Renewable energy in the United States: Wikis

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Renewable energy
Wind Turbine

Biofuel
Biomass
Geothermal
Hydroelectricity
Solar energy
Tidal power
Wave power
Wind power

Renewable energy accounted for 10.4 percent of the domestically-produced electricity used in the United States in the first ten months of 2009.[1] Hydroelectricity is the largest producer of renewable power in the United States.

U.S. wind power installed capacity now exceeds 35,159 MW which is enough to serve 9.7 million average households.[2][3] Texas is firmly established as the leader in wind power development, followed by Iowa and California.[4] DOE has said wind power could generate 20% of US electricity by 2030.[5][6][7]

Several solar thermal power stations have also been built. The largest of these solar thermal power stations is the SEGS group of plants in the Mojave Desert with a total generating capacity of 354 MW, making the system the largest solar plant of any kind in the world.[8] The largest photovoltaic power plant in North America is the 25 MW DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center in Florida.[9]

In terms of renewable fuels for transportation, most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol fuel, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends.

The development of renewable energy and energy efficiency marks "a new era of energy exploration" in the United States, according to President Barack Obama.[10] In a joint address to the Congress on February 24, 2009, President Obama called for doubling renewable energy within the next three years.[11]

Contents

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Rationale for renewables

Renewable energy technologies encompass a broad, diverse array of technologies, including solar photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants and heating/cooling systems, wind farms, hydroelectricity, geothermal power plants, and ocean power systems and the use of biomass.

The report Outlook On Renewable Energy In America explains that America needs renewable energy, for many reasons:

America needs energy that is secure, reliable, improves public health, protects the environment, addresses climate change, creates jobs, and provides technological leadership. America needs renewable energy. If renewable energy is to be developed to its full potential, America will need coordinated, sustained federal and state policies that expand renewable energy markets; promote and deploy new technology; and provide appropriate opportunities to encourage renewable energy use in all critical energy market sectors: wholesale and distributed electricity generation, thermal energy applications, and transportation.[12]

In 2009, President Barack Obama in the inaugural address called for the expanded use of renewable energy to meet the twin challenges of energy security and climate change. Those were the first references ever to our nation's energy use, to renewable resources, and to climate change in an inauguration speech of a U.S. president. President Obama looked to the near future, saying that as a nation, the United States will "harness the sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories."[13]

The president's New Energy For America plan calls for a federal investment of $150 billion over the next decade to catalyze private efforts to build a clean energy future. Specifically, the plan calls for renewable energy to supply 10% of the nation's electricity by 2012, rising to 25% by 2025.[14]

In his joint address to Congress in 2009, Obama stated that:

We know the country that harnesses the power of clean, renewable energy will lead the 21st. century....Thanks to our recovery plan, we will double this nation’s supply of renewable energy in the next three years... It is time for America to lead again.[11]

Current trends

Total electricity in the US generated from renewable sources 1949-2008 (blue), and as a percentage of total US electricity (red).

Renewable energy accounted for 10.4 percent of the domestically-produced energy in the United States in the first ten months of 2009.[15] California is a leading state and 31 percent of California's electricity comes from renewable sources. Most of this renewable electricity comes from hydropower, but 12 percent comes from "new" renewables which include wind and geothermal energy.[16]

The United States has some of the best renewable energy resources in the world, which have the potential to meet a rising and significant share of the nation's energy demand. A quarter of the U.S. land area has winds strong enough to generate electricity at the same price as natural gas and coal.[16]

Many of the new technologies that harness renewables — including wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels — are, or soon will be, economically competitive with the fossil fuels that meet 85 percent of U.S. energy needs. Dynamic growth rates are driving down costs and spurring rapid advances in technologies.[16]

All but four U.S. states now have incentives in place to promote renewable energy, while more than a dozen have enacted new renewable energy laws in recent years.[16]

US President Barack Obama has stated his goal to double production of renewable energy over three years. Obama asked the United States Congress "to act without delay" to pass legislation that included doubling alternative energy production in the next three years and building a new electricity "smart grid".[17]

Hydroelectricity

The Hoover Dam when completed in 1936 was both the world's largest electric-power generating station and the world's largest concrete structure.

Hydroelectricity is currently the largest producer of renewable power in the U.S. It produced around 66.8% of the total renewable power in the U.S. in 2008.[18] It currently produces 5.74% of the nation's total electricity. Hydroelectricity projects such as the Hoover Dam have become icons of the country.

