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Renal failure
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 N17.-N19.
ICD-9 584-585
DiseasesDB 26060
MeSH C12.777.419.780.500
.Renal failure or kidney failure (formerly called renal insufficiency or chronic renal insufficiency) is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately.^ Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening...
  • DC Health - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.whcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Advertising Disclaimer Chronic renal failure (CRF) is the progressive loss of kidney function.
  • Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) - Overview, Types - nephrologychannel 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nephrologychannel.com [Source type: General]

^ Differentiate acute from chronic renal failure: .
  • CIN'2003. Balasubramaniam. Neonatal Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.uninet.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There are two forms: acute (acute kidney injury) and chronic (chronic kidney disease); either form may be due to a large number of other medical problems.^ Chronic kidney disease .
  • Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.allina.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease- medco.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on eMedicineHealth.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease or other health issues.
  • Kidney Disease Dictionary 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.kidneyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specialist in kidney, cancer, psoriasis, leucoderma and other chronic disease,.
  • End Stage Renal Failure or Kidney Failure Homeopathy Treatment by Dr Harshad Raval Md Homeopathy 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Academic]

.Biochemically, it is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine.^ Elevated serum urea and creatinine.
  • Epidemiology of Chronic Renal Failure in Egypt - a knol by Dr.Tharwat Khamis 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biochemically, it is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine .
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors warn that this may be an under-recognized phenomena since many bodybuilders have elevated serum creatinine which is often attributed soley to the increased muscle mass.
  • Uremic Frost: Anabolic Steroid Use and Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.uremicfrost.com [Source type: General]

.In the science of physiology, renal failure is described as a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate.^ In the science of physiology , renal failure is described as a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate .
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glomerular filtration rate.
  • Preventing Progression and Complications of Renal Disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.newmanveterinary.com [Source type: Academic]

^ GFR: Glomerular filtration rate.
  • Acute Renal Failure and Renal Replacement Techniques.MEDICRIT 2008; 5:115-29. 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medicrit.com [Source type: Academic]

.When the kidneys malfunction, problems frequently encountered are abnormal fluid levels in the body, deranged acid levels, abnormal levels of potassium, calcium, phosphate, hematuria (blood in the urine) and (in the longer term) anemia.^ Abnormal creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney disease.
  • Kidney Failure Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment MedicineNet.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In CRF, the level of phosphate in the blood can be too high.
  • Chronic renal failure - Information sheets - Children & families - GOSH and ICH 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.ich.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Creatinine is removed from the blood by healthy kidneys, and leaves the body in urine.
  • Kidney Disease Dictionary 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.kidneyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Long-term kidney problems have significant repercussions on other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease.^ Significant kidney disease can .
  • Epidemiology of Chronic Renal Failure in Egypt - a knol by Dr.Tharwat Khamis 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-term kidney problems have significant repercussions on other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease .
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the long-term effects of the disease?
  • Renal Failure Information - Health Articles From ActiveForever.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.activeforever.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Renal Failure Information - Health Articles From ActiveForever.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.activeforever.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Diseases and Conditions Encyclopedia : Discovery Health 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC health.discovery.com [Source type: News]

Contents

Classification

.Renal failure can broadly be divided into two categories: acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease.^ Diuretics and mortality in acute renal failure.
  • Acute Renal Failure and Renal Replacement Techniques.MEDICRIT 2008; 5:115-29. 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medicrit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening...
  • DC Health - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.whcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternative Names: Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure .
  • DC Health - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.whcenter.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Health Vancouver - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly ... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.swmedicalcenter.com [Source type: Academic]
  • SJ/C, Savannah - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sjchs.org [Source type: Academic]

.The type of renal failure is determined by the trend in the serum creatinine.^ Type of renal failure .
  • Acute Renal Failure - April 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cidpusa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The type of renal failure is determined by the trend in the serum creatinine .
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The type of renal failure is determined by the trend in the serum creatinine.
  • Kidney Failure, Medical Information - Disease and Treatment 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC chronicrenalfailure1.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other factors which may help differentiate acute and chronic kidney disease include the presence of anemia and the kidney size on ultrasound.^ Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease or other health issues.
  • Kidney Disease Dictionary 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.kidneyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specialist in kidney, cancer, psoriasis, leucoderma and other chronic disease,.
  • End Stage Renal Failure or Kidney Failure Homeopathy Treatment by Dr Harshad Raval Md Homeopathy 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, though, it may progress to chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on eMedicineHealth.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Chronic kidney disease generally leads to anemia and small kidney size.^ Definition of Chronic kidney disease: .

