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Republic of China
中華民國
Zhōnghuá Mínguó
A red flag, with a small blue rectangle in the top left hand corner on which sits a white sun composed of a circle surrounded by 12 rays. A blue circular emblem on which sits a white sun composed of a circle surrounded by 12 rays.
Flag National emblem
Anthem"National Anthem of the Republic of China"
A map depicting a relatively small island in East Asia.
Capital
(and largest city)
Taipei[1][a][2]
25°02′N 121°38′E / 25.033°N 121.633°E / 25.033; 121.633
Official language(s) Standard Mandarin[3]
Recognised regional languages Taiwanese Hokkien (Taiwan, Penghu and Kinmen)[4]
Hakka (Taiwan)
Several Taiwanese aboriginal languages
Fuzhunese (Matsu)
Puxian Min (Wuqiu)
Official scripts Traditional Chinese
Demonym Taiwanese[5][6][7] or Chinese[8] or both
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Ma Ying-jeou
 -  Vice President Vincent Siew
 -  Premier Wu Den-yih
Legislature Legislative Yuan
Establishment Xinhai Revolution 
 -  Wuchang Uprising 10 October 1911 
 -  Republic established 1 January 1912 
 -  End of Japanese rule in Taiwan 25 October 1945 
 -  Constitution 25 December 1947 
 -  Government relocated to Taipei 7 December 1949 
Area
 -  Total 36,191 km2 (136th)
13,974 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 10.34
Population
 -  2009 estimate 23,119,772[9][b] (50th)
 -  Density 637.4/km2 (15th)
1,650.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $738.800 billion (19th)
 -  Per capita $30,881 (25th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $392.552 billion (26th)
 -  Per capita $17,040 (42nd)
HDI (2007) 0.943 [10] (Very high
Currency New Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Date formats yyyy-mm-dd
yyyy年m月d日
(CE; CE+2697) or 民國yy年m月d日
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .tw
Calling code +886
a. ^  Nanjing was the seat of the government from 1928 until 1949, when the government retreated to Taipei, Taiwan. As of 2009, the constitution does not name the capital of the ROC.[11]
b. ^  Population and density ranks based on 2008 figures.
Republic of China
Traditional Chinese 中華民國
Simplified Chinese 中华民国
The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan, is a sovereign state in East Asia comprising the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands, which are located off the east coast of mainland China. Neighboring states include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the north-east, and the Republic of the Philippines to the south.
The founding of the Republic of China began on 10 October 1911 as a result of the Wuchang Uprising, but it was not formally established until 1 January 1912. The ROC had once encompassed mainland China and Outer Mongolia. At the end of World War II, with the surrender of Japan, the Republic of China took over the island groups of Taiwan and Penghu from the Japanese Empire. After the end of the world war, the government drafted the Constitution of the Republic of China, which was adopted on 25 December 1947. When the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, KMT), the then leading party of the ROC, lost mainland China in the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 1949, the central government relocated to Taiwan, establishing Taipei as its provisional capital.[12][13] Despite being forced out of mainland China, Chiang Kai-shek, the Nationalist leader, declared that the ROC was still the legitimate government of China and Outer Mongolia.[14] In mainland China, the victorious Communist party founded the People's Republic of China. The Taiwan Area became the extent of the Republic of China's jurisdiction.
During the early Cold War the ROC was recognized by many Western nations and the United Nations as the sole legitimate government of China. It was a founding member of the United Nations[15] and one of the five permanent members of the Security Council until 1971, when it was replaced by the PRC.
The PRC regards the ROC as an illegitimate state; it seeks to unify Taiwan with mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau and is ready to use force if necessary. In contrast, the Republic of China rejects PRC's claim and views itself as a sovereign state. This tension between the two states colors most of the political life in Taiwan, and any attempt at declaring formal independence is met with threats from the PRC.[16] The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with countries which recognize the Republic of China; thus, as of 2010, only 23 have formal diplomatic relations with the ROC.
Initially a single-party state, the Republic of China evolved into a democratic state during the 1980s without widespread conflict. It has a semi-presidential system and universal suffrage. The president serves as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Legislative Yuan is the country's legislature. The ROC is a member of the WTO and APEC. It is one of the Four Asian Tigers, and has an industrialized advanced economy. The 26th-largest economy in the world,[17] its advanced technology industry plays a key role in the global economy. The ROC is ranked high in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education and economic freedom.

Names

The official name of the state is "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Asian mainland, the government used the abbreviation "China" ("Zhongguó") to refer to itself, for instance during the Olympic Games[18] or at the United Nations. During the 1950s and 1960s, it was common to refer to it as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from the "Communist China" on the Asian mainland.[19] The ROC also called itself "Free China" in an attempt to portray the PRC as an illegitimate government. At the UN, it was present under the name "China" until it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Since then, the name "China" has been commonly used to refer only to the People's Republic of China.[20]
Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has been commonly known as "Taiwan", which comes from Tayuan or Tayoan in the Siraya language. It is also often informally referred to as the "State of Taiwan"[21]. The Republic of China participates in international forums and organizations under the politically neutral name "Chinese Taipei"; for instance it is the name under which it competes at the Olympic Games since 1979, and its name as an observer at the World Health Organization.

History

The Republic of China was established in 1911, replacing the Qing Dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. It is the oldest surviving republic in East Asia. The Republic of China on mainland China went through periods of warlordism, Japanese invasion, and civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communists. The Republic of China on Taiwan has experienced rapid economic growth and industrialization, and democratization.
Starting in 1928, the Republic of China was ruled by the Kuomintang as an authoritarian single-party state.[22] In the 1950s and 1960s, the KMT went through wide restructuring and decreased corruption and implemented land reform. There followed a period of great economic growth, the Republic of China became one of the Four Asian Tigers, despite the constant threat of war and civil unrest. In the 1980s and 1990s the government peacefully transitioned to a democratic system, with the first direct presidential election in 1996 and the 2000 election of Chen Shui-bian, the first non-KMT after 1949 to become President of the Republic of China. The KMT regained presidency and increased its majority in the legislature in the 2008 presidential and legislative elections.[23]

Founding

Map of the Republic of China printed by Rand McNally & Co. in 1914. The Republic of China encompassed mainland China while Taiwan was part of the Empire of Japan.
Territory of the Republic of China in 1914
A drawing depicting two lions looking up in front of two flags. The flag on the left is red and blue with a white sun; while the one on the right is made of five vertical stripes (black, white, blue, yellow and red). Two circular pictures of two Chinese men stand in front of each flag.
Yuan Shikai (left) and Sun Yat-sen (right) with flags representing the early republic
In 1911, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established in China and the monarchy overthrown by a group of revolutionaries. The Qing Dynasty, having just experienced a century of instability, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism.[24] The Neo-Confucian principles that had, to that time, sustained the dynastic system were now called into question.[25] Its support of the Boxers, who claimed to have magical powers, against the world's major powers was its final mistake. The Qing forces were defeated and China was forced to give a huge indemnity to the foreign powers; an equivalent to 107 million USD to be paid over 39 years. Disconnected from the population and unable to face the challenges of modern China, the Qing government was in its final throes. Only the lack of an alternative regime in sight was prolonging its existence until 1912.[26][27]
The establishment of Republican China developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing on 10 October 1911. That date is now celebrated annually as the ROC's national day, also known as the 'Double Ten Day'. On 29 December 1911, Sun Yat-Sen was elected president by the Nanjing assembly representing seventeen provinces. On 1 January 1912, he was officially inaugurated and pledged "to overthrow the despotic Manchu government, consolidate the Republic of China and plan for the welfare of the people".
Sun however lacked the army and military power to overthrow the Qing Dynasty. Realizing this, he handed over the presidency to Yuan Shikai, the imperial general, who then forced the last emperor Puyi to abdicate. Yuan Shikai was officially elected president in 1913.[28][24] Yuan ruled by military power and ignored the republican institutions established by his predecessor, threatening to execute Senate members that would disagree with his decisions. He soon dissolved the ruling Kuomintang party and banned "secret organizations" (which implicitly included the KMT), and ignored the provisional constitution. An attempt at a democratic election in 1911 ended up with the assassination of the elected candidate by a man recruited by Yuan. Ultimately, Yuan Shikai declared himself Emperor of China in 1915.[29] The new ruler of China tried to increase centralization by abolishing the provincial system; however this move angered the gentry along with the province governors, usually military men. Many provinces declared independence and became warlord states. Increasingly unpopular and deserted by his supporters, Yuan Shikai gave up on becoming Emperor in 1916 and died of natural causes shortly after.[30][31]
Thus devoid of a strong, unified government, China thrust into another period of warlordism. Sun Yat-sen, forced into exile, returned to Guangdong province in the south with the help of warlords in 1917 and 1922, and set up successive rival governments; he re-established the KMT in October 1919. Sun's dream was to unify China by launching an expedition to the north. He however lacked military support and funding to make it a reality.[32]
The Beiyang government in Beijing struggled to hold on to power. An open and wide-ranging debate evolved regarding how China should confront the West. In 1919, a student protest against the weak response of China to the Treaty of Versailles led to a nationwide uprising known as the May Fourth Movement. These demonstrations helped reinforce the idea of a republican revolution in China.
In general, Chinese anarchism, specifically anarchist communism, had been a prominent form of revolutionary socialism. Following the Russian Revolution, the influence of Marxism spread and became more popular. Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu led the Marxist-Leninist movement in the beginning.[33]

