ireland is the largest single church though there is a greater number of Protestants and Anglicans overall. The Church is organised into four provinces though these are not coterminous with the modern political division of Ireland. The seat of the Archbishop of Armagh, the Primate of All Ireland, is St. Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh.

The Presbyterian Church in Ireland, closely linked to the Church of Scotland in terms of theology and history, is the second largest church and largest protestant denomination. It is followed by the Church of Ireland (Anglican) which was the state church of Ireland until it was disestablished in the nineteenth century. In 2002, the much smaller Methodist Church in Ireland signed a covenant for greater cooperation and potential ultimate unity with the Church of Ireland.[6]

Smaller, but growing, protestant denominations like the Association of Baptist Churches in Ireland and the Assemblies of God Ireland are also organised on an all-Ireland basis, though in the case of the AOG this was the result of a recent reorganisation.[7]

Notable places of worship

Religion and education

Northern Ireland has a highly segregated education system. 95% of pupils attend either maintained (Catholic) schools or controlled schools, which are open to children of all faiths and none, though in practice most pupils are from the Protestant community.

Scotland

The ninth century St Martin's Cross stands outside the entrance to Iona Abbey in Iona, Scotland

The presbyterian Church of Scotland is recognised by the Church of Scotland Act 1921 as the national church of Scotland. It is not subject to state control. The British monarch is an ordinary member and is required to swear an oath to "defend the security" of the church upon his or her accession.

The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland is Scotland's second largest Christian church, representing a sixth of the population. Catholic diocesan hierarchies were restored in Scotland in 1878. In the 2001 census about 16% of the population of Scotland described themselves as being Roman Catholic.[8] Currently, they constitute 17% of Scotland, with 850,000 members. Journalist Andrew Collier notes that Scot Catholics no longer see themselves as a tribal minority, "but as a confident and influential part of the country's demographic mix." This Catholic self-esteem has had a dramatic political side effect, with Catholics starting to find common ground with the Scottish Nationalist Party.[9] Scotland has two provinces - Glasgow and St Andrews and Edinburgh - and eight dioceses, and the Archbishops and bishops come together in the Bishops' Conference of Scotland. Currently, the Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, Cardinal Keith O'Brien, is President of the Conference.

The Scottish Episcopal Church is Scotland's third largest christian church with around 39,000 members.[10] It dates from the final establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland in 1690, when it split from the Church of Scotland. Though part of the Anglican Communion, it is not a 'daughter church' of the Church of England.

Further splits in the Church of Scotland, especially in the nineteenth century, led to the creation of various other Presbyterian churches in Scotland, including the Free Church of Scotland. In 1900 the vast majority of the Free Church of Scotland united with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland to form the United Free Church of Scotland, which re-united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. The remaining members of the former Free Church founded a new Free Church of Scotland, which they claimed to be the legitimate Free Church in 1900.

Notable places of worship

Religion and education

In Scotland, the majority of schools are non-denominational but separate Roman Catholic schools, with an element of control by the Roman Catholic Church, are provided within the state system.

Christianity

Christian denominations in the UK   

National churches

Roman Catholicism

The Roman Catholic Church has separate national churches for England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland and there is no single hierarchy for Roman Catholicism in the United Kingdom. There is however a single apostolic nuncio to Great Britain, presently Archbishop Faustino Sainz Muñoz). The Apostolic Nuncio to the island of Ireland is Giuseppe Leanza.

Pentecostal

The is also a growing number of independent, charismatic churches that encourage Pentecostal practices as part of their worship.

Methodist

The Methodist church at Haroldswick is the most northerly church in the United Kingdom

The Methodist movement traces its origin to the evangelical awakening in the 18th century. Today,

  • The Methodist Church of Great Britain, (which includes congregations in the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, Malta and Gibraltar) has around 270,000 members and 6,000 churches, though only around 3,000 members in 50 congregations are in Scotland. In the 1960s, it made ecumenical overtures to the Church of England, aimed at church unity. Formally, these failed when they were rejected by the Church of England's General Synod in 1972. However, conversations and co-operation continued, leading on 1 November 2003 to the signing of a covenant between the two churches.[11]
  • The Methodist Church in Ireland covers the whole of the island of Ireland, including Northern Ireland where it is the fourth largest denomination.

