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David, by Michelangelo (The Accademia Gallery, Florence ) is an example of high renaissance art
.The Renaissance (French for "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from ri- "again" and nascere "be born")[1] was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.^ In many ways the Renaissance built on the culture of the High Middle Ages.
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^ Renaissance means rebirth in the French language.
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^ Renaissance writers were wrong to slander the Middle Ages as a Dark Age.
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The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term. .As a cultural movement, it encompassed a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform.^ To the scholars and thinkers of the day, however, it was primarily a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The movement here consisted of two distinct yet closely related phases, namely, the revival of classical literature and learning, and the revival of classical art.
  • The Renaissance 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era.^ Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era.

^ Renaissance is the name of the great intellectual and cultural movement of the revival of interest in classical culture that occurred in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries -- a period which saw the transition from the Middle Ages to modern times.

^ Renaissance writers were wrong to slander the Middle Ages as a Dark Age.
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Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".[2][3]
.There is a general, but not unchallenged, consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence, Tuscany in the 14th century.^ There is a general, but not unchallenged, consensus that the Renaissance began in Tuscany in the 14th century.

^ Florence has often been called the Athens of the Renaissance because so many great artists were born or worked there.
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^ Now, through the liberal tendencies and generous enthusiasms of the Renaissance there was effected a reconciliation between Christianity and classical civilization.
  • The Renaissance 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici;[5] and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.^ Many Greek texts were brought from Constantinople.

^ Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici;[5] and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.

^ Greek scholars were now encouraged to come from Byzantium to Italy, and in 1396 in turn the learned Manuel Chrysoloras began to teach in the chair of Greek at Florence which become the cradle of the classical revival.

[6][7][8]
.The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has been much debate among historians as to the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.^ The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has been much debate among historians as to the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.

^ The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term.

[9] .Some have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for the classical age,[10] while others have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras.^ The second period of the Renaissance is marked by a continued zeal for classical study, and by the .

^ In many ways the Renaissance built on the culture of the High Middle Ages.
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^ The Middle Ages were a relatively static period.
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[11] Indeed, some have called for an end to the use of the term, which they see as a product of presentism – the use of history to validate and glorify modern ideals.[12] .The word Renaissance has also been used to describe other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century.^ The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.

^ Renaissance is the name of the great intellectual and cultural movement of the revival of interest in classical culture that occurred in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries -- a period which saw the transition from the Middle Ages to modern times.

^ The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term.

Contents

Overview

"The School of Athens" by Raphael
Renaissance
Topics
Regions
.
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man shows clearly the effect writers of Antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers.
^ Like Leonardo da Vinci he was another Renaissance man.
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^ Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Master .
  • Renaissance & Writing Outline - Grade 8 Social Studies Lesson Plan, Thematic Unit, Activity, Worksheet, or Civics, American History, or Government Teaching Idea 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.lessonplanspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".

Based on the specifications in Vitruvius's De architectura around 1500 years before, Da Vinci tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man.
.The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period.^ The Renaissance was essentially an intellectual movement.
  • The Renaissance 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Renaissance is the name of the great intellectual and cultural movement of the revival of interest in classical culture that occurred in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries -- a period which saw the transition from the Middle Ages to modern times.

^ In speaking of mediaeval town life we noticed how within the towns there was early developed a life like that of modern times.
  • The Renaissance 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.^ Leonardo da Vinci painted by Paul Delaroche It's a term that refers to the intellectual and artistic movement that began in Italy in the 14th century, culminated with Leonardo , Michelangelo and Raphael in the 16th, and has influenced thinking and creating ever since.

^ The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.

^ They inspired humanity with a new spirit, a spirit destined in time to make things new in all realms,--in the realm of religion, of politics, of literature, of art, of science, of invention, of industry.
  • The Renaissance 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.^ Other scholars in northern and western Europe sought to apply humanistic methods to the study of Christianity.
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^ The second period of the Renaissance is marked by a continued zeal for classical study, and by the developmental of a broad learning and the new view of the intellectual life which is now known as Humanism.

^ Andrea Mantegna as Illuminator: An Episode in Renaissance Art, Humanism and Diplomacy .

[13]
.Renaissance thinkers sought out in Europe's monastic libraries and the crumbling Byzantine Empire the literary, historical, and oratorical texts of antiquity, typically written in Latin or ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity.^ Many Greek texts were brought from Constantinople.

^ Besides these Greek editions he issued both Latin and Hebrew texts.
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^ The facsimile, published in a joint effort between the Huntington Library Press and Yushodo, Co., Ltd., is an historically accurate copy of the original Ellesmere Manuscript, believed by many scholars to be the most important literary manuscript in the English language.

.It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts.^ Binghamton: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1992.

^ Other Renaissance artists, such as Michelangelo, studied Giottos work.
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^ Some have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for the classical age,while others have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras.Indeed, some have called for an end to the use of the term, which they see as a product of presentism – the use of history to validate and glorify modern ideals.The word Renaissance has also been used to describe other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century.

.Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the Renaissance's greatest works were devoted to it, and the Church patronized many works of Renaissance art.^ Nor did the art of the Renaissance stop here.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Why Painting was the Supreme Art of the Italian Renaissance.-- [The views presented in this paragraph are those of Symonds in his work on The Fine arts , which forms the third volume of his Renaissance in Italy.
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^ Florence has often been called the Athens of the Renaissance because so many great artists were born or worked there.
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.However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life.^ Responding to the heady intellectual atmosphere of the time and place, writers and artists, many of whom lived in Harlem, began to produce a wide variety of fine and highly original works dealing with African-American life.

^ In many ways the Renaissance built on the culture of the High Middle Ages.
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^ Knights during the Renaissance era were trained to act with honor, loyalty, courage, as well as many other characteristic ways.
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[14] .In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity.^ He also made many devices that worked in his time.
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^ Many Greek texts were brought from Constantinople.

^ Other scholars in northern and western Europe sought to apply humanistic methods to the study of Christianity.
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.This new engagement with Greek Christian works, and particularly the return to the original Greek of the New Testament promoted by humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus, would help pave the way for the Protestant Reformation.^ For 50 years, Ghiberti worked on his panels depicting Old and New Testament scenes.
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^ Prominent among these promoters of the New Learning, as it was called, were Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici at Florence.
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^ The Bible, Biblical commentaries, and the works of Desiderius Erasmus and Lorenzo Valla were used by the Protestant reformers in their attacks upon the established Catholic Church.
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.Artists such as Masaccio strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally.^ They sought to imitate the art of Classical Greece with its realistic depiction of the human form.
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Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, that is to understand it rationally. .A critical contribution to Italian Renaissance humanism Pico della Mirandola wrote the famous text "De hominis dignitate" (Oration on the Dignity of Man, 1486), which consists of a series of theses on philosophy, natural thought, faith and magic defended against any opponent on the grounds of reason.^ [Another name of great renown connected with these fifteenth century labors of the Italian scholars is that of Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), a man of extraordinary gifts of mind.
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^ The Neoplatonists formed an unofficial academy in Florence under the patronage of COSIMO DE MEDICI and the inspiration of MARSILIO FICINO (1433-1499) and PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA (1463-1494).
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^ The Italian Renaissance had placed human beings once more in the center .
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, Renaissance authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the introduction of printing, this would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible.^ Study of Greek & Latin authors da Vinci's sketches Galileo uses the telescope .
  • Renaissance & Writing Outline - Grade 8 Social Studies Lesson Plan, Thematic Unit, Activity, Worksheet, or Civics, American History, or Government Teaching Idea 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.lessonplanspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is sometimes maintained indeed that the attention given to the ancient classics, and the preferred use by so many authors during the later mediaeval and the earlier modern period of the Latin as a literary language, retarded the normal development of the vernacular literatures of the European peoples.
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^ It is also arranged by Renaissance author, including links to texts by John Donne, Erasmus, Leonardo da Vinci, John Milton, Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser,Tasso, and many more.

[15]
.In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity, and through novel approaches to thought.^ Through the instrumentality of art, and of all the ideas which art .
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Traditionally, this intellectual transformation has resulted in the Renaissance being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era.

^ But although Dante viewed the world from a standpoint which was essentially that of the mediaeval age which was passing away, still he was in a profound sense a prophet of the new age which was approaching,--a forerunner of the Renaissance.
  • The Renaissance 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark,[16] play down the Renaissance in favor of the earlier innovations of the Italian city states in the High Middle Ages, which married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.^ In many ways the Renaissance built on the culture of the High Middle Ages.
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^ The Renaissance began in the Italian city-states because they had the wealth from the commerce and trade of the Middle Ages.
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^ The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.

.This analysis argues that, whereas the great European states (France and Spain) were absolutist monarchies, and others were under direct Church control, the independent city republics of Italy took over the principles of capitalism invented on monastic estates and set off a vast unprecedented commercial revolution which preceded and financed the Renaissance.^ Italy, France, Spain, England, Germany took shape.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We may truly say that the Renaissance was cradled in the cities of mediaeval Italy.
  • The Renaissance 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Erasmus argued that man has control over his salvation, whereas Luthers position is that only God has the ultimate authority in the afterlife.
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Origins

.Most historians agree that the ideas that characterized the Renaissance had their origin in late 13th century Florence, in particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri (1265–1321) and Francesco Petrarca (1304–1374), as well as the painting of Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337).^ Dante Alighieri, "the fame of the Tuscan people," was born at Florence in 1265.
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^ DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265 - 1321) is considered to be a figure of the Middle Ages, yet he wrote his Divine Comedy in the Florentine dialect and thereby created the literary language of modern Italian.
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^ It was a Florentine, GIOTTO DI BONDONE (c.1266/76-1337) who broke away from the stiff, expressionless, elongated figures of Byzantine and medieval art.
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[17] .Some writers date the Renaissance quite precisely; one proposed starting point is 1401, when the rival geniuses Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi competed for the contract to build the bronze doors for the Baptistery of the Florence Cathedral (Ghiberti won).^ [In the list of Italian sculptors the following names are especially noteworthy: Ghiberti (1378-1455), whose genius is shown in his celebrated bronze gates of the Baptistery at Florence, of which Michael Angelo said that they were worthy to be the gates of Paradise; Brunelleschi (1377-1444), Donatello (1386-1466), and Michael Angelo (1475-1564).
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^ While not quite my favorite offering from Renaissance, I have to concede that contained in this four-opus affair are some of my most cherished moments from the group.
  • RENAISSANCE music, discography, MP3, videos and reviews 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.progarchives.com [Source type: General]

[18] .Others see more general competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance.^ The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term.

