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.A republic is a form of government in which the citizens choose their leaders [1] and the people (or at least a part of its people)[2] have an impact on its government.^ The People of the Americas were, for the most part, self-governing.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Government of The People, by The People, and for The People, can only exist where there is one vote for one Citizen.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Propaganda is regularly used by powerful groups, such as those of religious people around the world, governments, and their leaders.

[3][4] The word "republic" is derived from the Latin phrase res publica, which can be translated as "a public affair".
.Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition.^ He brings, not sentiment, but philosophy to bear upon a question which both in ancient and modern times has been chiefly regarded in the light of custom or feeling.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this pleasant manner is presented to us the famous question both of ancient and modern philosophy, touching the relation of duty to happiness, of right to utility.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Too much, however, has been made of this question both in ancient and modern times.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most common definition of a republic is a state without a monarch.^ Is not the Republic the vehicle of three or four great truths which, to Plato’s own mind, are most naturally represented in the form of the State?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Republic, Socrates has definitely settled in all a few questions only; such as the community of women and children, the community of property, and the constitution of the state.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now they will be the best who love their subjects most, and think that they have a common interest with them in the welfare of the state.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[5] .In republics such as the United States and France the executive is legitimated both by a constitution and by popular suffrage.^ Article III, Section 3, of the United States Constitution defines treason as "giving aid and comfort to the enemy."
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To secure such an exchange was, as you will remember, one of our principal objects when we formed them into a society and constituted a State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the United States has said: to criticize our conduct in Guantanamo Bay constitutes an unfriendly act.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the United States, James Madison defined republic in terms of representative democracy as opposed to direct democracy[6], and this usage is still employed by many viewing themselves as "republicans".[7] In modern political science, republicanism refers to a specific ideology that is based on civic virtue and is considered distinct from ideologies such as liberalism.^ The term ‘republic’ is not on the same level as the term ‘democracy’.
  • Pajamas Media » America: A Republic, Not a Democracy 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the dark heart of Carlyle, the Latter-Day Pamphlets (1850): But there is one modern instance of Democracy nearly perfect, the Republic of the United States, which has actually subsisted for threescore years or more, with immense success as is affirmed; to which many still appeal, as to a sign of hope for all nations, and a 'Model Republic.'

^ The Cultural Revolution does not call for the release of the Communists and other revolutionaries from the prisons of the United Arab Republic, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and other Arab states.
  • The Role of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat in the International Marxist-Leninist Movement 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.mltranslations.org [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.Most often a republic is a sovereign country, but there are also subnational entities that are referred to as republics, or which have governments that are described as "republican" in nature.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ There is a stage of criticism in which all works, whether of nature or of art, are referred to design.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They held that every man in the state of nature had a sovereign right to govern himself and for that reason had a right to an equal share in the government of civil society.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

For instance, Article IV of the Constitution of the United States "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government."[9] The Soviet Union was a single nation composed of distinct and legally sovereign Soviet Socialist Republics.
.Niccolò Machiavelli described the governance and foundation of the ideal republic in his work Discourses on Livy.^ The comparatively short work called the Statesman or Politicus in its style and manner is more akin to the Laws, while in its idealism it rather resembles the Republic.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second book is historical, and claims for the Roman constitution (which is to him the ideal) a foundation of fact such as Plato probably intended to have given to the Republic in the Critias.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Niccolo Machiavelli, "The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy," in The Discourses of Niccolo Machiavelli (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1950), Vol.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

.These writings, as well as those of his contemporaries such as Leonardo Bruni, are the foundation of the ideology political scientists call republicanism.^ This is fully in line with the rhetoric of ultra-right Republicans and so-called “centrist Democrats” such as arch neocon Senator Joseph Lieberman.

^ More important than the flouting of rules and traditions by the Gracchi was the introduction of blatant mob violence into republican politics by those claiming to be the champions of the senate.

^ When I write "these people," I'm referring to those already indicted, subpoenaed or harassed, as well as those to come.

[10][11]

Contents

Origin of the term

.The idea of a republic first appeared in the writings of Italian scholars of the Renaissance, most importantly Niccolò Machiavelli.^ The classical writing which approaches most nearly to the Republic of Plato is the ‘De Republica’ of Cicero; but neither in this nor in any other of his dialogues does he rival the art of Plato.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first enthusiasm of ideas men are apt to see them everywhere, and to apply them in the most remote sphere.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republic of Plato is also the first treatise upon education, of which the writings of Milton and Locke, Rousseau, Jean Paul, and Goethe are the legitimate descendants.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[10][12] .Machiavelli divided governments into two types, principalities ruled by a monarch and republics ruled by the people.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ In one person (monarchy or its perversion, tyranny); in a group of people(aristocracy or oligarchy) or in the citizens (a contitutional government, aka, a republic).
  • Pajamas Media » America: A Republic, Not a Democracy 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It employs too many people, it intrudes into far too many things, it makes far too many rules.

[13][14]
.In medieval Northern Italy a number of city states had commune or signoria based governments.^ By which they meant "good" compared to the anarchy that prevailed after the fall of the empire, and compared to the squabbling city-states of renaissance Italy.

^ Number of city and state agencies suing New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani over his withholding of public records: 4 .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning with the State, I replied, would you say that a city which is governed by a tyrant is free or enslaved?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the late Middle Ages writers, such as Giovanni Villani, began thinking about the nature of these states and the differences from the more common monarchies.^ The only difference is that in the Laws the common meals are extended to women, and the warriors number about 5000, but in the Republic only 1000.’ .
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I know from my own experience, you can keep going back to it and getting more and more out of it, the more that you actually look at experience and think about this statement in relation to experience.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These symptoms having been palliated, the patient's own regenerative powers - the 'vis medicatrix naturæ' - can more easily bring about his healing.

.These early writers used terms such as libertas populi to describe the states.^ The usage of “mentor” and “father figure” to describe the relationship are terms that could arguably be used, but is open to debate.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He has used these racial slurs and encouraged students to use them under the guise that using them "reclaims" such words.
  • A World Beyond Capitalism, The Conference, The Community, The Love - Join Us! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC 00no-capitalism.livejournal.com [Source type: General]

^ But how simple of you to use the term State at all of any but our own!
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Greece and Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology.^ That was true in ancient Greece and Rome, for example, as I pointed out in the book Democracy: Can't We Do Better Than That?
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

To describe non-monarchial states writers, most importantly Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin word res publica.[15]
.While Bruni and Machiavelli used the term to describe the non-monarchial states of Northern Italy, res publica has a set of interrelated meanings in the original Latin.^ The usage of “mentor” and “father figure” to describe the relationship are terms that could arguably be used, but is open to debate.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dems, non-rockers of a ship of state that has sprung a gazillion leaks, re the latest scandal(s): “OK, then, this is the next to the last to the penultimate straw!
  • Firedoglake » Late Nite FDL: Can We Call It a Dictatorship Yet? 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But how simple of you to use the term State at all of any but our own!
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The term can quite literally be translated as 'public matter.'[16] .It was most often used by Roman writers to refer to the state and government,[citation needed] even during the period of the Roman Empire.^ Whereas the truth is that the State in which the rulers are most reluctant to govern is always the best and most quietly governed, and the State in which they are most eager, the worst.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Subtler means are needed even than the passive methods of mass exterminations used by the communists.
  • Creators of the atomic bomb: debasing nuclear power into a totalitarian order in the new world 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.heaven-words.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] The English word commonwealth derives from a direct translation of res publica, and its use in English is closer to how the Romans used the term res publica.[11]
Niccolò Machiavelli defined republic in The Prince by stating that "all states, all the dominions that have had or now have authority over men have been and now are either republics or princedoms."[13] Today the term republic still most commonly means a system of government which derives its power from the people rather than from another basis, such as heredity or divine right. .This remains the primary definition of republic in most contexts.^ ETAB: Kipling #19 – yes, I know that most people aren’t aware of the varied definitions of democracy and also, the real definition of a republic.
  • Pajamas Media » America: A Republic, Not a Democracy 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This bipartite division of government types differs from the classical sources, and also the earlier of Machiavelli's own works, which divided governments into three types, monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy.^ Second, it ignores the fact that small government can call into operation its own mechanisms of oppression in the face of dissent.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bearded Spock wrote: "Attempting to design a system of government that works well is akin to designing a type of poison that's healthy."

^ Non-munitions items can be divided into three general areas: petroleum products, agricultural products, and industrial materials and products.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.As Machiavelli wrote, the distinction between an aristocracy ruled by a select elite and a democracy ruled by a council appointed by the people became cumbersome.^ Democracy means rule of the people.

^ They were truly a part of nature, and likely did not make a distinction, as environmentalists do, between land where people belong and land where we do not.

^ Under this wonderful system you will thrive under the benevolent rule of the intelligent people (who are meritociously selected by the supreme leader, central committee and sub-committees).
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.By the time Machiavelli began work on The Prince he had decided to refer to both aristocracy and democracies as republics.^ The US is both a republic and a democracy.
  • Pajamas Media » America: A Republic, Not a Democracy 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The US is both a republic, in that its rules are made by its citizens,and a democracy, in that the process of decision-making within these rules are decided by the free vote of the citizens.
  • Pajamas Media » America: A Republic, Not a Democracy 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The power of government is nothing less that Tolkein’s ring of power that regardless of whether you call it a ‘democracy’ or a ‘republic’ works its will on others without their consent.
  • Pajamas Media » America: A Republic, Not a Democracy 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.A further set of meanings for the term comes from the Greek word politeia.^ I think we have not really come to terms with what this means.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It will only be when we have a new society that we are really going to fully come to terms with what it means that a whole people have lived through this experience.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cicero, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publica and it was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as republic. This is not a very accurate translation and the term politeia is today usually translated as form of government or regime. One continued use of this archaic translation is the title of Plato's major work on political science.^ Then the power of each individual in the State to do his own work appears to compete with the other political virtues, wisdom, temperance, courage.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Link voxoreason, can we assume you’re another manifestation of Major Professor Brian Robert Sullivan, PhD, and world renowned writer and hero?
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One does not have to have worked for or with a government intelligence agency to know things about network and computer security.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Greek it was titled Politeia and in English is thus known as The Republic.^ Thus we see that the Republic is partly founded on the ideal of the old Greek polis, partly on the actual circumstances of Hellas in that age.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

This naming is preserved for historic reasons, but is not considered accurate. Within the text of modern translations of The Republic alternative translations of politeia are used.[18]
In English the word first came to prominence during The Protectorate era of Oliver Cromwell.[19] .While commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, republic was also in common use.^ But how simple of you to use the term State at all of any but our own!
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So for many Americans Obama’s call for “change”, which actually means changing from a democratic republic to a socialist state, is heroic rather than something to be feared.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This commentary in The New Republic states clearly what the Jewish dream is for humanity.
  • Creators of the atomic bomb: debasing nuclear power into a totalitarian order in the new world 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.heaven-words.com [Source type: Original source]

[19]

History

.Until modern times, the form of government for almost all states was monarchy.^ The states are all governed almost identically.

^ All ruling government needs discipline, disregard the form of the government.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus there are five forms in all, both of states and of souls.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[20][21] .During the classical period the Mediterranean region was home to several states that are now known as the classical republics.^ Dinner, or package of regional food delicacies sent to your home state.
  • Firedoglake » Late Nite FDL: Can We Call It a Dictatorship Yet? 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The consistency of these messages across several Platonic dialogues might well make us so bold as to think that they are the take-home message of the Republic 's politics.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What had once been a political system developed to deal with a regional city state in central Italy now bore the weight of the world.

.Several republics also developed during the Middle Ages in the merchant dominated city states.^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as Socrates develops an account of a virtuous, successful human being and contrasts it with several defective characters, he also develops an account of a virtuous, successful city and contrasts it with several defective constitutions.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s a reason why the middle class built arsenals in every major U.S city and made up the ranks of the state militias and local defense organizations.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning in the 18th century larger states began becoming republics, and in the 21st century only a minority of countries are monarchies.^ Unfortunately being reasonable, thoughtful and somewhat educated are traits that only a minority of people in this country exhibit.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Everybody wants their MTV. Until Americans become as repressed and tight laced as they were in the early 20th century, it's only going to get worse.

^ The Iran stunts are self-satire, only potentially deadly, it is like a bad Duck Dodgers episode of the 21st and 3/50 century.
  • Firedoglake » Late Nite FDL: Can We Call It a Dictatorship Yet? 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Classical republics

The concept of the "republic" itself was not a meaningful concept in the classical world.[22] .There are number of states of the classical era that are today by convention called republics.^ So for many Americans Obama’s call for “change”, which actually means changing from a democratic republic to a socialist state, is heroic rather than something to be feared.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.These include the city states of ancient Greece such as Athens and Sparta[23] and the Roman Republic.^ Half of the province of Achaea (Greece), Athens taking the lead, rose against its Roman rulers, supported by Mithridates.