Baptist

Eastern Orthodox Churches

The Cathedral of the Dormition of the Most-Holy Mother of God and the Holy Royal Martyrs (Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia), in Gunnersbury.

Oriental Orthodox Churches

Other Christian denominations

The United Reformed Church (URC) has about 1,600 congregations[17] in England, Scotland and Wales.

There are about 600 Congregational churches in the UK. In England there are three main groups, the Congregational Federation, the Evangelical Fellowship of Congregational Churches, and about 100 Congregational churches that are loosely federated with other congregations in the Fellowship of Independent Evangelical Churches, or are unaffiliated. In Scotland the churches are mostly member of the Congregational Federation and in Wales which traditionally has a larger number of Congregationalists, most are members of the Union of Welsh Independents.

Presbyterian is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. A form of Calvinism, Presbyterianism evolved primarily in Scotland before the Act of Union in 1707. Most of the few Presbyteries found in England can trace a Scottish connection. The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland was formed in 1893 and claims to be the spiritual descendant of the Scottish Reformation. The Free Church of Scotland, which claims to tbe the legitimate Free Church in Scotland was founded in 1900. The Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales was founded in the late 1980s and declared themselves to be a Presbytery in 1996. They currently have ten churches.[18] The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the largest Protestant denomination and second largest church in Northern Ireland. The Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster was founded on 17 March 1951 by the cleric and politician, Ian Paisley. It has about 60 churches in Northern Ireland. The Presbyterian Church of Wales seceded from the Church of England in 1811 and formally formed itself into a separate body in 1823. The Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland has 31 congregations in Northern Ireland,[19] with the first Presbytery being formed in Antrim in 1725.[20]

The Britain Yearly Meeting is the umbrella body for the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Isles and the Isle of Man. There are 25,000 worshippers with about 400 local meetings. Northern Ireland comes under the umbrella of the Ireland Yearly Meeting.

The Salvation Army was founded in the East End of London in 1865.

The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christian and other liberal religious congregations in the UK. The Unitarian Christian Association was formed in 1991.

Other denominations

Among other denominations are:

Saints

There is no Patron Saint of the United Kingdom as the individual countries each have their own patron saint:

Other faiths and beliefs

Islam

Baitul Futuh Mosque of the “Ahmadiyya Muslim Community”, London. Currently the largest Mosque in the UK.

Though Islam was not legalised until the Trinitarian Act in 1812, recent estimates suggest a total of as high as 2.4 million Muslims over all the UK,[23][24] The vast majority of Muslims in the UK live in England and Wales: of 1,591,000 Muslims recorded at the 2001 Census,[25] 1,536,015 were living in England and Wales,[26] where they form 3% of the population; 42,557 were living in Scotland, forming 0.84% of the population[27]; and 1,943 were living in Northern Ireland.[28]

Most Muslim immigrants to the UK came from former colonies, such as Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, with the remainder coming from Muslim-dominated areas such as Southwest Asia, Somalia, Malaysia, and Indonesia.[29] During the 18th century, lascars (sailors) who worked for the British East India Company settled in port towns with local wives.[30] These numbered only 4,037 in 1891 but 51,616 on the eve of World War I.[31] Naval cooks, including Sake Dean Mahomet, also came from what is now the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh.[32] From the 1950s onwards, the growing Muslim population has led to a number of notable Mosques being established, including Manchester Central Mosque, East London Mosque, London Markaz, London Central Mosque and, more recently, Baitul Futuh Mosque.

The Muslim Council of Britain is an umbrella organisation for many local, regional and specialist Islamic organisations in the UK.

Hinduism

The Neasden Temple is the second largest temple of Hinduism in Europe.

Hinduism was the religion of 558,342 people in Great Britain according to the 2001 census[33] but an estimate in a British newspaper in 2007 has put the figure as high as 1.5 Million.[34] Although most British Hindus live in England, with half living in London alone,[35] small communities also exist in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Judaism

Singers Hill Synagogue, Birmingham, England.