^ Chronic kidney disease: the global challenge.
  • Chronic Renal Failure - NIER 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nieronline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic kidney disease generally leads to anemia and small kidney size.
  • Kidney Failure, Medical Information - Disease and Treatment 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC chronicrenalfailure1.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

Acute kidney injury

.Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a rapidly progressive loss of renal function, generally characterized by oliguria (decreased urine production, quantified as less than 400 mL per day in adults,[1] less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children or less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants); body water and body fluids disturbances; and electrolyte derangement.^ Diuretics and mortality in acute renal failure.
  • Acute Renal Failure and Renal Replacement Techniques.MEDICRIT 2008; 5:115-29. 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medicrit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute kidney failure (acute renal failure or ARF) is characterized by an abrupt decline in kidney function that leads to changes in the chemistry of the body including alterations in fluid and mineral balance.
  • Acute Renal (Kidney) Failure in Dogs 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

^ The cysts can replace the kidney mass, decreasing renal function and leading to renal failure.
  • Venofer - Chronic Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.venofer.com [Source type: Academic]

.AKI can result from a variety of causes, generally classified as prerenal, intrinsic, and postrenal.^ Acute renal failure can be classified as prerenal, intrinsic (or parenchymal), and postrenal.

^ It often results from major trauma, illness, or surgery but is sometimes caused by a rapidly progressive, intrinsic renal disease.
  • Merck Manual : Acute Renal Failure (ARF) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.unboundmedicine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For acute renal failure, the causes vary widely (prerenal, intrarenal, postrenal) and are difficult to distinguish without ED diagnostic workup.
  • Renal failure and CHF [Archive] - Forums 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.emsresponder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An underlying cause must be identified and treated to arrest the progress, and dialysis may be necessary to bridge the time gap required for treating these fundamental causes.^ An underlying cause must be identified to arrest the progress, and dialysis may be necessary to bridge the time gap required for treating these fundamental causes.
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Identifying the cause is sometimes difficult and may require many tests.
  • CIGNA - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Acute Renal Failure - Exams and Tests - Health.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.health.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute Renal Failure, SVCMC; New York NY 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Acute Renal Failure - Quest Diagnostics Patient Health Library 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.questdiagnostics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Trinity, Texas - Acute Renal Failure; Acute renal failure means that your kidneys ... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Library - 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC healthinformation.centracare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If dialysis is necessary, it usually is required for only a short time.
  • Acute Renal Failure - HealthCentral 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: General]

Chronic kidney disease

.Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can develop slowly and show few initial symptoms, be the long term result of irreversible acute disease, or be part of a disease progression.^ In some cases, though, it may progress to chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on eMedicineHealth.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In chronic renal failure, the damage to the kidneys is usually irreversible and progressive .
  • Feline Renal Failure ~ Pawprints and Purrs, Inc. 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sniksnak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prognosis: The long-term prognosis for chronic kidney disease is guarded since the disease is progressive and irreversible.

Acute-on-chronic renal failure

.Acute kidney injury can be present on top of chronic kidney disease.^ Chronic kidney disease .
  • Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.allina.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease- medco.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on eMedicineHealth.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitch WE. Chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic kidney disease - Overview 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.allina.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease - Symptom 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease- medco.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An acute kidney problem can become a chronic problem.
  • Feline Chronic Renal Failure CRF Feline Kidney Disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC felineinstincts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is called acute-on-chronic renal failure (AoCRF).^ Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening...
  • DC Health - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly worsening... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.whcenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Who gets acute renal failure?
  • Acute renal failure -- Hilton 333 (7572): 786 -- BMJ 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike acute renal failure, chronic renal failure slowly gets worse.
  • Renal failure - chronic | HealthandAge – Medical Articles and News for Health in Aging > Live Well, Live Longer 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthandage.com [Source type: Academic]

.The acute part of AoCRF may be reversible and the aim of treatment, as with AKI, is to return the patient to their baseline renal function, which is typically measured by serum creatinine.^ Any of these functions may be failing in the renal failure patient.
  • Kidney Failure: Where to Begin - VeterinaryPartner.com - a VIN company! 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.veterinarypartner.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Renal function is clinically monitored by measurement of .