^ Athens, Argos, Corinth, Sicyon, and nearly every State with the exception of Sparta, through a similar stage of tyranny which ended either in oligarchy or democracy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

.The structure and governance of these states was very different from that of any modern republic.^ A very different ideal of womanhood is held up by Plato to the world; she is to be the companion of the man, and to share with him in the toils of war and in the cares of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charming,—nay, the very reverse.’ Evidently these gentlemen are not in your good graces, nor the state which is like them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Granting the Colonies full democratic representation in the British Government might have resulted in a very different history than we have seen, but I digress.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

[24] .There is a debate about whether the classical, medieval, and modern republics form a historic continuum.^ For now, there are other more pressing questions about the Republic 's explanation of psychological conflict.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The guts of this debate is not about that though, we are debating whether morality is subjective or objective.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ There are then further questions about whether it’s bad as well as coercive, and if so, how bad by comparison with other sorts of coercion, or other bad things, you might be subject to.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

[16] .JGA Pocock has played a central role,[16] arguing that there is a distinct republican traditional that stretches from the classical world to the present.^ In the triumphalism of the end of the Second World War, the American occupation of Japan, in the person of General Douglas MacArthur, played a major role in the creation of this constitution.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there is an element, you know, of coercion that plays a role in some of this.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] Other scholars disagree.[16] .Paul Rahe, for instance, argues that the classical republics had a form of government with few links to those in any modern country.^ We are then dumbstruck, when the proposition redrew the categories of the world’s previous and current form of government and created a category of a Democratic yet Dictatorship country.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As quite a few have already pointed out, I too don’t think capitalism is the real problem; the real problem is the incestuous link between corporations and government.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those elements of a dictatorship create a question mark regarding the government, whether or not it will provide stability in the country and the government.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

[23]
A map of the Roman Empire
.The political philosophy of the classical republics has had a central influence on republican thought throughout the subsequent centuries.^ Rachana Kamtekar, “Social Justice and Happiness in the Republic: Plato's Two Principles,” History of Political Thought , 22 (2001): 189–220.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They have become competitors for political influence in the region and, to a limited but significant degree, business rivals for U.S. corporations throughout much of the world.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The classical tradition of political thought is a great one, and we could discuss its pros and cons forever.

.A number of classical writers discussed forms of government alternative to monarchies and later writers have treated these as foundational works on the nature of republics.^ The divine right of kings, or more generally of governments, is one of the forms under which this natural feeling is expressed.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Mencius (or anyone familiar with his writings, in case he doesn't see this or have time to respond), what is your proposed alternative form of government?

^ As originally pitched, the government stakes were to be in the form of preferred stock and warrants, and these stakes were intended to be temporary.

Philosophers and politicians advocating for republics, such as Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Adams, and Madison, relied heavily on these sources.
Aristotle's Politics discusses various forms of government. .One form Aristotle named politeia consisted of a mixture of the other forms he argued this was one of the ideal forms of government.^ He prefers a mixture of forms of government to any single one.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A fair invitation, he replied; and I see, as every one must, that a tyranny is the wretchedest form of government, and the rule of a king the happiest.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Memoirs, more so than other autobiographical forms, often refer to casual acquaintances just by their first names.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Polybius expanded on many of these ideas, again focusing on the idea of mixed government.^ To implement these programs, government must expand even further into our private lives and businesses.

^ Many theories of Plato, such as the doctrine of ideas, the government of the world by philosophers, are not found in the Laws; the immortality of the soul is first mentioned in xii.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the 50’s, our government has bombed at least 25 countries, many of these more than once.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most important Roman work in this tradition is Cicero's De re publica.^ Our most important outreach initiative, the Outpost Program, is working with groups of concerned citizens to prepare their community for an energy constrained future.

^ The classical writing which approaches most nearly to the Republic of Plato is the ‘De Republica’ of Cicero; but neither in this nor in any other of his dialogues does he rival the art of Plato.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Over time the classical republics were either conquered by empires or became one themselves.^ This is, perhaps, a one-sided but not wholly untrue picture of the maxims and practice of mankind when they ‘sit down together at an assembly,’ either in ancient or modern times.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And as the guardians will never quarrel among themselves there will be no danger of the rest of the city being divided either against them or against one another.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The prominent ones, like Coco Chanel, exiled themselves for a good long time until passions settled.
  • Firedoglake » Late Nite FDL: Can We Call It a Dictatorship Yet? 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most of the Greek republics were annexed to the Macedonian Empire of Alexander. .The Roman Republic expanded dramatically conquering the other states of the Mediterranean that could be considered republics, such as Carthaginian Republic.^ Such a state had never been seen, and therefore could not be conceived by them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I know, I said, that such was your position; but what I would further consider is, whether this power which is possessed by the superior state can exist or be exercised without justice or only with justice.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Roman Republic itself then became the Roman Empire.^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

Other ancient republics

.In the pre-modern period republics are generally considered to have been a solely European phenomenon, and states in other parts of the world with similar governments are not generally referred to as republics.^ And the creation of health is the institution of a natural order and government of one by another in the parts of the body; and the creation of disease is the production of a state of things at variance with this natural order?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar activities continued in other parts of the society.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, it's undeniable that dealing with criminals seems to be a tiny part of any state's activity, modern or, as far as I know, otherwise.

[16] .Some early states outside of Europe had governments that are sometimes today considered similar to republics.^ If the federal government offers similar guarantees to state municipal bond offerings, it will effectively remove any constraint to state level spending.

^ And costs ballooned 3-500% in the bargain, due mostly to paperwork So today when I’m on the board of a charity, I fight to have them avoid government grants or even outside private philanthropy.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There remains to be considered the great difficulty of this book of the Republic, the so-called number of the State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

In the ancient Near East, a number of cities of the Eastern Mediterranean achieved collective rule. .Arwad has been cited as one of the earliest known examples of a republic, in which the people, rather than a monarch, are described as sovereign.^ "Vidal says that he hates labels and has said he believes in homosexual acts rather than homosexual people."
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ In one person (monarchy or its perversion, tyranny); in a group of people(aristocracy or oligarchy) or in the citizens (a contitutional government, aka, a republic).
  • Pajamas Media » America: A Republic, Not a Democracy 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those conservatives solicit donations from big donors rather than going to the people.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] The Israelite confederation of the era before the United Monarchy has also been considered a type of republic.[16][17]
.One part of the world where much attention has been paid ancient republics is India.^ But the Republic proceeds as though every embodied human being has just one soul that comprises three parts.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And the supposition that the Republic was written uninterruptedly and by a continuous effort is in some degree confirmed by the numerous references from one part of the work to another.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The basic division of the world into philosophers, honor-lovers, and money-lovers also illuminates what Socrates means by talking of being ruled by one part of the soul.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the early 20th century a number of Indian scholars, most notably as KP Jayaswal, argued that a number of states of ancient India had republican forms of government.^ The lesser or square ‘harmony,’ of 400, might be a symbol of the guardians,—the larger or oblong ‘harmony,’ of the people, and the numbers 3, 4, 5 might refer respectively to the three orders in the State or parts of the soul, the four virtues, the five forms of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Election officials across the country were reporting record numbers of new registrations, and Republican state officials in Ohio and Florida were doing their best to invalidate them on technicalities.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Option Three would be closer to the status quo - i.e., the "republican form of government" guaranteed by the US Constitution.

[26] .Unlike in Greece there are no surviving constitutions or works of political philosophy from this period in Indian history.^ She took no part in military or political matters; nor is there any instance in the later ages of Greece of a woman becoming famous in literature.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A point at which there will be no more middle-road—a point at which, if we survive, we will survive either as free participants in established egalitarian societies or as a new class of serfs.

^ There is no pressing necessity to learn; the stock of Classics or History or Natural Science which was enough for a man at twenty-five is enough for him at fifty.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The forms of government thus need to be deduced, mostly from the surviving religious texts.^ And the new government which thus arises will be of a form intermediate between oligarchy and aristocracy?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some will argue that the government needs more than just energy, food, and water to survive.

.These texts do refer to a number of states having Gaṇa sangha, or council based, as opposed to monarchial governments.^ The number of these radical Red revolutionaries expected to invade the United States was estimated by the United Americans as being from 3 to 5 million.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The lesser or square ‘harmony,’ of 400, might be a symbol of the guardians,—the larger or oblong ‘harmony,’ of the people, and the numbers 3, 4, 5 might refer respectively to the three orders in the State or parts of the soul, the four virtues, the five forms of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of these Jewish leaders throughout the communist system met their end in government power purges.

.A second form of evidence comes from Greeks writing about India during the period of contact following the conquests of Alexander.^ You agree with me then, I said, that this is the second type or form in which we should write and speak about divine things.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I quoted a psychologist who studied Black people in the South during this historical period we are talking about, from basically the end of Reconstruction in the 1870s until the 1960s.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They installed General Honjo Shigeru, a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the early period of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1904-1905).
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Greek writers about India such as Megasthenes and Arrian describe many of the states there to have republican governments akin to those of Greece.^ What was President G.H.W. Bush talking about, if there is no such thing as an emerging New World Order?

^ The full theory is complex, and there remain numerous questions about many of its details.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are whole countries too, such as India, or, nearer home, Ireland, in which a right solution of the marriage question seems to lie at the foundation of the happiness of the community.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Beginning around 700 BCE republics developed in a band running along the Indus Valley in the northwest and along the Ganges Plain in the northeast.^ Personal income is one of the variables of development we included from the beginning of the debate, along with education, health and internal and external security (definition never contested by the counterpart).
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ EXT. NABOO GRASS PLAINS - DAY Suddenly, all of the DROIDS begin to shake upside down, run around in circles, then stop.
  • Star Wars Episode 1 The Phantom Menace Script Screenplay Screen Play 15 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.supershadow.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were mainly small states, though some confederations of republics seem to have formed that covered large areas, such as Vajji, which had Vaishali as its capital around 600 BCE [28][29].^ Republic, he admits that the perfect state of communism and philosophy was impossible in his own age, though still to be retained as a pattern.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He would not harass them with minute regulations, and he would have allowed some changes in the laws: but not changes which would affect the fundamental institutions of the state, such for example as would convert an aristocracy into a timocracy, or a timocracy into a popular form of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, small, private, profit-driven interests will not act if such interests stand to lose in the wake of large, unpredictable actions taken by government.

As in Greece, the republican era came to an end in the 4th century with the rise of a monarchial empire. .The Maurya Empire conquered almost the entire subcontinent, ending the autonomy of the small republics.^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some did remain republics under Mauryan suzerainty, or returned to being republics after the fall of the empire.^ When Stalin died, did they automatically stop being “Stalinists” and become some other “ists”?
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gore Vidal did have some flash of spiritual insight in his excellent book 'Julian' about the last pagan Emperor of the Roman Empire.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Madra, for instance, survived as a republic until the 4th century CE. The final end of republics in India came with the rise of the Gupta Empire, and an associated philosophy of the divine nature of monarchy.^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no mention of the idea of good in the Timaeus, nor of the divine Creator of the world in the Republic; and we are naturally led to ask in what relation they stand to one another.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the vision of an Universal Empire, which is supposed to be the natural and necessary government of the world, having a divine authority distinct from the Papacy, yet coextensive with it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Mercantile republics

Giovan Battista Tiepolo, Neptune offers the wealth of the sea to Venice, 1748–50. This painting is an allegory of the power of the Republic of Venice.
.In Europe new republics appeared in the late Middle Ages when a number of small states embraced republican systems of government.^ Republic, he admits that the perfect state of communism and philosophy was impossible in his own age, though still to be retained as a pattern.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Election officials across the country were reporting record numbers of new registrations, and Republican state officials in Ohio and Florida were doing their best to invalidate them on technicalities.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the best ways to measure the impact of the government system a state implements, is comparing it vs similar states who took different choices.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

.These were generally small, but wealthy, trading states in which the merchant class had risen to prominence.^ Of such a kind is 429 the skill of the guardians, who are a small class in number, far smaller than the blacksmiths; but in them is concentrated the wisdom of the State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, I said, and hunger and thirst, and the desires in general, and again willing and wishing,—all these you would refer to the classes already mentioned.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That is true; yet neither will it be a very small State which contains all these.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Haakonssen notes that by the Renaissance Europe was divided with those states controlled by a landed elite being monarchies and those controlled by a commercial elite being republics.^ We now have corporate state capitalism with its military, intelligence agencies, and media, all controlled by the elite.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m sure all of those cock sucking elite are being controlled by the very same beings to implement their agenda; ie, kill our own race.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.Across Europe a wealthy merchant class developed in the important trading cities.^ According to the "Communists' concepts of power, any trade which facilitates industrial development is strategically important.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite their wealth they had little power in the feudal system dominated by the rural land owners, and across Europe began to advocate for their own privileges and powers.^ They use political connections to increase their wealth and produce little.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of them represent groups of individuals that fled from Iran after the 1979 revolution and they are frustrated because they lost their privileges and wealth that they enjoyed under Shah.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact many of them are in their own version of what we like to call hell (metaphorically speaking) because they live their lives based on virtues such as greed, power, etc.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.The more centralized states, such as France and England, granted limited city charters.^ Now, in such a State, can liberty have any limit?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I see the difficulty, I replied; yet the fostering of such a belief will make them care more for the city and for one another.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The more appeals of this sort which you make, he said, the more determined are we that you shall tell us how such a State is possible: speak out and at once.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the more loosely governed Holy Roman Empire fifty-one of the largest towns became free imperial cities.^ What you end up with is less like a virtuous Republic and more like an Eastern Roman Empire, a militarized state dominated by functionaries, not entrepreneurs.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the motto that all Romans were landowners of sorts by having a stake in the empires vast public lands, Gaius stabilized the price of grain which fluctuated wildly at a level more affordable to the citys poor.