Chinese Civil War and World War II

A Chinese man in military uniform, smiling and looking towards the left. He holds a sword in his left hand and has a medal in shape of a sun on his chest.
Chiang Kai-shek, who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925
After Sun's death in March 1925, Chiang Kai-shek became the leader of the KMT. Chiang had led the successful Northern Expedition which, with the help of the Soviet Union, defeated the warlords and nominally united China under the KMT. However, Chiang soon dismissed his Soviet advisors. He was convinced, not without reason, that they wanted to get rid of the Nationalists and take over control. Chiang decided to strike first and purged the Communists, killing thousands of them. At the same time, other violent conflicts were taking place in China; in the South, where the Communists were stronger, the Nationalist supporters were being massacred. These events eventually lead to the Chinese Civil War. Chiang Kai-shek pushed the Communists into the interior as he sought to destroy them, and established a government with Nanking as its capital in 1927.[11]. By 1928, Chiang's army finally overturned the Beiyang government and unified the entire nation, at least nominally.
According to Sun Yat-sen's theory, the KMT was to rebuild China in three phases: a phase of military rule through which the KMT would take over power and reunite China by force; a phase of political tutelage; and finally a constitutional democratic phase.[34] In 1930, the Nationalists, having taken over the power, started the second phase, and promulgated a provisional constitution for the political tutelage period and began the period of so-called "tutelage".[35] They were criticized as totalitarianism but claimed they were attempting to establish a modern democratic society. Among others, they created at that time the Academia Sinica, the Bank of China, and other agencies. In 1932, China sent a team for the first time to the Olympic Games. Historians argue that establishing a democracy in China at that time was not possible. The nation was at war and divided between Communists and Nationalists. Corruption within the government and lack of direction also prevented any significant reform from taking place. Chiang realized the lack of real work being done within his administration and told the State Council: "Our organization becomes worse and worse... many staff members just sit at their desks and gaze into space, others read newspapers and still others sleep."[36] The Nationalist government wrote a draft of the constitution in 5 May 1936.[37]
The Nationalists faced a new challenge with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, with hostilities continuing through the Second Sino-Japanese War, part of World War II, from 1937 to 1945. The government of the Republic of China retreated from Nanking to Chongqing. In 1945, after the war of eight years, Japan surrendered and the Republic of China, under the name "China", became one of the founding members of the United Nations. The government returned to Nanking in 1946.

After World War II

Chiang Kai-shek (center) and Mao Zedong (right) with US diplomat Patrick J. Hurley (left)
After the defeat of Japan during World War II, Taiwan was surrendered to the Allies, with ROC troops accepting the surrender of the Japanese garrison. The government of the ROC proclaimed the "retrocession" of Taiwan to the Republic of China and established the provincial government at Taiwan. The military administration of the ROC extended over Taiwan, which led to widespread unrest and increasing tensions between Taiwanese and mainlanders.[38] The shooting of a civilian on 28 February 1947 triggered island-wide unrest, which was suppressed with military force in what is now called the 228 Incident. Mainstream estimates of casualties range from 18,000 to 30,000, mainly Taiwanese elites.[39][40] The 228 incident has far-reaching effect on the following Taiwan history.
From 1945 to 1947, under United States mediation, especially through the Marshall Mission, the Nationalists and Communists agreed to start a series of peace talks aiming at establishing a coalition government. They however failed to reach an agreement and the civil war resumed.[41] In the context of political and military animosity, the National Assembly was summoned by the Nationalists without the participation of the Communists and promulgated the Constitution of the Republic of China. The constitution was criticized by the Communists[42], and lead to the final break between the two sides.[43] The full scale civil war resumed from early 1947.[44].
In 1948, the ROC administration imposed perpetual martial law.[45] Meanwhile, the civil war was escalating from regional areas to the entire nation. Eventually, the Communist troops, with the help of the Soviet Union[citation needed], defeated the ROC army. In December 1949, Chiang evacuated the government to Taiwan and made Taipei the temporary capital of the ROC (also called the "wartime capital" by Chiang Kai-shek).[46][12] In his retreat, he also transferred China's gold reserves to Taiwan. Between one and two million refugees from mainland China followed him, adding to the earlier population of approximately six million.[47][48][45]
In October 1949, the Communists founded the People's Republic of China.[49]

Government on Taiwan

From the 1960s, the ROC became a prosperous, technology-oriented industrialized developed country. It became known as one of the Four Asian Tigers
The ROC government, now threatened by both demands for independence within Taiwan, and by the Communists in mainland China, became increasingly dictatorial. The White Terror, started while the ROC central government was still governed from mainland China, remained in place until 1987 as a way to suppress the political opposition.[50] During these acts of violence, 140,000 Taiwan residents were imprisoned or executed for being perceived as anti-KMT or pro-Communist.[51]
Initially, the United States abandoned the KMT and expected that Taiwan would fall to the Communists. However, in 1950 the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, which had been ongoing since the Japanese withdrawal in 1945, escalated into full-blown war, and in the context of the Cold War, US President Harry S. Truman intervened again and dispatched the 7th Fleet into the Taiwan Straits to prevent hostilities between Taiwan and mainland China.[52] In the Treaty of San Francisco and the Treaty of Taipei, which came into force respectively on 28 April 1952 and 5 August 1952, Japan formally renounced all right, claim and title to Taiwan and Penghu, and renounced all treaties signed with China before 1942. The United States and the United Kingdom disagreed on whether the ROC or the PRC was the legitimate government of China—as a result both treaties remained silent about who would take control of the island.[53] Continuing conflict of the Chinese Civil War through the 1950s, and intervention by the United States notably resulted in legislations such as the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty and the Formosa Resolution of 1955.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the ROC prospered and became a technology-oriented, industrialized developed country, while maintaining an authoritarian, single-party government. This rapid economical growth, known as the Taiwan Miracle, was the result of a fiscal regime independent from mainland China and backed up, among others, by the support of US funds and demand for Taiwanese products.[54][55] In the 1970s, Taiwan was economically the second fastest growing state in Asia after Japan.[56] The country, along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore, became known as one of the Four Asian Tigers. Because of the Cold War, most Western nations and the United Nations regarded the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China until the 1970s. Later and especially after the termination of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, most nations switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC.
Up until the 1970s, the ROC was regarded by Western critics as undemocratic for upholding martial law, for severely repressing any political opposition and for controlling media. The KMT did not allow the creation of new parties and those that existed did not seriously compete with the KMT. Thus, competitive democratic elections did not exist.[57][58][59][60][61] From the late 1970s to the 1990s, however, reforms slowly moved the Republic of China from an authoritarian state to a democracy. In 1979, a pro-democracy protest known as the Kaohsiung Incident took place in Kaohsiung to celebrate Human Rights Day. Although the protest was rapidly crushed by the authorities, it is today considered as the main event that united Taiwan's opposition.[62] In 1986, Chiang Ching-kuo and Lee Teng-hui allowed for the creation of new political parties, which led to the founding of the first opposition party, the Democratic Progressive Party. In 1987, the martial law was lifted along with, a year later, the ban on new newspaper registration. The democratization process eventually led to the first direct presidential election by universal adult suffrage in 1996.[63][64]

Political status

The political status of the Republic of China is a contentious issue. The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims that the ROC government is illegitimate, referring to it as the "Taiwan Authority". The ROC, however, with its own constitution, independently elected president and a large army, views itself as an independent sovereign state. Moreover, its territory has never been controlled by the PRC.[65][66] As of 2010, the majority of Taiwanese - 64% - considers that the status quo (i.e. no independence, no unification with China) is preferable, while 19% favor independence and 5% unification.[67]

Conflict with the PRC

A map depicting Taiwan and a part of China showing that the Surface-To-Air Missiles coverage of China extends to most of the west coast of the island
The PRC's Surface to Air Missile coverage over the Taiwan Strait
The political environment is complicated by the potential for military conflict should overt actions toward independence or reunification be taken. It is the official PRC policy to use force to ensure reunification if peaceful reunification is no longer possible, as stated in its anti-secession law, and for this reason there are substantial military installations on the Fujian coast.[68][69]
The PRC supports a version of the One-China policy, which states that Taiwan and mainland China are both part of China, and that the PRC is the only legitimate government of China. It uses this policy to prevent the international recognition of the ROC as an independent sovereign state.