^ And also JoRene Newton of TX, USA who wrote: "I have not been so fortunate to visit Italy but those of you who have give us others a wonderful picture of the source of the Creativity of those Renaissance Artists!"

^ The music of Renaissance is never very agressive and has a more mellow sound than many others in that period (mid seventies).
  • RENAISSANCE music, discography, MP3, videos and reviews 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.progarchives.com [Source type: General]

.Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, and why it began when it did.^ Renaissance began in Italy.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has been much debate among historians as to the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation.

Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins.
During Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand. Artists depended totally on patrons while the patrons needed money to sustain genuises. .Wealth was brought to Italy in 14th, 15th and 16th century by expanding trade into Asia and Europe.^ The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.

Silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money. Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought during Crusades made the prosperity of Genoa and Venice. [19]

Latin and Greek Phases of Renaissance humanism

.In stark contrast to the High Middle Ages, when Latin scholars focused almost entirely on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science, philosophy and mathematics,[20] Renaissance scholars were most interested in recovering and studying Latin and Greek literary, historical, and oratorical texts.^ Renaissance is the name of the great intellectual and cultural movement of the revival of interest in classical culture that occurred in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries -- a period which saw the transition from the Middle Ages to modern times.

^ The facsimile, published in a joint effort between the Huntington Library Press and Yushodo, Co., Ltd., is an historically accurate copy of the original Ellesmere Manuscript, believed by many scholars to be the most important literary manuscript in the English language.

^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

.Broadly speaking, this began in the fourteenth century with a Latin phase, when Renaissance scholars such as Petrarch, Coluccio Salutati (1331–1406), Niccolò de' Niccoli (1364–1437) and Poggio Bracciolini (1380–1459 AD) scoured the libraries of Europe in search of works by such Latin authors as Cicero, Livy and Seneca.^ In the work of the Renaissance all the great nations of Europe shared.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a general, but not unchallenged, consensus that the Renaissance began in Tuscany in the 14th century.

^ PQ 4542.T7 Two Renaissance Book Hunters: The Letters of Poggius Bracciolini to Nicolaus de Niccolis .

[21] .By the early fifteenth century, the bulk of such Latin literature had been recovered; the Greek phase of Renaissance humanism was now under way, as Western European scholars turned to recovering ancient Greek literary, historical, oratorical and theological texts.^ Greek and Latin literature.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The scholars prepared the way in the fifteenth century.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek scholars were now encouraged to come from Byzantium to Italy, and in 1396 in turn the learned Manuel Chrysoloras began to teach in the chair of Greek at Florence which become the cradle of the classical revival.

[22]
.
Demetrius Chalcondyles (14241511) was a Renaissance teacher of Greek and of Platonic philosophy who taught in Italy for over forty years;[23] at Padua, Perugia, Milan and Florence.
^ After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 Renaissance gained a further impetus because of a number of Greek humanists who moved from Byzantium to Italy.

[24]
.Unlike the case of Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe.^ Libraries were founded, and schools for the study of both Greek and Latin in their classic forms were opened at Rome, Mautua, Verona, and many other towns.

^ Binghamton: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1992.

^ Binghamton, New York: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1983.

.Ancient Greek works on science, maths and philosophy had been studied since the High Middle Ages in Western Europe and in the medieval Islamic world, but Greek literary, oratorical and historical works, (such as Homer, the Greek dramatists, Demosthenes and Thucydides and so forth), were not studied in either the Latin or medieval Islamic worlds; in the Middle Ages these sorts of texts were only studied by Byzantine scholars.^ Study of Greek & Latin authors da Vinci's sketches Galileo uses the telescope .
  • Renaissance & Writing Outline - Grade 8 Social Studies Lesson Plan, Thematic Unit, Activity, Worksheet, or Civics, American History, or Government Teaching Idea 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.lessonplanspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His friend and disciple Boccaccio studied that language, and by his master's advice made a translation of Homer into Latin.

^ Libraries were founded, and schools for the study of both Greek and Latin in their classic forms were opened at Rome, Mautua, Verona, and many other towns.

.One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity.^ The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historic era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not uniform across Europe, this is a general use of the term.

^ I would have said that this DVD is for die hard fan of Renaissance but since I am one of them, I don't regret to have bought it.
  • RENAISSANCE music, discography, MP3, videos and reviews 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.progarchives.com [Source type: General]

.This movement to reintegrate the regular study of Greek literary, historical, oratorical and theological texts back into the Western European curriculum is usually dated to Coluccio Salutati's invitation to the Byzantine diplomat and scholar Manuel Chrysoloras (c.1355–1415) to Florence to teach Greek,[25] his knowledge of the Greek language was of significant importance.^ The facsimile, published in a joint effort between the Huntington Library Press and Yushodo, Co., Ltd., is an historically accurate copy of the original Ellesmere Manuscript, believed by many scholars to be the most important literary manuscript in the English language.

Another Greek Byzantine scholar of importance was Demetrius Chalcondyles (14241511) who taught Platonic philosophy and the Greek language in Italy for a period of over forty years; at Padua[26], Perugia[27], Milan and Florence.[24] Among his pupils were Johann Reuchlin, Janus Lascaris, Poliziano, Leo X, Baldassare Castiglione[28], Giglio Gregorio Giraldi, Stefano Negri, and Giovanni Maria Cattaneo.[29][30]
.The fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, accompanied by the closure of its schools of higher learning by the Ottoman Turks, brought many other Greek scholars to Italy and beyond, who brought with them Greek manuscripts, and knowledge of the classical Greek literature, some of which had been lost for centuries in the West.^ Italy in the fourteenth century, though some .
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek empire in 1453, while it signalized the extinction of the .
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Italian scholars of Greek and Roman classical literature.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[31]

Social and political structures in Italy

A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494
.The unique political structures of late Middle Ages Italy have led some to theorize that its unusual social climate allowed the emergence of a rare cultural efflorescence.^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

.Italy did not exist as a political entity in the early modern period.^ Creative Women in Medieval and Early Modern Italy: A Religious and Artistic Renaissance .

Instead, it was divided into smaller city states and territories: the Kingdom of Naples controlled the south, the Republic of Florence and the Papal States at the center, the Genoese and the Milanese to the north and west respectively, and the Venetians to the east. Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe.[32] .Many of its cities stood among the ruins of ancient Roman buildings; it seems likely that the classical nature of the Renaissance was linked to its origin in the Roman Empire's heartland.^ Roman Empire, there it arose upon the ruins of that Empire; .
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]
Historian and political philosopher Quentin Skinner points out that Otto of Freising (c. 1114 - 1158) , a German bishop visiting north Italy during the 12th century, noticed a widespread new form of political and social organisation, observing that Italy appeared to have exited from Feudalism so that its society was based on merchants and commerce. Linked to this was anti-monarchical thinking, represented in the famous early Renaissance fresco cycle Allegory of Good and Bad Government in Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (painted 1338–1340) whose strong message is about the virtues of fairness, justice, republicanism and good administration. Holding both Church and Empire at bay, these city republics were devoted to notions of liberty. Skinner reports that there were many defences of liberty such as Matteo Palmieri’s (1406–1475) celebration of Florentine genius not only in art, sculpture and architecture, but “the remarkable efflorescence of moral, social and political philosophy that occurred in Florence at the same time”.[34]
Even cities and states beyond central Italy, such as the Republic of Florence at this time, were also notable for their merchant Republics, especially the Republic of Venice. Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy, they did have democratic features and were responsive states, with forms of participation in governance and belief in liberty.[35][36][37] The relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.[38] Likewise, the position of Italian cities such as Venice as great trading centres made them intellectual crossroads. Merchants brought with them ideas from far corners of the globe, particularly the Levant. Venice was Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a producer of fine glass, while Florence was a capital of textiles. The wealth such business brought to Italy meant large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned and individuals had more leisure time for study.[38]

Black Death

One theory that has been advanced is that the devastation caused by the Black Death in Florence, which hit Europe between 1348 and 1350, resulted in a shift in the world view of people in 14th-century Italy. .Italy was particularly badly hit by the plague, and it has been speculated that the familiarity with death that this brought caused thinkers to dwell more on their lives on Earth, rather than on spirituality and the afterlife.^ But I get the feeling that the band is more laidback on this live album than on the previous classics (Carnegie Hall) and other live albums.
  • RENAISSANCE music, discography, MP3, videos and reviews 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.progarchives.com [Source type: General]

^ Disc 2 is the highlight of this live album and I play that one far more often than disc 1.
  • RENAISSANCE music, discography, MP3, videos and reviews 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.progarchives.com [Source type: General]

[39] It has also been argued that the Black Death prompted a new wave of piety, manifested in the sponsorship of religious works of art.[40] .However, this does not fully explain why the Renaissance occurred specifically in Italy in the 14th century.^ Patronage in Renaissance Italy: From 1400 to the Early Sixteenth Century .