^ If the BUN and creatinine were previously normal, the patient has acute renal failure, which is potentially reversible.
  • ACP Hospitalist, August 2009 - Should you seek a nephrology consultation when caring for patients with renal failure? 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.acphospitalist.org [Source type: Academic]

.AoCRF, like AKI, can be difficult to distinguish from chronic kidney disease, if the patient has not been monitored by a physician and no baseline (i.e., past) blood work is available for comparison.^ Definition of Chronic kidney disease: .
  • Chronic kidney disease - Overview 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease - Overview 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC health.marylandgeneral.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic kidney disease: the global challenge.
  • Chronic Renal Failure - NIER 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nieronline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitch WE. Chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic kidney disease - Overview 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease - Symptom 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease- medco.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease - Overview 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC health.marylandgeneral.org [Source type: Academic]

Symptoms

.Symptoms of kidney disease can vary from person to person.^ A healthcare professional will usually monitor a person for symptoms of complete kidney failure.
  • Chronic Renal Failure Information - Health Articles From ActiveForever.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.activeforever.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Featured kidney failure patient discussions on symptoms experienced at onset of disease .
  • Kidney Failure Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment MedicineNet.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some kidney diseases begin without any symptoms.
  • Mount Sinai - Renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.mountsinai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some people with kidney disease may not even feel sick, or they may not notice their symptoms.^ You may not have any symptoms of kidney damage.
  • Acute Renal Failure (Kidney Damage) - Caring4Cancer 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.caring4cancer.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tennessee Oncology Treatment - Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tnoncology.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) | CancerConsultants 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cancerconsultants.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lifelong treatment may control the symptoms of chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.allina.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease- medco.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, though, it may progress to chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on eMedicineHealth.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the kidney function fails, the waste products accumulate in the blood and the body, termed azotemia.^ When the kidneys are impaired, toxins accumulate in the blood.
  • Chronic Renal Failure in Dogs | DailyPuppy.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.dailypuppy.com [Source type: General]

^ If the kidney function fails, the waste products accumulate in the blood and the body.
  • Kidney failure (renal failure with uraemia, or azotaemia) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kidneys filter waste products & excess water from the blood.
  • Cat Renal Failure (Chronic) - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment - Cat-World 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cat-world.com.au [Source type: General]
  • Chronic Renal (kidney) Failure in Cats - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment of CRF - Cat-World 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cat-world.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Very mild levels of azotaemia may produce little or no symptoms, but if the kidney failure continues then symptoms will become noticeable (if the failure is of sufficient degree to cause symptoms).^ Very mild levels of azotaemia may give little or no symptoms, but if the kidney failure continues then symptoms will start to appear.
  • Kidney failure (renal failure with uraemia, or azotaemia) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may be a symptom of hypertension, or may be caused by toxin levels .
  • Tanya's Feline Chronic Renal Failure - Symptoms 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.felinecrf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correct or treat the cause of kidney failure.
  • CIGNA - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Trinity, Texas - Acute Renal Failure; Acute renal failure means that your kidneys ... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Acute Renal Failure - Quest Diagnostics Patient Health Library 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.questdiagnostics.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute Renal Failure - Treatment Overview - MSN Health & Fitness - Overactive Bladder 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC health.msn.com [Source type: General]

.Renal failure accompanied with noticeable symptoms is termed uraemia.^ Symptom Checker » Renal failure Renal failure Symptom Checker .
  • Renal failure - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at WrongDiagnosis 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC symptoms.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Broader terms for Renal failure .