^ The capitalism of Adam Smith, relatively free of government support, is no more.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.While still under the dominion of the Holy Roman Emperor most power was held locally and many adopted republican forms of government.^ The Roman Emperors were "good government"?

^ In both cases incredible abuses of police powers were witnessed, with the Republican Convention (RNC) showcasing the most extreme cases of state repression.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Primitive society offered many examples of land held in common, either by a tribe or by a township, and such may probably have been the original form of landed tenure.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[30] The same rights to imperial immediacy were secured by the major trading cities of Switzerland. The towns and villages of alpine Switzerland had, courtesy of geography, also been largely excluded from central control. .Unlike Italy and Germany much of the rural area was thus not controlled by feudal barons, but instead by independent farmers who also used communal forms of government.^ Redbaiter Says: May 24th, 2007 at 9:20 am Hahhah, one who uses the posting name redrag has the gall to pretend to dislike communism.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, where communication is possible, it should be made clear that there are a multitude of relatively safe forms of "disguised disobedience" that they can take initially.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Says: May 24th, 2007 at 11:44 am “Hahhah, one who uses the posting name redrag has the gall to pretend to dislike communism.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

When the Habsburgs tried to reassert control over the region both rural farmers and town merchants joined the rebellion. .The Swiss were victorious, and the Swiss Confederacy was proclaimed, and Switzerland has retained a republican form of government to the present.^ Option Three would be closer to the status quo - i.e., the "republican form of government" guaranteed by the US Constitution.

^ WHAT DID THE U.S. GET WITH "YOUR" BILLIONS, AMERICA? Very few of the 115 countries receiving "international welfare" can be said to be pro-republican in their form of government.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

[31]
.Italy was the most densely populated area of Europe, and also one with the weakest central government.^ The army is one of the most important sources of the power of dictators because it can use its disciplined military units and weaponry directly to attack and to punish the disobedient population.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most obvious applications of this principle is to the idea of "make work" jobs which are jobs "created" by the government for the purpose of employing individuals.

^ Most importantly, it leaves in place the existing maldistribution of power between the population and the elite in control of the government and its military forces.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the towns thus gained considerable independence and adopted commune forms of government.^ And the new government which thus arises will be of a form intermediate between oligarchy and aristocracy?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Communism is just another form of government where the unimpeachable rule over the unempowered, so wherever this happens it is morally equivalent.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ International communism was supposed to be the scinetific form of government.
  • Zombietime: Obama "science czar" is a totalitarian crank 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

.Completely free of feudal control, the Italian city-states expanded, gaining control of the rural hinterland.^ Beginning with the State, I replied, would you say that a city which is governed by a tyrant is free or enslaved?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some foreign states will act against a dictatorship only to gain their own economic, political, or military control over the country.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

[30] .The two most powerful were the Republic of Venice and its rival the Republic of Genoa.^ But appreciating what sheer power the decree had given Opimius the two men were not minded to hand themselves over to one of their most determined enemies.

^ The most conspicuous defect of the Laws is the failure of dramatic power, whereas the Republic is full of striking contrasts of ideas and oppositions of character.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The classical writing which approaches most nearly to the Republic of Plato is the ‘De Republica’ of Cicero; but neither in this nor in any other of his dialogues does he rival the art of Plato.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each were large trading ports, and further expanded by using naval power to control large parts of the Mediterranean.^ The elite use this power and wealth to control the government through bribes, campaign contributions and lobbyists.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the regime seeks to avoid these dangers and decentralizes controls and decision making, its control over the central levers of power may be further eroded.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We cannot afford to adopt any trade or credit policies that will allow the Soviets to further expand their military machine."
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

It was in Italy that an ideology advocating for republics first developed. Writers such as Bartholomew of Lucca, Brunetto Latini, Marsilius of Padua, and Leonardo Bruni saw the medieval city-states as heirs to the legacy of Greece and Rome.
.The dominant form of government for these early republics was control by a limited council of elite patricians.^ To try to maintain control over these dissenting Iranians, the government tries these methods: .
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Control of population size might remain the responsibility of each government, but the Regime would have some power to enforce the agreed limits.” .
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s easy to understand, and also complete rubbish, since governments are very obviously not the only institutions which can limit freedom, and are sometimes needed to control far worse threats to freedom.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

.In those areas that held elections, property qualifications or guild membership limited both who could vote and who could run.^ Such a program had both its possibilities and its limitations but taken as a whole, with the benefit of hindsight, today's world situation could not have been much worse.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a website by expressed policy is supposed to be limited to only those who support a candidate then it’s up a webmaster or committee to weed out less than supportive statements.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The main opposition was invariably composed of those who held significant public lands.

.In many states no direct elections were held and council members were hereditary or appointed by the existing council.^ Many of the candidates kept their identities secret until election day, though two had made it known they were direct descendants of the Prophet Mohammed.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ron Paul has often stated that the Fed has no reason to exist and that as president he would close it down.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iraqi Governing Council signed an interim constitution ; Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani denounced the new constitution and again called for direct elections .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This left the great majority of the population without political power, and riots and revolts by the lower classes were common.^ It leads to polarization in society, where some control and monopolize wealth and power, and exploit and dominate the great majority who do not.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Democrats cannot hope to bring down a dictatorship and establish political freedom without the ability to apply their own power effectively.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The common feature of the cited examples in which dictatorships have been disintegrated or weakened has been the courageous mass application of political defiance by the population and its institutions.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

.The late Middle Ages saw more than two hundred such risings in the towns of the Holy Roman Empire.^ Why should the law not be able to prevent a person from having more than two children?
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two philosophers had more in common than they were conscious of; and probably some elements of Plato remain still undetected in Aristotle.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God, whether from choice or from necessity, made one bed in nature and one only; two or more such ideal beds neither ever have been nor ever will be made by God.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[32] Similar revolts occurred in Italy, notably the Ciompi Revolt in Florence.

Protestant republics

.While the classical writers had been the primary ideological source for the republics of Italy, in Northern Europe the Protestant Reformation would be used as justification for a new set up republics.^ Unification: The sources said some PML-Q leaders who were still associated with the Chaudhrys would ask Musharraf to use his influence to reunite the PML-Q. .

^ He announced a bill whereby some of the money gained from this enormously wealthy new territory would be directed to agrarian commission in order to help set up farms for new settlers.

^ The aim would be to use popular noncooperation to create a new more advantageous strategic situation for the democratic forces.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] .Most important was Calvinist theology, which developed in the Swiss Confederacy, one of the largest and most powerful of the medieval republics.^ The army is one of the most important sources of the power of dictators because it can use its disciplined military units and weaponry directly to attack and to punish the disobedient population.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But appreciating what sheer power the decree had given Opimius the two men were not minded to hand themselves over to one of their most determined enemies.

^ And it's one of the most important aspects of advancing ultimately to communism.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

John Calvin did not call for the abolition of monarchy, but he advanced the doctrine that the faithful had the right to overthrow irreligious monarchs.[34] Calvinism also espoused a fierce egalitarianism and an opposition to hierarchy. Advocacy for republics appeared in the writings of the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion[35]
.Calvinism played an important role in the republican revolts in Britain and the Netherlands.^ Jewish historians Pawel Korzec and Jean-Charles Szurek also "admit [that] the Jewish youth and proletariat played an important ('although not exclusive') role in the apparatus of oppression."

.Like the city-states of Italy and the Hanseatic League both were important trading centres, with a large merchant class prospering from the trade with the New World.^ The new trade combination "will act for Amtorg, by its authority, as its official agent in the United States.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are in cities whole classes—women, slaves and the like—who correspond to the worse, and a few only to the better; and in our State the former class are held under control by the latter.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the most part, both conservatives and liberals in Washington, D.C., are facilitating the emerging New World Order.

.Large parts of the population of both areas also embraced Calvinism.^ If noncooperation is practiced by large parts of the population, the regime will be in serious trouble.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

The Dutch Revolt, beginning in 1568, saw the Dutch Republic reject the rule of Hapsburg Spain in a long conflict that would last until 1648.
In 1641 the English Civil War began. Spearheaded by the Puritans and funded by the merchants of London the revolt was a success, and King Charles I was executed. .In England James Harrington, Algernon Sydney, and John Milton became some of the first writers to argue for rejecting monarchy and embracing a republican form of government.^ There are lordships and principalities which are bought and sold, and some other intermediate forms of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Option Three would be closer to the status quo - i.e., the "republican form of government" guaranteed by the US Constitution.

^ Some will argue that the government needs more than just energy, food, and water to survive.

The English Commonwealth was short lived, and the monarchy soon restored. .The Dutch Republic continued in name until 1795, but by the mid 18th century the stadholder had become a de facto monarch.^ A minority can wait until they gain power or become a majority to continue the conflict.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everybody wants their MTV. Until Americans become as repressed and tight laced as they were in the early 20th century, it's only going to get worse.

^ "Eugen Levine and Max Levien, distinctly un-Bavarian names," notes Alex de Jonge, "proclaimed a Communist Soviet Republic."

Calvinists were also some of the earliest settlers of the British and Dutch colonies of North America.

Liberal republics

An allegory of the Republic in Paris
.As well these initial republican revolts early modern Europe also saw a great increase in monarchial power.^ Debt and land were the two great difficulties of the ancient lawgiver: in modern times we may be said to have almost, if not quite, solved the first of these difficulties, but hardly the second.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is difficult for me to imagine a violent F-share recipient revolt, even though from the second perspective the state would primarily be interested in stripping power from these individuals.

^ They may be compared with modern citations from Scripture, which have often a great rhetorical power even when the original meaning of the words is entirely lost sight of.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The era of absolute monarchy replaced the limited and decentralized monarchies that had existed in most of the Middle Ages.^ One of the most remarkable conceptions of Plato, because un-Greek and also very different from anything which existed at all in his age of the world, is the transposition of ranks.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It also saw a reaction against the total control of the monarch as a series of writers created the ideology known as liberalism.^ It must be remembered that no single blueprint exists or can be created to plan strategy for every liberation movement against dictatorships.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, I can be against NWO general principle of Totalitarianism and yet be in accord with some aspects of their ideology in regards to population control and the Environment.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone who seriously questions the assertion that the Jews have controlled America since World War II has a responsibility to do research on the creators of the atomic bomb.
  • Creators of the atomic bomb: debasing nuclear power into a totalitarian order in the new world 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.heaven-words.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most of these Enlightenment thinkers were far more interested in ideas of constitutional monarchy than in republics.^ I'm more interested in the Constitution and McVeigh" .
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ I'm more interested in the Constitution and McVeigh than the loving tryst he saw.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ For all men believe in their hearts that injustice is far more profitable to the individual than justice, and he who argues as I have been supposing, will say that they are right.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Cromwell regime had discredited republicanism, and most thinkers felt that republics ended in either anarchy or tyranny.^ Athens, Argos, Corinth, Sicyon, and nearly every State with the exception of Sparta, through a similar stage of tyranny which ended either in oligarchy or democracy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Thus philosophers like Voltaire opposed absolutism while at the same time being strongly pro-monarchy.^ And he will be most likely to love that which he regards as having the same interests with himself, and that of which the good or evil fortune is supposed by him at any time most to affect his own?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But were we not saying before, that if anything appeared to be of a sort which is and is not at the same time, that sort of thing would appear also to lie in the interval between pure being and absolute not-being; and that the corresponding faculty is neither knowledge nor ignorance, but will be found in the interval between them?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time that society will be coping with a declining availability of energy and the collapse of important ecosystems, we must also cope with the psychological disintegration of human beings and the collapse of human societies.

Septinsular Republic flag from the early 1800s
.Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu did praise republics, and looked on the city-states of Greece as a model, but both also felt that a nation-state like France, with 20 million people, would be impossible to govern as a republic.^ Both empires were/are military nation-states.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Republic, he admits that the perfect state of communism and philosophy was impossible in his own age, though still to be retained as a pattern.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact this twit talks about population control in our nation yet the government can’t bring in enough people in to make up for the population decline?
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rousseau described his ideal political structure of small self governing communes.^ Clearly, all political changes originate in divisions of the actual governing power; a government which is united, however small, cannot be moved.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cooperation is required to create this new world of small, sustainable, self-reliant communities.