United States involvement and current standpoint

Two grey jet fighter aircrafts over a blue sky
F-16 jets sold to the ROC by the United States
The United States is one of the main allies of the ROC and, since the Taiwan Relations Act passed in 1979, sell arms and provide military training to the Republic of China Armed Forces.[70] This situation continues to be an issue for China which considers that the US involvement is disrupting the stability of the region. In January 2010, the Obama administration announced it intended to sell $6.4bn worth of military hardware to Taiwan. As a consequence, China threatened the US with economic sanctions and warned that their cooperation on international and regional issues could suffer.[71][72]
The US standpoint is that the PRC is expected to "use no force or threat[en] to use force against Taiwan" and the ROC is to "exercise prudence in managing all aspects of Cross-Strait relations." Both are to refrain from performing actions or espousing statements "that would unilaterally alter Taiwan's status."[73]
For its part, the People's Republic of China appears to find the retention of the name "Republic of China" far more acceptable than the declaration of a de jure independent Taiwan. With the rise of the Taiwanese independence movement, the name "Taiwan" has been employed increasingly more often on the island.[74]

Opinions within the ROC

Within the ROC, opinions are polarized between those supporting unification, represented by the Pan-Blue Coalition of parties, and those supporting independence, represented by the Pan-Green Coalition.
The Kuomintang, the largest Pan-Blue party, supports the status quo for the indefinite future with a stated ultimate goal of unification. However, it does not support unification in the short term with the PRC as such a prospect would be unacceptable to most of its members and the public.[75] Ma Ying-jeou, former chairman of the KMT and the current ROC President, has set out democracy, economic development to a level near that of the ROC, and equitable wealth distribution as the conditions that the PRC must fulfill for reunification to occur.[76]
The DPP, the largest Pan-Green party, officially seeks independence, but in practice also supports the status quo because its members and the public would not accept the risk of provoking the PRC.[77][78]
Former President Chen Shui-bian of the Democratic Progressive Party stated during his years of administration that any decision should be decided through a public referendum of the people of the ROC. Both parties' current foreign policy positions support actively advocating ROC participation in international organizations, but while the KMT accepts the One-China principle, the DPP encourages the participation of Taiwan as a sovereign state.
On 2 September 2008, El Sol de México asked President Ma Ying-jeou about his views on the subject of "two Chinas" and if there was a solution for the sovereignty issues between the two. The ROC President replied that the relations are neither between two Chinas nor two states. It is a special relationship. Further, he stated that the sovereignty issues between the two cannot be resolved at present, but he quoted the "1992 Consensus", currently accepted by both sides, as a temporary measure until a solution becomes available.[79]

Government

A tall and large building with a tower in its center. A large road surrounded by trees leads to it.
The Presidential Building in Taipei has housed the Office of the President of the Republic of China since 1950
The government of the Republic of China was founded on the Constitution of the ROC and its Three Principles of the People, which states that "[the ROC] shall be a democratic republic of the people, to be governed by the people and for the people."[80] The government is divided into five administrative branches (Yuan): the Control Yuan, the Examination Yuan, the Executive Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, and the Legislative Yuan. The Pan-Blue Coalition and Pan-Green Coalition are presently the dominant political blocs in the Republic of China.

President

The head of state is the President, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term on the same ticket as the Vice-President. The President has authority over the Yuan. The President appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as his cabinet, including a Premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.[80]

Executive Yuan

The ROC's political system does not fit traditional models. The Premier is selected by the President without the need for approval from the Legislature, but the Legislature can pass laws without regard for the President, as neither he nor the Premier wields veto power.[80] Thus, there is little incentive for the President and the Legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties. After the election of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian as President in 2000, legislation repeatedly stalled because of deadlock with the Legislative Yuan, which was controlled by a pan-Blue majority.[81] Historically, the ROC has been dominated by strongman single party politics. This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the President rather than the Premier, even though the Constitution does not explicitly state the extent of the President's executive power.[82]

Legislature

The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with 113 seats. Seventy-three are elected by popular vote from single-member constituencies; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties in a separate party list ballot; and six are elected from two three-member aboriginal constituencies. Members serve three-year terms. Originally the unicameral National Assembly, as a standing constitutional convention and electoral college, held some parliamentary functions, but the National Assembly was abolished in 2005 with the power of constitutional amendments handed over to the Legislative Yuan and all eligible voters of the Republic via referendums.[80]

Judiciary

The Judicial Yuan is ROC's highest judiciary. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The President and Vice-President of the Judicial Yuan and fifteen Justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding Judge and four Associate Judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.[80]
Like most Asian democracies, Taiwan still allows for capital punishment. Efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions, although they have not been able to completely abolish the punishment. As of 2006, about 80% of Taiwanese oppose the abolition of the death penalty.[83]

Audit

The Control Yuan is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the actions of the executive. It can be considered a standing commission for administrative inquiry and can be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union or the Government Accountability Office of the United States.[80]

Examination

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. It is based on the old Imperial examination system used in premodern China. It can be compared to the European Personnel Selection Office of the European Union or the Office of Personnel Management of the United States.[80]

Administrative regions

According to the 1947 constitution, written before the ROC government retreated to Taiwan, the highest level administrative division is the province, which includes special administrative regions, regions, and direct-controlled municipalities. However, in 1998 the only provincial government to remain fully functional under ROC jurisdiction, Taiwan Province, was streamlined, with most responsibility assumed by the central government and the county-level governments (the other existing provincial government, Fuchien, was streamlined much earlier). The ROC administers two provinces and two provincial level cities. Under ROC law, the area under ROC jurisdiction is officially called the "free area of the Republic of China".

Counties

The Republic of China also controls the Pratas Islands (Dong-Sha) and Taiping Island in the Spratly Islands, which are part of the disputed South China Sea Islands. They were placed under Kaohsiung City after the retreat to Taiwan.[84]
Taichung is currently under consideration for elevation to central municipality status. Also, Taipei County and Kaohsiung County are considering mergers with their respective cities.

Claimed territories

A map showing the island of Taiwan, China and Mongolia. Taiwan and other nearby small islands are highlighted in dark blue and are identified as the "free area" of the ROC. China is highlighted in light blue and is identified as an area claimed by the ROC and controlled by the PRC. Mongolia is highlighted in red for being claimed by the ROC but administered by Bhutan. Other minor areas are highlighted in different colors for being claimed by the ROC but controlled by other countries including Russia, Japan or Pakistan among others.
Administrative divisions and territorial disputes of the Republic of China
The ROC claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all China after its relocation to Taiwan in 1949 until the lifting of martial law in 1987. Although the administration of pro-independence President Chen Shui-bian (2000–2008) did not actively claim sovereignty over all of China, the national boundaries of the ROC have not been redrawn and its outstanding territorial claims from the late 1940s have not been revised. Thus, the claimed area of the ROC continues to include mainland China, several off-shore islands, Mongolia, and Taiwan. The current President Ma Ying-jeou reasserted the ROC's claim to be the sole legitimate government of China and the claim that mainland China is part of ROC's territory.[85] He does not, however, actively seek reunification, and prefers to maintain an ambiguous status quo in order to improve relations with the PRC.[86]
In practice, although ROC law still formally recognizes residents of mainland China as citizens of the ROC, it makes a distinction between persons who have household residency in the "free area" and those that do not, meaning that persons outside the area administered by the ROC must apply for special travel documents and cannot vote in ROC elections. De-emphasizing the ROC claims of sovereignty over Mongolia, the DPP government under Chen Shui-bian has established a representative office in Mongolia's capital, Ulan Bator. Offices established to support the ROC's claims over Outer Mongolia, such as the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission,[87] lie dormant.[88]

Politics

The constitution of the Republic of China was drafted before the fall of mainland China to the Communists. It was created by the KMT for the purpose of all of its claimed territory, including Taiwan, even though the Chinese Communist party boycotted the drafting of the constitution. The constitution went into effect on 25 December 1947.[89]
The ROC remained under martial law from 1948 until 1987 and much of the constitution was not in effect. Political reforms beginning in the late 1970s and continuing through the early 1990s liberalized the ROC from an authoritarian one-party state into a multiparty democracy. Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, suspending constitutional components that were originally meant for the whole of China. This process of amendment continues. In 2000, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) won the ROC presidency, ending the ROC's one-party rule history under the KMT. In May 2005, a new National Assembly was elected to reduce the number of parliamentary seats and implement several constitutional reforms. These reforms have been passed; the National Assembly has essentially voted to abolish itself and transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot.[90]