^ What are the symptoms of acute renal failure in cats?
  • Cat Renal Failure (Chronic) - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment - Cat-World 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cat-world.com.au [Source type: General]

[2]
Symptoms of kidney failure include:[2][3][4][5]
  • High levels of urea in the blood, which can result in:
Vomiting and/or diarrhea, which may lead to dehydration
Nausea
Weight loss
Nocturnal urination
Foamy or bubbly urine
More frequent urination, or in greater amounts than usual, with pale urine
Less frequent urination, or in smaller amounts than usual, with dark coloured urine
Blood in the urine
Pressure, or difficulty urinating
  • A build up of phosphates in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out may cause:
Itching
Bone damage
Muscle cramps (caused by low levels of calcium which can cause hypocalcaemia)
  • A build up of potassium in the blood that diseased kidneys cannot filter out (called hyperkalemia) may cause:
Abnormal heart rhythms
Muscle paralysis[6]
  • Failure of kidneys to remove excess fluid may cause:
Swelling of the legs, ankles, feet, face and/or hands
Shortness of breath due to extra fluid on the lungs (may also be caused by anemia)
  • Polycystic kidney disease, which causes large, fluid-filled cysts on the kidneys and sometimes the liver, can cause:
Pain in the back or side
.
  • Healthy kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the bone marrow to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells.^ Erythropoietin is made by the kidneys and is responsible for stimulating red blood cell production by the bone marrow.
    • Pets with Diabetes: Chronic Renal Failure and Diabetes 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.caninediabetes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The condition of having too few red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body.
    • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Pediatric Conditions - Kidney (Renal) Failure - Kidney (renal) Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Kidney (renal) Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Produces erythropoietin, which indirectly helps to produce red blood cells.
    • Chronic Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.thensome.com [Source type: Academic]

    .As the kidneys fail they produce less erythropoietin resulting in fewer red blood cells being produced to replace the natural breakdown of old red blood cells.^ Produces erythropoietin, which indirectly helps to produce red blood cells.
    • Chronic Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.thensome.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The kidneys also produce 2 hormones, Erythropoietin & Calcitriol.
    • Kidney Failure, Medical Information - Disease and Treatment 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC chronicrenalfailure1.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cell growth.

    .As a result the blood carries less haemoglobin, which is known as anemia.^ Anemia and high blood pressure can result.
    • RENAL FAILURE: Kidney disease: a stealthy killer - Health & Fitness - ReviewJournal.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.lvrj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ GLOSSARY Anemia:   A condition resulting from an unusually low number of red blood cells or too little hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
    • The Analyst - Internet Health Report: Condition: Kidney Weakness / Disease 20 November 2009 21:56 UTC www.digitalnaturopath.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Anemia -  the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood.

    This can result in:
Feeling tired and/or weak
Memory problems
Difficulty concentrating
Dizziness
Low blood pressure
  • Other symptoms include:
Appetite loss, a bad taste in the mouth
Difficulty sleeping
Darkening of the skin

Causes

Causes of acute renal failure

.Acute kidney failure usually occurs as the result of a sudden interruption in the blood supply to the kidney, or as a result of a toxic overload of the kidneys.^ Treatment for acute kidney failure varies.
  • Treatment or prevention of acute renal failure - Patent 6998404 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sudden kidney failure can result from problems with blood flow to the kidney, which can be caused by blood loss or dehydration.
  • Acute Renal Failure (Sudden Kidney Failure) | ThirdAge Articles 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute Renal Failure | Lifescript.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]
  • Northern Arizona Healthcare - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nahealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Acute Renal Failure - Content Viewer 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also called acute kidney failure .
  • Acute renal failure definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: General]

