Repatriation: Wikis


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Repatriation (from Late Latin repatriare) is the process of returning a person back to one's place of origin or citizenship. This includes the process of returning refugees or soldiers to their place of origin following a war. The term may also refer to the process of converting a foreign currency into the currency of one's own country[1].


Medical repatriation

When the traveler is unable to follow her/his trip, due to any medical reason, the insurance company is required to repatriate the patient. The modality of repatriation could be via regular flight, or by ground or air ambulance. The medical repatriation is different from the act of medical evacuation.

Refugee repatriation, post-World War II repatriation

In the 20th century, following all European wars, several repatriation commissions were created to supervise the return of war refugees, displaced persons, and prisoners of war to their country of origin. Repatriation hospitals were established in some countries to care for the ongoing medical and health requirements of returned military personnel. In the Soviet Union, the refugees seen as traitors for surrendering were often killed or sent to Siberian concentration camps.

Issues surrounding repatriation have been some of the most heatedly-debated political topics of the 20th and 21st centuries. Many forced back to the Soviet Union by Allied forces in World War II still hold this forced migration against the United States of America and the United Kingdom.

The term repatriation was often used by Communist governments to describe the large scale state sponsored ethnic cleansing actions and expulsion of national groups. Poles born in territories that were annexed by the Soviet Union, (referred to by Poles as the Kresy) although deported to the State of Poland, were settled in the annexed former German territories (referred to in Polish as the Regained Territories). In the process they were told that they had returned to their Motherland.

Immigrant repatriation

Opponents of immigration have advocated various types of repatriation measures for immigrants. Illegal immigrants are frequently repatriated as a matter of government policy. Those who would go further suggest measures of voluntary repatriation, with financial assistance (there have been schemes of this kind), and also measures of compulsory repatriation. Such measures are highly controversial, especially if based on any kind of racial criterion, and encounter vocal political opposition in most democracies[citation needed] .

Repatriation laws

Most countries in central and eastern Europe as well as Germany, Greece, Armenia, France, China, Japan, Norway, Finland, Philippines, Ireland, Turkey, and Israel have repatriation laws. This gives non-citizen foreigners who are part of the titular majority group the opportunity to immigrate and receive citizenship. Repatriation of their titular diaspora is practiced by most ethnic nation states. The most famous repatriation law is Israel's Law of Return.

Economic repatriation

This refers to economic measures taken by a country to reduce foreign capital investment.[citation needed]

Repatriation of currency

When foreign currency is converted back to the currency of the home country it is referred to as repatriation. An example would be an American converting British Pounds back to U.S. Dollars.

Repatriation also refers to the payment of a dividend by a foreign corporation to a US corporation. This happens often where the foreign corporation is considered a "controlled foreign corporation" (CFC), which means that it more than 50% of the foreign corporation is owned by US shareholders. Generally, foreign direct investment in CFC's are not taxed until a dividend is paid to the controlling US parent, and is thus repatriated. The foreign direct investment income of the CFC is taxed only by the country where it is incorporated until repatriation. At that time, income is subject to the (typically higher) US banana tax rate minus the Foreign Tax Credits.(FN: See IRC 951-965) There are currently hundreds of billions of dollars of Foreign direct investment in CFC's because of the disincentive to repatriate those earnings. (See Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Economic Accounts, Integrated Macroeconomic Accounts for the United States, available at

Repatriation of human remains

Repatriation also refers to the return of body parts to the nearest relative.[citation needed] In the USA Native American's human remains are sometimes uncovered and removed from their burial sites in the construction/land development process. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) of 1990 established the process whereby federally-recognized American Indian tribes can request that museums and institutions receiving federal funds return culturally affiliated human remains. The NAGPRA also sets forth provisions that allow for the return of American Indian human remains found on federal lands. NAGPRA does not apply to the Smithsonian Institution, which is covered under a different federal law.

In previous eras it was common for British colonial authorities to collect heads and other body parts of indigenous peoples such as Indigenous Australians and Māori for display in British museums. The repatriation of these body parts is current ongoing. For an example of a successful body part repatriation, see Yagan.

Cultural repatriation

See Main article at Art repatriation

Cultural or art repatriation is the return of cultural objects or works of art to their country of origin (usually referring to ancient art), or (for looted material) its former owners (or their heirs).

Rastafari calls for repatriation to Africa

One of the central tenets of the Rastafari movement is the desirability of the repatriation of black people from the Americas and elsewhere back to Africa.

Overcoming repatriation

Repatriation is often the ‘forgotten’ phase of the expatriation cycle; the emphasis for support is mostly on the actual period abroad[citation needed]. However, many repatriates report experiencing difficulties on return: one is no longer special, practical problems arise, new knowledge gained is no longer useful, etc. These difficulties are highly influenced by a number of factors including self-management, spouses ’adjustment, time spent abroad and skill utilisation. What is crucial is that every individual perceives these factors in a different way.

Direct managers and HR staff often notice the difficulties a repatriate experiences, but they are not always able to act on it. Budget shortcomings and time constraints are frequently cited as reasons why it fails to be an agenda priority. Solutions for repatriation difficulties do not have to be expensive and can lead to great benefits for the company.[citation needed]Basic support can consist, for example, of good communication in advance, during and after the international assignment, or a mentor program to assist the repatriate. The expatriate and his/her family should feel understood by his or her company. Support can increase job satisfaction, thereby protecting the investment made by the company [2].

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Ripmeester, N. “Handle with care”, Graduate Recruiter, Issue 22 (February) 2005

External links



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