Wind power

A 21st century windfarm in the California Central Valley

Wind power is a growing industry in the United States. Latest American Wind Energy Association figures show that installed U.S. wind power capacity now exceeds 35,159 MW which is enough to serve 9.7 million average households.[19][20] Texas is firmly established as the leader in wind power development, followed by Iowa and California. The U.S. became the world leader in installed wind power at the end of 2008[21] and DOE has said wind power could generate 20% of US electricity by 2030.[22][23][24]

Wind power is growing rapidly worldwide and U.S. capacity has more than doubled in the past three years. Doubling U.S. wind energy capacity over the next three years would imply no change in annual growth.[25]

These are some of the largest wind farms in the United States, as of October 2009:

Wind farm Installed
capacity
(MW)
State
Altamont Pass Wind Farm 576 California
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 662 Texas
Fowler Ridge Wind Farm 750 Indiana
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 736 Texas
Roscoe Wind Farm 781 Texas
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm 619 California
Sweetwater Wind Farm 585 Texas
Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm 690 California

Wind power costs

Wind-generated electricity cost 38¢ per kilowatt-hour when the wind industry began in California in the early 1980s. Since then it has dropped to 4¢ or below at the best wind sites and some U.S. long-term supply contracts have been signed for 3¢ per kilowatt-hour. By 2010, wind farms at prime sites may be generating electricity at 2¢ per kilowatt-hour, making it one of the world’s most economical sources of electricity.[26]

Additional income for farmers

There is considerable competition for wind farms among farmers in places like Iowa or ranchers in Colorado. Farmers, with no investment on their part, typically receive $3,000–5,000 per year in royalties from the local utility for siting a single, large, advanced-design wind turbine, which occupies 0.25 acres (1,000 m2) of land. This land would produce 40 bushels of corn worth $120 or, in ranch country, beef worth perhaps $15.[27]

Aesthetics and the environment

Landscape and ecological issues may be significant for some wind farm proposals.[28] However, when appropriate planning procedures for site selection are followed, environmental problems should be minimal. Some people may still object to wind farms, but their concerns should be weighed against the need to address the threats posed by climate change and the opinions of the broader community.[29][30] Worldwide experience has shown that community consultation and direct involvement of the general public in wind farm projects has helped to increase community approval.[31]

Solar thermal power

Solar thermal power stations

Solar Energy Generating Systems

A parabolic trough is the most widely deployed type of solar thermal power plant

Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) is the name given to nine solar power plants in the Mojave Desert. SEGS I-VII are located at Kramer Junction, and SEGS VIII and IX are at Harper Lake and Barstow respectively. The SEGS power plants were commissioned between 1984 and 1991.[8]

The installation uses parabolic trough solar thermal technology along with natural gas to generate electricity. The facility has a total of 400,000 mirrors and covers 1,000 acres (4 km²). The plants have a total generating capacity of 354 MW, making the system the largest solar plant of any kind in the world.[8]

Nevada Solar One

Nevada Solar One generates 64MW of power and in Boulder City, Nevada, and was built by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Solargenix Energy. Nevada Solar One started producing electricity in June 2007.

Nevada Solar One uses parabolic troughs as thermal solar concentrators, heating tubes of liquid which act as solar receivers. These solar receivers are specially coated tubes made of glass and steel. About 19,300 of these 4 metre long tubes are used in the newly built power plant. Nevada Solar One also uses a technology that collects extra heat by putting it into phase-changing molten salts. This energy can then be drawn on at night.[32]

Solar thermal power plants designed for solar-only generation are ideally matched to summer noon peak loads in prosperous areas with significant cooling demands, such as the south-western United States. Using thermal energy storage systems, solar thermal operating periods can even be extended to meet base-load needs.[33]

Land use issues

Solar thermal power plants are large, but when looking at electricity output versus total size, they use less land than hydroelectric dams (including the size of the lake behind the dam) or coal plants (including the amount of land required for mining and excavation of the coal).[34] Some of the land in the eastern portion of the Mojave Desert is to be preserved, but the solar industry is more interested in areas of the western desert, "where the sun burns hotter and there is easier access to transmission lines".[35]

Solar water heating

More than 1.5 million homes and businesses currently use solar water heating in the United States, representing a capacity of over 1,000 megawatts (MW) of thermal energy generation. Another 400 MW is likely to be installed over the next 3–5 years, according to the US Department of Energy. Assuming that 40 percent of existing homes in the United States have adequate access to sunlight, 29 million solar water heaters could be installed.[36]

Solar water heaters can operate in any climate. Performance varies depending on how much solar energy is available at the site, as well as how cold the water coming into the system is. The colder the water, the more efficiently the system operates.[36]

Solar water heaters reduce the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds and pay for their installation within 4 to 8 years with electricity or natural gas savings. Compared to those with electric water heaters, Florida homeowners with solar water heaters save 50 to 85 percent on their water heating bills, according to the Florida Solar Energy Center.[36]

Solar photovoltaic power

Nellis Solar Power Plant at Nellis Air Force Base. These panels track the sun in one axis.

DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center

The largest photovoltaic power plant in North America is the 25 MW DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center in Florida. The plant consists of over 90,000 solar panels.[9]

Nellis Solar Power Plant

The Nellis Solar Power Plant was completed in December, 2007. It is located at Nellis Air Force Base in Clark County, Nevada. It includes approximately 70,000 solar panels and the peak power generation capacity of the plant is approximately 15 megawatts.[37][38]

Distributed solar power

In recent years thousands and soon millions of homes, as well as many schools and businesses will include photovoltaic solar panels on their roof. Most of these are grid connected and use net metering laws to allow use of electricity in the evening that was generated during the daytime. New Jersey leads the nation with the least restrictive net metering law, while California leads in total number of homes which have solar panels installed. Many were installed because of the million solar roof initiative.[39] California has decided that it is not moving forward fast enough on photovoltaic generation and is considering enacting Feed-in Tariffs.[40] Washington state has a feed-in tariff of 15 ¢/kWh which increases to 54 ¢/kWh if components are manufactured in the state.[41] Hawaii and Michigan are also considering feed in tariffs.

Biomass

Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms, such as plants and trees and utilizes wastes or plant matter specifically grown to generate electricity or produce heat. The main advantage of using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil, is that while they are growing they absorb the near-equivalent in carbon dioxide (an important greenhouse gas) to that which is later released in their burning (See Energy forestry). Although there is some debate over the net carbon neutrality and near term affects of using the biomass for energy a key difference is the relatively short carbon recycle period of grown biomass (several years or decades) as opposed to the millions of years it took to turn carbon into fossil fuels. With proper conservation and growing techniques biomass can be an important renewable energy source.

Biofuels

Information on pump, California.

Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and GM are among the automobile companies that sell “flexible-fuel” cars, trucks, and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). By mid-2006, there were approximately six million E85-compatible vehicles on U.S. roads.[42]

The challenge is to expand the market for biofuels beyond the farm states where they have been most popular to date.[43] Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and availability. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which calls for 15.2 billion gallons of biofuels to be used annually by 2012, will also help to expand the market.[42]

It should also be noted that the growing ethanol and biodiesel industries are providing jobs in plant construction, operations, and maintenance, mostly in rural communities. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, the ethanol industry created almost 154,000 U.S. jobs in 2005 alone, boosting household income by $5.7 billion. It also contributed about $3.5 billion in tax revenues at the local, state, and federal levels.[42]

Geothermal power

Geothermal energy in the United States continues to be an area of considerable activity. The USA is the world leader in online capacity and the generation of electricity from geothermal energy.[44]

According to 2005 state energy data, geothermal energy provided approximately 16 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity -- 0.37% of the electricity consumed in the U.S. As of May 2007, geothermal electric power was generated in five U.S. states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah. According to the Geothermal Energy Association's recent report, there were 75 new geothermal power projects underway in 12 states as of May 2007 . This is an increase of 14 projects in an additional three states compared to a survey completed in November 2006.[44]

The most significant catalyst behind new industry activity is the Energy Policy Act of 2005. This Act made new geothermal plants eligible for the full federal production tax credit, previously available only to wind power projects. It also authorized and directed increased funding for research by the Department of Energy, and gave the Bureau of Land Management new legal guidance and secure funding to address its backlog of geothermal leases and permits.[44]

Electrical transmission

DOE will work with the Western Governors' Association (WGA) to identify areas in the West with substantial renewable energy resources and to expedite the development and delivery of that energy to meet regional energy needs. Subject to congressional appropriations, DOE plans to contribute up to $2.3 million over the next 3 years to the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) project, which was launched by WGA and DOE. Under a cooperative agreement with WGA, DOE will help to identify the WREZs, develop regional transmission plans to enhance access to the WREZs, create a transparent process to bring together utilities and the companies developing those renewable energy resources, and encourage interstate cooperation to address permitting and cost issues with transmission lines that cross state lines. Participating in the project are 11 western states, two Canadian provinces, and areas in Mexico that are part of the Western Interconnection, the massive electrical grid that supplies electricity to most of the West.[45][46]