The Black Death was a pandemic that affected all of Europe in the ways described, not only Italy. The Renaissance's emergence in Italy was most likely the result of the complex interaction of the above factors.[9]
In the wake of the black death, reduced population left work-forces depleted: this tended, throughout Europe, to give workers more bargaining power, particularly skilled workers. This led to a shift of power away from rulers and towards workers and merchants, particularly in smaller states (such as composed Italy at the time). Thus, regardless of its spiritual and psychic impact, the plague's economic (and consequent political) legacy may have helped set the scene for the Renaissance.

Cultural conditions in Florence

Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts
It has long been a matter of debate why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not elsewhere in Italy. Scholars have noted several features unique to Florentine cultural life which may have caused such a cultural movement. Many have emphasized the role played by the Medici, a banking family and later ducal ruling house, in patronizing and stimulating the arts. .Lorenzo de' Medici (1449–1492) was the catalyst for an enormous amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countryman to commission works from Florence's leading artists, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti.^ Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Master .
  • Renaissance & Writing Outline - Grade 8 Social Studies Lesson Plan, Thematic Unit, Activity, Worksheet, or Civics, American History, or Government Teaching Idea 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.lessonplanspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also arranged by Renaissance author, including links to texts by John Donne, Erasmus, Leonardo da Vinci, John Milton, Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser,Tasso, and many more.

^ Electronic resources, such as the Leonardo da Vinci and the Dante databases, as well as a brief list of websites relating to the Renaissance are also represented in this bibliography.

[5]
The Renaissance was certainly underway before Lorenzo came to power; indeed, before the Medici family itself achieved hegemony in Florentine society. Some historians have postulated that Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance as a result of luck, i.e. because "Great Men" were born there by chance.[41] Da Vinci, Botticelli and Michelangelo were all born in Tuscany. Arguing that such chance seems improbable, other historians have contended that these "Great Men" were only able to rise to prominence because of the prevailing cultural conditions at the time.[42]

Characteristics

Humanism

In some ways Humanism was not a philosophy per se, but rather a method of learning. .In contrast to the medieval scholastic mode, which focused on resolving contradictions between authors, humanists would study ancient texts in the original, and appraise them through a combination of reasoning and empirical evidence.^ Binghamton: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1992.

^ Binghamton, New York: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1983.

.Humanist education was based on the programme of 'Studia Humanitatis', that being the study of five humanities: poetry, grammar, history, moral philosophy and rhetoric.^ GT 3520.S34 1991 Seigel, Jerrold E. Rhetoric and Philosophy in Renaissance Humanism: The Union of Eloquence and Wisdom, Petrarch to Valla .

Although historians have sometimes struggled to define humanism precisely, most have settled on "a middle of the road definition... the movement to recover, interpret, and assimilate the language, literature, learning and values of ancient Greece and Rome".[43] Above all, humanists asserted "the genius of man ... the unique and extraordinary ability of the human mind."[44]
Humanist scholars shaped the intellectual landscape throughout the early modern period. Political philosophers such as Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas More (1478–1535) revived the ideas of Greek and Roman thinkers, and applied them in critiques of contemporary government. Machiavelli's contribution, in the view of Isaiah Berlin, was a decisive break in western political thought allocating a unique reasoning to politics and faith and perhaps making him the father of the social sciences. Pico della Mirandola who lived to only twenty-three years wrote what is often considered the manifesto of the Renaissance, a vibrant defence of thinking, the Oration on the Dignity of Man. Matteo Palmieri (1406–1475), another humanist, is most known for his work Della vita civile ("On Civic Life"; printed 1528) which advocated civic humanism, and his influence in refining the Tuscan vernacular to the same level as Latin. Palmieri's written works drawn on Roman philosophers and theorists, especially Cicero, who, like Palmieri, lived an active public life as a citizen and official, as well as a theorist and philosopher and also Quintilian. Strongly committed to a deep and broad education Palmieri believed this would dispose people to public engagement and enhance the human capacity to do good deeds and contribute to the community. Although holding public office between 1432 and 1475 he is best remembered for these writings extolling the ideal of humanism as combination of learning with civic or political action. Possibly the most succinct expression of his perspective on humanism is in a 1465 poetic work La città di vita, but an earlier work Della vita civile (On Civic Life) is more wide-ranging. Composed as a series of dialogues set in a country house in the Mugello countryside outside Florence during the plague of 1430, Palmieri expounds on the qualities of the ideal citizen. The dialogues concern how children develop mentally and physically, how citizens can conduct themselves morally, how citizens and states can ensure probity in public life, and an important debate on the difference between that which is pragmatically useful and that which is honest.

Art

One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337) is credited with first treating a painting as a window into space, but it was not until the demonstrations of architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446) and the subsequent writings of Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) that perspective was formalized as an artistic technique.[45] The development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts.[46] .To that end, painters also developed other techniques, studying light, shadow, and, famously in the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy.^ Electronic resources, such as the Leonardo da Vinci and the Dante databases, as well as a brief list of websites relating to the Renaissance are also represented in this bibliography.

Underlying these changes in artistic method, was a renewed desire to depict the beauty of nature, and to unravel the axioms of aesthetics, with the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael representing artistic pinnacles that were to be much imitated by other artists.[47] Other notable artists include Sandro Botticelli, working for the Medici in Florence, Donatello another Florentine and Titian in Venice, among others.
Concurrently, in the Netherlands, a particularly vibrant artistic culture developed, the work of Hugo van der Goes and Jan van Eyck having particular influence on the development of painting in Italy, both technically with the introduction of oil paint and canvas, and stylistically in terms of naturalism in representation. (For more, see Renaissance in the Netherlands). Later, the work of Pieter Brueghel the Elder would inspire artists to depict themes of everyday life.[48]
Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, The Last Supper and Vitruvian Man are examples of renaissance art
In architecture, Filippo Brunelleschi was foremost in studying the remains of ancient classical buildings, and with rediscovered knowledge from the 1st-century writer Vitruvius and the flourishing discipline of mathematics, formulated the Renaissance style which emulated and improved on classical forms. Brunelleschi's major feat of engineering was the building of the dome of Florence Cathedral.[49] The first building to demonstrate this is claimed to be the church of St. Andrew built by Alberti in Mantua. The outstanding architectural work of the High Renaissance was the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica, combining the skills of Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, Sangallo and Maderno.
Monalisa by Leonardo da Vinci is the master piece of renaissance and world art
The Roman orders types of columns are used: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. These can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system. One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was in the Old Sacristy (1421–1440) by Filippo Brunelleschi.[50]
Arches, semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style) segmental, are often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Alberti was one of the first to use the arch on a monumental. Renaissance vaults do not have ribs. They are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault which is frequently rectangular.

Science

.The upheavals occurring in the arts and humanities were mirrored by a dynamic period of change in the sciences.^ The Mastery of Nature: Aspects of Art, Science, and Humanism in the Renaissance .

Some have seen this flurry of activity as a "scientific revolution", heralding the beginning of the modern age.[51] Others have seen it merely as an acceleration of a continuous process stretching from the ancient world to the present day.[52] Regardless, there is general agreement that the Renaissance saw significant changes in the way the universe was viewed and the methods with which philosophers sought to explain natural phenomena.[53]
Galileo Galilei. Portrait in crayon by Leoni
Science and art were very much intermingled in the early Renaissance, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci making observational drawings of anatomy and nature. An exhaustive 2007 study by Fritjof Capra [54] shows that Leonardo was a much greater scientist than previously thought, and not just an inventor. In science theory and in conducting actual science practice, Leonardo was innovative. He set up controlled experiments in water flow, medical dissection, and systematic study of movement and aerodynamics; he devised principles of research method that for Capra classify him as “father of modern science”. In Capra's detailed assessment of many surviving manuscripts Leonardo's science is more in tune with holistic non-mechanistic and non-reductive approaches to science which are becoming popular today. Perhaps the most significant development of the era was not a specific discovery, but rather a process for discovery, the scientific method.[53] This revolutionary new way of learning about the world focused on empirical evidence, the importance of mathematics, and discarding the Aristotelian "final cause" in favor of a mechanical philosophy. Early and influential proponents of these ideas included Copernicus and Galileo. In his 1991 survey of these developments, Charles Van Doren [55] considers that the Copernican revolution really is the Galilean cartesian (René Descartes) revolution, on account of the nature of the courage and depth of change their work brought about.
The new scientific method led to great contributions in the fields of astronomy, physics, biology, and anatomy. With the publication of Vesalius's De humani corporis fabrica, a new confidence was placed in the role of dissection, observation, and a mechanistic view of anatomy.[53]

Religion

.The new ideals of humanism, although more secular in some aspects, developed against a Christian backdrop, especially in the Northern Renaissance.^ The Italian Renaissance had placed human beings once more in the center .
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Indeed, much (if not most) of the new art was commissioned by or in dedication to the Church.[14] However, the Renaissance had a profound effect on contemporary theology, particularly in the way people perceived the relationship between man and God.[14] .Many of the period's foremost theologians were followers of the humanist method, including Erasmus, Zwingli, Thomas More, Martin Luther, and John Calvin.^ It is also arranged by Renaissance author, including links to texts by John Donne, Erasmus, Leonardo da Vinci, John Milton, Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser,Tasso, and many more.

Alexander VI, a Borgia Pope infamous for his corruption
The Renaissance began in times of religious turmoil. .The late Middle Ages saw a period of political intrigue surrounding the Papacy, culminating in the Western Schism, in which three men simultaneously claimed to be true Bishop of Rome.^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

[56] While the schism was resolved by the Council of Constance (1414), the 15th century saw a resulting reform movement know as Conciliarism, which sought to limit the pope's power. Although the papacy eventually emerged supreme in ecclesiastical matters by the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1511), it was dogged by continued accusations of corruption, most famously in the person of Pope Alexander VI, who was accused variously of simony, nepotism and fathering four illegitimate children whilst Pope, whom he married off to gain more power.[57]
Churchmen such as Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the Church, often based on humanist textual criticism of the New Testament.[14] Indeed, it was Luther who in October 1517 published the 95 Theses, challenging papal authority and criticizing its perceived corruption, particularly with regard to its sale of indulgences. The 95 Theses led to the Reformation, a break with the Roman Catholic Church that previously claimed hegemony in Western Europe. Humanism and the Renaissance therefore played a direct role in sparking the Reformation, as well as in many other contemporaneous religious debates and conflicts.