Major camps

A circular logo representing the island of Taiwan surrounded by the text "DEMOCRATIC PROGRESSIVE PARTY" and "民主進步黨"
Emblem of the Democratic Progressive Party, the main Pan-Green Coalition party.
A circular logo representing a white sun on a blue background. The sun is a circle surrounded by twelve triangles.
Emblem of the Kuomintang, the main Pan-Blue Coalition party.
The political scene in the ROC is divided into two camps, with the pro-unification and center-right Kuomintang (KMT), People First Party (PFP), and New Party forming the Pan-Blue Coalition, and the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) and centrist Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU) forming the Pan-Green Coalition.[91]
The Pan-Green camp tends to favor emphasizing the Republic of China as being a distinct country from the People's Republic of China. Thus, in September 2007, the then ruling Democratic Progressive Party approved a resolution asserting separate identity from China and called for the enactment of a new constitution for a "normal country". It called also for general use of "Taiwan" as the country's name, without abolishing its formal name, the Republic of China.[92] Members of the coalition, such as former President Chen Shui-bian, have moderated their views and argue that it is unnecessary to proclaim independence because "Taiwan is already an independent, sovereign country" and the Republic of China is the same as Taiwan.[93] Native Taiwanese President Lee Teng-hui, whilst being part of the Pan-Blue coalition, also held a similar view and was a supporter of the Taiwanization movement during his presidency.[94]
Pan-Blue members generally support the concept of the One-China policy, which states that there is only one China and that its only government is the ROC. They favor eventual re-unification of China.[95] The more mainstream Pan-Blue position is to lift investment restrictions and pursue negotiations with the PRC to immediately open direct transportation links. Regarding independence, the mainstream Pan-Blue position is to maintain the status quo, while refusing immediate reunification.[75] President Ma Ying-jeou stated that there will be no unification nor declaration of independance during his presidency.[96][85] As of 2009, Pan-Blue members usually seek to improve relationships with mainland China, with a current focus on improving economic ties.[97]

Current political issues

The dominant political issue in the ROC is its relationship with the PRC. For almost 60 years, there were no direct transportation links, including direct flights, between Taiwan and mainland China. This was a problem for many Taiwanese businesses that had opened factories or branches in mainland China. The former DPP administration feared that such links would lead to tighter economic and political integration with mainland China, and in the 2006 Lunar New Year Speech, President Chen Shui-bian called for managed opening of links. Direct weekend charter flights between Taiwan and mainland China began in July 2008 under the current KMT government, and the first direct daily charter flights took off in December 2008.[98]
Other major political issues include the passage of an arms procurement bill that the United States authorized in 2001.[99] In 2008, however, the United States were reluctant to send over more arms to Taiwan out of fear that it would hinder the recent improvement of ties between the PRC and the ROC.[100] Another major political issue, is the establishment of a National Communications Commission to take over from the Government Information Office, whose advertising budget exercised great control over ROC media.[101]
The politicians and their parties have themselves become major political issues. Corruption among some DPP administration officials has been exposed. In early 2006, President Chen Shui-bian was linked to possible corruption. The political effect on President Chen Shui-bian was great, causing a divide in the DPP leadership and supporters alike. It eventually led to the creation of a political camp led by ex-DPP leader Shih Ming-teh which believes the president should resign than stay in disgrace. The KMT assets continue to be another major issue, as it was once the richest political party in the world.[102] Nearing the end of 2006, KMT's chairman Ma Ying-jeou was also hit by corruption controversies, although he has since then been cleared of any wrong-doings by the courts.[103] Since completing his second term as President, Chen Shui-bian has been charged with corruption and money laundering.[104]
The merger of the KMT and People First Party (PFP) was thought to be certain, but a string of defections from the PFP to the KMT have increased tensions within the Pan-Blue camp.[105][106]

National identity

The majority, about 85%, of Taiwan's population is descended from Han Chinese from mainland China who immigrated to Taiwan between 1661 and 1895 A.D. Another significant fraction is descended from Han Chinese who immigrated from mainland China in the 1940s and 1950s. But between 1895 and the present, Taiwan and mainland China have shared a common government for only 5 years. The shared cultural origin combined with several hundred years of geographical separation, some hundred years of political separation and foreign influences, as well as hostility between the rival ROC and PRC have resulted in national identity being a contentious issue with political overtones. Since democratization and the lifting of martial law, a distinct Taiwanese identity (as opposed to Taiwanese identity as a subset of a Chinese identity) is often at the heart of political debates. Its acceptance makes the island distinct from mainland China, and therefore may be seen as a step towards forming a consensus for de jure Taiwan independence.[107] The pan-green camp supports a distinct Taiwanese identity, while the pan-blue camp supports a Chinese identity only.[95] The KMT has downplayed this stance in the recent years and now supports a Taiwanese identity as part of a Chinese identity.[108][109]
According to a survey conducted in March 2009, 49% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese only, and 44% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese and Chinese. 3% consider themselves as only Chinese.[67]. Another survey, conducted in Taiwan in July 2009, showed that 82.8% of respondents consider that the ROC and the PRC are two separate countries developing each on its own.[110]. A recent survey conducted in December 2009 showed that 62% of the respondents consider themselves as Taiwanese only, and 22% of the respondents consider themselves as both Taiwanese and Chinese. 8% consider themselves as only Chinese. The survey also shows that among 18-29 year old respondents, 75% consider themselves as Taiwanese only.[111]
Percentage of Taiwanese residents who feel themselves Taiwanese, Chinese or Taiwanese and Chinese according to various surveys.
Survey Taiwanese Chinese Taiwanese and Chinese
Common Wealth Magazine (December 2009)[111] 62% 8% 22%
National Chengchi University (December 2009)[112] 51.3% 4.4% 40.2%
TVBS Poll Center (March 2009)[67][113] 72% 16% (not an option for this question)
TVBS Poll Center (March 2009)[67][114] 49% 3% 44%

Foreign relations

An extract from an official UN document reading "2758 (XXVI). Restoration of the lawful rights of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations. The General Assembly, Recalling the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Considering the restoration of the lawful rights of the People's Republic of China is essential both for the protection of the Charter of the United Nations and for the cause that the United Nations must serve under the Charter, Recognizing that the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations and that the People's Republic of China is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council, Decides to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it. 1967th plenary meeting, 25 October 1971."
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, which expelled the ROC from the United Nations
Before 1928, the foreign policy of Republican China was complicated by a lack of internal unity—competing centers of power all claimed legitimacy. This situation changed after the defeat of the Beiyang Government by the Kuomintang, which lead to widespread diplomatic recognition of the Republic of China.[115] After the KMT retreat to Taiwan, most countries, notably the countries in the Western Bloc, continued to maintain relations with the ROC. Due to diplomatic pressure, recognition gradually eroded and many countries switched recognition to the PRC in the 1970s.
The ROC was a founding member of the United Nations and held China's seat on the Security Council until 1971, when it was expelled by General Assembly Resolution 2758 and replaced in all UN organs with the PRC. Multiple attempts by the ROC to rejoin the UN have not made it past committee.[116] The seat of China at the United Nations is currently occupied by the PRC.
Due to its limited international recognition, the Republic of China is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, represented by a ROC government funded organization, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy (TFD) under the name "Taiwan".[117][118]

Diplomatic relations

Countries maintaining diplomatic relations with the ROC
     diplomatic relations and embassy in Taipei
     diplomatic relations|alt=A map of the world showing 23 highlighted countries. Only a few small countries recognize the ROC, mainly in central and south America, as well as Africa.]]
The PRC refuses to have diplomatic relations with any nation that recognizes the ROC, and requires all nations with which it has diplomatic relations to make a statement recognizing its claims to Taiwan.[119] As a result, there are only 23 states that have official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China. In practice, most countries view the ROC as an independent state and as such maintain unofficial relations with it.[120]
The ROC maintains unofficial relations with most countries via de facto embassies and consulates called Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Offices (TECRO), with branch offices called "Taipei Economic and Cultural Offices" (TECO). Both TECRO and TECO are "unofficial commercial entities" of the ROC in charge of maintaining diplomatic relations, providing consular services (i.e. visa applications), and serving the national interests of the ROC in other countries.[121]
The United States maintains unofficial relations with the ROC through the instrumentality of the American Institute in Taiwan, which is the de facto embassy of the US in the ROC.[122]

