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Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
Република Босна и Херцеговина

Republic of
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg
1992–1997 Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
"Jedna si jedina"
"You are the one and only"
Location of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yellow - territory of the RBiH. Green - territory controlled by the government at any one time during the Bosnian War (1992-1995).
Capital Sarajevo
Language(s) Bosnian,
Serbo-Croatian
Government Parliamentary republic
President
 - 1992 - 1995 Alija Izetbegović (first)
Prime Minister
 - 1992 - 1993 Jure Pelivan (first)
 - 1993 - 1996 Haris Silajdžić
 - 1996 - 1997 Hasan Muratović
Historical era 1990s
 - Established 1992
 - Disestablished 1997
Currency Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar (BAD)

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Serbo-Croatian: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina, RBiH, Cyrillic script: Република Босна и Херцеговина, РБиХ) is the direct main predecessor to the modern-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. While the succession was gradual, it was in existence from its declaration of independence from the SFR Yugoslavia in 1992 up to the full implementation of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1997. Most of this period is taken-up by the Bosnian War, in which each of the two other main ethnicities of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats) established their own entities (Republic of Srpska and CR Herzeg-Bosnia respectively), which left the republic representative primarily of its Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim) population and fighting for its very survival. By the Washington Agreement of 1994, however, Bosniaks were joined by ethnic Bosnian Croats in support for the Republic by the formation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a sub-state joint entity. In 1995, the Dayton Peace Accords joined the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina with the Serb entity, the Republic of Srpska into the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Contents

History

The 1990 parliamentary elections led to a national assembly dominated by three ethnically-based parties, which had formed a loose coalition to oust the communists from power. Croatia and Slovenia's subsequent declarations of independence and the warfare that ensued placed Bosnia and Herzegovina and its three constituent peoples in an awkward position. A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation (overwhelmingly favored among Serbs) or seek independence (overwhelmingly favored among Bosniaks and Croats). A declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia in February and March 1992. The referendum was boycotted by the great majority of Bosnian Serbs, so with a voter turnout of 64%, 98% of which voted in favor of the proposal, Bosnia and Herzegovina became an independent state.[1]

While the first casualty of the war is debated, significant Serbian offensives began in March 1992 in Eastern and Northern Bosnia. Following a tense period of escalating tensions and sporadic military incidents, open warfare began in Sarajevo on April 6.[1] International recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina meant that the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) officially withdrew from the republic's territory, although their Bosnian Serb members merely joined the Army of Republika Srpska. Armed and equipped from JNA stockpiles in Bosnia, supported by volunteers, Republika Srpska's offensives in 1992 managed to place much of the country under its control.[1] By 1993, when the Croat-Bosniak conflict erupted between the Sarajevo government and the Croat statelet of Herzeg-Bosnia, about 70% of the country was controlled by the Serbs.[2]

In March 1994, the signing of the Washington accords between the Bosniak and ethnic-Croatian leaders led to the creation of a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This, along with international outrage at Serb war crimes and atrocities (most notably the Srebrenica massacre of as many as 8,000 Bosniak males in July 1995[3]) helped turn the tide of war. The signing of the Dayton Agreement in Paris by the presidents of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Alija Izetbegović), Croatia (Franjo Tuđman), and FR Yugoslavia (Slobodan Milošević) brought a halt to the fighting, roughly establishing the basic structure of the present-day state. The three years of war and bloodshed had left between 95,000 and 100,000 people killed and more than 2 million displaced.[4]

Military

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Malcolm, Noel (1994). Bosnia A Short History. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5520-8.
  2. ^ Riedlmayer, Andras (1993). A Brief History of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Bosnian Manuscript Ingathering Project.
  3. ^ Federal Commission for Missing Persons; "Preliminary List of Missing and Killed in Srebrenica"; 2005 [1]PDF (522 KB).
  4. ^ November. 21, 2005. Bosnian war "claimed 100,000 lives". Deutsche Presse-Agentur.
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