Self-awareness

.By the 15th century, writers, artists and architects in Italy were well aware of the transformations that were taking place and were using phrases like modi antichi (in the antique manner) or alle romana et alla antica (in the manner of the Romans and the ancients) to describe their work.^ The manuscript facsimile provides an unprecedented opportunity for you to view the work just as it appeared in the 15th century.

The term la rinascita first appeared, however, in its broad sense in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani (The Lives of the Artists, 1550, revised 1568).[58][59] .Vasari divides the age into three phases: the first phase contains Cimabue, Giotto, and Arnolfo di Cambio; the second phase contains Masaccio, Brunelleschi, and Donatello; the third centers on Leonardo da Vinci and culminates with Michelangelo.^ Electronic resources, such as the Leonardo da Vinci and the Dante databases, as well as a brief list of websites relating to the Renaissance are also represented in this bibliography.

It was not just the growing awareness of classical antiquity that drove this development, according to Vasari, but also the growing desire to study and imitate nature.[60]

Spread

.In the 15th century, the Renaissance spread with great speed from its birthplace in Florence, first to the rest of Italy, and soon to the rest of Europe.^ In the work of the Renaissance all the great nations of Europe shared.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Italy spread to other areas and combined with indigenous developments to produce a French Renaissance, an English Renaissance, and so on.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Patronage in Renaissance Italy: From 1400 to the Early Sixteenth Century .

The invention of the printing press allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas. As it spread, its ideas diversified and changed, being adapted to local culture. In the 20th century, scholars began to break the Renaissance into regional and national movements.

Northern Europe

The Renaissance as it occurred in Northern Europe has been termed the "Northern Renaissance".

Hungary

.The Renaissance style came directly from Italy during the Quattrocento to Hungary first in the Central European region, thanks to the development of early Hungarian-Italian relationships – not only in dynastic connections, but also in cultural, humanistic and commercial relations – growing in strength from the 1300s.^ This page is intended to be a growing collection of links to Renaissance poetry texts (and related resources), with a special emphasis on the English literature of the period.

^ Her Immaculate Hand: Selected Works by and about the Women Humanists of Quattrocento Italy .

Italian architectural influence became stronger in the reign of Zsigmond thanks to the church foundations of the Florentine Scolaries and the castle constructions of Pipo of Ozora. The relationship between Hungarian and Italian Gothic styles was a second reason – exaggerated breakthrough of walls is avoided, preferring clean and light structures. .The new Italian trend combined with existing national traditions to create a particular local Renaissance art.^ But with the dawning of the Renaissance a new spirit in the arts arose.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Piero della Francesca: Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Art .

^ Reviving the Renaissance: The Use and Abuse of the Past in Nineteenth Century Italian Art and Decoration .

Acceptance of Renaissance art was furthered by the continuous arrival of humanist thought in the country. .Many young Hungarians studying at Italian universities came closer to the Florentine humanist center, so a direct connection with Florence evolved.^ University of Toronto Italian Studies 8.

The growing number of Italian traders moving to Hungary, specially to Buda, helped this process. New thoughts were carried by the humanist prelates, among them Vitéz János, archbishop of Esztergom, one of the founders of Hungarian humanism.[61] After the marriage in 1476 of Matthias Corvinus (King of Hungary from 1458–1490) to Beatrice of Naples, Buda became one of the most important artistic centres of the Renaissance north of the Alps.[62] The most important humanists living in Matthias' court were Antonio Bonfini and the famous Hungarian poet Janus Pannonius.[62] .Matthias Corvinus's library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collections of secular books: historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the fifteenth century.^ PQ 4545.W5 Special Collections (Wilson Library, second floor west) Adams, Frederick B. Homage to the Book .

^ Catalogue of Fifteenth-Century Books in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and in Marshs Library, Dublin .

His library was second only in size to the Vatican Library. (However, the Vatican Library mainly contained Bibles and religious materials.)[63] .In 1489, Bartolomeo della Fonte of Florence wrote that Lorenzo de Medici founded his own Greek-Latin library encouraged by the example of the Hungarian king.^ The Public Library of Renaissance Florence: Niccolo Niccoli, Cosimo de Medici and the Library of San Marco .

Corvinus's library is part of UNESCO World Heritage.[64] Other important figures of Hungarian Renaissance: Bálint Balassi (poet) , Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos (poet), Bálint Bakfark (composer and lutenist)

Poland

Poznań City Hall rebuilt from the Gothic style by Giovanni Batista di Quadro (1550–1555)
An early Italian humanist who came to Poland in the mid-15th century was Filip Callimachus. Many Italian artists came to Poland with Bona Sforza of Milan, when she married King Zygmunt I of Poland in 1518.[65] This was supported by temporarily strengthened monarchies in both areas, as well as by newly-established universities.[66]

Germany

In the second half of the 15th century, the spirit of the age spread to Germany and the Low Countries, where the development of the printing press (ca. .1450) and early Renaissance artists like the painters Jan van Eyck (1395–1441) and Hieronymus Bosch (1450–1516) and the composers Johannes Ockeghem (1410–1497), Jacob Obrecht (1457–1505) and Josquin des Prez (1455–1521), predated the influence from Italy.^ Patronage in Renaissance Italy: From 1400 to the Early Sixteenth Century .

^ Creative Women in Medieval and Early Modern Italy: A Religious and Artistic Renaissance .

.In the early Protestant areas of the country humanism became closely linked to the turmoil of the Protestant Reformation, and the art and writing of the German Renaissance frequently reflected this dispute.^ German Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation, 1280-1580.

^ German Sculpture of the Later Renaissance, c.1520-1580: Art in an Age of Uncertainty .

^ It includes volumes held by Special Collections and books on libraries, writing, art, architecture, literature, Petrarch and others, Humanism, science, philosophy, culture and music in the Renaissance.

[67] However, the gothic style and medieval scholastic philosophy remained exclusively until the turn of the 16th century. Emperor Maximilian I (Ruling:1493-1519) was the first truly Renaissance monarch of the Holy Roman Empire.

France

In 1495 the Italian Renaissance arrived in France, imported by King Charles VIII after his invasion of Italy. A factor that promoted the spread of secularism was the Church's inability to offer assistance against the Black Death. Francis I imported Italian art and artists, including Leonardo da Vinci, and built ornate palaces at great expense. .Writers such as François Rabelais, Pierre de Ronsard, Joachim du Bellay and Michel de Montaigne, painters such as Jean Clouet and musicians such as Jean Mouton also borrowed from the spirit of the Italian Renaissance.^ Italian Women Writers from the Renaissance to the Present: Revising the Canon .

.In 1533, a fourteen-year old Caterina de' Medici, (1519–1589) born in Florence to Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude.^ The Public Library of Renaissance Florence: Niccolo Niccoli, Cosimo de Medici and the Library of San Marco .

Though she became famous and infamous for her role in France's religious wars, she made a direct contribution in bringing arts, sciences and music (including the origins of ballet) to the French court from her native Florence.

England

"What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving, how express and admirable in action, how like an angel in apprehension, how like a god!" — from William Shakespeare's Hamlet.
.In England, the Elizabethan era marked the beginning of the English Renaissance with the work of writers William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More, Francis Bacon, Sir Philip Sidney, John Milton, as well as great artists, architects (such as Inigo Jones who introduced Italianate architecture to England), and composers such as Thomas Tallis, John Taverner, and William Byrd.^ It is also arranged by Renaissance author, including links to texts by John Donne, Erasmus, Leonardo da Vinci, John Milton, Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser,Tasso, and many more.

^ In the work of the Renaissance all the great nations of Europe shared.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Women Writers of the English Renaissance .

Southern Europe

Italy

While Renaissance ideas were moving north from Italy, there was a simultaneous southward spread of some areas of innovation, particularly in music.[68] .The music of the 15th century Burgundian School defined the beginning of the Renaissance in that art and the polyphony of the Netherlanders, as it moved with the musicians themselves into Italy, formed the core of what was the first true international style in music since the standardization of Gregorian Chant in the 9th century.^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

^ Reviving the Renaissance: The Use and Abuse of the Past in Nineteenth Century Italian Art and Decoration .

^ Art in Renaissance Italy .

[68] The culmination of the Netherlandish school was in the music of the Italian composer, Palestrina. At the end of the 16th century Italy again became a center of musical innovation, with the development of the polychoral style of the Venetian School, which spread northward into Germany around 1600.
The paintings of the Italian Renaissance differed from those of the Northern Renaissance. .Italian Renaissance artists were among the first to paint secular scenes, breaking away from the purely religious art of medieval painters.^ Encyclopedia of Italian Renaissance & Mannerist Art .

^ The Mirror of the Artist: Northern Renaissance Art in its Historical Context .

^ Sinclair, K. V. Medieval and Renaissance Treasures of the Ballarat Art Gallery: The Crouch Manuscripts .

.At first, Northern Renaissance artists remained focused on religious subjects, such as the contemporary religious upheaval portrayed by Albrecht Dürer.^ The Mirror of the Artist: Northern Renaissance Art in its Historical Context .

Later on, the works of Pieter Bruegel influenced artists to paint scenes of daily life rather than religious or classical themes. .It was also during the northern Renaissance that Flemish brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck perfected the oil painting technique, which enabled artists to produce strong colors on a hard surface that could survive for centuries.^ The Mirror of the Artist: Northern Renaissance Art in its Historical Context .