Relations with Mongolia

Besides the dispute with the PRC over mainland China, the ROC also has a controversial relationship with Mongolia. Until 1945, the ROC claimed sovereignty over Greater Mongolia, but under Soviet pressure, it recognized Mongolian independence. Shortly thereafter in 1953, due to the deterioration of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, it revoked this recognition and kept considering it a part of mainland China.[123] In 2002, however, the Republic of China announced that it was administratively recognizing Mongolia as an independent country,[124] even though no legislative actions were taken to address concerns over its constitutional claims to Mongolia.[125]

Participation in international events and organizations

A white symbol in shape of a five petal flower ringed by a blue and a red line. In its center stands a circular symbol depicting a white sun on a blue background. The five Olympic circles (blue, yellow, black, green and red) stand below it.
The flag of the ROC, under the name "Chinese Taipei" (中華台北), during the Olympic Games
Also due to its One China policy, the PRC only participates in international organizations where the ROC is not recognized as a sovereign country. Each year since 1992, the ROC has petitioned the UN for entry but has been unsuccessful. Most member states, including the United States, do not wish to discuss the issue of the ROC's political status for fear of souring diplomatic ties with the PRC.[126] However, both the US and Japan publicly support the ROC's bid for membership in the World Health Organization as an observer.[127] However, though the ROC has applied for WHO membership every year since 1997 under various denominations, their efforts have consistently been blocked by PRC.
At present, the ROC usually uses the politically neutral name "Chinese Taipei" in international events such as the Olympic Games where the PRC is also a party.[128] The ROC is typically barred from using its national anthem and national flag in international events due to PRC pressure; ROC spectators attending events such as the Olympics are often barred from bringing ROC flags into venues.[129] The ROC is able to participate as "China" in organizations that the PRC does not participate in, such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement.
The relationship with the PRC and the related issues of Taiwanese independence and Chinese reunification continue to dominate ROC politics.[130] For any particular resolution, public favor shifts greatly with small changes in wording, illustrating the complexity of public opinion on the topic.[131]

Military

Two men in military uniform getting off an helicopter. They are both running and carrying a weapon.
ROC Military Police special forces disembarking from a UH-1H helicopter from the ROC Army 602nd Air Cavalry Brigade during a counter-terrorism exercise (ROC Ministry of National Defense)
The Republic of China Army takes its roots in the National Revolutionary Army, which was established by Sun Yat-sen in 1925 in Guangdong with a goal of reunifying China under the Kuomintang. When the People's Liberation Army won the Chinese Civil War, much of the National Revolutionary Army retreated to Taiwan along with the government. It was later reformed into the Republic of China Army. Units which surrendered and remained in mainland China were either disbanded or incorporated into the People's Liberation Army.
Today, the Republic of China maintains a large and technologically advanced military, mainly as defense against the constant threat of invasion by the PRC under the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China.[69] From 1949 to the 1970s, the primary mission of the military was to "retake the mainland." As this mission has shifted to defense, the ROC military has begun to shift emphasis from the traditionally dominant Army to the air force and navy. Control of the armed forces has also passed into the hands of the civilian government.[132] As the ROC military shares historical roots with the KMT, the older generation of high ranking officers tends to have Pan-Blue sympathies. However, many have retired and there are many more non-mainlanders enlisting in the armed forces in the younger generations, so the political leanings of the military have moved closer to the public norm in Taiwan.[133]
The ROC began a force reduction program to scale down its military from a level of 450,000 in 1997 to 380,000 in 2001.[134] As of 2009, the armed forces of the ROC number approximately 300,000,[135] with nominal reserves totaling 3.6 million as of 2005.[136] Conscription remains universal for qualified males reaching age eighteen, but as a part of the reduction effort many are given the opportunity to fulfill their draft requirement through alternative service and are redirected to government agencies or defense related industries.[137] Current plans call for a transition to a predominantly professional army over the next decade.[138][139] Conscription periods are planned to decrease from 14 months to 12.[140] In the last months of the Bush administration, Taipei took the decision to reverse the secular trend of declining defense spending, at a time when most Asian countries kept on reducing their military expenditures. It also decided to modernize both defensive and offensive capabilities. Taipei still keeps a large military apparatus relative to the island’s population: defense expenditures for 2008 were NTD 334 billion (approximately U.S. $10.5 billion), which accounted for 2.94% of GDP.
The armed forces' primary concern at this time is the possibility of an attack by the PRC, consisting of a naval blockade, airborne assault and/or missile bombardment. Four upgraded Kidd class destroyers were recently purchased from the United States, significantly upgrading Taiwan's air defense and submarine hunting abilities.[141] The Ministry of National Defense planned to purchase diesel-powered submarines and Patriot anti-missile batteries from the United States, but its budget has been stalled repeatedly by the opposition-Pan-Blue Coalition controlled legislature. The defense package was stalled from 2001–2007 where it was finally passed through the legislature and the US responded on 3 October 2008, with a $6.5 billion arms package including PAC III Anti-Air defense systems, AH-64D Apache Attack helicopters and other arms and parts.[142] A significant amount of military hardware has been bought from the United States, and, as of 2009, continues to be legally guaranteed by the Taiwan Relations Act.[70] In the past, France and the Netherlands have also sold military weapons and hardware to the ROC, but they almost entirely stopped in the 1990s under pressure of the PRC.[143][144]
The first line of defense against invasion by the PRC is the ROC's own armed forces. Current ROC military doctrine is to hold out against an invasion or blockade until the US military responds.[145] There is, however, no guarantee in the Taiwan Relations Act or any other treaty that the United States will defend Taiwan, even in the event of invasion.[146] The joint declaration on security between the US and Japan signed in 1996 may imply that Japan would be involved in any response. However, Japan has refused to stipulate whether the "area surrounding Japan" mentioned in the pact includes Taiwan, and the precise purpose of the pact is unclear.[147] The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty may mean that other US allies, such as Australia, could theoretically be involved.[148] In practice, the risk of losing economic ties with China may prevent Australia from taking action.[149] The Unites States, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Canada, Chile, and Peru conduct maritime exercises in the Pacific Ocean every 2 years called RIMPAC, which are conducted to prepare participating nations' forces to respond to an invasion of Taiwan.[citation needed]

Economy

Photo of a high tower against a blue sky.
Taipei 101 is a symbol of the success of the Taiwanese economy
The quick industrialization and rapid growth of Taiwan during the latter half of the twentieth century, has been called the "Taiwan Miracle" or "Taiwan Economic Miracle". As it has developed alongside Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong, the ROC is one of the industrialized developed countries known as the "Four Asian Tigers".
By 1945, hyperinflation was in progress in mainland China and Taiwan as a result of the war with Japan. To isolate Taiwan from it, the Nationalist government created a new currency area for the island, and started a price stabilization program. These efforts helped significantly slow the inflation. In 1950, with the outbreak of the Korean War, the US began an aid program which resulted in fully stabilized prices by 1952.[150] The KMT government instituted many laws and land reforms that it had never effectively enacted on mainland China; it implemented a policy of import-substitution, and it attempted to produce imported goods domestically. Much of this was made possible through US economic aid, subsidizing the higher cost of domestic production.
Today the Republic of China has a dynamic, capitalist, export-driven economy with gradually decreasing state involvement in investment and foreign trade. In keeping with this trend, some large government-owned banks and industrial firms are being privatized.[151] Real growth in GDP has averaged about 8 percent during the past three decades. Exports have provided the primary impetus for industrialization. The trade surplus is substantial, and foreign reserves are the world's third largest.[152] The Republic of China has its own currency, the New Taiwan dollar.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the economic ties between the ROC and the PRC have been very prolific. As of 2008, more than US$150 billion[153] have been invested in the PRC by Taiwanese companies, and about 10% of the Taiwanese labour force works in the PRC, often to run their own businesses.[154] Although the economy of Taiwan benefits from this situation, some have expressed the view that the island has become increasingly dependent on the PRC economy. A 2008 white paper by the Department of Industrial Technology states that "Taiwan should seek to maintain stable relation with China while continuing to protect national security, and avoiding excessive 'Sinicization' of Taiwanese economy."[155] Others argue that close economic ties between Taiwan and the PRC would make any military intervention by the PRC against Taiwan very costly, and therefore less probable.[156]
In 2001, Agriculture constitutes only 2 percent of GDP, down from 35 percent in 1952.[157] Traditional labor-intensive industries are steadily being moved offshore and with more capital and technology-intensive industries replacing them. The ROC has become a major foreign investor in the PRC, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam. It is estimated that some 50,000 Taiwanese businesses and 1,000,000 businesspeople and their dependents are established in the PRC.[158]
Because of its conservative financial approach and its entrepreneurial strengths, the ROC suffered little compared with many of its neighbors from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Unlike its neighbors, South Korea and Japan, the Taiwanese economy is dominated by small and medium sized businesses, rather than the large business groups. The global economic downturn, however, combined with poor policy coordination by the new administration and increasing bad debts in the banking system, pushed Taiwan into recession in 2001, the first whole year of negative growth since 1947. Due to the relocation of many manufacturing and labor intensive industries to the PRC, unemployment also reached a level not seen since the 1970s oil crisis. This became a major issue in the 2004 presidential election. Growth averaged more than 4 percent in the 2002–2006 period and the unemployment rate fell below 4 percent.[159]
The ROC often joins international organizations under a politically neutral name. The ROC is a member of governmental trade organizations such as the World Trade Organization under the name Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei) since 2002.[160]