The Jewish Naturalisation Act, enacted in 1753, permitted the naturalisation of foreign Jews, but was repealed the next year. The first graduate from the University of Glasgow who was openly-known to be Jewish was in 1787. Unlike their English contemporaries, Scottish students were not required to take a religious oath. In 1841 Isaac Lyon Goldsmid was made baronet, the first Jew to receive a hereditary title. The first Jewish Lord Mayor of the City of London, Sir David Salomons, was elected in 1855, followed by the 1858 emancipation of the Jews. On 26 July 1858, Lionel de Rothschild was finally allowed to sit in the British House of Commons when the law restricting the oath of office to Christians was changed. (Benjamin Disraeli, a baptised, teenage convert to Christianity of Jewish parentage, was already an MP at this time and rose to become Prime Minister in 1874.) In 1884 Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild became the first Jewish member of the British House of Lords; again Disraeli was already a member.

A report in August 2007 by University of Manchester historian Dr Yaakov Wise stated that 75% of all births in the Jewish community were to ultra-orthodox, Haredi parents, and that the increase of ultra-orthodox Jewry has led to a significant rise in the proportion of British Jews who are ultra-orthodox. The Jewish population is close to 300,000 people. However, this figure did not include Jews who identified 'by ethnicity only' in England and Wales or Scottish Jews who identified as Jewish by upbringing but held no current religion. This with various studies that from within Jewish communities and particularly in some strictly Orthodox areas, residents ignored the voluntary question on religion following the advice of their religious leaders which has resulted in a serious undercount, therefore it is ultimately difficult to give an accurate number on the total UK Jewish population. It may be even more than double the official estimates, heavily powered by the very high birth rate of orthodox families and British people who are Jewish by race but not religion; as it currently stands, the Jewish as a race section is not documented on the census. [36]

Sikhism

Sikhism was recorded as the religion of 336,179 people in the United Kingdom at the time of the 2001 Census.[37] While England is home to the majority of Sikhs in the UK, small communities also exist in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

The first recorded Sikh settler in the UK was Maharaja Duleep Singh, dethroned and exiled in 1849 at the age of 14, after the Anglo-Sikh wars. The first Sikh Gurdwara (temple) was established in 1911, in Putney, London. The first wave of Sikh migration came in the 1950s, mostly of men from the Punjab seeking work in industries such as foundries and textiles. These new arrivals mostly settled in London, Birmingham and West Yorkshire. Thousands of Sikhs from East Africa followed.

Buddhism

The earliest Buddhist influence on Britain came through its imperial connections with South East Asia, and as a result the early connections were with the Theravada traditions of Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. The tradition of study resulted in the foundation of the Pali Text Society, which undertook the task of translating the Pali Canon of Buddhist texts into English. Buddhism as a path of practice was pioneered by the Theosophists, Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott, and in 1880 they became the first Westerners to receive the refuges and precepts, the ceremony by which one traditionally becomes a Buddhist.

In 1924 London’s Buddhist Society was founded, and in 1926 the Theravadin London Buddhist Vihara. The rate of growth was slow but steady through the century, and the 1950s saw the development of interest in Zen Buddhism. In 1967 Kagyu Samyé Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre, now the largest Tibetan Buddhist centre in Western Europe, was founded in Scotland. The first home-grown Buddhist movement was also founded in 1967, the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO). There are many Sōka Gakkai Buddhist groups in the UK.

Neopaganism

A group of English neo-druids.

An estimated 250,000 (0.4%)[38] to 1 million (around 2%)[39] Britons adhere to various forms of Neopaganism, including Celtic Neopaganism, Heathenism and Wicca.

Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith in the United Kingdom has a historical connection with the earliest phases of the Bahá'í Faith starting in 1845 and has had a major effect on the development of communities of the religion in far flung nations around the world. It is estimated that between 1951 and 1993, Bahá'ís from the United Kingdom settled in 138 countries.[40] There are about 5000 Bahá'ís of the UK.[41]

Religious leaders

Lambeth Palace is the official residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury in London

Religion and politics

Though the main political parties are secular, the formation of the Labour Party was influenced by christian socialism and by leaders from a nonconformist background, such as Keir Hardie. On the other hand, the Church of England has sometimes been nicknamed "the Conservative Party at prayer".[42]

Today, some minor parties are explicitly 'religious' in ideology: two 'Christian' parties - the Christian Party and the Christian Peoples Alliance, fielded joint candidates at the 2009 European Parliament elections and increased their share of the vote to come eighth, with 249,493 votes (1.6 percent of total votes cast), and in London, where the CPA has three councillors,[43] the Christian parties picked up 51,336 votes (2.9 percent of the vote), up slightly from the 45,038 gained in 2004.[44]

The direct influence of the Anglican Communion has been on the decline for many years, but the Church of England retains representation in Parliament through 26 Lords Spiritual, who sit in the House of Lords along with the secular Lords Temporal. The Church also has the right to draft legislative measures (usually related to religious administration), through the General Synod, that can be passed into law, but not amended by Parliament. The churches of the Anglican Communion in Ireland and Wales were disestablished in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Prime Minister, regardless of personal beliefs, plays a key role in the appointment of Church of England bishops, although in July 2007 Gordon Brown proposed reforms of the Prime Minister's ability to affect Church of England appointments.[45]

Religion and the media

The BBC programme Songs of Praise is aired on a Sunday evening and has an average weekly audience of 2.5 million.[46] The BBC produces such programming because of remit obligations.

Other channels offer documentaries on, or from the perspective of, non-belief. A significant example is Richard Dawkins' two-part Channel 4 documentary, The Root of all Evil?.

The British media often portrays a cultural scepticism towards religion.[citation needed] British comedy in particular has a history of satire and parody on the subject, the most iconic example probably being Monty Python film Life of Brian. Religious mockery, or open disbelief in any religion, is not regarded as a taboo in the British media.

Secularism, tolerance and anti-religious discrimination

A synagogue and mosque side by side in London.

Ecumenical rapprochement has gradually developed between Christian denominations but religious tensions still exist. (See, for example, Sectarianism in Glasgow and Northern Ireland.)

In the early 21st century, the Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 made it an offence in England and Wales to incite hatred against a person on the grounds of their religion. The common law offences of blasphemy and blasphemous libel were finally abolished with the coming into effect of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 on 8 July 2008.

There being no strict separation of church and state in the United Kingdom, public officials may in general display religious symbols in the course of their duties - for example, turbans. Chaplains are provided in the armed forces (see Royal Army Chaplains' Department) and in prisons.

There is evidence of Anti-Christian sentiment,[47] Islamophobia[48] and Anti-Semitism[49] in the United Kingdom.

Although School uniform codes are generally drawn up flexibly enough to accommodate compulsory items of religious dress, some schools have banned wearing the crucifix, arguing that wearing a crucifix is not a requirement of Christianity, and that necklaces themselves are banned as well, not just crucifixes.[50]

Some polls have shown that public opinion in the United Kingdom generally tends towards a suspicion or outright disapproval of radical or evangelical religiosity, though moderate groups and individuals are rarely subject to injurious treatment.[51]

Some churches have warned that new equality laws being considered could force them to go against their faith when hiring staff.[52]

Statistics

Several different sets of figures exist which aim to categorise the religious affiliations, beliefs and practices of UK residents. Differences in the wording and context of the questions can give substantially different results. The 2001 census found that 76.8% of the UK population had a religion, with Christianity being the most prevalent (71.6% of respondents described their religion as such)[53], while the British Social Attitudes Survey survey produced by the National Centre for Social Research in the same year reported that 58% considered themselves to "belong to" a religion.[54]

An Ipsos MORI poll in 2003 reported that 43% considered themselves to be "a member of an organised religion" (18% were "a practising member of an organised religion")[55] An ICM survey in 2006 found that only 33% considered themselves to be "a religious person", with 43% saying they never attended religious services.[56]