[69] A feature of the Northern Renaissance was its use of the vernacular in place of Latin or Greek, which allowed greater freedom of expression. This movement had started in Italy with the decisive influence of Dante Alighieri on the development of vernacular languages; in fact the focus on writing in Italian has neglected a major source of Florentine ideas expressed in Latin.[70] .The spread of the technology of the German invention of movable type printing boosted the Renaissance, in Northern Europe as elsewhere; with Venice becoming a world center of printing.^ Print and Culture in the Renaissance: Essays on the Advent of Printing in Europe .

Spain

The Renaissance arrived in the Iberian peninsula through the Mediterranean possessions of the Aragonese Crown and the city of Valencia. Indeed, many of the early Spanish Renaissance writers come from the Kingdom of Aragon, including Ausiàs March and Joanot Martorell. .In the Kingdom of Castile, the early Renaissance was heavily influenced by the Italian humanism, starting with writers and poets starting with the Marquis of Santillana, who introduced the new Italian poetry to Spain in the early 15th century.^ Culture was the humanizing and refining influence of the Renaissance.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Italian Renaissance had placed human beings once more in the center .
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reviving the Renaissance: The Use and Abuse of the Past in Nineteenth Century Italian Art and Decoration .

.Other writers, such as Jorge Manrique, Fernando de Rojas, Juan del Encina, Juan Boscán Almogáver and Garcilaso de la Vega, kept a close resemblance to the Italian canon.^ Italian Women Writers from the Renaissance to the Present: Revising the Canon .

Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece Don Quixote is credited as the first Western novel. .Renaissance humanism flourished in the early 16th century, with influential writers such as philosopher Juan Luis Vives, grammarian Antonio de Nebrija or natural historian Pedro de Mexía.^ The Renaissance: From the 1470s to the End of the 16th Century .

^ Patronage in Renaissance Italy: From 1400 to the Early Sixteenth Century .

^ The Mastery of Nature: Aspects of Art, Science, and Humanism in the Renaissance .

.Later Spanish Renaissance tended towards religious themes and mysticism, with poets such as fray Luis de León, Teresa of Ávila and John of the Cross, and treated issues related to the exploration of the New World, with chroniclers and writers such as Inca Garcilaso de la Vega or Bartolomé de las Casas, giving rise to a body of work, now known as Spanish Renaissance literature.^ M2.E68 Les Maetres Musiciens de la Renaissance Francaise:Editions Publices .

^ The new birth of resurrection known as the "Renaissance" is usually .
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^ Renaissance, the herald of new-found religious freedom.
  • History of the Renaissance in Europe: A rebirth, renewal, rediscovery 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

The late Renaissance in Spain also saw the rise of artists such as El Greco, and composers such as Tomás Luis de Victoria and Antonio de Cabezón.

Portugal

.In Portugal, the Renaissance arrived through the influence of the wealthy Italian merchants that started investing their money in the profitable Indian commerce that Portugal had monopolized during the late 15th century.^ Horace Made New: Horatian Influences on British Writing from the Renaissance to the Twentieth Century .

Lisbon flourished, and writers such as Gil Vicente, Sá de Miranda, Bernardim Ribeiro and Luís de Camões and artists such as Nuno Gonçalves appeared.

Historiography

Conception

The term was first used retrospectively by the Italian artist and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574) in his book The Lives of the Artists (published 1550). .In the book Vasari was attempting to define what he described as a break with the barbarities of gothic art: the arts had fallen into decay with the collapse of the Roman Empire and only the Tuscan artists, beginning with Cimabue (1240–1301) and Giotto (1267–1337) began to reverse this decline in the arts.^ Defining the Renaissance Virtuosa: Women Artists and the Language of Art History and Criticism .

According to Vasari, antique art was central to the rebirth of Italian art.[71]
.However, it was not until the nineteenth century that the French word Renaissance achieved popularity in describing the cultural movement that began in the late-13th century.^ Reviving the Renaissance: The Use and Abuse of the Past in Nineteenth Century Italian Art and Decoration .

.The Renaissance was first defined by French historian Jules Michelet (1798–1874), in his 1855 work, Histoire de France.^ Upwellings: First Expressions of Unbelief in the Printed Literature of the French Renaissance .

.For Michelet, the Renaissance was more a development in science than in art and culture.^ It includes volumes held by Special Collections and books on libraries, writing, art, architecture, literature, Petrarch and others, Humanism, science, philosophy, culture and music in the Renaissance.

^ The Mastery of Nature: Aspects of Art, Science, and Humanism in the Renaissance .

He asserted that it spanned the period from Columbus to Copernicus to Galileo; that is, from the end of the 15th century to the middle of the seventeenth century.[72] Moreover, Michelet distinguished between what he called, "the bizarre and monstrous" quality of the Middle Ages and the democratic values that he, as a vocal Republican, chose to see in its character.[9] A French nationalist, Michelet also sought to claim the Renaissance as a French movement.[9]
.The Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt (1818–1897) in his Die Cultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860), by contrast, defined the Renaissance as the period between Giotto and Michelangelo in Italy, that is, the 14th to mid-16th centuries.^ The Renaissance: From the 1470s to the End of the 16th Century .

^ Print Culture in Renaissance Italy: The Editor and the Vernacular Text, 1470-1600 .

.He saw in the Renaissance the emergence of the modern spirit of individuality, which had been stifled in the Middle Ages.^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

^ The Mutable Glass: Mirror-Imagery in Titles and Texts of the Middle Ages and the English Renaissance .

^ Castilian Laws of the Lower Middle Ages and Beginning of the Renaissance Related to Merchants Accounting and Account Books .

[73] His book was widely read and was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance.[74] However, Buckhardt has been accused of setting forth a linear Whiggish view of history in seeing the Renaissance as the origin of the modern world.[11]
More recently, historians have been much less keen to define the Renaissance as a historical age, or even a coherent cultural movement. As Randolph Starn has put it,
.
Rather than a period with definitive beginnings and endings and consistent content in between, the Renaissance can be (and occasionally has been) seen as a movement of practices and ideas to which specific groups and identifiable persons variously responded in different times and places.^ Content from more than 360 international music periodicals.

It would be in this sense a network of diverse, sometimes converging, sometimes conflicting cultures, not a single, time-bound culture.[11]
—Randolph Starn

For better or for worse?

.Much of the debate around the Renaissance has centered around whether the Renaissance truly was an "improvement" on the culture of the Middle Ages.^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

^ Castilian Laws of the Lower Middle Ages and Beginning of the Renaissance Related to Merchants Accounting and Account Books .

^ The Mutable Glass: Mirror-Imagery in Titles and Texts of the Middle Ages and the English Renaissance .

Both Michelet and Burckhardt were keen to describe the progress made in the Renaissance towards the "modern age". Burckhardt likened the change to a veil being removed from man's eyes, allowing him to see clearly.[41]
In the Middle Ages both sides of human consciousness – that which was turned within as that which was turned without – lay dreaming or half awake beneath a common veil. The veil was woven of faith, illusion, and childish prepossession, through which the world and history were seen clad in strange hues.[75]
—Jacob Burckhardt, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
On the other hand, many historians now point out that most of the negative social factors popularly associated with the "medieval" period – poverty, warfare, religious and political persecution, for example – seem to have worsened in this era which saw the rise of Machiavelli, the Wars of Religion, the corrupt Borgia Popes, and the intensified witch-hunts of the 16th century. Many people who lived during the Renaissance did not view it as the "golden age" imagined by certain 19th-century authors, but were concerned by these social maladies.[76] Significantly, though, the artists, writers, and patrons involved in the cultural movements in question believed they were living in a new era that was a clean break from the Middle Ages.[58] .Some Marxist historians prefer to describe the Renaissance in material terms, holding the view that the changes in art, literature, and philosophy were part of a general economic trend away from feudalism towards capitalism, resulting in a bourgeois class with leisure time to devote to the arts.^ It includes volumes held by Special Collections and books on libraries, writing, art, architecture, literature, Petrarch and others, Humanism, science, philosophy, culture and music in the Renaissance.

[77]
Johan Huizinga (1872–1945) acknowledged the existence of the Renaissance but questioned whether it was a positive change. .In his book The Waning of the Middle Ages, he argued that the Renaissance was a period of decline from the High Middle Ages, destroying much that was important.^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

^ The Mutable Glass: Mirror-Imagery in Titles and Texts of the Middle Ages and the English Renaissance .

^ Castilian Laws of the Lower Middle Ages and Beginning of the Renaissance Related to Merchants Accounting and Account Books .

[10] The Latin language, for instance, had evolved greatly from the classical period and was still a living language used in the church and elsewhere. The Renaissance obsession with classical purity halted its further evolution and saw Latin revert to its classical form. Robert S. Lopez has contended that it was a period of deep economic recession.[78] Meanwhile George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have both argued that scientific progress was perhaps less original than has traditionally been supposed.[79]
.Some historians have begun to consider the word Renaissance to be unnecessarily loaded, implying an unambiguously positive rebirth from the supposedly more primitive "Dark Ages" (Middle Ages).^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

^ The Mutable Glass: Mirror-Imagery in Titles and Texts of the Middle Ages and the English Renaissance .

^ Castilian Laws of the Lower Middle Ages and Beginning of the Renaissance Related to Merchants Accounting and Account Books .

Many historians now prefer to use the term "Early Modern" for this period, a more neutral designation that highlights the period as a transitional one between the Middle Ages and the modern era.[80] Others such as Roger Osborne have come to consider the Italian Renaissance as a repository of the myths and ideals of western history in general, and instead of rebirth of ancient ideas as a period of great innovation [81]

Other Renaissances

The term Renaissance has also been used to define time periods outside of the 15th and 16th centuries. .Charles H. Haskins (1870–1937), for example, made a case for a Renaissance of the 12th century.^ Horace Made New: Horatian Influences on British Writing from the Renaissance to the Twentieth Century .