^ It’s less than ideal because, obviously, it has a very strong connection to a particular political philosophy that I am at pains to disconnect from the broad affiliations I’m trying to describe.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

.Montesquieu felt that a city-state should ideally be a republic, but maintained that a limited monarchy was better suited to a large nation.^ And can there be anything better for the interests of the State than that the men and women of a State should be as good as possible?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I'd say, when creating city-states, we should adjust area for population density .

^ About three out of four of the officers -- two hundred rowdy boys -- in the Office of State Security in Kattowitz [Poland's large industrial city] were Jews ...

.The American Revolution thus began as a rejection only of the authority of the British parliament over the colonies.^ Reform or Revolution , by Daniel DeLeon (1896) (American Socialist Labor Party leader Daniel DeLeon’s Explanation of Why Socialist Revolution is the Only Way Forward): .
  • Right-Wing Racist Terrorist Neo-Nazi Extremists Infiltrate U.S. Military | ItsYourTimes.com 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

With the Declaration of Independence the leaders of the revolt firmly embraced republicanism. .The leaders of the revolution were well versed in the writings of the French liberal thinkers, and also in history of the classical republics.^ Neither must we forget that the Republic is but the third part of a still larger design which was to have included an ideal history of Athens, as well as a political and physical philosophy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The classical writing which approaches most nearly to the Republic of Plato is the ‘De Republica’ of Cicero; but neither in this nor in any other of his dialogues does he rival the art of Plato.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

John Adams had notably written a book on republics throughout history.
The French Revolution was also not republican at its outset. .Only after the Flight to Varennes removed most of the remaining sympathy for the king was a republic declared and Louis XVI sent to the guillotine.^ The most noticeable points in the 9th Book of the Republic are:—(1) the account of pleasure; (2) the number of the interval which divides the king from the tyrant; (3) the pattern which is in heaven.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Individuals do not only remain in the same position in the ranking, but may rise or fall to other ranks or be removed entirely and replaced by new persons.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

.The stunning success of France in the French Revolutionary Wars saw republics spread by force of arms across much of Europe as a series of client republics were set up across the continent.^ Opimius was bent on making an example of his opponents and set out with a force of armed men, including a unit of Cretan archers to take the Aventine by force.

^ IN doing genealogy research, you can see where brother was set against brother during the civil war and families split up over the issue.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And we saw in the previous quote exactly which rules this armed international police force will be enforcing: compulsory birth control, and all economic activity.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rise of Napoleon saw the end of the First French Republic, and his eventual defeat allowed the victorious monarchies to put an end to many of the oldest republics on the continent, including Venice, Genoa, and the Dutch.^ The first, I said, is that which we have been describing, and which may be said to have two names, monarchy and aristocracy, accordingly as rule is exercised by one distinguished man or by many.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed I believe that if I had not fixed my eye upon him, I should have been struck dumb: but when I saw his fury rising, I looked at him first, and was therefore able to reply to him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first fatal steps in the eventual demise of the republic can most likely be traced back to the disgraceful behaviour of Rome in the Spanish wars.

.Outside of Europe another group of republics was created as the Napoleonic Wars allowed the states of Latin America to gain their independence.^ And the creation of health is the institution of a natural order and government of one by another in the parts of the body; and the creation of disease is the production of a state of things at variance with this natural order?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlier, in the wake of World War I, another Jewish radical, Kurt Eisner, proclaimed a socialist republic in Bavaria.

^ Such plans will help to prevent another group from seizing state power through a coup d'‚tat.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Liberal ideology had only a limited impact on these new republics.^ According to “The New Red Negro,” only the Communist Left had any significant institutional impact on African-American writing during the 1930’s and 1940’s.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These approaches are, however, not only egocentric but they offer no guidance for developing a grand strategy of liberation.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

The main impetus was the local European descended Creole population in conflict with the Peninsulares governors sent from overseas. .The majority of the population in most of Latin America was of either African or Amerindian decent, and the Creole elite had little interest in giving these groups power and broad based popular sovereignty.^ Little children working 12 hours a day, sleeping under machines in Turkey or Iran or in Latin America, or many other places you can name.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is difficult for me to imagine a violent F-share recipient revolt, even though from the second perspective the state would primarily be interested in stripping power from these individuals.

^ The army is one of the most important sources of the power of dictators because it can use its disciplined military units and weaponry directly to attack and to punish the disobedient population.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Simón Bolívar was both the main instigator of the revolts and one of its most important theorists was sympathetic to liberal ideals, but felt that Latin America lacked the social cohesion for such a system to function and advocated autocracy as necessary.^ The army is one of the most important sources of the power of dictators because it can use its disciplined military units and weaponry directly to attack and to punish the disobedient population.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under such circumstances no one can function better than a human wreck !

^ I'm beginning to think Portugal is one of the most liberal and democratic countries on this planet.   Legalized gay marriage(woot!
  • Portugal parliament approves of gay marriage - Religion & Politics - General Discussion - MMORPG.com Forums 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

In Mexico this autocracy briefly took the form of a monarchy in the First Mexican Empire. .Due to the Peninsular War, Portuguese court was relocated to Brazil in 1808. Brazil gained independence as a monarchy in September 7, 1822, and the Empire of Brazil lasted until 1889. In the other states various forms of autocratic republic existed until most were liberalized at the end of the 20th century.^ In the previous books Plato has described the ideal State; now he returns to the perverted or declining forms, on which he had lightly touched at the end of Book iv.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the idea of a professional army of mercenaries was introduced, it never remained until the very end of the Roman Empire.

^ The time when all the big trusts were forming at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century?
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.19th century France would see the creation of the briefly lived Second French Republic in 1848 and Third French Republic in 1871. Spain saw the briefly lived First Spanish Republic, but the monarchy was soon restored.^ Clearly, he said, he would first see the sun and then reason about him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And one of the things I quoted in that polemic was a statement from Marx in his Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte , which was examining what was happening in France in the second half of the 19th century.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Araki embraced Bushido (“The Way of the Warrior”) and permitted officers to wear swords for the first time since the samurai rebellions of the 19th century.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the start of the 20th century France and Switzerland remained the only republics in Europe.^ Alex Ross' "The Rest is Noise: Listening to The 20th Century," is a good place to start for the musical layman.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ This was decisively proven in Europe in the early 20th century” .
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Everybody wants their MTV. Until Americans become as repressed and tight laced as they were in the early 20th century, it's only going to get worse.

.Before the First World War, Portuguese Republic, established by the revolution of October 5, 1910, was the first of the 20th Century.^ Earlier, in the wake of World War I, another Jewish radical, Kurt Eisner, proclaimed a socialist republic in Bavaria.

^ Trade with Germany doubled before World War II....
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Average number of years before reaching the White House that a twentieth-century U.S. president won his first elected post : 14 .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This would encourage new republics in the aftermath of the First World War when several of the largest European empires collapsed.^ U.S. capitalist employers remained without profit making opportunities for 14 years until World War II, despite the public expenditures of the New Deal.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlier, in the wake of World War I, another Jewish radical, Kurt Eisner, proclaimed a socialist republic in Bavaria.

^ Had his vision of a largely agrarian American been fulfilled, likely the Union would have failed beyond redemption in the 1860s and, thereafter, the two American republics would likely have been at the mercy of the European powers.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

The German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire, and Ottoman Empire were then replaced by republics. .New states gained independence during this turmoil, and many of these, such as Ireland, Poland, Finland and Czechoslovakia, chose republican forms of government.^ Election officials across the country were reporting record numbers of new registrations, and Republican state officials in Ohio and Florida were doing their best to invalidate them on technicalities.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite all these victories, the police state did suffered one setback during the last two months.

^ The government has been subsidizing these two institutions for decades, and gave them a whopping subsidy during all these bailouts.

.In 1931, the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) turned into a civil war would be the prelude of the Second World War.^ There were also significant changes in the world - - the world was not configured exactly the same way as it was in the period leading into World War 2.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the triumphalism of the end of the Second World War, the American occupation of Japan, in the person of General Douglas MacArthur, played a major role in the creation of this constitution.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they hadn't worked through those contradictions, it would have turned from a good thing into a bad thing.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

Republican ideas were spreading, importantly to Asia. .The United States began to have considerable influence in East Asia in the later part of the 19th century, with Protestant missionaries playing a central role.^ The rising debt levels that the United States is experiencing should concern those who see it as a temptation on the part of regulators to use inflation to “finance” their efforts.

^ Some force or forces, as indicated by Sutton, and Solzhenitsyn, must be playing a key role in successfully influencing this consistency, which to the average man appears to be a vast multitude of blunders.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is considerable evidence that the Bolsheviks received enormous grants from private individuals in Germany and the United States.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

The liberal and republican writers of the west also exerted influence. .These combined with native Confucian inspired political philosophy that had long argued that the populace had the right to reject unjust government that had lost the Mandate of Heaven.^ And the only life which is better than the life of political ambition is that of philosophy, which is also the best preparation for the government of a State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, in each case of these particular political philosophies, one can find strains of both liberalism and conservatism that support or oppose it.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was outraged because these people's Constitutional rights were summarily swept aside along with their lives by a federal government run amok and he retaliated with extreme prejudice.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

Two short lived republics were proclaimed in East Asia, the Republic of Formosa and the First Philippine Republic. .China had seen considerable anti-Qing sentiment, and a number of protest movements developed calling for constitutional monarchy.^ The entire Wana-centric destabilization plan can be seen in the so-called Tehreek Taliban Pakistani movement, the Punjabi-Taliban influence and the leadership succession.

.The most important leader of these efforts was Sun Yat-sen whose Three Principles of the People combined American, European, and Chinese ideas.^ I think the point of enforcement mechanisms is the most important, because in reality, you can’t really force people not to do something without forcing them to do something else, and that’s usually backed by force and the threat of force.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Destroy the peoples faith in their natural leaders by holding these latter up to ridicule, obloquy and contempt.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Does the effort really help the people whose tax dollars support such schemes?
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

The Republic of China was proclaimed on January 1, 1912.

Socialist republics

See also Socialist state
.Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state.The term socialist republic is used by those socialists who wish to emphasize that they favour a republican form of government.^ But they are not organized along state lines, or any convenient border.

^ And what do they call them in other States?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They belong to those who earn them!
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Furthermore, since socialism purports to represent the interests of the working class, many socialists refer to a state organized according to their principles as a workers' state.^ Segmented work, divided workers : the historical transformation of labor in the United States / David M. Gordon, Richard Edwards, Michael Reich.

^ No, I said; not if we were right in the principle which was acknowledged by all of us when we were framing the State: the principle, as you will remember, was that one man cannot practise many arts with success.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of Hogan's lawyers are Ritter supporters, and two who work directly on the state's stimulus issues are contributors.
  • Zombietime: Obama "science czar" is a totalitarian crank 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

Communist republics

See also People's Republic
.Communist states such as Vietnam require that their leaders adhere to that ideology and to the line of the Communist party.^ In Hungary, for example, Mathiou Rakosi was the Communist Party leader and Peter Gabor headed the secret police.

^ Mao and other leaders in the Chinese Communist Party who were grouped with Mao were attempting to implement a policy similar to what the Soviet Union had done in relation to World War 2.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Communist Party leader V.I. Lenin had called Jewish demands for national autonomy a "Zionist idea ...

[citation needed]
A poster that commemorates the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic

Decolonization

A map of the Commonwealth republics
.The years after the Second World War saw most of the remaining European colonies gain their independence, and most became republics.^ Two remain—the Dorian and Phrygian, the first for war, the second for peace; the one expressive of courage, the other of obedience or instruction or religious feeling.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. capitalist employers remained without profit making opportunities for 14 years until World War II, despite the public expenditures of the New Deal.
  • Dissident Voice : Why is Capitalism Failing Us? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlier, in the wake of World War I, another Jewish radical, Kurt Eisner, proclaimed a socialist republic in Bavaria.

.The two largest colonial powers were France and the United Kingdom.^ Although, a total of 115 countries were receiving aid, including Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Denmark, and Japan.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Collectively, the wealthy countries of Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Japan and etc.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His success can be partially attributed to the dynamics of the two party political system that has betrayed the United States by excluding candidates that are not pre-selected by hidden powers.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

Republican France encouraged the establishment of republics in its former colonies. .Great Britain attempted to follow the model it had for its earlier settler colonies of creating independent commonwealth realms still linked under the same monarchy.^ Global collapse would probably still follow the same basic pattern as a local collapse but on a greater scale.