A Eurobarometer opinion poll in 2005 reported that 38% "believed there is a God", 40% believe there is "some sort of spirit or life force" and 20% said "I'don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".[57] A survey in 2007 suggested that 42% of adults resident in the UK prayed, with one in six praying on a daily basis.[58]

The EU-funded European Social Survey to be published in April 2009 has found that only 12% of British people belong to a church.[59]

Religions other than Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism have established a presence in the UK, both through immigration and by attracting converts, including the Bahá'í Faith, Rastafari movement and Neopaganism. There are also organisations which promote rationalism, humanism, atheism[60] and secularism. The UK has a large and growing non-religious population with 13,626,000 (23.2% of the UK population) either claiming no religion or not answering the question on religion at the 2001 census.[61]

The 2001 census contained voluntary questions on religious affiliation. In Scotland and Northern Ireland the census also contained questions on the religion in which a person had been brought up. As a result of comparisons with survey data The Office for National Statistics concluded that the census results for England and Wales were more comparable to the results for religion of upbringing in Scotland and Northern Ireland than for current religious affiliation.[62] At the time the Census was carried out, there was an Internet campaign that encouraged people to record their religion as Jedi or "Jedi Knight". The number of people who stated Jedi was 390,000 (0.7 per cent of the population).[63][64]

A survey in 2002 found Christmas attendance at Anglican churches in England varied between 10.19% of the population in the diocese of Hereford, down to just 2.16% in Manchester.[65] Church attendance at Christmas in some dioceses was up to three times the average for the rest of the year. Overall church attendance at Christmas has been steadily increasing in recent years; a 2005 poll found that 43% expected to attend a church service over the Christmas period, in comparison with 39% and 33% for corresponding polls taken in 2003 and 2001 respectively.[66] In a 2004 YouGov poll, 44 per cent of UK citizens responded affirmatively to the question "Do you believe in God?".[67]

In the UK overall, a Guardian/ICM poll in 2006 found that 33% describe themselves as "a religious person" while 82% see religion as a cause of division and tension between people.[56]

Society in the United Kingdom is markedly more secular than in the past and the number of churchgoers fell over the last half of the 20th century. According to the British Humanist Association 36% of the population is humanist, and may, by the same token, be considered outright atheist[68]. The National Secular Society is among bodies aiming to reduce the influence of religion. According to the 2001 census, however, 71.6% of population declared themselves to be Christian, a further 2.7% as Muslim and 1% as Hindu. Only 15.5% said they had "no religion" and 7.3% did not reply to the question.[69] The problem with interpreting these results is that they do not reveal the intensity of religious belief or non-belief. See also Status of religious freedom in the United Kingdom.

The Tearfund Survey in 2007 found 53% of people in the UK identifying themselves as Christian and only 7% as practising Christians. 10% attend church weekly and two-thirds had not gone to church in the past year.[70][71] The Tearfund Survey also found that two thirds of UK adults (66%) or 32.2 million people have no connection with The Church at present (nor with another religion). These people are evenly divided between those who have been in the past but have since left (16 million) and those who have never been in their lives (16.2 million).

A December 2007 report by Christian Research showed that Roman Catholicism had become the best-attended services of Christian denominations in England, with average attendance at Sunday Mass of 861,000, compared to 852,000 attending Anglican services. Attendance at Anglican services had declined by 20% between 2000 and 2006, while attendance at Catholic services, boosted by large-scale immigration from Poland and Lithuania, had declined by only 13%. In Scotland attendance at Church of Scotland services declined by 19% and attendance at Catholic services fell by 25%.[72]

A Tearfund survey on prayer found in 2007 that 42% of adults in the UK pray (outside church or religious services).[73]

Time series showing the religion that people consider themselves to belong to.

British Social Attitudes Surveys have shown the proportion of those in Great Britain who consider they "belong to" Christianity to have fallen from 66% in 1983 to 48% in 2006.

