Republic Day: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic Day is the name of a holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they became republics.

Frecce tricolori at the Festa della Repubblica in Italy, 2nd of June 2005.

Contents

January

January 9th in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina

After Yugoslavia fell apart, Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina wanted to stay with Serbia and Montenegro. Croats and Bosniaks wanted to create an independent state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 9 January 1992, Bosnian Serb authorities declared the creation of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which later changed name into Republika Srpska (Republic of Srpska, Serb Republic). Since that day, Republika Srpska celebrates that day as a Republic Day.

January 26th in India

Soldiers of the Madras Regiment during the annual Republic Day Parade in 2004.

The Constitution of India came into force, and India declared itself a Republic on 26 January, 1950, a day thereafter celebrated annually as Republic Day in India. The Constitution had been drafted by the Constituent Assembly headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar which was set up when India gained its independence from the British in 1947. This, in fact, was a deliberate act: The 26th of January was initially India's "Independence Day", one of Mahatma Gandhi's many symbolic acts during India's struggle for freedom against British colonial rule, and the adoption of the Constitution on this date was felt able to strengthen its initial meaning, one calling for Indians of all ages to declare their freedom from the British Raj. It is one of three national holidays in India, the other two being the nation's Independence Day on August 15 (since 1947) and the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on October 2. And so, after the disposal of the Empire of India, King George VI was the last and only "Emperor" of modern India.

To mark this occasion, a grand parade is held near Rajpath in New Delhi, the capital of India, beginning from Raisina Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), along the Rajpath, past India Gate and on to the historic Red Fort in the old quarter of the city. Different infantry, cavalry and mechanized regiments of the Indian Army, the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force march in formation, decked in all their finery and official decorations. The President of India, who is also the Commander in Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, relishes the salute. The Chief Guest of the parade is the Head of State of another nation. The parade also includes many traditional dance troupes, to symbolize the cultural heritage of India. It traditionally ends with a colourful flypast by Indian Air Force jets in a tiranga formation. Similar parades are held in the capitals of all the states of India, where the Governors of the respective states take the salute. The official conclusion of republic day festivities is much later on 29 January, three days after the Republic day.

February

February 1 in Hungary

On February 1, 1946 Hungary commemorates the proclamation of Republic of Hungary. Since 2006, this day is national commemoration day, without being public or national Holiday.

March

March 23 in Pakistan

In Pakistan this day marks the passing of the Lahore Resolution. Republic Day of Pakistan was first observed in 1956 when Pakistan officially became a Republic and shunned the former status of Dominion. The main events of this day include a full military parade and the awarding of honours at the Presidency (Presidential Palace) by the President. Every year, on March 23, the Pakistani people commemorate their National Day in remembrance of “The Pakistan Resolution” passed on March 23, 1940, in the historic city of Lahore.

May

May 28 in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Nepal

On May 28, 1918 Armenia and Azerbaijan declared independence from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, thus forming the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. It was the first sovereign republic in the history of both countries and Azerbaijan the first democratic parliamentary republic in the muslim world.. However the holiday was not celebrated during Soviet times, and it only achieved consistency after the collapse of the USSR.

A decade-long People's Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal in 2006, culminated in a peace accord and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah and the establishment of a federal democratic republic in May 28, 2008.

May 31st in South Africa (1961-1994)

Between 1961 and 1994, May 31 was celebrated in South Africa as Republic Day. This practice was discontinued in 1995 following the attainment of majority rule and the reorganisation of public holidays as a consequence. On the last Republic Day, in 1994, South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations.

June

June 2nd in Italy

The Festa della Repubblica is celebrated on the second day of June, and it commemorates the institutional referendum of 1946 when (by universal suffrage) the Italian population was called to decide what form of government (monarchy or republic) to give to the country after World War II and the fall of Fascism.

After 85 years of monarchy, with 12,717,923 votes for and 10,719,284 votes against, Italy became a Republic, and the monarchs of the House of Savoy were deposed and exiled. This is one of the most important Italian public holidays which, like July 14 in France and July 4 in the USA, celebrates the birth of the nation. A grand military parade is held in central Rome.

July

July 14 in Iraq

July 14, 1958 is the day the Hashemite monarchy was overthrown in Iraq by popular forces lead by Abdul Karim Kassem, who became the nation's new leader. The event was commemorated in Baghdad with a statue in 14 July Square.