[82] Other historians have argued for a Carolingian Renaissance in the 8th and 9th centuries, and still later for an Ottonian Renaissance in the 10th century.[83] Other periods of cultural rebirth have also been termed "renaissances", such as the Bengal Renaissance or the Harlem Renaissance.

See also

References

  • Brotton, Jerry. .The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Burckhardt, Jacob The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860), a famous classic; excerpt and text search 2007 edition; also complete text online
  • Burke, P, The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries ISBN 0-631-19845-8
  • Cronin, Vincent (1967), The Florentine Renaissance ISBN 0002112620
    • ------------------(1969), The Flowering of the Renaissance, ISBN 0712698841
    • ------------------(1992), The Renaissance, ISBN 0002154110
  • Cambridge Modern History, Vol.^ Binghamton: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1992.

    ^ Print Culture in Renaissance Italy: The Editor and the Vernacular Text, 1470-1600 .

    ^ Manuscripts, Inscriptions and Muniments,Oriental, Classical, Medieval and Modern, Classified and Arranged, Comprehending the History of the Art of Writing .

    1. The Renaissance
    (1903), older atticles by scholars complete text online
  • Campbell, Gordon. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. (2003). 862 pp. online at OUP
  • Ergang, Robert (1967), The Renaissance, ISBN 0-442-02319-7
  • Ferguson, Wallace K. (1962), Europe in Transition, 1300–1500, ISBN 0-04-940008-8
  • Fletcher, Stella. The Longman Companion to Renaissance Europe, 1390-1530. (2000). 347 pp.
  • Grendler, Paul F., ed. The Renaissance: An Encyclopedia for Students. (2003). .970 pp.
  • Grendler, Paul F. "The Future of Sixteenth Century Studies: Renaissance and Reformation Scholarship in the Next Forty Years," Sixteenth Century Journal Spring 2009, Vol.^ BR1609.5.C47 1996 Wightman, W.P.D. Science and the Renaissance: An Introduction to the Study of the Emergence of the Sciences in the Sixteenth Century .

    ^ Reference CD-ROM N40.I59 1995 A Selection of Renaissance Websites General Sites with Multiple Links Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies .

    ^ Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies Web Resources .

    40 Issue 1, pp 182+
  • Hale, John. The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance. (1994). 648 pp.; a magistral survey, heavily illustrated excerpt and text search
  • Hall, Bert S. Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe: Gunpowder, Technology, and Tactics (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Haskins, Charles Homer (1927), The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, ISBN 0-674-76075-1
  • Hattaway, Michael, ed. .A Companion to English Renaissance Literature and Culture. (2000).^ The Power of Eloquence and English Renaissance Literature .

    ^ Studies in the Continental Background of Renaissance English Literature: Essays Presented to John L. Lievsay .

    ^ Cambridge Studies in Renaissance Literature and Culture, 3 .

    .747 pp.
  • Huizinga, Johan (1924), The Waning of the Middle Ages, republished in 1990 ISBN 0-14-013702-5
  • Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance Europe, ISBN 0-395-88947-2
  • Johnson, Paul.^ The focus of this bibliography begins with the late Middle Ages and continues into the Renaissance with an emphasis on books.

    ^ The Mutable Glass: Mirror-Imagery in Titles and Texts of the Middle Ages and the English Renaissance .

    ^ Castilian Laws of the Lower Middle Ages and Beginning of the Renaissance Related to Merchants Accounting and Account Books .

    The Renaissance: A Short History. (2000). 197 pp. .excerpt and text search
  • King, Margaret L. Women of the Renaissance (1991) excerpt and text search
  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar, and Michael Mooney.^ PR 658.W7.K54 1996 Kristeller, Paul Oskar.

    ^ New Ways of Looking at Old Texts: Papers of the Renaissance English Text Society, 1985-1991 .

    ^ RC 172.B67 Cassirer, Ernst, Paul Oskar Kristeller, and John Herman Randall, Jr. The Renaissance Philosophy of Man .

    Renaissance Thought and its Sources (1979) excerpt and text search
  • Lopez, Robert S. (1952), Hard Times and Investment in Culture
  • Nauert, Charles G. Historical Dictionary of the Renaissance. (2004). 541 pp.
  • Patrick, James A., ed. .Renaissance and Reformation (5 vol 2007), 1584 pages; comprehensive encyclopedia
  • Plumb, J. H. The Italian Renaissance (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Robin, Diana; Larsen, Anne R.; and Levin, Carole, eds.^ Lit/ren.html This site provides access to pages of early and late Renaissance sites with full text documents.

    ^ This page is intended to be a growing collection of links to Renaissance poetry texts (and related resources), with a special emphasis on the English literature of the period.

    ^ Encyclopedia of Italian Renaissance & Mannerist Art .

    .Encyclopedia of Women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England (2007) 459p.
  • Rowse, A. L. The Elizabethan Renaissance: The Life of the Society (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Ruggiero, Guido, ed.^ New Ways of Looking at Old Texts: Papers of the Renaissance English Text Society, 1985-1991 .

    ^ Print Culture in Renaissance Italy: The Editor and the Vernacular Text, 1470-1600 .

    ^ Creative Women in Medieval and Early Modern Italy: A Religious and Artistic Renaissance .

    A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. (2002). 561 pp.
  • Rundle, David, ed. The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of the Renaissance. (1999). 434 pp.; numerous brief articles online edition
  • Speake, Jennifer and Thomas G. Bergin, eds. Encyclopedia of the Renaissance and the Reformation. (2004). 550 pp.
  • Starn, Randolph. "A Postmodern Renaissance?" .Renaissance Quarterly 2007 60(1): 1-24
  • Stephens, John, The Italian Renaissance: The Origins of Intellectual and Artistic Change before the Renaissance ISBN 0-582-49337-4
  • Strathern, Paul (2003), The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, ISBN 1844130983
  • Thorndike, Lynn (1943) 'Renaissance or Prenaissance?'^ RC 172.B67 Cassirer, Ernst, Paul Oskar Kristeller, and John Herman Randall, Jr. The Renaissance Philosophy of Man .

    ^ The Faun in the Garden: Michelangelo and the Poetic Origins of Italian Renaissance Art .

    in "Some Remarks on the Question of the Originality of the Renaissance", Journal of the History of Ideas Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan. 1943
  • Trivellato, Francesca. ."Renaissance Italy and the Muslim Mediterranean in Recent Historical Work," Journal of Modern History (March 2010), Vol.^ Creative Women in Medieval and Early Modern Italy: A Religious and Artistic Renaissance .

    82, No. 1: 127-155.
  • Turner, Richard N. Renaissance Florence (2005) excerpt and text search
  • Ward, A. The Cambridge Modern History. Vol 1: The Renaissance (1902)
  • Weiss, Roberto (1969) The Renaissance Discovery of Classical Antiquity, ISBN 1-597-40150-1
  • Werkmeister, William H. [editor] (1959). Facets of the Renaissance. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press. 