^ EVEN IF we put ourselves in their shoes and follow their dictatorship model, their deduction is still unclear.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though we put ourselves on their shoes and follow their dictatorship model, their deduction is still unclear.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

.While most of the settler colonies and the smaller states of the Caribbean retained this system, it was rejected by the newly independent countries in Africa and Asia who revised their constitutions and became republics.^ Republic, he admits that the perfect state of communism and philosophy was impossible in his own age, though still to be retained as a pattern.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the best ways to measure the impact of the government system a state implements, is comparing it vs similar states who took different choices.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of such a kind is 429 the skill of the guardians, who are a small class in number, far smaller than the blacksmiths; but in them is concentrated the wisdom of the State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

In the Middle East Britain followed a different model. .It installed local monarchies in several colonies and mandates including Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, and Libya.^ If the U.S. military would stop invading and occupying Middle East countries, while propping up dictatorships in the region — Saudi Arabia, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, Kuwait, Iraq, Afghanistan, etc.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

In subsequent decades revolutions and coups overthrew a number of monarchs and installed republics. .Several monarchies remain, and the Middle East is the only part of the world where several large states are ruled by monarchs with almost complete political control.^ State ; World politics PDF IMAGES .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Middle East Politics (184) .
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 38 countries and 12 territories in the "not free" category are ruled by a range of military dictatorships (as in Burma and Sudan), traditional repressive monarchies (as in Saudi Arabia and Bhutan), dominant political parties (as in China, Iraq, and North Korea), foreign occupiers (as in Tibet and East Timor), or are in a state of transition.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

[38]

Islamic republics

.Islamic political philosophy has a long history of opposition to absolute monarchy, notably in the work of Al-Farabi.^ (Canarvan’s credentials include an essay in Strauss & Cropsey’s History of Political Philosophy , where, amusingly, he’s assigned to give an account of Thomas Paine.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only a bold, independent working class movement can give inspiration to the majority of people longing for a political solution to the current social crisis.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither must we forget that the Republic is but the third part of a still larger design which was to have included an ideal history of Athens, as well as a political and physical philosophy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The law, sharia, took precedence over the will of the ruler, and electing rulers by means of the Shura was an important doctrine.^ Thrasymachus is indignant at the illustration, and in pompous words, apparently intended to restore dignity to the argument, he explains his meaning to be that the rulers make 339 laws for their own interests.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.While the early caliphate maintained the principles of an elected ruler, later states became hereditary or military dictatorships though many maintained some pretense of a consultative shura.^ Whether Davis experienced some immaculate conception as a communist or converted later is just another of Obama’s many fatal flaws: his association with Davis.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A ruler is elected because he is rich: Who would elect a pilot on this principle?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A single State which is her equal you will hardly find, either among Hellenes or barbarians, though many that appear to be as great and many times greater.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

None of these states are typically referred to as republics. .The current usage of republic in Muslim countries is borrowed from the western meaning, adopted into the language in the late 19th century.^ As Leon Schapiro notes about late 19th century Russia and the formation of a communist base there: "When Jews thronged into the party after 1881 the number of Jewish terrorists was very high.

[39] .The 20th century saw republicanism become an important idea in much of the Middle East as monarchies were removed in many states of the region.^ First : Libertarianism correctly identifies one pathological symptom of the 20th-century state: sovereign bloat .

^ Everybody wants their MTV. Until Americans become as repressed and tight laced as they were in the early 20th century, it's only going to get worse.

^ Do you really think the death of one hundred million people in the 20th century under communism is compensated by the creation of powerful states?
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

Some such as Iraq and Turkey became secular republics. .In Iran the Iranian Revolution overthrew the monarchy and created an Islamic Republic based the ideas of Islamic democracy.^ In the case of Iran this means that the abstract demand for democracy — coming from the Iranian opposition — can soon be overrun by more concrete, “radical” demands.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

Head of state

Structure

.With no monarch, most modern republics use the title president for the head of state.^ I explained the the original use of the word was to indicate a squire (hence the modern use of “esq.”) Such was he lowest of all titles granted by the crown.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though there are no training manuals available for any future President of the United States.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ President Abdurrahman Wahid of Indonesia said he would declare a state of emergency and use the military to prevent parliament from removing him from office; the military suggested that it would do no such thing.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Originally used to refer to the presiding officer of a committee or governing body in Great Britain the usage was also applied to political leaders, including the leaders of some of the Thirteen Colonies (originally Virginia in 1608); in full, the "President of the Council."[40] The first republic to adopt the title was the United States of America. Keeping its usage as the head of a committee the President of the Continental Congress was the leader of the original congress. .When the new constitution was written the title of President of the United States was conferred on the head of the new executive branch.^ The new trade combination "will act for Amtorg, by its authority, as its official agent in the United States.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article III, Section 3, of the United States Constitution defines treason as "giving aid and comfort to the enemy."
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chart below shows counties declared primary disaster areas by the secretary of Agriculture and the president of the United States.

.Today almost all republics use the title president for the head of state.^ The states are all governed almost identically.

^ Jordan writes, "In common with almost all Americans, I got the first hint of the existence of the atom bomb from the news of Hiroshima, which was revealed on August 6, 1945, by President Truman."
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But how simple of you to use the term State at all of any but our own!
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.If the head of state of a republic is also the head of government, this is called a presidential system.^ [He] was head of Section One [in the Polish government], which dealt with foreign intelligence services and their infiltration into key party and state positions."

^ There remains to be considered the great difficulty of this book of the Republic, the so-called number of the State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Calls continue for more government controls and regulations to fix a "broken" system.

.There are a number of forms of presidential government.^ There are lordships and principalities which are bought and sold, and some other intermediate forms of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, he said, have you never heard that forms of government differ; there are tyrannies, and there are democracies, and there are aristocracies?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you are an average American, there is no form of government you more despise than dictatorship .

.A full-presidential system has a president with substantial authority and a central political role.^ In spite of President Obama's pledge that this bill would not contain "earmarks," it is full of funding for special interest groups and politically motivated projects.

.The United States was the first example of such a system, and the basis for the model adopted elsewhere.^ This historic event will be the first statewide convention on secession in the United States since North Carolina voted to secede from the Union on May 20, 1861 .

^ The name calling and the insults from Voxoreason are just an example of what the problems are in these fine United States.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First is Cuba, we first introduced this example in argument yes.3 , stating how this Latin American nation had a health system that rivaled with those of developed nations, and we also quoted how Cuba sends education advisers to other developing nations to aid them, being ahead of its Latin American neighbors.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

.In other states the legislature is dominant and the president's role is almost purely ceremonial and apolitical, such as in Germany and India.^ The inevitable division: such a State is not one, but two States, the one of poor, the other of rich men; and they are living on the same spot and always conspiring against one another.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pakistan, on the other hand, maintains that the US, India and Israel are the state sponsors of the “Pakistani Taliban” terrorist outfit which is waging war against the people of Pakistan.

^ Are you satisfied then that the quality which makes such men and such states is justice or do you hope to discover some other?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.These states are parliamentary republics and operate similarly to constitutional monarchies with parliamentary systems where the power of the monarch is also greatly circumscribed.^ It is difficult for me to imagine a violent F-share recipient revolt, even though from the second perspective the state would primarily be interested in stripping power from these individuals.

^ Note well how these people are still, even after all the evil of communism we have witnessed, besotted with the power of the state and prepared to cloud and obfuscate and apologise for this disgusting political system.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ But Plato never combined his economic ideas into a system, and never seems to have recognized that Trade is one of the great motive powers of the State and of the world.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In parliamentary systems the head of government, most often titled prime minister, exercises the most real political power.^ The King of Nepal said he was a proponent of multiparty democracy , then fired the government, sent troops to the house of the Prime Minister, and assumed direct ruling authority.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clearly, all political changes originate in divisions of the actual governing power; a government which is united, however small, cannot be moved.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Link Fascism..“A political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race and stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition.” .
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Semi-presidential systems have a president as an active head of state, but also have a head of government with important powers.^ And the government is the ruling power in each state?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Note the line stating that at present the government only has the powers to seize banks.

^ [He] was head of Section One [in the Polish government], which dealt with foreign intelligence services and their infiltration into key party and state positions."

.The rules for appointing the president and the leader of the government, in some republics permit the appointment of a president and a prime minister who have opposing political convictions: in France, when the members of the ruling cabinet and the president come from opposing political factions, this situation is called cohabitation.^ With the complicity of Christian leaders who blindly support an evil two party system our people have elected a man to the office of President of the United States who refused to confirm his Constitutional conformity, whose lineage is alien, whose political inclinations are Marxist, and who has surrounded himself with the same gang of CFR members that are pursuing world government and destroying the United States.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, as I was just now saying, we must enquire who are the best guardians of their own conviction that what they think the interest of the State is to be the rule of their lives.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I would rather be a serf on the land of a poor and portionless man than rule over all the dead who have come to nought 1 .’ .
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In some countries, like Switzerland and San Marino, the head of state is not a single person but a committee (council) of several persons holding that office.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ I did some math, and it looks like, if Plainland was a bunch of city-states each the size of Rhode Island, there would be three thousand of them.

^ Not all third world countries are like you see on TV, some of them are paradise if you know the ropes.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

The Roman Republic had two consuls, appointed for a year.

Election

.In liberal democracies presidents are elected, either directly by the people or indirectly by a parliament or council.^ People in Chechnya apparently elected Vladimir Putin's choice for president, though there was widespread evidence of fraud .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One wonders what he did while he was in Spain, and whether or not he was involved either directly or indirectly in commissions of crimes against humanity against people in Spain when Franco’s right-wing terrorist totalitarian fascist regime was in power.
  • Right-Wing Racist Terrorist Neo-Nazi Extremists Infiltrate U.S. Military | ItsYourTimes.com 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.itsyourtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Typically in presidential and semi-presidential systems the president is directly elected by the people, or is indirectly elected as done in the United States.^ A dead man was elected to the United States Senate .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the complicity of Christian leaders who blindly support an evil two party system our people have elected a man to the office of President of the United States who refused to confirm his Constitutional conformity, whose lineage is alien, whose political inclinations are Marxist, and who has surrounded himself with the same gang of CFR members that are pursuing world government and destroying the United States.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chart below shows counties declared primary disaster areas by the secretary of Agriculture and the president of the United States.

.In that country the president is officially elected by an electoral college, chosen by the States, all of which do so by direct election of the electors.^ The 'bottom line' in this country is that for all practical purposes the United States is fascist.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ It ignores the rhetoric and shows us that countries with all-powerful states, always end up with all-powerful supreme leaders.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ And one of the things they did in the Paris Commune was that all officials were elected by direct popular vote, and could be recalled by direct expression of the masses in a popular referendum.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

.The indirect election of the president through the electoral college conforms to the concept of republic as one with a system of indirect election.^ "Using a voting system based on the Internet ," said one of the experts, "poses a serious and unacceptable risk for election fraud ."
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, finally, through all this, a different kind of system emerged in which people were not literally chained to one place, nor working all separately on their own with their own small means of production.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the opinion of some, direct election confers legitimacy upon the president and gives the office much of its political power.^ Russia's lower house of parliament voted to give former presidents immunity from prosecution for acts committed while in office.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some creeps could give us President Biden or President Pelosi, or even Madam President Clinton.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, thinking beyond the next election does not fit the agenda in our power-obsessed political system.

[41] .However, this concept of legitimacy differs from that expressed in the United States Constitution which established the legitimacy of the United States president as resulting from the signing of the Constitution by 9 states[42].^ Article III, Section 3, of the United States Constitution defines treason as "giving aid and comfort to the enemy."
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it’s a different matter when the Science Czar of the United States suggests the very same thing officially in print.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chart below shows counties declared primary disaster areas by the secretary of Agriculture and the president of the United States.

.The idea that direct election is required for legitimacy also contradicts the spirit of the Great Compromise, whose actual result was manifest in the clause[43] that provides voters in smaller states with slightly more representation in presidential selection than those in large states.^ Number of states where a shift of no more than three seats this fall could change party control of a legislative chamber : 23 .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An unleashed free market capitalism would not be any more humane than those examples in the video.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Teh actual text is far more powerful than your misremembered version and I wanted to make that available to those who have never read that astounding compression of tragic feeling.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

In states with a parliamentary system the president is usually elected by the parliament. .This indirect elections subordinates the president to the parliament, and also gives the president limited legitimacy and turns most presidential powers into reserve powers that can only be exercised under rare circumstance.^ Russia's parliament voted to give President Putin more power.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Russian Parliament voted to give President Putin more power.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia's lower house of parliament voted to give former presidents immunity from prosecution for acts committed while in office.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are exceptions where elected presidents have only ceremonial powers, such as in the Republic of Ireland.^ What was President G.H.W. Bush talking about, if there is no such thing as an emerging New World Order?