.Some causes of acute failure include accidents, injuries or complications from surgery where the kidneys are deprived of normal blood flow for an extended period of time.^ Some of these complications may include: .
  • Chronic Renal Failure - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Medbroadcast 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medbroadcast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HealthyOntario.com - Chronic Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthyontario.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Decreased blood flow is one cause of damage to the kidney.
  • Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sa-renal.org [Source type: Academic]
  • End Stage Renal Failure or Kidney Failure Homeopathy Treatment by Dr Harshad Raval Md Homeopathy 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the conditions that cause acute kidney failure also affect other parts of the body.
  • Treatment or prevention of acute renal failure - Patent 6998404 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Heart-bypass surgery is an example of a situation in which the kidneys receive reduced blood flow.^ Hence, the phrase, heart bypass surgery.
  • Renal Failure Guide 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kidney - blood and urine flow .
  • Health Vancouver - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly ... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.swmedicalcenter.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease- medco.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • SJ/C, Savannah - Chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a slowly... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sjchs.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure - Edward Hospital, Naperville IL Area 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Kidney Disease :: BestHealth.com :: Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.besthealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.texashealth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.texashealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Any condition that significantly interferes with blood flow to the kidney can result in renal failure: There are three stages of renal failure: Acute renal failure; Chronic renal failure; and End-stage renal failure.

.Drug overdoses, whether accidental or from chemical overloads of drugs such as antibiotics or chemotherapy, may also cause the onset of acute kidney failure.^ In the beginning kidney failure may be asymptomatic.
  • Kidney Failure, Medical Information - Disease and Treatment 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC chronicrenalfailure1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some chemotherapy drugs and biological therapies can cause kidney damage.
  • Tennessee Oncology Treatment - Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tnoncology.com [Source type: Academic]
  • University of Florida Shands Cancer Center: Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC ufscc.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Virginia Cancer Institute - Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.vacancer.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) | CancerConsultants 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cancerconsultants.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute renal failure, causes and prognosis.
  • Acute medicine - Acute Renal Failure (ARF) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.acutemed.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike in chronic kidney disease, however, the kidneys can often recover from acute failure, allowing the patient to resume a normal life.^ Salt and water handling by the kidney is altered in patients with chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic Renal Failure: eMedicine Nephrology 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike acute renal failure, chronic renal failure slowly gets worse.
  • Renal failure - chronic | HealthandAge – Medical Articles and News for Health in Aging > Live Well, Live Longer 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthandage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Differentiate acute from chronic renal failure: .
  • CIN'2003. Balasubramaniam. Neonatal Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.uninet.edu [Source type: Academic]

.People suffering from acute failure require supportive treatment until their kidneys recover function, and they often remain at an increased risk of developing future kidney failure.^ If this happens, a man can develop kidney failure .
  • Renal Failure Causes - HealthCentral 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Treatment of chronic renal failure depends on the degree of kidney function that remains.
  • End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Overview of Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.health.uab.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) - New York Presbyterian Hospital 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC nyp.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Overview of Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.chw.org [Source type: Academic]
  • CHOC Health Library - Genitourinary / Kidney: Overview of Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.choc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Norwood Hospital - End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.caritasnorwood.org [Source type: Academic]

^ About half of people who develop acute renal failure recover.
  • CIGNA - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Acute Renal Failure, SVCMC; New York NY 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Trinity, Texas - Acute Renal Failure; Acute renal failure means that your kidneys ... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Causes of chronic kidney disease

.There are many causes of CKD. The most common cause is diabetes mellitus.^ An inflammatory are probably the most common causes.
  • Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sa-renal.org [Source type: Academic]
  • End Stage Renal Failure or Kidney Failure Homeopathy Treatment by Dr Harshad Raval Md Homeopathy 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many causes.
  • Dialysis and endstage renal failure - EdRen - Edinburgh Royal Infirmary Renal Unit 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.edren.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common cause is dialysis.
  • Renal Failure Surgery India,Cost Renal FailureSurgery,Renal FailureMumbai Delhi India 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tour2india4health.com [Source type: Academic]

.The second most common cause is long-standing, uncontrolled, hypertension.^ An inflammatory are probably the most common causes.
  • Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sa-renal.org [Source type: Academic]
  • End Stage Renal Failure or Kidney Failure Homeopathy Treatment by Dr Harshad Raval Md Homeopathy 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second most common cause is long-standing, uncontrolled, hypertension.
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common cause is dialysis.
  • Renal Failure Surgery India,Cost Renal FailureSurgery,Renal FailureMumbai Delhi India 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tour2india4health.com [Source type: Academic]

.Polycystic kidney disease is also a well known cause of chronic kidney disease.^ Chronic kidney disease: the global challenge.
  • Chronic Renal Failure - NIER 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nieronline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What causes kidney disease?