October

October 5th in Portugal

October 5 in Portugal is known as Implantação da República. It commemorates the proclamation of the Portuguese First Republic in 1910.

October 10th in Republic of China

October 10 in Taiwan is a national holiday commemorating the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911, the symbolic start of the Chinese revolution with the Wuchang uprising. It is also known as the Double Ten Day.

October 24th in Rhodesia (1970-1979)

Although the government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) a republic on March 2, 1970, it was officially commemorated on October 24. Following independence in 1980, the holiday was abolished.

October 25th in Kazakhstan

In the waning days of Soviet rule, individual republics of the Soviet Union sought greater autonomy. The Soviet Union agreed in early 1990 to give up its monopoly of political power. Following the lead of Lithuanian SSR, Russian SFSR and others, Kazakh SSR declared its sovereignty on October 25, 1990, and Kazakhstan subsequently became independent on December 16, 1991 as the Soviet Union collapsed. October 25, the anniversary of the adoption of the "Declaration on State Sovereignty of Kazakh SSR" by the Kazakh legislature in 1990, is now commemorated as Republic Day (Kazakh: Республика күні, Respwblïka küni), a public holiday in Kazakhstan.

October 29th in Turkey

On October 29, 1923, the Turkish constitution was amended and Turkey became a republic. This formally declared the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Republic Day (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Bayramı) is celebrated throughout Turkey every year. Commemorative events usually begin in the afternoon on the previous day. In observance of the holiday, government offices and schools close for a day. Also, there is a fireworks show in the Bosphorus.

November

November 11th in the Maldives

On November 11, 1968, Maldives the then existing monarchy was abolished and replaced by a republic.

November 15th in Brazil

On November 15, 1889 a military coup led by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca overthrew Emperor Pedro II and declared Brazil a republic.

November 29 in former Yugoslavia (1945-1990)

On 29 November 1943 the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia established the foundations of post-war Yugoslavia as a socialist republic, which was officially proclaimed on the same date in 1945. Republic Day (local name: Dan Republike or Дан Републике) marked the occasion two consecutive days, November 29 and 30, and was likely the most important holiday (the other two-day holidays were New Year and May Day).

In elementary schools first graders were inducted into the Pioneer Movement on or around Republic Day. Employees merged the holiday with weekends and extra days off to form 3-, 4- or even 5-day weekends. Urban dwellers took the occasion to visit their relatives in the country, who marked the event with pig slaughter and the ensuing feast.

In 1980s, as central and Communist Party authority eroded, dissenters targeted Republic Day celebrations for criticism. In 1987 Bosnian garage rock band Zabranjeno pušenje published a song entitled Dan Republike, in which they criticized the state of the economy and protested the general indifference to the ideals behind the holiday. The band had to change some of the lyrics before being allowed to air the song.

In 1989, Slovenia and Croatia were the first federal republics to cease observing the holiday. Other seceded republics followed suit as Yugoslavia dissolved. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia kept the holiday until 2002.

The date "29.XI.1943" figured prominently on the Yugoslav coat of arms.

December

December 13th in Malta

On December 13, 1974, the constitution of Malta was substantially revised, transforming the former British colony from a Commonwealth Realm into a republic within the Commonwealth. The British Monarch stopped being called Reġina ta' Malta (Queen of Malta) and the new Head of State was President Sir Anthony Mamo. This occasion is marked every year as Republic Day (Maltese: Jum ir-Repubblika) in Malta. The monument of Republic Day is at Marsa.

December 18th in Niger

December 18 1958 is commemorated in the Republic of Niger as Republic Day, the national holiday. Although not the date of formal, complete independence from France, December 18 marks the founding of the Republic and creation of the Presidency of the Republic of Niger, following the constitutional changes of the French Fifth Republic, and the elections of 4 December 1958 held across The French Colonial possessions. Nigeriens consider this date to be the founding of their nation. Between December 18, 1958 and August 5, 1964, Niger remained a semi-autonomous Republic within the French Community.

The 16th is celebrated in Niger with official festivals and appearances of political leaders, as well as public parties and festivities. The 50th anniversary celebrations were held in 2006, centered not in the capitol, but in the regional center of Tillabéry, and surrounded by sports, musical and arts competitions, the opening of new buildings, a National Youth Festival, and other public festivities.[1]

Republic Day in other countries

See also

References


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