The disparity between the 2001 census data and the above polls has been put down to both the decline in religious adherence in the UK since 2001 and a phenomenon of cultural religiosity, whereby many who do not believe in gods still identify with a religion because of its role in their upbringing or its importance to their family.[74]

Religions in United Kingdom, 2001

Religion/Denomination Current religion
Percent
%
Christian 42,079,000 71.6
No religion 9,104,000 15.5
Muslim 1,591,000 2.7
Hindu 559,000 1.0
Sikh 336,000 0.6
Jewish 267,000 0.5
Buddhist 152,000 0.3
Other Religion 179,000 0.3
All religions 45,163,000 76.8
Not Answered 4,289,000 7.3
No religion +
Not Answered
13,626,000 23.2
Base 58,789,000 100

Source: UK 2001 Census.[53]

Denominations in Great Britain

Religion/Denomination Percent
%
No religion 45.7
Church of England 20.9
Roman Catholic 9.0
Presbyterian/Church of Scotland 2.8
Methodist 1.9
Other Protestant 2.7
Christian (no denomination) 10.3
Other Christian 0.4
Muslim 3.3
Hindu 1.4
Jewish 0.4
Sikh 0.4
Other Religion 0.4
Refused / NA 0.5

Source: BSA Survey 2007.[54]

Religions by ethnic group

Ethnic group Christian Buddhist Hindu Jewish Muslim Sikh Other No religion Not stated
White British 75.94% 0.11% 0.01% 0.48% 0.14% 0.01% 0.24% 15.45% 7.62%
White Irish 85.42% 0.19% 0.02% 0.18% 0.14% 0.02% 0.26% 6.35% 7.42%
Other White 62.67% 0.33% 0.09% 2.39% 8.61% 0.04% 0.57% 15.91% 9.38%
Mixed 52.46% 0.70% 0.87% 0.47% 9.72% 0.42% 0.58% 23.25% 11.54%
Indian 4.89% 0.18% 45.00% 0.06% 12.70% 29.06% 1.75% 1.73% 4.63%
Pakistani 1.09% 0.03% 0.08% 0.05% 92.01% 0.05% 0.04% 0.50% 6.16%
Bangladeshi 0.50% 0.06% 0.60% 0.05% 92.48% 0.04% 0.01% 0.43% 5.83%
Other Asian 13.42% 4.85% 26.76% 0.30% 37.31% 6.22% 0.93% 3.44% 6.79%
Black Caribbean 73.76% 0.17% 0.29% 0.10% 0.79% 0.02% 0.59% 11.23% 13.04%
Black African 68.87% 0.07% 0.21% 0.05% 20.04% 0.09% 0.21% 2.31% 8.14%
Other Black 66.61% 0.20% 0.36% 0.13% 5.97% 0.07% 0.65% 12.09% 13.93%
Chinese 25.56% 15.12% 0.07% 0.05% 0.33% 0.03% 0.49% 9.75% 52.60%
Other 32.98% 15.49% 1.32% 1.05% 25.68% 1.02% 0.90% 14.08% 7.48%

Source: UK 2001 Census[75]