^ Mitch WE. Chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.allina.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic kidney disease- medco.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Kidney Disease :: BestHealth.com :: Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.besthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.The majority of people afflicted with polycystic kidney disease have a family history of the disease.^ Further, in patients with polycystic kidney disease.
  • Progression of Chronic Renal Failure: Lessons from the Laboratory: Are the Applicable to Patients? El Nahas AM, Tamimi NA - Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sjkdt.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no history of diabetes and no family history of kidney disease.
  • An elderly female with acute renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.isn-online.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of people afflicted with polycystic kidney disease have a family history of the disease.
  • Chronic renal failure encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many other genetic illnesses also affect kidney function.^ "Loss of kidney function is not always irreversible, although in many cases it is," Shah said.
  • RENAL FAILURE: Kidney disease: a stealthy killer - Health & Fitness - ReviewJournal.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.lvrj.com [Source type: News]

^ Post-renal azotemia develops only if the obstruction is bilateral or affects a solitary functioning kidney.
  • Acute Renal Failure - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the conditions that cause acute kidney failure also affect other parts of the body.
  • Treatment or prevention of acute renal failure - Patent 6998404 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Overuse of some common drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, cocaine and acetaminophen can also cause chronic kidney damage.^ Some chemotherapy drugs and biological therapies can cause kidney damage.
  • University of Florida Shands Cancer Center: Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC ufscc.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Virginia Cancer Institute - Kidney Damage (Acute Renal Failure) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.vacancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pain medicines, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.
  • Acute Renal Failure - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Acute Renal Failure - AOL Health 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.peacehealth.org [Source type: General]
  • Trinity, Texas - Acute Renal Failure; Acute renal failure means that your kidneys ... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Acute Renal Failure - Topic Overview - Health.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.health.com [Source type: General]
  • The University of Kansas Hospital - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.kumed.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Acute Renal Failure - Dietary concerns - Revolution Health 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Health Library - 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC healthinformation.centracare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in some people it causes permanent kidney damage that leads to chronic kidney disease .
  • CIGNA - Acute Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Acute Renal Failure, SVCMC; New York NY 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Trinity, Texas - Acute Renal Failure; Acute renal failure means that your kidneys ... 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Investigation

Methods of Measurement for CKD

Stages of kidney failure
.Chronic kidney failure is measured in five stages, which are calculated using a patient’s GFR, or glomerular filtration rate.^ Renal function, by means of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation (GFR(c)).
  • Chronic Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.thensome.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Kidney failure - chronic; Renal failure - chronic; Chronic renal insufficiency; Chronic kidney failure .
  • Chronic renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.mercksource.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Library 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.floridahospital.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure - Health Information 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Renal failure - chronic | HealthandAge – Medical Articles and News for Health in Aging > Live Well, Live Longer 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.healthandage.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure - Baylor Health 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC info.baylorhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic renal failure - Loma Linda University Medical Center 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC lomalindahealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How is chronic kidney failure diagnosed?
  • Chronic Kidney Failure in Dogs ~ Pawprints and Purrs, Inc. 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.sniksnak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stage 1 CKD is mildly diminished renal function, with few overt symptoms.^ CKD has 5 stages, based on estimated renal function (see Table 1 ).
  • http://www.hiv.va.gov/vahiv?page=pcm-212_renal 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.hiv.va.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ CRF has few observable symptoms in its initial stage, and the symptoms come on so slowly as toxin levels build that in most cases they go unnoticed.
  • Scrappy's Canine Chronic Renal Failure & Congestive Heart Failure Website 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.netcomuk.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease): Slow and progressive loss of kidney function over several years, often resulting in end stage renal disease (ESRD) .
  • Kidney Disease Dictionary 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.kidneyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stages 2 and 3 need increasing levels of supportive care from their medical providers to slow and treat their renal dysfunction.^ Slow and progressive loss of kidney function over several years, often resulting in end-stage renal disease.
  • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Pediatric Conditions - Kidney (Renal) Failure - Kidney (renal) Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Kidney (renal) Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, creatinine is also secreted by the tubules; the proportion of creatinine excreted by this process increases with worsening renal failure, leading to overestimation of GFR, especially at lower levels of renal functioning.
  • Preventing Progression and Complications of Renal Disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.newmanveterinary.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although many HIV medical providers are accustomed to treating HIV-infected individuals with anemia, those with both CKD and anemia should be treated according to KDOQI guidelines.
  • Renal Manifestations of HIV 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Patients in stages 4 and 5 usually require preparation of the patient towards active treatment in order to survive.^ In HUS, the active stage usually lasts an average of six days (range, 2-16 days).
  • renal failure : E. coli Blog 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.ecoliblog.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The prognosis for patients with end-stage renal failure has improved over the past decade because of better treatment modalities and dialysis.