Primary sources

Notes

  1. ^ "Renaissance, Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=renaissance&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  2. ^ BBC Science & Nature, Leonardo da Vinci Retrieved on May 12, 2007
  3. ^ BBC History, Michelangelo Retrieved on May 12, 2007
  4. ^ Burke, P., The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries (Blackwell, Oxford 1998)
  5. ^ a b Strathern, Paul The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance (2003)
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed.
  7. ^ Har, Michael H. History of Libraries in the Western World, Scarecrow Press Incorporate, 1999, ISBN0810837242
  8. ^ Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium, 1997, Knopf, ISBN0679450882
  9. ^ a b c d Brotton, J., The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction, OUP, 2006.
  10. ^ a b Huizanga, Johan, The Waning of the Middle Ages (1919, trans. 1924)
  11. ^ a b c Starn, Randolph. "Renaissance Redux" The American Historical Review Vol.103 No.1 p.124 (Subscription required for JSTOR link)
  12. ^ The Idea of the Renaissance, Richard Hooker, Washington State University Website (Retrieved on May 2)
  13. ^ Perry, M. Humanities in the Western Tradition, Ch. 13
  14. ^ a b c d Open University, Looking at the Renaissance: Religious Context in the Renaissance (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  15. ^ Open University, Looking at the Renaissance: Urban economy and government (Retrieved May 15, 2007)
  16. ^ Stark, Rodney, The Victory of Reason, Random House, NY: 2005
  17. ^ See below, under "Sources".
  18. ^ Walker, Paul Robert, The Feud that sparked the Renaissance: How Brunelleschi and Ghiberti Changed the Art World, (New York, Perennial-Harper Collins, 2003)
  19. ^ Severy, Merle; Thomas b Allen, Ross Bennett, Jules B Billard, Russell Bourne, Edward Lanoutte, David F Robinson, Verla Lee Smith (1970). The Renaissance - Maker of Modern Man. National Geographic Society. ISBN 0870440918. 
  20. ^ For information on this earlier, very different approach to a different set of ancient texts (scientific texts rather than cultural texts) see Latin translations of the 12th century, and Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe.
  21. ^ L.D. Reynolds and Nigel Wilson, Scribes and Scholars: A guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin Literature Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1974, p.113-123.
  22. ^ L.D. Reynolds and Nigel G. Wilson, Scribes and scholars p. 123; 130-137.
  23. ^ Valeriano, Pierio; Gaisser, Julia Haig (1999). Pierio Valeriano on the ill fortune of learned men: a Renaissance humanist and his world. University of Michigan Press. p. 281. ISBN 0472110551, 9780472110551. "Demetrius Chalcondyles was a prominent Greek humanist. He taught Greek in Italy for over forty years." 
  24. ^ a b Bèze, Théodore de; Summers, Kirk M. (2001). A view from the Palatine: the Iuvenilia of Théodore de Bèze. Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. p. 442. ISBN 0866982795 9780866982795. "Demetrius Chalcondyles (1423-1511), a Greek refugee who taught Greek at Perugia, Padua, Florence, and Milan. Around 1493 he produced a Greek textbook for beginners." 
  25. ^ L.D. Reynolds and Nigel G. Wilson, Scribes and scholars, p. 119, 131.
  26. ^ "Demetrius Chalcondyles.". www.britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/157045/Demetrius-Chalcondyles. Retrieved 2009-09-24. "Demetrius Chalcondyles – born 1424, Athens [Greece] died 1511, Milan [Italy]. In 1447 Demetrius went to Italy, where Cardinal Bessarion became his patron. He was made professor at Padua in 1463." 
  27. ^ Cubberley, Ellwood Patterson (2008). The History of Education Volume 1. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 264. ISBN 0554225239, 9780554225234. "Another Greek of importance was Demetrius Chalcondyles of Athens (1424—1511), who reached Italy in 1447. In 1450 he became professor of Greek at Perugia." 
  28. ^ "Baldassare Castiglione". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/98529/Baldassare-Castiglione. Retrieved 2009-12-26. "Castiglione was educated [by] Demetrius Chalcondyles." 
  29. ^ Valeriano, Pierio; Gaisser, Julia Haig (1999). Pierio Valeriano on the ill fortune of learned men: a Renaissance humanist and his world. University of Michigan Press. p. 281. ISBN 0472110551, 9780472110551. "Demetrius Chalcondyles was a prominent Greek humanist. He taught Greek in Italy for over forty years; among his pupils were Ianus Lascaris, Poliziano, Leo X, Castaglione, Giraldi, Stefano Negri, and Giovanni Maria Cattaneo." 
  30. ^ "Demetrius Chalcondyles.". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/157045/Demetrius-Chalcondyles. Retrieved 2009-09-25. "One of his pupils at Florence was the German scholar Johann Reuchlin." 
  31. ^ History of the Renaissance, HistoryWorld (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  32. ^ Kirshner, Julius, Family and Marriage: A socio-legal perspective, Italy in the Age of the Renaissance: 1300–1550, ed. John M. Najemy (Oxford University Press, 2004) p.89 (Retrieved on 10-05-2007)
  33. ^ Burckhardt, Jacob, The Revival of Antiquity', The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (trans. by S.G.C. Middlemore, 1878)
  34. ^ Skinner, Quentin, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, vol I: The Renaissance; vol II: The Age of Reformation, Cambridge University Press, p. 69
  35. ^ Skinner, Quentin, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, vol I: The Renaissance; vol II: The Age of Reformation, Cambridge University Press, p. 69)
  36. ^ Stark, Rodney, The Victory of Reason, New York, Random House, 2005
  37. ^ Martin, J. and Romano, D., Venice Reconsidered, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, 2000
  38. ^ a b Burckhardt, Jacob, The Republics: Venice and Florence, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, translated by S.G.C. Middlemore, 1878.
  39. ^ For more, see Barbara Tuchman's book, A Distant Mirror.
  40. ^ The End of Europe's Middle Ages: The Black Death University of Calgary website. (Retrieved on April 5, 2007)
  41. ^ a b Burckhardt, Jacob, The Development of the Individual, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, translated by S.G.C. Middlemore, 1878.
  42. ^ Stephens, J., Individualism and the cult of creative personality, The Italian Renaissance, New York, 1990 p. 121.
  43. ^ Burke, P., The spread of Italian humanism, in The impact of humanism on western Europe, ed. A. Goodman and A. MacKay, London, 1990, p. 2.
  44. ^ As asserted by Gianozzo Manetti in On the Dignity and Excellence of Man, cited in Clare, J., Italian Renaissance.
  45. ^ Clare, John D. & Millen, Alan, Italian Renaissance, London, 1994, p. 14.
  46. ^ Stork, David G. Optics and Realism in Renaissance Art (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  47. ^ Vasari, Giorgio, Lives of the Artists, translated by George Bull, Penguin Classics, 1965, ISBN 0-14-044-164-6.
  48. ^ Peter Brueghel Biography, Web Gallery of Art (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  49. ^ Hooker, Richard, Architecture and Public Space (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  50. ^ Saalman, Howard (1993). Filippo Brunelleschi: The Buildings. Zwemmer. 
  51. ^ Butterfield, Herbert, The Origins of Modern Science, 1300–1800, p. viii
  52. ^ Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Revolution, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996, p. 1.
  53. ^ a b c Brotton, J., "Science and Philosophy", The Renaissance: A Very Short Introduction OUP, 2006.
  54. ^ Capra, Fritjof, The Science of Leonardo; Inside the Mind of the Great Genius of the Renaissance, New York, Doubleday, 2007.
  55. ^ Van Doren, Charles, A History of Knowledge, New York, Ballantine, 1991.
  56. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Western Schism (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  57. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Alexander VI (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  58. ^ a b Panofsky, Erwin. Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art, New York: Harper and Row, 1960.
  59. ^ The Open University Guide to the Renaissance, Defining the Renaissance (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  60. ^ Sohm, Philip. Style in the Art Theory of Early Modern Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)
  61. ^ "the influences of the florentine renaissance in hungary". Fondazione-delbianco.org. http://www.fondazione-delbianco.org/inglese/relaz00_01/mester.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  62. ^ a b Czigány, Lóránt, A History of Hungarian Literature, "The Renaissance in Hungary" (Retrieved on May 10, 2007)
  63. ^ Marcus Tanner, The Raven King: Matthias Corvinus and the Fate of his Lost Library (New Haven: Yale U.P., 2008)
  64. ^ [1]
  65. ^ (1494,%E2%80%93,1557),1958.html History of Poland on Polish Government's website (Retrieved on April 4–2007)
  66. ^ For example, the re-establishment of Jagiellonian University in 1400.
  67. ^ Review of Lewis Spitz, The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. Review by Gerald Strauss, English Historical Review, Vol. 80, No. 314, p.156. Available on JSTOR (subscription required).
  68. ^ a b Láng, Paul Henry. "The So Called Netherlands Schools," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 1. (Jan., 1939), pp. 48–59. (Subscription required for JSTOR link.)
  69. ^ Painting in Oil in the Low Countries and Its Spread to Southern Europe, Metropolitan Museum of Art website. (Retrieved April 5–2007)
  70. ^ Celenza, Christopher, (2004) The Lost Italian Renaissance: Humanists, Historians, and Latin's Legacy.Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press
  71. ^ "Defining the Renaissance, Open University". Open.ac.uk. http://www.open.ac.uk/Arts/renaissance2/defining.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  72. ^ Michelet, Jules. History of France, trans. G. H. Smith (New York: D. Appleton, 1847)
  73. ^ Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (trans. S.G.C Middlemore, London, 1878)
  74. ^ Gay, Peter, Style in History, New York: Basic Books, 1974.
  75. ^ Burckhardt, Jacob, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/hy309/docs/burckhardt/2-1.html, retrieved August 31, 2008 
  76. ^ Savonarola's popularity is a prime example of the manifestation of such concerns. Other examples include Philip II of Spain's censorship of Florentine paintings, noted by Edward L. Goldberg, "Spanish Values and Tuscan Painting", Renaissance Quarterly (1998) p.914
  77. ^ Renaissance Forum at Hull University, Autumn 1997 (Retrieved on 10-05-2007)
  78. ^ Lopez, Robert S., and Miskimin, Harry A., The Economic Depression of the Renaissance, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 14 (1962), pp. 408-26. Available on JSTOR (subscription required)
  79. ^ Thorndike, Lynn (1943) Renaissance or Prenaissance? in "Some Remarks on the Question of the Originality of the Renaissance", Journal of the History of Ideas Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan. 1943. Available on JSTOR (subscription required)
  80. ^ Greenblatt, S. Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare, University of Chicago Press, 1980.
  81. ^ Osborne, Roger, Civilization: a new history of the Western world, Pegasus Books, 2006.
  82. ^ Haskins, Charles Homer, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.
  83. ^ Hubert, Jean, L’Empire carolingien, (English: The Carolingian Renaissance, translated by James Emmons, New York: G. Braziller, 1970.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also renaissance

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

  • (RP) IPA: /rəˈneɪsənts/
  • (US) IPA: /ˈrɛnəˌsɑːnts/, /ˈrɛnəˌzɑːnts/
  •  Audio (US)help, file

Proper noun

Singular
Renaissance
Plural
-
Renaissance
  1. The 14th century revival of classical art, architecture, literature and learning that originated in Italy and spread throughout Europe over the following two centuries.
  2. The period of this revival; the transition from medieval to modern times.
  3. Any similar artistic or intellectual revival.

Translations

Adjective

Renaissance (not comparable)
Positive
Renaissance
  1. Of, or relating to the Renaissance.
  2. Of, or relating to the style of art or architecture of the Renaissance.

Translations


Dutch

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Renaissance
Wikipedia nl

Etymology

Borrowed from French.

Proper noun

Renaissance
  1. (history) Renaissance

See also


German

Etymology

Proper noun

Renaissance f.
  1. Renaissance

Noun

Renaissance f. (genitive Renaissance, plural Renaissancen)
  1. renaissance

Simple English

File:Raphael School of
The School of Athens by Raphael. This Renaissance painting shows an imaginary scene from Ancient Greece, with many famous Greek philosophers, writers, artists and mathematicians. Raphael has used the faces of lots of famous people from his own time. He has used Leonardo da Vinci as his model for Plato, the philosopher with the white beard in the centre.

The Renaissance is a period in the history of Europe beginning in about 1400, and following the Medieval period, also known as the Middle Ages.