Education

The higher education system was established in Taiwan by Japan during the colonial period. However, after Taiwan was retroceded to Republic of China in 1945, the system was promptly replaced by the same system as in mainland China which mixed with features of the Chinese and American educational systems.[161]
The educational system includes six years of elementary school, three years of middle school, three years of high school, and four years of university.[162] The system has been successful in that pupils in the ROC boast some of the highest test scores in the world, especially in mathematics and science;[163] However, it has also been criticized for placing excessive pressure on students and eschewing creativity in favor of rote memorization.[164][165]
Many Taiwanese students attend cram schools, or bushiban, to improve skills and knowledge on problem solving against exams of subjects like mathematics, nature science, history and many others. Courses are available for most popular subjects. Lessons are organized in lectures, reviews, private tutorial sessions, and recitations.[166][167]
As of 2003, the literacy rate in Taiwan is 96.1%.[122]

Demographics

The population of areas under control of the Republic of China was estimated in August 2009 at 23,082,125[122] spread across a total land area of 35,980 square kilometres (13,890 sq mi) making it the twelfth most densely populated country in the world with a population density of 640 /km2 (1,658/sq mi). Ninety-eight percent of Taiwan's population is made up of Han Chinese while two percent are Austronesian aborigines. Taiwan is undergoing a decline in birth rates with a population growth of just 0.61% for the year 2006.

Religion

Taiwan religiosity
religion percent
Buddhism
  
35.1%
Taoism
  
33%
Non-religion
  
14%
Protestant/Catholic
  
3.9%
I-Kuan Tao
  
3.5%
There are approximately 18,718,600 religious followers in Taiwan as of 2005 (81.3% of total population) and over 14–18% are non-religious. According to the 2005 census, of the 26 religions recognized by the ROC government, the five largest are: Buddhism (8,086,000 or 35.1%), Taoism (7,600,000 or 33%), I-Kuan Tao (810,000 or 3.5%), Protestantism (605,000 or 2.6%), and Roman Catholicism (298,000 or 1.3%). But according to the CIA World Factbook and other latest sources from US State Department or the Religious Affairs Section of the MOI, over 80% to 93% of the population are nominal or cultural adherents of a Chinese traditional combination of Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism (Ancestor worship) and Taoism.[122][168][169][170]

Language

The official national language is Mandarin Chinese though the majority also speak Taiwanese (variant of the Hokkien speech of Fujian province) and many also speak Hakka.[171] Aboriginal languages are becoming extinct as the aborigines have become sinicized and the ROC government has not preserved the Formosan languages. Like Hong Kong and Macau, Taiwan uses the Traditional Chinese writing system.

Largest cities

The figures below are the 2009 estimates for the twenty largest urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations).
Largest cities of the Republic of China
A montage of photos showing various buildings depicting the city of Taipei.
Taipei
A view of a city showing the skyline in the evening. The sun is raising in the background.
Taichung
Rank Core City Division Pop. A montage of photos showing various buildings depicting a large city.
Kaohsiung
A photo showing the skyline of a large city.
Tainan
1 Taipei Taipei City 2,607,428
2 Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City 1,527,914
3 Taichung Taichung City 1,074,277
4 Tainan Tainan City 771,235
5 Banqiao Taipei County 552,974
6 Zhonghe Taipei County 414,685
7 Hsinchu Hsinchu City 411,587
8 Taoyuan Taoyuan County 401,328
9 Xinzhuang Taipei County 400,863
10 Sanchong Taipei County 388,576
11 Keelung Keelung City 388,136
12 Zhongli Taoyuan County 365,445
13 Fengshan Kaohsiung County 339,952
14 Xindian Taipei County 294,862
15 Chiayi Chiayi City 274,212
16 Tucheng Taipei County 238,827
17 Changhua Changhua County 237,170
18 Yonghe Taipei County 236,872
19 Yongkang Tainan County 214,820
20 Pingtung Pingtung County 214,150
2010 Census

Public health

Health care in the ROC is managed by the Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI).[172]
The current program was implemented in 1995 and is considered social insurance. The government health insurance program maintains compulsory insurance for citizens who are employed, impoverished, unemployed, or victims of natural disasters with fees that correlate to the individual and/or family income; it also maintains protection for non-citizens working in Taiwan. A standardized method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions.[173]
BNHI insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases. Low income households maintain 100% premium coverage by the BNHI and co-pays are reduced for disabled or certain elderly peoples.
According to a recently published survey, out of 3,360 patients surveyed at a randomly chosen hospital, 75.1% of the patients said they are "very satisfied" with the hospital service; 20.5% said they are "okay" with the service. Only 4.4% of the patients said they are either "not satisfied" or "very not satisfied" with the service or care provided.[174]
Taiwan has its own Center for Disease Control, and during the SARS outbreak occurring in March 2003 confirmed 347 cases. During the outbreak the CDC and local governments set up monitored stations throughout public transportation, recreational sites and other public areas. With full containment in July 2003, there has not been a case of SARS since.[175] In 2004 the infant mortality rate was 5.3 with 15 physicians and 63 hospital beds per 10,000 people. The life expectancy for males was 73.5 years and 79.7 years for females according the World Health Report.
Other health related programs in Taiwan are the Centers for Disease Control[176] and the Department of Health.[177]

Calendar

A calendar with a picture of a Chinese man in the center. On top of it stands a flag with five horizontal stripes (red, yellow, blue, white and black).
A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President
The Republic of China uses two official calendars: the Gregorian calendar, and the Minguo calendar. The latter numbers years starting from 1911, the year of the founding of the Republic of China. For example, 2007 is the "96th year of the Republic".[178]
Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar. Year numbering may use the Gregorian system as well as the ROC era system. For example, 3 May 2004, may be written 2004-05-03 or 93-05-03. The use of two different calendar systems in Taiwan may be confusing, in particular for foreigners. For instance, products for export marked using the Minguo calendar can be misunderstood as having an expiration date 11 years earlier than intended.[179]
Taiwan also uses the lunar calendar for traditional festivals such as the Chinese New Year, the Lantern Festival, and the Dragon Boat Festival.[180]

International rankings

The following are international rankings of the Republic of China:
Context Organization Rank Year Source
GDP (PPP) International Monetary Fund / CIA 19/179 (IMF)
18/227 (CIA)
2007 [181][182]
GDP (PPP) per capita International Monetary Fund / CIA 28/179 (IMF)
40/227 (CIA)
2007 [183][184]
Human Development Index Government of the Republic of China 25/182
if ranked
2007 [185]
Worldwide press freedom index Reporters Without Borders 32/169 2007 [186]
Freedom of the Press[187] Freedom House 32/195 2008 [188]
Index of Economic Freedom The Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation 35/179 2009 [189]
Economic Freedom of the World Fraser Institute 24/130 2004 [190]
Ease of Doing Business Index World Bank 61/181 2009 [191]
Global Competitiveness Report World Economic Forum 12/125 2009–2010 [192]
Business Competitiveness Index[193] World Economic Forum 21/121 2006 [193]
Worldwide quality-of-life index[194] The Economist 21/111 2005 [195]
Global e-Government Study[196] Brown University 2/198 2006 [196]
World Competitiveness Yearbook[197] International Institute for Management Development 13/55 2008 [198]
Network Readiness Index[199] World Economic Forum 17/127 2007–2008 [200]
Corruption Perceptions Index Transparency International 34/180 2007 [201]
Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index[202] World Economic Forum 52/130 2008 [203]
IT industry competitiveness index Economist Intelligence Unit 2/66 2008 [204]
Business Environment Rankings Economist Intelligence Unit 18/82 2008 [205]
E-readiness rankings Economist Intelligence Unit 19/70 2008 [206]
Environmental Performance Index[207] Yale University 40/149 2008 [208]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index (Status)[209] Bertelsmann Foundation 4/125 2008 [210]
Bertelsmann Transformation Index (Managem.)[209] Bertelsmann Foundation 7/125 2008 [211]