^ The levels of the total blood protein and the albumins in the patients with lupus nephrotic syndrome, were normalized demonstrating that the oral preparation can be usedfor treatment of the protein deficit in nephrotic syndrome.
  • Oral preparation for patients with chronic renal insufficiency, method of making and use - Patent # 5935605 - PatentGenius 20 November 2009 21:56 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Academic]

Stage .5 CKD is considered a severe illness and requires some form of renal replacement therapy (dialysis) or kidney transplant whenever feasible.^ Renal replacement therapy (RRT).

^ Dialysis or kidney transplant may eventually be required.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Chronic Renal Insufficiency 20 November 2009 21:56 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Renal replacement therapies .
  • Anaesthesia UK : Acute renal failure and renal replacement therapy in the ICU 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.anaesthesiauk.com [Source type: Academic]

Glomerular filtration rate
.A normal GFR varies according to many factors, including sex, age, body size and ethnicity.^ Similar to data for other populations, risk factors for CKD included older age, lower CD4 count, and use of indinavir.
  • Renal Manifestations of HIV 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Our results are in line with others showing that in the elderly population, both the CG and, to a lesser extent, the MDRD formulas tend to underestimate the measured GFR and that age and body mass is an important factor in estimation bias (34).
  • Estimating renal function in elderly hospitalized patients - Geragogia Net 20 November 2009 21:56 UTC www.geragogia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Because melamine/CYA are not significantly metabolized by the body and toxicity is due to renal excretion/filtering of the compounds, patient age would not be expected to be a significant variable.
  • External Peer Review of the FDA/CFSAN Draft Report Interim Safety and Risk Assessment of Melamine and its Analogues in Food for Humans (October 3, 2008) and Update (November 28, 2008) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.fda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Renal professionals consider the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to be the best overall index of kidney function.^ Renal function, by means of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation (GFR(c)).
  • Chronic Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.thensome.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The renal cortex houses the nephrons which are considered to be the functional parts of the kidneys.

^ Glomerular filtration rate.
  • Preventing Progression and Complications of Renal Disease 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.newmanveterinary.com [Source type: Academic]

.[9]The National Kidney Foundation offers an easy to use on-line GFR calculator.^ National Kidney Foundation, 2006.
  • Renal Manifestations of HIV 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC hivinsite.ucsf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Renal function, by means of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation (GFR(c)).
  • Chronic Renal Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.thensome.com [Source type: Academic]

^ National Kidney Foundation Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (based on eGFR) .
  • http://www.hiv.va.gov/vahiv?page=pcm-212_renal 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.hiv.va.gov [Source type: Academic]

[10] for anyone who is interested in knowing their glomerular filtration rate.(A serum .creatinine level, a simple blood test, is needed to use the calculator).^ The most common blood test to use is a creatinine level test.
  • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Pediatric Conditions - Kidney (Renal) Failure - Kidney (renal) Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Kidney (renal) Failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A blood test for levels of creatine is a part of calculating the filtration rate.
  • Health Encyclopedia | Butler Hospital Providence, RI 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.butler.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Chronic Renal Failure - HealthLibrary 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Encyclopedia | Women & Infants Providence, RI 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.womenandinfants.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The measured serum creatinine level is used to calculate .
  • Epidemiology of Chronic Renal Failure in Egypt - a knol by Dr.Tharwat Khamis 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

Use of the term uremia

.Before the advancement of modern medicine, renal failure was often referred to as uremic poisoning.^ References: Acute renal failure.