^ There are whole countries too, such as India, or, nearer home, Ireland, in which a right solution of the marriage question seems to lie at the foundation of the happiness of the community.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I understand; you mean that he will be a ruler in the city of which we are the founders, and which exists in idea only; for I do not believe that there is such an one anywhere on earth?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Ambiguities

The distinction between a republic and a monarchy are not always clear. .The constitutional monarchies of the former British Empire and Western Europe today have almost all real political power vested in the elected representatives, with the monarchs only holding theoretical and rarely used reserve powers.^ Clearly, all political changes originate in divisions of the actual governing power; a government which is united, however small, cannot be moved.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If totalitarian power must be used at all times against the entire population, it is unlikely to remain powerful for long.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many political representatives of the system -- especially the Republicans, but not only them -- will say, "If you raise the minimum wage you are just eliminating jobs."
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

.Real legitimacy for political decisions comes from the elected representatives and is derived from the will of the people.^ July 1898 Article The people and their government By Henry Loomis Nelson SEE ALSO: Democracy ; 1865-1900 ; Political corruption ; Representative government and representation PDF IMAGES .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if they were "politically allowed to do so," how could people who have to spend their lives working in this way be able to make informed decisions about all this?
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How could all the people make decisions about this economy and not have that come into conflict with the basic way in which all this wealth is produced and accumulated?
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

.While hereditary monarchies remain in place, political power is derived from the people as in a republic.^ Dictators require the assistance of the people they rule, without which they cannot secure and maintain the sources of political power.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In classical political sciences, the word also refers to a person who has taken a position of power outside of hereditary (no longer applicable except for monarchies) or constitutional frameworks.

^ Without that state power, without that political rule, the masses of people would have the same rights they have now.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

.These states are thus sometimes referred to as crowned republics.^ For all which reasons may we not say that thus shall our State be ordered, and that these shall be the regulations appointed by us for our guardians concerning their houses and all other matters?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Bureau was managed by Ludwig C.A.K. Martens, who is sometimes referred to as the first Soviet ambassador to the United States.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

[44]
.Terms such as liberal republic are also used to describe all of the modern liberal democracies.^ I explained the the original use of the word was to indicate a squire (hence the modern use of “esq.”) Such was he lowest of all titles granted by the crown.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The usage of “mentor” and “father figure” to describe the relationship are terms that could arguably be used, but is open to debate.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As it happens, this country was founded on ‘liberalism,’ though over the last 50 or so years, the right has succeeded in connotatively ‘loading’ the term, using it more or less pejoratively.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

[45]
.There are also self proclaimed republics that act similarly to monarchies with absolute power vested in the leader and passed down from father to son.^ And now, I said, years will have passed away, and you must conceive this man, such as he is, to have a son, who is brought up in his father’s principles.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.North Korea and Syria are two notable examples where a son has inherited political control.^ Examples abound, starting from North Korea which they introduced to the debate.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This list, with definitions and historical examples, is taken from Gene Sharp, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part Two, The Methods of Nonviolent Action.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Neither of these states are officially monarchies.^ That is true; yet neither will it be a very small State which contains all these.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is no constitutional requirement that power be passed down within one family, but it has occurred in practice.^ There is no one at the wheel.

^ The sphere of the intelligible will also have two divisions,—one of mathematics, in which there is no ascent but all is descent; no inquiring into premises, but only drawing of inferences.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They know come 2010 and 2012 there will be no better electoral coalition and no one to hold the 2008 coalition together.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

There are also elective monarchy where ultimate power is vested in a monarch, but the monarch is chosen by some manner of election. .A current example of such a state is Malaysia where the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected every five years by the Conference of Rulers composed of the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states.^ Although the opposition has stated a good example of human development in Cuba currently, it doesn’t prove that life in Fidel’s time is better than Batista’s time.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our State like every other has rulers and subjects?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PALPATINE To state our allegations, I present Queen Amidala, the recently elected ruler of Naboo, to speak on our behalf.
  • Star Wars Episode 1 The Phantom Menace Script Screenplay Screen Play 15 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.supershadow.com [Source type: Original source]

While rare today, elective monarchs were common in the past. .The Holy Roman Empire is an important example, where each new emperor was chosen by a group of electors.^ Gore Vidal did have some flash of spiritual insight in his excellent book 'Julian' about the last pagan Emperor of the Roman Empire.
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

Islamic states also rarely employed primogeniture instead relying on various forms of election to chose a monarchs successor.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth had an elective monarchy, with a wide suffrage of some 500,000 nobles. .The system, known as the Golden Liberty, had developed as a method for powerful landowners to control the crown.^ THE WORLD IS NOT OVERPOPULATED. It is simply over corrupted and it’s those who are corrupt who want the reductions, not to the betterment of mankind but to further consolodate power through a technocratic system of control.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

The proponents of this system looked to classical examples, and the writings of the Italian Renaissance, and called their elective monarchy a rzeczpospolita, based on res publica.

Types

Republics of the world as of 2006. red - full presidential system - green - executive presidency linked to a parliament - olive - semi-presidential system - orange - parliamentary republics - brown - republics whose constitutions grant only a single party the right to govern
.In the early 21st century, most states that are not monarchies label themselves as republics either in their official names or their constitutions.^ Most truly then may we deem temperance to be the agreement of the naturally superior and inferior, as to the right to rule of either, both in states and individuals.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is not the Republic the vehicle of three or four great truths which, to Plato’s own mind, are most naturally represented in the form of the State?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He would confine the terms King or State to the rule of reason and justice, and he will not concede that title either to a democracy or to a monarchy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are a few exceptions: the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Israel and the Russian Federation.^ Russia had backed the Arabs and Jewish Russian loyalties -- per Israel -- were put into question.

.Israel, Russia, and Libya would meet many definitions of the term republic, however.^ This enquiry, however, requires a very exact definition of terms.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, it was learned after the war, from Stalin's director of espionage in Europe, General W.G. Krivitsky, that Stalin had also intended to betray Hitler when it would be advantageous to Russia to do so.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides, waiting to be granted such an authority from the UN would deemed to fail as Russia was definitely intending to veto it .
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.Since the term republic is so vague by itself, many states felt it necessary to add additional qualifiers in order to clarify what kind of republics they claim to be.^ And the kinds of knowledge in a State are many and diverse?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Connected with the latter of the two aspects are (II) the paradoxes of the Republic, as they have been termed by Morgenstern: (α) the community of property; (β) of families; (γ) the rule of philosophers; (δ) the analogy of the individual and the State, which, like some other analogies in the Republic, is carried too far.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So for many Americans Obama’s call for “change”, which actually means changing from a democratic republic to a socialist state, is heroic rather than something to be feared.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

Here is a list of such qualifiers and variations on the term "republic":
.
  • Without other qualifier than the term Republic — for example France and Turkey.
  • Parliamentary republic — a republic, like India, Bangladesh, with an elected Head of state, but where the Head of state and Head of government are kept separate with the Head of government retaining most executive powers, or a Head of state akin to a Head of government, elected by a Parliament.
  • Federal republic, confederation or federation — a federal union of states or provinces with a republican form of government.^ And the government is the ruling power in each state?
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We hardly appreciate the power which the idea of the State, like all other abstract ideas, exercised over the mind of Plato.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Then the power of each individual in the State to do his own work appears to compete with the other political virtues, wisdom, temperance, courage.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Examples include Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Germany, India, Russia and Switzerland.
  • Islamic Republic — Countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran are republics governed in accordance with Islamic law.^ Argentina received 3 times as much, Bangladesh 4 times, Botswana, Italy and Canada 1 1/2 times, Brazil 10 times as much, India and Iran twice as much, Indonesia 4 1/2 times, Japan 6 1/2 times, Mexico 3 times and Spain 7 1/2 times as much.
    • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Originally posted by zchmrkenhoff Originally posted by Gameloading Originally posted by zchmrkenhoff Originally posted by Gameloading If only our civilization was more like that of islamic countries.
    • Portugal parliament approves of gay marriage - Religion & Politics - General Discussion - MMORPG.com Forums 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Originally posted by Gameloading Originally posted by zchmrkenhoff Originally posted by Gameloading Originally posted by zchmrkenhoff Originally posted by Gameloading Originally posted by zchmrkenhoff Originally posted by Gameloading If only our civilization was more like that of islamic countries.
    • Portugal parliament approves of gay marriage - Religion & Politics - General Discussion - MMORPG.com Forums 10 February 2010 11:17 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

    (Note: Turkey is a distinct exception and is not included in this list; while the population is predominantly Muslim, the state is a staunchly secular republic.)
  • .
  • Arab Republic — for example, Syria its name reflecting its theoretically pan-Arab Ba'athist government.
  • People's Republic, or Single-party state — Countries like China, Vietnam are meant to be governed for and by the people, but with indirect elections.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

    ^ I said that the government is acting exactly like a dying dictatorship struggling to impose its will upon the people.
    • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On August 23, 2009 for example, the Ninewa provincial council, which is controlled by the Arab led al-Hadbaa party, said they rejected the idea .

    .The term People's Republic is used to differential themselves from the earlier republic of their countries before the people's revolution, like Republic of China and Republic of Korea.
  • Democratic Republic — Tends to be used by countries who have a particular desire to emphasize their claim to be democratic; these are typically Communist states and/or ex-colonies.^ The Communist attitude to country people, however, was murderous.

    ^ And conversely, as we have also emphasized, there are people who not only don't apply this outlook and method, but who disagree with it -- or even detest it -- who nevertheless discover important truths.
    • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thru the use of victimization and grievance politics we’re seeing the Balkanization of a once great democratic Republic once under the rule of Constitutional Law.
    • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Examples include the German Democratic Republic (no longer in existence) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita) — Both words (English and Polish) are derived from the Latin word res publica (literally "common affairs").^ And as for the words, there will surely be no difference between words which are and which are not set to music; both will conform to the same laws, and these have been already determined by us?
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thru the use of victimization and grievance politics we’re seeing the Balkanization of a once great democratic Republic once under the rule of Constitutional Law.
    • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ QUI-GON You're no longer a slave.
    • Star Wars Episode 1 The Phantom Menace Script Screenplay Screen Play 15 September 2009 10:36 UTC www.supershadow.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Used for both the current Republic of Poland, and the old Nobility Commonwealth.^ This is both useful for those firms that are currently uncompetitive, and preferable for society, because wage cuts are more equitable than unemployment.

    .Apart from the Polish term, it should be noted that some subnational entities with republican governments (e.g.^ Nevertheless I should still maintain, that of relatives some have a quality attached to either term of the relation; others are simple and have their correlatives simple.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Democrats, at the time, favored "belief that government should not meddle actively in the economic lives of Americans," while the Republicans insisted that such meddling was both necessary and proper.
    • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    Virginia and Puerto Rico), as well as some sovereign monarchies (e.g. .Australia and The Bahamas), also style themselves "commonwealths."
  • Free state — Sometimes used as a label to indicate implementation of, or transition from a monarchical to, a republican form of government.^ The cases of successful political defiance-or nonviolent struggle for political ends-cited above indicate that the means do exist for populations to free themselves, but that option has remained undeveloped.
    • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The next form of government is oligarchy, in which the rule is of the rich only; nor is it difficult to see how such a State arises.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Used for the Irish Free State (1922–1937) under an Irish Republican government, while still remaining associated with the British Empire.
  • Venezuela has been using, since the adoption of the 1999 constitution, the title of Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
  • Other modifiers are rooted in tradition and history and usually have no real political meaning.^ It has no meaning other than as an insult.
    • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I really have no information on BHO’s other associations.
    • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In other words – and let’s say this plainly, clearly and soberly, so that no one can mistake the intention of Rumsfeld’s plan – the United States government is planning to use “cover and deception” and secret military operations to provoke murderous terrorist attacks on innocent people.

    San Marino, for instance, is the "Most Serene Republic" while Uruguay is "República Oriental", which implies it lies on the eastern bank of the Uruguay River.

Sub-national republics

.In general being a republic also implies sovereignty as for the state to be ruled by the people it cannot be controlled by a foreign power.^ And the government is the ruling power in each state?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dictators require the assistance of the people they rule, without which they cannot secure and maintain the sources of political power.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any tactic to drag people’s attention away from Wall Street and the corporations in general is being deployed.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

There are important exceptions to this, for example, Republics in the Soviet Union were member states which had to meet three criteria to be named republics:
  1. be on the periphery of the Soviet Union so as to be able to take advantage of their theoretical right to secede;
  2. be economically strong enough to be self-sufficient upon secession; and
  3. be named after at least one million people of the ethnic group which should make up the majority population of said republic.
.Republics were originally created by Stalin and continue to be created even today in Russia.^ We have substantial problems in the economy, but--making it sound as if today's situation is on the scale of the economic devastation experienced in the 30's and 40's creates an atmosphere of urgency, even panic.

^ What institutions of the society can be regained from the dictators' control, or what institutions need to be newly created by the democrats to meet their needs and establish spheres of democracy even while the dictatorship continues?
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They had originally budgeted for certain monthly payments and can continue to meet those even if the economy turns down for a while.