Image gallery

A large palace surrounded by trees.
A white monument. A large alley surrounded by flags leads to it.
A large alley surrounded by flags lead to a large white gate. Two temples are on each side of it.
Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall gateway by night 
A temple decorated by dragons and other mythical animals. People are gathered in front of it and some of them are praying.
Longshan Temple, Taipei 
A picture of a sculpted dragon.
Dragon on the Longshan Temple 
A religious temple. A one meter high stair leads to the ground floor. Two large pillars and six smaller ones supports a red tiled roof.
Tainan's Confucian temple 
A picture of river surrounded by high cliffs
A temple in the middle of a forest with mountains in the background
Temple in Alishan 
A building which includes which ressembles a traditional Chinese palace
An orange and white high speed train
A view of a busy city street by night.
Ximending, Taipei by night 
A picture showing market food stalls by night.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Yearbook 2004". Government Information Office of the Republic of China. 2004. http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/2004/P045.htm. "Taipei is the capital of the ROC" 
  2. ^ After December 25, 2010, the largest city of the Republic of China will become New Taipei City, which is now Taipei County.
  3. ^ "Taiwan (self-governing island, Asia)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 1975-04-05. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/580902/Taiwan. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  4. ^ "Taiwan Information: People and Language". Asia-planet.net (Information provided by Tourism Bureau, ROC). http://www.asia-planet.net/taiwan/people.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. "The official language of Taiwan is Mandarin Chinese (Guoyu), but because many Taiwanese are of southern Fujianese descent, Min-nan (the Southern Min dialect, or Holo) is also widely spoken. The smaller groups of Hakka people and aborigines have also preserved their own languages. Many elderly people can also speak some Japanese, as they were subjected to Japanese education during the Japanese occupation which lasted for half a century." 
  5. ^ "The ROC's Humanitarian Relief Program for Afghan Refugees". Gio.gov.tw. 2001-12-11. http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/relief/help_41.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  6. ^ "Taiwanese health official invited to observe bird-flu conference". Gio.gov.tw. 2005-11-11. http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/4-oa/20051111/2005111101.html. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  7. ^ "Demonyms - Names of Nationalities". Geography.about.com. http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa030900a.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  8. ^ Although the territories controlled by the ROC imply that the demonym is "Taiwanese", some consider that it is "Chinese" due to the claims of the ROC over China. Taiwanese people have various opinions regarding their own national identity.
  9. ^ "publisher=MOI Statistical Information Service". http://www.stat.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=4. 
  10. ^ Due to its political status, the UN has not calculated an HDI for the ROC. The ROC government calculated its HDI for 2007 to be 0.943, [1] and would rank 25th among countries.
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Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Taiwan article)

From Wikitravel

Asia : East Asia : Taiwan
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Location
Image:LocationROC.png
Flag
Image:Tw-flag.PNG
Quick Facts
Capital Taipei
Government Multiparty democratic republic with a popularly elected president and unicameral legislature
Currency New Taiwan dollar (TWD)
Area total: 35,980 km2
water: 3,720 km2
land: 32,260 km2
Population 22,858,872 (July 2007 est.)
Language Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese, Hakka
Religion Mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%
Electricity 110V/60HZ (USA plug type)
Calling Code +886
Internet TLD .tw
Time Zone UTC+8
.Taiwan (Traditional Chinese: 台灣 or 臺灣, Simplified Chinese: 台湾 tái wān) [1] is an island nation of about 36,000 km² located off the coast of southeastern China, southwest of Okinawa and north of the Philippines.^ Eastern Asia, islands bordering the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait, north of the Philippines, off the southeastern coast of China .
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of Taiwan's greatest attractions is the National Palace Museum, which houses more than 650,000 pieces of Chinese bronze, jade, calligraphy, painting and porcelain.
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyway, how could China claim that Taiwan ’stole’ their property (such as the artifacts of the National Palace Museum after the Chinese civil war) if Taiwan is part of China itself?
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.The island is governed by the Republic of China (中華民國 Zhōnghuá Mínguó) or ROC.^ When the KMT government fled to Taiwan it brought the entire gold reserve and the foreign currency reserve of mainland China to the island which stabilized prices and reduced hyperinflation.

^ During the early years of the Republic, almost all foreign powers recognized the "warlord" government controlled by Yuan Shi-kai in Beijing as the legitimate government of China.

^ Since the lifting of martial law, the Republic of China has democratized and reformed, removing legacy components that were originally meant for the governing of mainland China.

.Shaped roughly like a sweet potato, the nation is home to more than 23 million people and is one of the most densely populated places in the world.^ With a population of over 1.3 billion, it is the most populous country in the world.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ PEOPLE Taiwan has a population of 23 million.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chinese people traditionally value education as one of life's most worthwhile pursuits.
  • Universities, Colleges in the Republic of China 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.tw.org [Source type: Academic]

Besides its crowded cities, Taiwan is also known for steep mountains and lush forests. .In addition to the island of Taiwan, the Republic of China also governs the Pescadores (Penghu), Quemoy (Kinmen/Jinmen), and Matsu.^ The post-1949 Republic of China on Taiwan .
  • Taiwan Legal Research at the University of Washington 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC lib.law.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its civil war defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC).
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Taiwan Province: the main island, except for the two municipalities, plus Penghu county ( Pescadores Islands) Sixteen counties Five provincially administrated cities Fukien Province: several islands off the Chinese mainland Kinmen County: Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen and Wuchiu part of Lienchiang County, namely Matsu, Dongyin, Siyin and Jyuguang Two Central Municipalities Taipei City Kaohsiung City The Republic of China also controls the Dongsha Islands (Dong-Sha) and Taiping Island, which are part of the disputed South China Sea Islands.

.While the political status of Taiwan is a somewhat controversial and sensitive issue, from a traveller's point of view, Taiwan is under the de facto control of a different government from mainland China, and in practice operates as a separate country.^ Because China is different from your country!
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, de facto, Taiwan is a nation.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is Taiwan's relationship to mainland China?
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

This is not a political endorsement of the claims of either side of the dispute.
Map of Taiwan with regions colour-coded
Map of Taiwan with regions colour-coded
Northern Taiwan (Taipei, Hsinchu County, Taipei County, Taoyuan County, Hsinchu, Yangmingshan National Park)
the capital city, main airport and technology hub of the island
Central Taiwan (Changhua County, Miaoli County, Nantou County, Taichung County, Sun Moon Lake and Taichung)
scenic mountains and lakes and major national parks
Eastern Taiwan (Hualien County, Taitung County, Yilan County, Taroko Gorge, Hualien and Taitung)
cut off from the rest of the island by the central mountains, this is a region of great natural beauty
Southern Taiwan (Chiayi County, Kaohsiung County, Pingtung County, Tainan County, Yunlin County, Kaohsiung, Tainan)
the tropics of Taiwan with beaches and palm trees and the second largest city
.The Outlying Islands (Green Island (Lu Tao), Kinmen (Quemoy), Matsu, Orchid Island (Lan Yu) and Penghu.^ ADMINISTRATION The authorities in Taipei exercise control over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu (Pescadores) and several other smaller islands.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major fighting in the civil war ended in 1950 with the Communist Party of China (CPC) in control of most of Mainland China, and the ROC in control of Taiwan and several offshore islands ( Kinmen, Penghu, and Matsu).

^ In January 2001, Taiwan formally allowed the "three mini-links" (direct trade, travel, and postal links) from Kinmen (Quemoy) and Matsu Islands to Fujian Province and permitted direct cross-Strait trade in February 2002.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
small offshore islands, some of them very far offshore

Cities

.Taiwan has many large cities and towns.^ Roads in Taiwan's major cities are generally congested, and the many scooters and motorcycles that weave in and out of traffic make driving conditions worse.

^ Department Stores: There are over 50 department stores on Taiwan, concentrated in the large cities.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, many Taiwan investors, especially large-sized companies, employ financial instruments to raise funds in capital markets both at home and abroad.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Below is a list of nine of the most notable.^ A few of the available databases you will likely use most often are listed below.
  • Taiwan Legal Research at the University of Washington 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC lib.law.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Other cities are listed under their specific regional section.^ Municipalities directly under the Central Government and other large cities are divided into districts and counties.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Selected Legal Provisions of the People's Republic of China Affecting Criminal Justice 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.cecc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Taipei - the capital of Taiwan
.
Taipei - the capital of Taiwan
  • Taipei (臺北 or 台北) is the seat of government of the Republic of China and its center of commerce and culture.^ The post-1949 Republic of China on Taiwan .
    • Taiwan Legal Research at the University of Washington 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC lib.law.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Today the Republic of China is often known as " Chinese Taipei" or " Taiwan ".