Policy and promotion

NREL Report and States Policies

USDOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) issued a report showing that renewable-energy development is spreading rapidly throughout the country, often following public policies designed to spur renewable energy growth. According to the report, "State of the States 2009: Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy," California led the nation in terms of total non-hydroelectric renewable generation in 2007, while Maine generated the largest percentage of electricity from renewable resources other than hydropower, at 26.1%. Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have adopted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS), a policy that requires utilities to draw a percentage of their power from renewable energy sources. All but a dozen states have implemented policies for connecting renewable-energy systems to the power grid, known as interconnection, while all but eight allow customers to earn credit for power fed back into the grid, a policy called net metering. [47]

The NREL report also went beyond simply tabulating data by examining the impact of renewable-energy policies using statistical and empirical methods. That analysis found that states that had a net-metering policy in place in 2005 had more generation from non-hydropower renewable-energy sources in 2007 than states that did not. States that required utilities to tell their customers the energy sources used to produce their electricity and that also required utilities to offer "green power"—electricity produced from renewable energy sources, also called renewable electricity—ended up with more renewable energy development. The report also found several features of RPS policies that significantly contributed to increased renewable energy development, but it failed to find a perfect combination of features for an RPS policy that correlated with significant increases in renewable energy

Solar America Initiative

The Solar America Initiative (SAI)[48] is a part of the Federal Advanced Energy Initiative to accelerate the development of advanced photovoltaic materials with the goal of making it cost-competitive with other forms of renewable electricity by 2015.

The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program (SETP) will achieve the goals of the SAI through partnerships and strategic alliances by focusing primarily on four areas:

  • Market Transformation — activities that address marketplace barriers and offer the opportunity for market expansion
  • Device and Process Proof of Concept — R&D activities addressing novel devices or processes with potentially significant performance or cost advantages
  • Component Prototype and Pilot-Scale Production — R&D activities emphasizing development of prototype PV components or systems produced at pilot-scale with demonstrated cost, reliability, or performance advantages
  • System Development and Manufacturing — collaborative R&D activities among industry and university partners to develop and improve solar energy technologies

PEIS

DOE is also working with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to assess the impacts associated with solar energy development on BLM-managed public lands in six western states. The joint Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) will assess the environmental, social, and economic impacts from solar energy projects located in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The joint PEIS will also evaluate a number of alternative management strategies to determine which presents the best management approach for the agencies to adopt in terms of mitigating potential impacts and facilitating solar energy development. The measures adopted as a result of this PEIS will provide consistency and certainty for solar energy development and will help expedite environmental analysis for site-specific projects in the future.

During its work on the PEIS, the BLM will focus attention on the 125 applications already received for rights-of-way for solar energy development, while deferring new applications until after completion of the PEIS. The 125 existing applications involve almost a million acres (4,000 km²) of land and have the potential to generate 70,000 megawatts of electricity, enough to power 20 million average U.S. homes. The PEIS will establish a process for accepting future applications, possibly through a competitive process, which would be likely to attract companies with the experience and resources necessary to quickly deploy solar energy projects. The BLM is accepting comments on the scope of the PEIS through July 15 and will also hold public scoping meetings in the six states from mid-June through early July.[49][50]

California Solar Initiative

As part of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Million Solar Roofs Program, California has set a goal to create 3,000 megawatts of new, solar-produced electricity by 2017 - moving the state toward a cleaner energy future and helping lower the cost of solar systems for consumers. This is a comprehensive $2.8 billion program.[51]

The California Solar Initiative offers cash incentives on solar PV systems of up to $2.50 a watt. These incentives, combined with federal tax incentives, can cover up to 50% of the total cost of a solar panel system.[51] It should also be noted that there are many financial incentives to support the use of renewable energy in other US states.[52]

EPA initiatives

To promote energy efficiency and environmentally sensitive energy generation, Environmental Protection Agency facilities in the United States are using renewable energy technologies to supplement or replace a large portion of their energy requirements at the following facilities:

  • Ada, Oklahoma (geothermal heat pump)
  • Ann Arbor, Michigan (fuel cell)
  • Chicago, Illinois, Regional Office (photovoltaic array)
  • Corvallis, Oregon (photovoltaic array)
  • Edison, New Jersey (solar water heating)
  • Gulf Breeze, Florida (solar lighting)
  • Golden, Colorado (wind power and transpired solar collector)
  • Manchester, Washington (wind power)
  • Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (photovoltaic solar panels and street lights)[53]