Russia itself is not a republic but a federation. .It is sometimes argued that the former Soviet Union was also a supra-national republic, based on the claim that the member states were different nations.^ The basis of modern liberalism is the welfare state and redistributive taxation, not as you claimed classical liberalism based on the word liberty.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The recent book, Comrade J, based on interviews with a Russian spymaster at the United Nations, documents that Soviet intelligence operations against the U.S. continued even as the Soviet Union collapsed and Russia emerged in its place.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's "leading staff members," Yakov Khavinson and David Zaslavsky, were Jewish, as were the Soviet Unions ambassadors to the U.S., Maxim Litvinov and Ivan Maisky, who were recalled in 1943.

.States of the United States are required, like the federal government, to be republican in form, with final authority resting with the people.^ The United States finally brought down the Sandinista government.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The new trade combination "will act for Amtorg, by its authority, as its official agent in the United States.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even our own State requires the addition of the living authority.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was required because the states were intended to create and enforce most domestic laws, with the exception of areas delegated to the federal government and prohibited to the states.^ And the creation of health is the institution of a natural order and government of one by another in the parts of the body; and the creation of disease is the production of a state of things at variance with this natural order?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A delegation of nine state legislators from Sonora was in Tucson on Tuesday to say the State of Arizona’s new employer sanctions law will have a devastating effect on the Mexican state.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whereas the truth is that the State in which the rulers are most reluctant to govern is always the best and most quietly governed, and the State in which they are most eager, the worst.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The founding fathers of the country intended most domestic laws to be handled by the states, although, over time, the federal government has gained more and more influence over domestic law.^ Although the opposition has stated a good example of human development in Cuba currently, it doesn’t prove that life in Fidel’s time is better than Batista’s time.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the countries with the cheapest labour costs have totalitarian governments seeking to line their own pockets, not concerned in the slightest with the wellbeing of their citizens.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ As it happens, this country was founded on ‘liberalism,’ though over the last 50 or so years, the right has succeeded in connotatively ‘loading’ the term, using it more or less pejoratively.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Requiring the states to be a republic in form was seen as protecting the citizens' rights and preventing a state from becoming a dictatorship or monarchy, and reflected unwillingness on the part of the original 13 states (all independent republics) to unite with other states that were not republics.^ Can any other origin of a State be imagined?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We hardly appreciate the power which the idea of the State, like all other abstract ideas, exercised over the mind of Plato.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No, I said; not if we were right in the principle which was acknowledged by all of us when we were framing the State: the principle, as you will remember, was that one man cannot practise many arts with success.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, this requirement ensured that only other republics could join the union.^ No, indeed, I replied; and the same is true of most, if not all, the other senses—you would not say that any of them requires such an addition?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Timerman denied that he joined it because of any interest in communism, but, rather, for how it could serve his other ideological interests: "I belonged to it as an anti-Fascist, a Jew, and a Zionist."

^ Stevens and the dissenters said the majority was ignoring the long-understood rule that the government could limit election money from corporations, unions and others, such as foreign governments.

.In the example of the United States, the original 13 British colonies became independent states after the American Revolution, each having a republican form of government.^ Clearly, all political changes originate in divisions of the actual governing power; a government which is united, however small, cannot be moved.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He would not harass them with minute regulations, and he would have allowed some changes in the laws: but not changes which would affect the fundamental institutions of the state, such for example as would convert an aristocracy into a timocracy, or a timocracy into a popular form of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his book, “With No Apologies,” former Republican Presidential nominee Barry Goldwater wrote, “The Trilateral Commission is intended to be the vehicle for multinational consolidation of the commercial and banking interests by seizing control of the political government of the United States.

.These independent states initially formed a loose confederation called the United States and then later formed the current United States by ratifying the current U.S. Constitution, creating a union of sovereign states with the union or federal government also being a republic.^ And so by reason of the smallest part or class, and of the knowledge which resides in this presiding and ruling part of itself, the whole State, being thus constituted according 429 to nature, will be wise; and this, which has the only knowledge worthy to be called wisdom, has been ordained by nature to be of all classes the least.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We are then dumbstruck, when the proposition redrew the categories of the world’s previous and current form of government and created a category of a Democratic yet Dictatorship country.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the opposition team defined dictatorship in a extremely narrow and nonconstructive way, as we stated in our response to their first argument, stating that "A Dictatorship is a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

Any state joining the union later was also required to be a republic.

Other meanings

Political philosophy

.The term republic originated from the writers of the Renaissance as a descriptive term for states that were not monarchies.^ Every Greek state had a myth respecting its own origin; the Platonic republic may also have a tale of earthborn men.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He would confine the terms King or State to the rule of reason and justice, and he will not concede that title either to a democracy or to a monarchy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.These writers, such as Machiavelli, also wrote important prescriptive works describing how such governments should function.^ The next form of government is oligarchy, in which the rule is of the rich only; nor is it difficult to see how such a State arises.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These can indicate the issues and circumstances under which the population should protest and withhold cooperation, and how this might be done.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But even then how can you trust these people they can tell us that a vaccin for birth control is safe but what proves us such a vaccin isn’t an extermination vaccin?
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.These ideas of how a government and society should be structured is the basis for an ideology known as classical republicanism or civic humanism.^ The objective in these conflicts needs to be the establishment of a free society with a democratic system of government.
  • FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.hermanos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The people of Poland deserve protection from these destructive ideologies, especially children at schools should be spared homosexual indoctrination.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ How much more chance should it be given to prove Russia, China, and Cambodia were “incorrect” applications or a swell idea??
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.This ideology is based on the Roman Republic and the city states of Ancient Greece and focuses on ideals such as civic virtue, rule of law, and mixed government.^ And the government is the ruling power in each state?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thru the use of victimization and grievance politics we’re seeing the Balkanization of a once great democratic Republic once under the rule of Constitutional Law.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He would not harass them with minute regulations, and he would have allowed some changes in the laws: but not changes which would affect the fundamental institutions of the state, such for example as would convert an aristocracy into a timocracy, or a timocracy into a popular form of government.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.This understanding of a republic as a distinct form of government from a liberal democracy is one of the main theses of the Cambridge School of historical analysis.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ A fair invitation, he replied; and I see, as every one must, that a tyranny is the wretchedest form of government, and the rule of a king the happiest.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Notions of democracy in one form or another constantly reassert themselves.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

[47] .This grew out of the work of J.G.A. Pocock who in 1975 argued that a series of scholars had expressed a consistent set of republican ideals.^ If a website by expressed policy is supposed to be limited to only those who support a candidate then it’s up a webmaster or committee to weed out less than supportive statements.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The people are a third class, consisting of those who work with their own hands; they are not politicians, and have not much to live upon.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.These writers included Machiavelli, Milton, Montesquieu, and the founders of the United States of America.^ These are included in three short works: "Imperial America", "Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace", and "Dreaming War".
  • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The United States denounced these achievements as Marxist/Leninist subversion.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The number of these radical Red revolutionaries expected to invade the United States was estimated by the United Americans as being from 3 to 5 million.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

Pocock argued that this was an ideology with a history and principles distinct from liberalism.[48] These ideas were embraced by a number of different writers Quentin Skinner, Philip Pettit[49] and Cass Sunstein. .These subsequent writers have further explored the history of the idea, and also outlined how a modern republic should function.^ Should the operations of the dynastic capitalists actually be found undermining or destroying these principles, then their activities should be exposed and steps taken to prevent their further expansion.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How much more chance should it be given to prove Russia, China, and Cambodia were “incorrect” applications or a swell idea??
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern and Christian writers have often fallen short of these; they can hardly be said to have gone beyond them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

United States

.A distinct set of definitions for the word republic evolved in the United States.^ In the Republic, Socrates has definitely settled in all a few questions only; such as the community of women and children, the community of property, and the constitution of the state.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ FACILITATING SOVIET OPERATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES In 1924 arrangements were made to set up the Amtorg Trading Corporation in the United States as a Soviet government commercial agency.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the process, he was brought before a subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which was set up to investigate the extent of Soviet activity in the United States.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.In common parlance a republic is a state that does not practice direct democracy but rather has a government indirectly controlled by the people.^ The King of Nepal said he was a proponent of multiparty democracy , then fired the government, sent troops to the house of the Prime Minister, and assumed direct ruling authority.
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ The fact this twit talks about population control in our nation yet the government can’t bring in enough people in to make up for the population decline?
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the rest of the world this is known as representative democracy.^ All the functional democracies in the world operate under the system of representative democracy, including the one Franklin fought to establish.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

This understanding of the term was originally developed by James Madison, and notably employed in Federalist Paper No. 10. .This meaning was widely adopted early in the history of the United States, including in Noah Webster's dictionary of 1828. It was a novel meaning to the term, representative democracy was not an idea mentioned by Machiavelli and did not exist in the classical republics.^ Did you write to the representative of the Holy See to the United States?
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Branches of MAK existed elsewhere, including in the United States.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that the United States was at the time at war with the Communist world did not appear to deter the planners.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

[50]
The term republic does not appear in the Declaration of Independence, but does appear in Article IV of the Constitution which "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government." What exactly the writers of the constitution felt this should mean is uncertain. The Supreme Court, in Luther v. .Borden (1849), declared that the definition of republic was a "political question" in which it would not intervene.^ Joint patrols will definitely help with security, but the political affects are much more questionable.

^ Indeed, this would pose some very difficult political, legal, and social questions, to say nothing of the technical problems.
  • Obama Science Advisor Called For “Planetary Regime” To Enforce Totalitarian Population Control Measures 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Republic, Socrates has definitely settled in all a few questions only; such as the community of women and children, the community of property, and the constitution of the state.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

In two later cases, it did establish a basic definition. In United States v. .Cruikshank (1875), the court ruled that the "equal rights of citizens" were inherent to the idea of republic.^ Everyone is supposedly equal before the law: you go into court, if you are rich or poor, you have the same rights supposedly.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

.The opinion of the court from In re Duncan[51] (1891) held that the "right of the people to choose their government" is also part of the definition.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ They held that every man in the state of nature had a sovereign right to govern himself and for that reason had a right to an equal share in the government of civil society.
  • The Totalitarian Temptation and all that — Crooked Timber 9 February 2010 17:20 UTC crookedtimber.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe that what we’re witnessing today is the inception of a titanic and protracted competition for survival: between countries, between civilizations, between governments and their people.

.Due to the 1875 and 1891 court decisions establishing basic definition, in the first version (1892) of the Pledge of Allegiance, which included the word republic, and like Article IV which refers to a Republican form of government, the basic definition of republic is implied and continues to do so in all subsequent versions, including the present edition, by virtue of its consistent inclusion.^ One of the two main definitions associated with the concept of dictatorship refers to a single person, or a small group of people, controlling the government of a country.

^ All ruling government needs discipline, disregard the form of the government.
  • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Memoirs, more so than other autobiographical forms, often refer to casual acquaintances just by their first names.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beyond these basic definitions the word republic has a number of other connotations.^ In other words, these more fascistic types are perfectly willing to allow the liberals to be tolerant of them.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet, I said, all these are as nothing either in number or greatness in comparison with those other recompenses which await both just and unjust after death.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the number of Jewish victims might be 6 million and might be much smaller – even less than 1 million.” 7 .
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

.W. Paul Adams observes that republic is most often used in the United States as a synonym for state or government, but with more positive connotations than either of those terms.^ Number of states where a shift of no more than three seats this fall could change party control of a legislative chamber : 23 .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FIFTH: promising freebies and handouts to those who want the government to take care of them rather than work for what they need.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An unleashed free market capitalism would not be any more humane than those examples in the video.
  • A tribute to Communism | Kiwiblog 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

[52] .Republicanism is often referred to as the founding ideology of the United States.^ I was referring to the Communist Left within the United States.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When I got back to the United States, and became part of the [Vietnam] anti-war movement, I found myself increasingly uncomfortable with the left's attitude toward Israel.

^ What he found were copies of classified top secret information which the Communists had assembled from Washington, New York and elsewhere throughout the United States.
  • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.Traditionally scholars believed this American republicanism was a derivation of the liberal ideologies of John Locke and others developed in Europe.^ On the other hand I believe in conservatism and capitalism based on natural law and property rights as advanced by Aquinas, Locke, Burke, and Jefferson.
  • Communist Party Backs Obama 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ American child supreme : the education of a liberation ecologist / John Nichols.

^ If you read this and still believe liberalism is a bad thing, then i suppose we fundamentally disagree on what defines American values.
  • Obama’s Communist Cover-up Continues 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.aim.org [Source type: Original source]

.The political philosophy of republicanism initiated by Machiavelli was thought to have had little impact on the founders of the United States.^ In his book, “With No Apologies,” former Republican Presidential nominee Barry Goldwater wrote, “The Trilateral Commission is intended to be the vehicle for multinational consolidation of the commercial and banking interests by seizing control of the political government of the United States.