^ References for Chronic renal failure .
  • Chronic renal failure - Health Information 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute Renal Failure (ARF) - references .
  • Acute medicine - Acute Renal Failure (ARF) 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.acutemed.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Uremia was the term used to describe the contamination of the blood with urine.^ This condition is known as uremia, a term that literally means "urine in the blood."
  • RENAL FAILURE: Kidney disease: a stealthy killer - Health & Fitness - ReviewJournal.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.lvrj.com [Source type: News]

^ US Portions of this page are modifications based on work created and shared by Google and used according to terms described in the Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution License .
  • Cat Health Videos - How To Information | eHow.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Significant bacteriuria is a term coined to describe bacteriuria that likely represents UTI. A high bacterial count in a properly collected urine sample is evidence of UTI (table 3).
  • The District of Columbia Academy of Veterinary Medicine 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.dcavm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Starting around 1847, this term was used to describe reduced urine output, that was thought to be caused by the urine mixing with the blood instead of being voided through the urethra.^ Urine empties from the bladder through the urethra.
  • Kidney Disease Dictionary 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.kidneyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terms of Use and Privacy Policy Supported by an unrestricted educational grant through Merck US Human Health © 2001-2010 Baylor College of Medicine.
  • Hypertension Online Slides - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal failure 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.hypertensiononline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ US Portions of this page are modifications based on work created and shared by Google and used according to terms described in the Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution License .
  • Cat Health Videos - How To Information | eHow.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.September 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The term uremia is now used to loosely describe the illness accompanying kidney failure.^ The term Renal failure can be used for: .

^ US Portions of this page are modifications based on work created and shared by Google and used according to terms described in the Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution License .
  • Cat Health Videos - How To Information | eHow.com 22 January 2010 17:35 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Feb 08, 2007, 02:55 AM Re: chronic renal insufficiency VS chronic kidney disease Both terms do get used interchangeably a lot.
  • chronic renal insufficiency VS chronic kidney disease - Nursing for Nurses 20 November 2009 21:56 UTC allnurses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

References

  1. ^ Klahr S, Miller S (1998). "Acute oliguria". N Engl J Med 338 (10): 671–5. doi:10.1056/NEJM199803053381007. PMID 9486997. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/338/10/671. 
  2. ^ a b Dr Per Grinsted (2005-03-02). "Kidney failure (renal failure with uraemia, or azotaemia)". http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/kidneyfailure.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  3. ^ Dr Andy Stein (2007-07-01). [www.renalinfo.com Understanding Treatment Options For Renal Therapy]. Deerfield, Illinois: Baxter International Inc.. pp. 6. ISBN 1859590705. www.renalinfo.com. 
  4. ^ [www.renalinfo.com/uk The PD Companion]. Deerfield, Illinois: Baxter International Inc.. 2008-05-01. pp. 14–15. 08/1046R. www.renalinfo.com/uk. 
  5. ^ Amgen Inc. (2009). "10 Symptoms of Kidney Disease". http://www.lifeoptions.org/kidneyinfo/ckdinfo.php?page=4. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  6. ^ MedicineNet, Inc. (2008-07-03). "Hyperkalemia". http://www.medicinenet.com/hyperkalemia/page4.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  7. ^ Your Kidneys and How They Work- How do kidneys fail? National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearing House. NIDDK. NIH Publication No. 07–3195.August 2007. * Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/Kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/#7.
  8. ^ Perneger TV, Whelton PK, Klag MJ (December 1994). "Risk of kidney failure associated with the use of acetaminophen, aspirin, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs". N. Engl. J. Med. 331 (25): 1675–9. PMID 7969358. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=7969358&promo=ONFLNS19. 
  9. ^ Fadem, Stephen Z., M.D., FACP, FASN. Calculators for HealthCare Professionals. National Kidney Foundation. 13 Oct 2008. http://www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/gfr_calculator.cfm.
  10. ^ GFR calculator
  11. ^ Meyer TW and Hostetter, TH (2007). "Uremia". N Engl J Med 357 (13): 1316. doi:10.1056/NEJMra071313. PMID 17898101. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/357/13/1316. 

External links


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