Green Power Partnership

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has named the top 20 partners in its Green Power Partnership that are generating their own renewable energy on-site. Combined, the top 20 partners are generating more than 736 million kilowatt-hours of renewable energy on-site each year, enough to power more than 61,000 average U.S. homes. Leading the list are Kimberly-Clark Corporation, the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts,[54] the City of San Diego, the [San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant]],[55] and CalPortland,[56] a cement company.[57]

Renewable portfolio standards

This refers to legislation which creates a market in tradeable renewable or green electricity certificates. Electricity distributors or wholesaler purchasers of electricity are required to source a specified percentage of their electricity (portfolio) from renewable generation sources. Liable entities which fall short of their quota can purchase certificates from accredited suppliers who have generated renewable electricity and obtained and registered certificates to sell on that market.

Statistics

Wind power

United States installed wind power capacity animation 561px.gif
US Wind Energy Capacity (MW)[58][59]
No Jurisdiction 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999
1 Texas 9,403 7,113 4,353 2,736 1,992 1,290 1,290 1,096 1,096 184 184
2 Iowa 3,604 2,791 1,273 932 836 634 472 423 324 242 242
3 California 2,798 2,537 2,439 2,376 2,149 2,095 2,025 1,823 1,683 1,616 1,616
4 Washington 1,849 1,375 1,163 818 390 241 244 228 180 0 0
5 Minnesota 1,810 1,753 1,300 896 745 600 558 338 320 291 273
6 Oregon 1,758 1,067 885 438 338 263 259 218 157 25 25
7 Illinois 1,547 915 699 107 107 51 50 0 0 0 0
8 New York 1,274 832 425 370 186 48 48 48 48 18 0
9 Colorado 1,244 1,068 1,067 291 231 231 223 61 61 22 22
10 North Dakota 1,203 714 345 178 98 66 66 5 0 0 0
11 Wyoming 1,099 676 288 288 288 285 285 141 141 91 73
12 Indiana 1,036 131 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 Oklahoma 1,031 708 689 535 475 176 176 0 0 0 0
14 Kansas 1,021 921 364 364 264 114 114 114 114 2 2
15 Pennsylvania 748 361 294 179 129 129 129 35 35 11 0
16 New Mexico 597 497 496 496 406 266 206 1 1 1 1
17 Wisconsin 449 449 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 23 23
18 Montana 375 271 153 146 137 1 1 0 0 0 0
19 West Virginia 330 330 146 66 66 66 66 66 0 0 0
20 South Dakota 313 187 98 44 44 44 44 3 3 0 0
21 Missouri 309 163 62 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 Utah 223 20 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
23 Maine 175 47 42 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 Nebraska 153 117 72 73 73 14 14 14 3 3 3
25 Idaho 147 76 75 75 75 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 Michigan 138 144 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1
27 Arizona 63 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 Hawaii 63 63 63 42 9 9 9 9 2 2 2
29 Tennessee 29 29 29 29 29 29 2 2 2 2 0
30 New Hampshire 25 25 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
31 Massachusetts 15 6 5 4 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
32 Alaska 9 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
33 New Jersey 8 8 8 8 8 0 0 0 0 0 0
34 Ohio 7 7 7 7 7 7 4 0 0 0 0
35 Vermont 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
36 Rhode Island 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
37 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
38 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
39 Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
40 Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
41 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
42 Georgia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
43 Kentucky 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
44 Louisiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
45 Maryland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
46 Mississippi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
47 Nevada 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
48 North Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
49 South Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 Virginia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- United States 34,863 25,410 16,907 11,575 9,147 6,723 6,350 4,687 4,232 2,539 2,472

Renewable energy organizations

Organizations which are shaping the deployment of renewable energy technologies include the American Council on Renewable Energy, Environmental and Energy Study Institute, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Rocky Mountain Institute.

