|Remembrance Day Bombing|
|Location||Enniskillen, Northern Ireland|
|Date||8 November 1987 |
|Perpetrator||Provisional Irish Republican Army|
The Remembrance Day bombing, also known as the Enniskillen bombing or the Poppy Day massacre, occurred on 8 November 1987 in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. A bomb placed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) at the town's war memorial (cenotaph) exploded during a Remembrance Sunday commemoration ceremony for those killed in all conflicts involving the British Army, resulting in eleven deaths. The bombing has been described by the BBC as a turning point in The Troubles, and an attack that shook the IRA "to its core". 
The bomb was thought by British and Irish authorities to have been coordinated and organised by up to three units of the IRA from both sides of the border, and of such magnitude that it must have been sanctioned by IRA Northern Command. The IRA and Sinn Fein deny this, with Danny Morrison describing himself as "shattered" on hearing that the IRA was involved at all. It has been suggested that Martin McGuinness had prior knowledge of the attack, and that he and three other IRA members had been stopped while travelling through County Donegal three days earlier, and that he had travelled to Fermanagh in the hours after the bombing, to "question members of the local IRA unit to find out what had gone wrong", claims which he denies. The IRA released a statement claiming that a "Crown Forces patrol"  had been the target, but it has been alleged that the bomb was intended to kill Ulster Defence Regiment soldiers who were parading to the memorial, with the civilian deaths deemed acceptable collateral. On the same day a bomb four times larger than the Eniskillen bomb was placed at a similar but smaller parade 20 miles (32 km) away at Tullyhommon, where the parade was conducted by members of the Boys' Brigade, Girls' Brigade and "three of four members of the security forces in uniform there to lay a wreath". That bomb failed to explode.
In Enniskillen, politicians Sammy Foster and Jim Dixon were among the crowd; the latter received extensive head injuries but recovered. The device, having been made in Ballinamore, County Leitrim and transported to the town over 24 hours by up to 30 IRA men, was placed the evening before against the gable wall of the inside of the town's Reading Rooms, and exploded at 10:43 am. The explosion destroyed the wall, a vantage point of the parade favoured by several of the victims, blowing masonry towards the gathered crowd, many of whom were standing nearby.
Eleven people were killed in the Enniskillen bombing; all except one were civilians. One of the dead, Marie Wilson, was the daughter of Gordon Wilson. Wilson went on to become a peace campaigner and member of the Seanad Éireann. One further person, Ronnie Hill, died after spending 13 years in a coma. Sixty-three people were injured. Local business man Raymond McCartney captured the immediate aftermath of the bombing on video camera while at the scene. His footage, showing the effects of the bombing, was broadcast on international television. All the victims were Protestants.
The bombing led to an outcry among politicians in the Republic of Ireland and the UK. The Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Tom King denounced the "outrage" in the House of Commons, as did the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Brian Lenihan in Dáil Éireann (the lower house of the Oireachtas, the Irish parliament), while in Seanad Éireann Senator Maurice Manning spoke of peoples' "total revulsion". Irish rock band U2 performed an emotionally charged rendition of their song Sunday Bloody Sunday later that day in Colorado during their Joshua Tree Tour, where lead singer Bono openly and explicitly condemned the Troubles, shouting "Fuck the revolution!....Where's the glory in bombing a Remembrance Day parade of old-aged pensioners, their medals taken out and polished up for the day? Where's the glory in that? To leave them dying...or crippled for life...or dead under the rubble of a revolution that the majority of the people in my country don't want" mid-song.
In the aftermath of the attack the IRA insisted that its leadership had not sanctioned the bombing, and its Fermanagh Brigade was stood down. The incident is now seen as a major tactical error by the IRA. In killing people honouring their war dead the IRA created a backlash which was perceived to have undermined its claim to be a non-sectarian organisation defending nationalists.Template:Fact The bombing also had a negative impact on Sinn Féin's electoral support. In 1989, in the first local elections held in Fermanagh after the bombing, Sinn Féin lost four of its eight council seats and was overtaken by the SDLP as the largest Nationalist party. It was not until 2001, 14 years after the Enniskillen bomb, that Sinn Féin support returned to its 1985 level.