The word "Renaissance" comes from a French word meaning "rebirth". The reason that the period is called by this name is that, at that time, people started taking an interest in the learning of ancient times, in particular the learning of Ancient Greece and Rome. The Renaissance was seen as a "rebirth" of that learning. The Renaissance is often said to be the start of the "modern age".

During the Renaissance, there were many famous artists, many writers and many philosophers. Many people studied mathematics and different sciences. A person who is clever at a great number of things is sometimes called a "Renaissance man". Leonardo da Vinci, who was a painter, a scientist, a musician and a philosopher, is the most famous Renaissance Man.

The Renaissance started in Italy but soon spread across the whole of Europe. In Italy the time is divided into three periods:-

  • the Early Renaissance.
  • the High Renaissance
  • the Late Renaissance which is also called the Mannerist period.

Following the Mannerist period was the Baroque period which also spread across Europe from about 1600. Outside Italy, it can be hard to tell where the Renaissance period ends and Baroque begins.

Contents

Why did the Renaissance happen?

[[File:|thumb|Printers at work in 1520.]]

Reading and printing

In the Middle Ages, there were very few books. The books that existed nearly all belonged to churches, or universities, or to very rich people. They were written by hand and often had beautiful hand-painted pictures. They were so expensive that most people could not own them.

Even if an ordinary person went to the church and looked at a book there, they could not read them, because they were written in Latin, the language of the Ancient Romans that was used in the Catholic Church and only understood by priests and well-educated people. People were forbidden by law from copying the Bible into Italian, English, German, French or other "local" languages.

In 1423 the first printed books were made in Europe. The way of printing quickly improved so that large books like the Bible could be made and sold cheaply. The printers then began to print everything that they thought was interesting:- Ancient Greek and Roman writings, poetry, plays, lives of the saints, mathematics textbooks, medical textbooks, Christian stories, naughty stories, books about animals and monsters, advice to princes as to how to rule their people and maps of the world.

Suddenly, all this wonderful knowledge was available to thousands of people who never had it before. Before 1423, all this knowledge belonged to priests, monasteries and universities. Suddenly it belonged to everyone.

File:Na Koloseum i K Franciszki
This picture shows the mixture of architecture in Rome. At the back is the huge wall of the ancient sports arena, the Colosseum. Near it is a church tower from about 1100 in the Middle Ages. The white front of the church of St. Francesca is from the 1600s. The columns and broken walls are all from Ancient Roman buildings. The round building to the left is now a church but was an ancient temple.

Ancient Roman remains

The time of Ancient Greece and Rome, when there were many philosophers, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and mathematicians was seen by people as a Golden Age, a time when things were beautiful, well-organised and well-run. This time had lasted from about 400 BC to about 400 AD.

In the year 1400, in the city of Rome, people could wander around looking up at the ruins of a city that had once been great. Inside the broken walls that had been smashed in 410 AD were the remains of huge temples, sports arenas, public baths, apartment blocks and palaces. Nearly all of them were ruined and could not be used. Nearly all of them were half-buried in dirt. A lot of them were pulled down to use as building stone. But they showed people what great things could be done. Among the ruins of this once-great city, the people of Rome lived in cottages. They still went to church in the huge churches (basilicas) built by the first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great, in the 4th century. They still held market day in the Ancient Roman market place of Campo dei Fiori ("Field of Flowers").

One day in 1402, into the middle of Rome, came a young man called Filippo Brunelleschi and a teenage boy called Donatello. They were fascinated by everything that they saw. They measured ancient ruined buildings, they drew things and they dug around for weeks looking for bits of broken statues and painted pottery that they could stick together. They were probably the world's first archaeologists. By the time they went back home to Florence, they knew more about Ancient Roman architecture and sculpture than anyone had known for about a thousand years. Brunelleschi became a very famous architect and Donatello became a very famous sculptor. They both used the ideas that they had, when they were studying the remains of ancient Rome.

Money and Politics

[[File:|thumb|300px|The city of Florence. Apart from the dome at San Lorenzo's in the centre of the picture, this view has not changed very much since the 1400s.]] The city of Florence is really where the Renaissance began. In those days, Italy was not one single country. It was lots of little states, all governed in different ways and all fighting or making allies with each other all the time.

Rome was politically powerful, because Rome had the Pope, the person in control of the Roman Catholic Church. Because of his very great importance as a spiritual leader, most people and most cities did not want to argue with the Pope, whichever Pope he might be. Because a new pope was elected when the old one died, everyone who was rich and powerful was always hoping it might be a member of their family. It was always a good idea to have several young men in the family trained as priests, just in case. It was also a good idea to be good friends with other rich families. One way to do this was to have lots of daughters and get them to marry rich powerful men from different cities. This was the way that politics worked.

Other cities that were powerful were Venice with its great big navy, Milan which controlled trade with Northern Europe and was very rich, Genoa which controlled trade with France and Spain and was very rich, and Florence.

The power of Florence was not founded on a strong army, on a strong fortress or a good position to control trade. It was founded on banking. The cleverness in business of one single family was very important in making Florence powerful and the centre of Renaissance learning. The family were called the Medici.

File:Cappella dei magi, corteo con lorenzo, piero e giovanni de'
The Medici family had this painting done by Benozzo Gozzoli on the wall of the chapel in their palace. It shows members of the family as the Three Wise Men.

Florence and the Medici

Giovanni Bicci de' Medici, (1360-1429), was the first important member of the family. He invested his money very wisely and became rich. He and his son, Cosimo de' Medici, (1389-1464), began the Medici Banking Company, which did so well that they soon had branches of the bank in large cities all over Europe, including London and Paris. Giovanni Bicci and Cosimo were the richest men in Europe.

Their wealth encouraged other families from Florence. Florence already had an industry, the cloth industry. Florentine merchants (traders) traded with Lombard traders from the north of Italy. They bought English wool and Chinese silk to be woven into the most magnificent cloth in Europe at the riverside factories of Florence. Florence was perfectly sited for making cloth. A lot of water is needed to make cloth. Other towns nearby are high on the tops of hills, but Florence is in a wide valley, with the broad Arno River flowing through it. There was a harbour on the coast near Pisa. The Pisans were not very friendly towards Florence, so Florence took them over. Then the rich traders of Florence could have their own ships and did not have to worry about the Lombard traders who brought their goods across Europe and over the mountains on the backs of donkeys.

Cosimo de' Medici was a patriot and a patron. He was a "patriot" because he acted like a father to his city. He became part of the town council. They were a group of men called the "signoria" (the seniors or elders). Cosimo made laws that adjusted the taxes. Some of the rich people did not like this at all and left the city, making Cosimo more powerful. He took good care of industry, of trade and of farming, because Florence needed all these things. He particularly needed the loyalty of all the farms and villages, because a city in a valley is easy for an army to attack. Cosimo built public buildings and when he had a palace built for himself, he had long stone seats built along the walls for the poor and the elderly to sit on.

He was a patron because he supported the church, and lots of writers, artists, architects and students. He founded a "Platonic Academy" where students could study the works of Ancient Greek writers and talk about politics, religion and new ideas. The head of the Academy was a philosopher called Marsillio Ficino. Cosimo encouraged architects to design buildings in the style of Ancient Rome. He collected a huge library of books and gave them to the monastery of San Lorenzo to be used by students. When he wanted some quiet time, he went to friary, (which is like a monastery), Sant Marco's, where he encouraged one of the "brothers", Fra Angelico, to paint beautiful sacred pictures.

After the death of Cosimo, his grandson Lorenzo de' Medici became even more famous. He was called Lorenzo il Magnifico (the Magnificent). It was during the time of Lorenzo that some of the most famous artists in world history were alive in Florence, and worked for the Medici:- Botticelli, Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci.

List of important events of the Renaissance

In Art

File:La naissance de Vé
The Birth of Venus' by Sandro Botticelli
File:Rome San
The rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica began in the Renaissance.
File:Proportions of the
Leonardo da Vinci's study of the human head

In Architecture

  • 1420, building of The Dome of Florence Cathedral begins, to Brunelleschi's design.
  • 1420s, Brunelleschi designs the church of Church of San Lorenzo, Florence.
  • 1444, Michelozzo designs the Medici-Riccardi Palace for Cosimo de' Medici.
  • 1471, Alberti designs the Church of Sant' Andrea, Mantua.
  • 1506, work begins on the new St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
  • 1550, Palladio designs the Villa Rotunda, near Vicenza.

In Science and Technology

In Thinking

(See illustration above: Raphael's "School of Athens")

  • Early 1300s, Petrarch publishes writings based on Classical writers and St. Augustine's writing.
  • Mid 1400s, the Humanist Academy begun, to discuss Ancient writings and modern ideas, patronised by the Medici family.
  • 1511, Desiderius Erasmus publishes In Praise of Folly in which he showed that a lot of people in the church did not live holy lives.
  • 1532, The Prince by Machiavelli is published, showing that people who wish to have political power, often do wicked things, to get it.


File:Gutenberg
A Gutenberg printed Bible
File:Michelino
Dante painted by Domenico di Michelino, 1465

[[File:|thumb|A map of the world by Abraham Ortelius, 1570]]

In Religion

In Writing

In Exploration

References

  • Ilan Rachum, The Renaissance: an Illustrated Encyclopedia, Octopus, ISBN 0-7064-0857-8
  • Edmond Wright, Ed., The Medieval and Renaissance World, Chartwell Books, Inc. ISBN 0-89009-264-8
  • Margaret Aston, The Fifteenth Century, Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-33009-3
  • Denys Hay and John Law, Italy in the Age of the Renaissance, Longman, ISBN 0-582-48358-1
  • John T. Paoletti and Gary M. Radke, Art in Renaissance Italy, Laurence King Publishing, (2005), ISBN 1-85669-439-9

Related pages

Other websites

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 03, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Renaissance, which are similar to those in the above article.








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