American Council on Renewable Energy

The American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE), is a non-profit organization with headquarters in Washington DC. It was founded in 2001 as a unifying forum for bringing renewable energy into the mainstream of American’s economy and lifestyle. In 2005 ACORE had 240 member organizations.[60]

In 2007, ACORE published Outlook On Renewable Energy In America, a two volume report about the future of renewable energy in the United States.[61] It has been said that this report exposes a "new reality for renewable energy in America."[62]

Environmental and Energy Study Institute

The Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) is a non-profit organization which promotes environmentally sustainable societies. Founded in 1984 by a group of Congressional Members, EESI seeks to be a catalyst that moves society away from environmentally damaging fossil fuels and toward a clean energy future. EESI presents policy solutions that will result in decreased global warming and air pollution; improvements in public health, energy security and rural economic development opportunities; increased use of renewable energy sources and improved energy efficiency.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

An important part of the mission of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the transfer of NREL-developed technologies to renewable energy markets. NREL's Technology Transfer Office supports laboratory scientists and engineers in the successful and practical application of their expertise and the technologies they develop. R&D staff and facilities are recognized and valued by industry, as demonstrated through many collaborative research projects and licensed technologies with public and private partners. NREL's innovative technologies have also been recognized with 39 R&D 100 awards.

Rocky Mountain Institute

The Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) is an organization dedicated to research, publication, consulting, and lecturing in the general field of sustainability, with a special focus on profitable innovations for energy and resource efficiency. RMI is headquartered in Snowmass, Colorado, and also maintains offices in Boulder, Colorado. RMI has recently published the book Winning the Oil Endgame.

See also

References

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  2. ^ http://www.awea.org/newsroom/releases/01-26-10_AWEA_Q4_and_Year-End_Report_Release.html Retrieved 2010-02-18
  3. ^ http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf Retrieved 2010-02-18
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  5. ^ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/pdfs/1_overview-demeo.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.networkworld.com/community/node/27745
  7. ^ http://www.eesi.org/072508_Wind_Energy_Supply
  8. ^ a b c SEGS I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII & IX
  9. ^ a b FPL Commissions DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center
  10. ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12475
  11. ^ a b Remarks of President Barack Obama -- Address to Joint Session of Congress
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  13. ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12194
  14. ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12194
  15. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Electric power monthly, January 2010.
  16. ^ a b c d Environmental and Energy Study Institute, Renewable energy becoming cost competitive with fossil fuels in the U.S.
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  19. ^ http://www.awea.org/newsroom/releases/01-26-10_AWEA_Q4_and_Year-End_Report_Release.html Retrieved 2010-02-18
  20. ^ http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/4Q09.pdf Retrieved 2010-02-18
  21. ^ U.S., China and Spain lead world wind power market in 2007
  22. ^ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/pdfs/1_overview-demeo.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.networkworld.com/community/node/27745
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  30. ^ Case Study – Arga Where the wild things are
  31. ^ The world's leader in Wind Power
  32. ^ Nevada: Solar energy advances discussed
  33. ^ Spain pioneers grid-connected solar-tower thermal power
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  35. ^ A Mojave power failure A shortfall in Mojave protection bill, Los Angeles Times, editorial, December 26, 2009.
  36. ^ a b c Environmental and Energy Study Institute, Solar water heating
  37. ^ Nellis activates Nations largest PV Array
  38. ^ Largest U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Begins Construction at Nellis Air Force Base
  39. ^ Million Solar Roofs Initiative
  40. ^ Are Feed-in Tariffs a Possibility in California?
  41. ^ Washington State Passes Progressive Renewable Energy Legislation
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  43. ^ "The craze for maize", The Economist, May 12, 2007, pp.33-34
  44. ^ a b c Geothermal Energy Association, 6 Million American Households to be Powered by Geothermal Energy, New Survey Reports
  45. ^ Department of Energy - DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States
  46. ^ Western Governors' Association Working Groups
  47. ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=15654
  48. ^ EERE: Solar Energy Technologies Program Home Page
  49. ^ Solar Energy Development PEIS Information Center
  50. ^ BLM Initiates Environmental Analysis of Solar Energy Development (5/29/2008)
  51. ^ a b California Public Utilities Commission, The California Solar Initiative
  52. ^ Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, Financial Incentives in the USA
  53. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Onsite Renewable Technologies
  54. ^ http://www.lacsd.org/
  55. ^ http://www.sanjoseca.gov/esd/wastewater/water-pollution-control-plant.asp
  56. ^ http://www.calportland.com
  57. ^ http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12693
  58. ^ Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2010-03-05). "U.S. Installed Wind Capacity and Wind Project Locations". United States Department of Energy. http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/wind_installed_capacity.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  59. ^ Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (2010-02-04). "Installed Wind Capacity by State". United States Department of Energy. http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/docs/installed_wind_capacity_by_state.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  60. ^ Office of Science and Technology, Building Domestic and International Partnerships for the Success of Renewable Energy
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  62. ^ 635 GW Possible with U.S. Political Shift Renewable Energy Access, 2 May 2007.

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