See also

References

  1. ^ Welcome parliament.uk, accessed 4 August 2009
  2. ^ "The History of the Church of England". The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England. 2004. http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/history/. Retrieved 2006-05-24. 
  3. ^ 'Fringe' Church winning the believers Timesonline, 19 December 2006
  4. ^ Education Reform Act 1988 - Chapter I -The Curriculum - pt 6 Retrieved on 15 October 2007
  5. ^ David Bell (21 April 2004). "Change and continuity: Reflections on the Butler act" (.doc (MS Word)). UK Government - Office for Standards in Education. http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/assets/3615.doc. 
  6. ^ "Church of Ireland/Methodist Church Covenant". http://www.ireland.anglican.org/archives/pressreleases/prarchive2002/covstmt2.html. 
  7. ^ Launch of the Assemblies of God Ireland eyeoneurope.org, accessed 31 Dec 2009
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Andrew Collier, "Scotland's confident Catholics," THE TABLET, 10 January 2009, 16
  10. ^ Scots church 'may appoint UK's first female bishop' BBC News, 16 January 2010
  11. ^ "An Anglican-Methodist Covenant". Joint Implementation Commission of the Church of England and the Methodist Church of Great Britain. http://www.anglican-methodist.org.uk/. 
  12. ^ THE BAPTIST FAMILY baptist.org.uk, accessed 4 May 2009
  13. ^ "Welcome". Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh. http://www.sourozh.org/web/Welcome. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  14. ^ "Diocese of Great Britain and Ireland". The Diocese of Great Britain and Ireland. http://www.rocor.org.uk/. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  15. ^ "Current Hierarchs of the Archdiocese of Great Britain". Orthodox Research Institute. 2008. http://orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/resources/hierarchs/constantinople/great_britain/current.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  16. ^ "Parishes, Missions and Clergy". Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch Deanery of the United Kingdom and Ireland. 2010. http://www.antiochan-orthodox.co.uk/Parishes/parishes.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  17. ^ About usurc.org.uk, accessed 12 March 2010
  18. ^ "About". Evangelical Presbyterian Church in England and Wales. http://www.epcew.org.uk/about.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  19. ^ "Churches". Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland. http://www.nspresbyterian.org/pages/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  20. ^ "History". Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland. http://www.nspresbyterian.org/PAGES/churches.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  21. ^ United Kingdom. LDS Newsroom. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
  22. ^ "Religion & Ethics - Jehovah's Witnesses. Jehovah's Witness at a glance". BBC. 2006-08-30. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/witnesses/ataglance/glance.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  23. ^ Islam in the UK - population figures
  24. ^ http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/world-news/muslims-rise-while-christians-fall-in-britain_100149769.html
  25. ^ Muslims in Europe: Country guide bbc.co.uk, accessed 16 January 2009
  26. ^ KS07 Religion: Key Statistics for urban areas, results by population size of urban area
  27. ^ ANALYSIS OF RELIGION IN THE 2001 CENSUS: Summary Report, Scottish Executive
  28. ^ Northern Ireland Census 2001 Key Statistics
  29. ^ "Born Abroad - Countries of birth". BBC Online. 2005-09-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/overview.stm?1a_total01_des. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  30. ^ Fisher, Michael Herbert (2006), Counterflows to Colonialism, Orient Blackswan, pp. 111–9, 129–30, 140, 154–6, 160–8, 181, ISBN 8178241544 
  31. ^ Ansari, Humayun (2004), The Infidel Within: The History of Muslims in Britain, 1800 to the Present, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, p. 37, ISBN 1850656851 
  32. ^ "Curry house founder is honoured". BBC News. 29 September 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/4290124.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  33. ^ UK 2001 census
  34. ^ Hindu school is first to make vegetarianism a condition of entry | Schools special reports | EducationGuardian.co.uk
  35. ^ Minority religions mainly in London. National Statistics. Accessed 5 Jun 2006.
  36. ^ | title = Majority of Jews will be Ultra-Orthodox by 2050 | publisher = University of Manchester | date = 2007-07-23 | url = http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/news/display/index.htm?id=120459 | accessdate = 2007-08-31 }}
  37. ^ 2001 Census, Office of National Statistics
  38. ^ Evans, Dr. David (2007). The History of British Magic After Crowley. Oxford: Hidden Publishing. pp. 70–81. ISBN 978-0-9555237-0-0. 
  39. ^ Jenny Percival. Pagan prisoners allowed twig wands in cells. Scotland on Sunday. 11 May 2008. Retrieved: 14 February 2009. Citation: "There are estimated to be one million Pagans in Britain – around 300 of whom are in prison. There are about 30,000 in Scotland."