^ And the only life which is better than the life of political ambition is that of philosophy, which is also the best preparation for the government of a State.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Or the answer is clear: (a) being in the wrong place at the wrong time, or (b) being turned in to collect a bounty offered by the United States, or (c) thought crimes.
  • Dictatorship : NOVAKEO.COM 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]
  • scientific dictatorship « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1960s and 1970s a revisionist school lead by the likes of Bernard Bailyn began to argue that republicanism was just as or even more important than liberalism in the creation of the United States.^ A diverse range of observers, in Yemen and abroad, agree that a heavy-handed counter-terrorism strategy will create more problems than it will solve Will Yemen become a failed state?

^ Then the wise and good will not desire to gain more than his like, but more than his unlike and opposite?
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Number of states where a shift of no more than three seats this fall could change party control of a legislative chamber : 23 .
  • Democracy (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] This issue is still much disputed and scholars like Kramnick completely reject this view.[54]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "republic", WordNet 3.0 (Dictionary.com), http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/republic, retrieved 20 March 2009 . "republic", Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law (Dictionary.com), http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/republic, retrieved 20 March 2009 
  2. ^ Oligarchies or aristocracies are not always indicated as republics, but for instance Montesquieu in his 1748 The Spirit of the Laws (e.g. book II, 1: "a republican government is that in which the body, or only a part of the people, is possessed of the supreme power"), does
  3. ^ e.g. Republic article in Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Some states, although not being led by a monarch, and having a democratic constitution, choose not to term themselves "republic".
  5. ^ "Republic." Merriam Webster Dictionary
  6. ^ "A republic, by which I mean a government in which the scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect, and promises the cure for which we are seeking. Let us examine the points in which it varies from pure democracy ...", from James Madison. The Federalist, Number 10, The New York Packet, 23 Nov., 1787
  7. ^ William R. Everdell. The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. University of Chicago Press, 2000. pg. 3
  8. ^ "John W. Maynor." Republicanism in the modern world. Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.
  9. ^ Constitution of the United States.
  10. ^ a b c Pocock, J.G.A. The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition (1975; new ed. 2003)
  11. ^ a b c Haakonssen, Knud. "Republicanism." A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy. Robert E. Goodin and Philip Pettit. eds. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1995.
  12. ^ William R. Everdell. The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. University of Chicago Press, 2000. pg. xxii - xxiii
  13. ^ a b Niccolò Machiavelli, 1532, The Prince, Chapter 1.
  14. ^ "Republicanism." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Mon Jun 19, 2006
  15. ^ Rubinstein, Nicolai. "Machiavelli and Florentine Republican Experience." in Machiavelli and Republicanism Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Republic" New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. pg. 2099
  17. ^ a b William R. Everdell. The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. University of Chicago Press, 2000.
  18. ^ Bloom, Allan. The Republic. Bsic Books, 1991. pg. 439-440
  19. ^ a b William R. Everdell. The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. University of Chicago Press, 2000. pg. xxiii
  20. ^ a b "Monarchy" New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
  21. ^ Finer, Samuel. The History of Government from the Earliest Times. Oxford University Press, 1999. pg. 950.
  22. ^ Nippel, Wilfried. "Ancient and Modern Republicanism." The Invention of the Modern Republic ed. Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge University Press, 1994 pg. 6
  23. ^ a b Paul A. Rahe, Republics, Ancient and Modern, three volumes, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1994
  24. ^ Reno, Jeffrey. "republic." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences pg. 184
  25. ^ Martin Bernal, Black Athena Writes Back (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001), 359.
  26. ^ Sharma, RS. Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1999 pg. xxix
  27. ^ Radhey Shyam Chaurasia History Of Ancient India Earliest Times To 1200 A.D. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2002 pg. 296
  28. ^ Gupta, Om (2006). Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Gyan Publishing House. p. 2536. ISBN 8182053897. http://books.google.com/books?id=LXw9pgWvFxUC&pg=PA28&dq=Vaishali&lr=#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  29. ^ Alterkar, AS. State and Government in Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 2002
  30. ^ a b Finer, Samuel. The History of Government from the Earliest Times. Oxford University Press, 1999. pg. 950-955.
  31. ^ William R. Everdell. The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. University of Chicago Press, 2000
  32. ^ Finer, Samuel. The History of Government from the Earliest Times. Oxford University Press, 1999. pg. 955-956.
  33. ^ Finer, Samuel. The History of Government from the Earliest Times. Oxford University Press, 1999. pg. 1020.
  34. ^ "Republicanism." Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment pg. 435
  35. ^ "Introduction." Republicanism: a Shared European Heritage. By Martin van Gelderen and Quentin Skinner. Cambridge University Press, 2002 pg. 1
  36. ^ "Republicanism." Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment pg. 431
  37. ^ "Latin American Republicanism" New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
  38. ^ Anderson, Lisa. "Absolutism and the Resilience of Monarchy in the Middle East." Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 106, No. 1 (Spring, 1991), pp. 1–15
  39. ^ Bernard Lewis. "The Concept of an Islamic Republic" Die Welt des Islams, New Series, Vol. 4, Issue 1 (1955), pp. 1–9
  40. ^ OED, s. v.
  41. ^ "Presidential Systems" Governments of the World: A Global Guide to Citizens' Rights and Responsibilities. Ed. C. Neal Tate. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. p7-11.
  42. ^ Article VII, Constitution of the United States
  43. ^ Article II, Para 2, Constitution of the United States
  44. ^ The novelist and essayist H.G.Wells regularly used the term crowned republic to describe the United Kingdom, for instance in his work A Short History of the World. Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his poem Idylls of the King.
  45. ^ Dunn, John. "The Identity of the Bourgeois Liberal Republic." The Invention of the Modern Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  46. ^ "Republicanism" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Jun 19, 2006
  47. ^ McCormick, John P. "Machiavelli against Republicanism: On the Cambridge School's 'Guicciardinian Moments'" Political Theory, Vol. 31, No. 5 (Oct., 2003), pp. 615–643
  48. ^ Pocock, J.G.A The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition Princeton: 1975;2003
  49. ^ Philip Pettit, Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government, NY: Oxford U.P., 1997, ISBN 0-19-829083-7; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
  50. ^ William R. Everdell. The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. University of Chicago Press, 2000. pg. 6
  51. ^ 139 U.S. 449, (1891)
  52. ^ W. Paul Adams "Republicanism in Political Rhetoric Before 1776." Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 85, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp. 397–421
  53. ^ Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.
  54. ^ Kramnick, Isaac. Republicanism and Bourgeois Radicalism: Political Ideology in Late Eighteenth-Century England and America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Further reading

  • Martin van Gelderen & Quentin Skinner, eds., Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, v1, Republicanism and Constitutionalism in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 2002
  • Martin van Gelderen & Quentin Skinner, eds., Republicanism: A Shared European Heritage, v2, The Values of Republicanism in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2002
  • Frédéric Monera, L'idée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel — Paris: L.G.D.J., 2004 FNAC.com, LGDJ.fr

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Republic is a small city in the Rocky Mountains region of Washington. It is the county seat of Ferry County[1].
  • Curlew Lake State Park, (8 miles north of Republic on SR 21), [2]. A relaxing, 123-acre campground park. It is near a fossil dig and an airfield.  edit
  • Eagle Track Raceway, (On Pendry Road just south of Republic on SR 21), +1-509-775-3508, [3]. Small-town, dirt-track racing.  edit
  • Stonerose Interpretive Center, 15-1 N. Kean Street, +1-509-775-2295, [4]. Near a rich collection of fossils, including the petrified flowers that give the museum its name. .At a nearby fossil bed you can collect your own fossils. Adults $5, Children 6-18 $3, under 6 years $0.^ On the other hand, if you don't pay the government you will end up in jail, i.e., the government takes your money under the threat of physical force.

    ^ Little children working 12 hours a day, sleeping under machines in Turkey or Iran or in Latin America, or many other places you can name.
    • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think it’s about time you stop projecting your own frustrations on our President, Hamsher.
    • Firedoglake » Late Nite FDL: Can We Call It a Dictatorship Yet? 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

     .'see', 'Republic');return false;" title="click to edit Stonerose Interpretive Center">edit
  • Republic Historical Center, (Next to the Stonerose Interpretive Center, 15-1 North Kean Street), [5].^ Antislavery debate : capitalism and abolitionism as a problem in historical interpretation / edited and with an introduction by Thomas Bender ; with essays by John Ashworth, David Brion Davis, and Thomas L. Haskell.

    .Sometimes referred to as the "Ferry County Historical Museum".  edit
  • Ranald MacDonald's Grave, (18 miles northwest of Curlew Lake State Park on Mid Way Road), [6].^ The Soviet Bureau was managed by Ludwig C.A.K. Martens, who is sometimes referred to as the first Soviet ambassador to the United States.
    • The Communist-Capitalist Alliance 15 September 2009 6:17 UTC autarchic.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

    Ranald MacDonald was the first person to teach English in Japan. .He has monuments to him in Japan.  edit
  • Wisherwood gallery and Yarn Studio, 1003 South Clark (Next to City Hall on south end of the main street), 509 775-0441, [7].^ On South Korea: "During 1987 popular opposition to South Korea's military dictatorship again burst into the streets of South Korean cities and into the U.S. news media."
    • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

    10 am -5pm. .World class little yarn store complete with local hand spun yarn and home of Sleeping Dog Teas.^ "And what does it mean in a digital world where no one's supposed to know you're a dog, we can guess your class background based on the tools you use?"
    • A World Beyond Capitalism, The Conference, The Community, The Love - Join Us! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC 00no-capitalism.livejournal.com [Source type: General]

    Cynthia's husband builds really cool burial urns and caskets in his basement shop.(The Kettle River Urn and Casket Company). .Sometimes she lets him come upstairs.^ Come, then, and let us think of something to say to him.
    • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    So beware!
     edit
.This article is an outline and needs more content.^ We did it in one important article in the RW , but we need to keep going into this more deeply and from different angles.
  • DICTATORSHIP AND DEMOCRACY, AND THE SOCIALIST TRANSITION TO COMMUNISM-- By Bob Avakian 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC rwor.org [Source type: Original source]

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Republic article)

From Wikisource

The Republic
by Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett
(360 B.C.). Adapted from the Project Gutenberg version
Wikipedia logo .Wikipedia has more on:
The Republic (Plato).
^ For more on what the Republic says about knowledge and its objects, see Plato: middle period metaphysics and epistemology , and for more about the discussion of the poets, see Plato: rhetoric and poetry .
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Towards the close of the Republic, Plato seems to be more and more convinced of the ideal character of his own speculations.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THE REPUBLIC. - Dialogues, vol. 3 - Republic, Timaeus, Critias 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Laws imagines an impossible ideal, in which all the citizens are fully virtuous and share everything (739a-740 with Plato: on utopia ), but the Republic is more practical than that.
  • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 16 January 2010 13:013 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Contents


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to republic article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

  •  Audio (US)help, file
  • Hyphenation: re‧pub‧lic

Etymology

From Latin rēs publica ("republic"), from rēs ("thing") + publica, the feminine of publicus ("public"). Literally meaning "the public thing".

Noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
republic
Plural
republics
republic (plural republics)
.
  1. A state where sovereignty rests with the people or their representatives, rather than with a monarch or emperor; a country with no monarchy.^ This leaves no room for accountability that puts the development of the country (if any) in a pendulum state.
    • Dictatorship is the best path to development 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC debatewise.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Vidal says that he hates labels and has said he believes in homosexual acts rather than homosexual people."
    • Gore Vidal: ‘We’ll Have a Dictatorship Soon in the US’ | CommonDreams.org 1 February 2010 7:40 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This ownership allows – probably no more than a few hundred financial capitalists – to create money, of any country, out of the thinest of airs, control all credit, and to then enforce into indebtedness all nations and peoples of the world.

    The U.S.A. is a republic; Great Britain is technically a monarchy.
  2. One of the subdivisions constituting Russia. See oblast.
    The Republic of Udmurtia is west of the Permian Oblast.

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Simple English

A republic is a type of government that has no king, queen, or other monarch and where the people are sovereign. This means that people can choose leaders to represent them and make the laws. The word republic comes from the Latin language words res publica, which means "public thing".

Countries with a king or other monarch and free elections are called Constitutional Monarchies. What makes a republic different is that the people do not need the permission of a king or other higher power to choose leaders and the type of government they want. Laws are made and enforced in the name of the people.

The Head of State in a republic is generally a person who has been chosen by the citizens, either by direct election or by a group of elected representatives to act as the top representative of the people. In most republics, the Head of State is called the president. In some countries, the president is elected and has a lot of political power. In others, the president does not hold a lot of direct power, but is important in the legal system for other reasons.

Origins

Licchavi in India was the first republic in the 6th and 5th century BCE. The other earliest republics were Greek settlements in the Mediterranean sea. The biggest difference from other city-states that were around then was that people could choose their leaders by voting for them. The votes were then counted, and the person with the most votes won.krc:Республикаrue:Републіка


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Republic, which are similar to those in the above article.








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