  40. ^ U.K. Bahá'í Heritage Site - The Bahá'í Faith in the United Kingdom - A Brief History
  41. ^ In the United Kingdom, Bahá'ís promote a dialogue on diversity One Country, Volume 16, Issue 2 / July-September 2004
  42. ^ Eric J Evans
  43. ^ CPA Party People cpaparty.org.uk, accessed 12 July 2009
  44. ^ Christians aim to build on vote BBC News, 8 June 2009
  45. ^ Report, from the Church Times
  46. ^ BBC Songs of Praise accessed 01/01/08
  47. ^ Anger as squatters wreck church BBC News, 31 May 2007
  48. ^ Islamophobia pervades UK - report BBC News, 2 June 2004
  49. ^ Anti-Semitic incidents 'rise 9%' BBC News, 31 July 2008
  50. ^ Teen Banned From Wearing Crucifix Sky News, 6 December 2005
  51. ^ http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/node/8761
  52. ^ Churches fear Equality Bill will conflict with faith news.bbc.co.uk, January 24, 2010
  53. ^ a b "Religion In Britain". UK Statistics Authority. 2004. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=293. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  54. ^ a b "Religion by Year". British Social Attitudes Surveys. 2007. http://www.britsocat.com/BodySecure.aspx?control=BritsocatMarginals&var=RELIGION&SurveyID=221. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  55. ^ "Three In Five 'Believe In God'". Ipsos MORI. 2003-08-28. http://www.ipsos-mori.com/content/three-in-five-believe-in-god.ashx. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  56. ^ a b Julian Glover; Alexandra Topping (2006-12-23). "Religion does more harm than good - poll". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/religion/Story/0,,1978045,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  57. ^ "Eurobarometer: Social values, Science and Technology" (PDF). European Commission. June 2005. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  58. ^ 40% of adults pray, says survey BBC News, 11 November 2007
  59. ^ "only 12 per cent of Britons feel they "belong" to a church". Daily Telegraph. 2009-03-22. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/religion/5030049/Britons-are-believers-of-fuzzy-faith-says-survey.html. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  60. ^ Dawkins sets up kids’ camp to groom atheists timesonline.co.uk, June 28, 2009
  61. ^ Religion: 2001 Census National Statistics website.
  62. ^ "Focus on Religion — Questions on religion". Office for National Statistics. 2004-10-11. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=984. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  63. ^ Census 2001 - Ethnicity and religion in England and Wales, Office for National Statistics, http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/commentaries/ethnicity.asp, retrieved 2008-04-30  (see "Religion (table 3)")
  64. ^ Jedi - the Growth of a 'Religion', BBC, 22 June 2005, http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A4157930, retrieved 2008-04-30 
  65. ^ "Attendance at Anglican services on Christmas eve/Christmas day". University of Manchester - Cathie Marsh centre for census and survey research. 2002. http://www.ccsr.ac.uk/christmas.html. 
  66. ^ "O come, all ye faithful: Church is a big draw at Christmas". http://www.cofe.anglican.org/news/pr9605.html. Retrieved 2008-01-13. 
  67. ^ Anthony King (27 december 2004). "Britons' belief in God vanishing as religion is replaced by apathy". Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;?xml=/news/2004/12/27/nfaith27.xml&sSheet=/portal/2004/12/27/ixportal.html. 
  68. ^ Proportion of the UK population who consider themselves humanist
  69. ^ "Religion In Britain - Census shows 72% identify as Christians". UK Government - National Statistics Online. 2001. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=293. 
  70. ^ "Tearfund Survey 2007". http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/Website/News/Final%20churchgoing%20report.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  71. ^ "'One in 10' attends church weekly". BBC News. 3 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6520463.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  72. ^ Jonathan Wynne-Jones (23 December 2007). "Britain has become a 'Catholic country'". Sunday Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/12/23/nchurch123.xml. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  73. ^ (PDF) Prayer in the U.K., Tearfund, pp. 2, 7, 13, http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/Website/News/Tearfund%20Prayer%20in%20the%20UK%20report%20embargoed.pdf, retrieved 2007-12-23 
  74. ^ () Religion in the United Kingdom - Diversity, Trends and Decline - Christianity is the Established Religion in the UK, Vexen.co.uk, http://www.vexen.co.uk/UK/religion.html#UK, retrieved 2008-06-03 
  75. ^ "Ethnic groups by religion". 2001 Census. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D6891.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 

External links

Christianity

Islam

Hinduism

Sikhism

Buddhism

Sources

  1. ^ the listing of parishes on this website is disputed: Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe#Parishes and Communities of the Vicariate

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message