    ^ The Republic of China ( Taiwan ) has become a major foreign investor in the People's Republic of China , Thailand , Indonesia , the Philippines , Malaysia , and Vietnam .

    .Taipei is home to the world's second tallest skyscraper, Taipei 101.
  • Hsinchu (新竹) is a center of hi-tech industry, and one of the world's leading manufacturers of hi-tech components.^ Stability was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, with hostilities continuing through the Second Sino-Japanese War, a component of World War II , from 1937 to 1945.

    ^ The shipbuilding industry is second only to Japan's and has a 32 percent share of the world market.
    • Culture of South Korea - History and ethnic relations , Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Taipei 101, the current world's tallest building (509m) since its completion in 2004.

    .Hsinchu Science Park [2] is the home to many hi-tech companies.
  • Hualien (花蓮) is located near Taroko Gorge, and is considered one of the most pleasant of Taiwan's cities.
  • Jiufen (九份) - this former gold mining town located on the northeast coast is now a popular tourist destination.
  • Kaohsiung (高雄) is the second-largest city on the island.^ Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) has scheduled a ramp up of monthly capacity at its 300mm (12-inch) wafer fab (Fab 14) located in southern Taiwan at the Tainan Science Park to 6,000 wafers by the end of 2009, and to about 35,000 wafers in 2010, according to sources at chip equipment suppliers.
    • Login to DIGITIMES archive & research 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The democratization process continued with the first direct elections of the Mayors of Taiwan's two largest cities (Taipei and Kaohsiung) and the Governor of Taiwan Province in December 1994.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The United Kingdom considers the Taiwan issue is one to be settled by the people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait.
    • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It has one of the busiest sea ports (the Port of Kaohsiung) in the world and it has the island's second-largest airport, Kaohsiung International Airport (KHH) [3].
  • Keelung (基隆) is the a center of transshipment in the north, and is located about a thirty minute drive from downtown Taipei.
  • Puli (埔里) is located at the geographical center of the island, and it serves as a good base for exploring the central mountains and Sun Moon Lake.
  • Taichung (臺中 or 台中) is the third largest city in Taiwan, and has an abundance of interesting cultural amenities and activities.
  • Tainan (臺南 or 台南) is the oldest city in Taiwan and was the capital during imperial times.^ Two international airports are located at the north and south ends of the island.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Location of Grand Formosa Regent Hotel in Taipei is in the center of the city which is the commercial, financial and the social hub of city.
    • Grand Formosa Regent Taipei, Taiwan 22 September 2009 21:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Taiwan Province: the main island, except for the two municipalities, plus Penghu county ( Pescadores Islands) Sixteen counties Five provincially administrated cities Fukien Province: several islands off the Chinese mainland Kinmen County: Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen and Wuchiu part of Lienchiang County, namely Matsu, Dongyin, Siyin and Jyuguang Two Central Municipalities Taipei City Kaohsiung City The Republic of China also controls the Dongsha Islands (Dong-Sha) and Taiping Island, which are part of the disputed South China Sea Islands.

    It is famous for its historic buildings and snack food.
Mountain trail in Alishan
Mountain trail in Alishan
Entrance into Taroko National Park in Hualien County
Entrance into Taroko National Park in Hualien County
.People tend to think of Taiwan as a small, crowded island filled mostly with electronic factories, and if you stay in Taipei or along the west coast you might indeed maintain that illusion.^ ADMINISTRATION The authorities in Taipei exercise control over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu (Pescadores) and several other smaller islands.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China might Taiwan’s military and political leadership, and use a variety of lethal, punitive, or disruptive military possibly break the Taiwan people’s will to fight.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have lots of taiwanese friends, we talk for fun right, I asked them one day, do you think Taiwan belongs to China?
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the island is also home to high mountain ranges, great beaches and stunning national parks - many with hot springs.^ These teas can either be purchased in attractive packages for use at home or sampled in one of the island's many traditional Chinese-style tea houses.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. goods enjoy a reputation for quality on the island; the reputation for high quality however, is coupled with a reputation for high-cost and, sometimes, poor service from U.S. vendors.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Alishan (阿里山) - misty forests of giant cypresses and amazing sunrises at the center of the island, reached by a scenic narrow-gauge train
  • Kenting National Park (墾丁國家公園) - located at the extreme southern tip of the island, this park is famous for its beaches and lush vegetation.
  • Shei-pa National Park (雪霸國家公園) - a park spanning mountains and rivers located in Hsinchu County - great hiking trails
  • Sun Moon Lake (日月潭) - nestled at 762 m (2,500 ft) in lofty mountains in Nantou County, this lake is famous for its clear sparkling blue water and picturesque mountain backdrop.
  • Taipingshan (太平山) - a historic logging area and one of Taiwan's most scenic spots.^ E. Health information As in many other tropical and sub-tropical areas, tap water in Taiwan should be boiled before drinking.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tax credits are offered to encourage locating in less-developed areas of Taiwan.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Now, this would not be a problem if one were a speaker of an Indo-European language, since most Indo-European speakers hold canines in great esteem.
    • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

    Located in Yilan County.
  • Taroko Gorge (太魯閣峽谷 Tàilǔgé)- an impressive gorge located off the east coast
  • Yangmingshan National Park (陽明山國家公園) - spanning a mountain range overlooking Taipei
  • Yushan (玉山) - at 3,996 m (9,830 ft) the highest mountain in not just Taiwan, but all East Asia

Understand

Taiwan is not usually high on the list of destinations for Western tourists. .Perhaps this is because the island's international reputation has been shaped more by its IT prowess and longstanding political disputes with mainland China than its culture or tourism, and so many assume that there is very little, if anything, of interest for the casual visitor.^ The term of office of the President and Vice-President of the People's Republic of China is the same as that of the National People's Congress, and they shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mayor's Preface is full of subtexts that speak to his political opponents in Taipei, to Taiwanese nationalists farther south on the island, to the Communist authorities and the people of mainland China, and to his future aspirations for the presidency.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ But there is more open-source information available today from China and a greater degree of potential intelligence access than we have ever known.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, despite this general perception, Taiwan actually boasts some very impressive scenic sites, and Taipei is a vibrant center of culture and entertainment.^ If you know very little about Taiwan law and the legal system, you may want to begin with a very general source such as a research guide or an overview to the legal system.
  • Taiwan Legal Research at the University of Washington 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC lib.law.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chinese and Taiwan scholars have been very active on the web, and there is a constantly growing number of extremely useful sites available.
  • Taiwan Legal Research at the University of Washington 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC lib.law.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A counterpart organization, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO), has been established by the Taiwan authorities.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The island is also a center of Chinese pop culture with a huge and vibrant entertainment industry. .Taiwanese cuisine is also highly regarded among other Asians.^ Establishments serving other Asian cuisines can also be found in growing numbers in Taipei.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.Taiwan has been populated for thousands of years by more than a dozen aboriginal tribes.^ Thousand Character Classic (4.9) - A remarkable ancient Chinese children's primer containing exactly 1000 characters, none of them used more than once.
  • Chinese Text Sampler: Readings in Chinese Literature, History, and Popular Culture 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www-personal.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are more “grey” nations other than Taiwan.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It roseercent9 andercentndustrial exports in those two years more than made up for the decline In agricultural exports.exchange reserves rose by moreillionew highillion .
  • PROSPECTS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA - CIA document 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Written history begins with the partial colonization of Taiwan by the Dutch and then the Spaniards in the early 17th century.^ Politburo Standing Committee (PBSC), putting them in line for top leadership positions at the • Regarding Taiwan, President Hu’s 17th Party next Party Congress in 2012.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Golden Lotus (2.4) - The novel Jin Ping Mei was written by an anonymous author in the late Ming Dynasty (circa late 16th or early 17th century).
  • Chinese Text Sampler: Readings in Chinese Literature, History, and Popular Culture 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www-personal.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(The old name of Taiwan, Formosa, comes from the Portuguese Ilha Formosa for "beautiful island".) Han Chinese immigrants who had trickled in since the end of the Yuan dynasty (1300s) arrived in larger numbers during the domestic turmoil surrounding the decline of the Ming Dynasty.^ The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its civil war defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC).
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ This want for independance is not shared by all on the island of Taiwan, as from the last parliamentary results on the island, the Pro-Blue coalition (led by the KMT, which is not a so-called “Taiwanese” party as its official name is translated to be “Kuomintang of China” or “Chinese Nationalist Party”)won a majority in the elections and therefore hold control of the legislative yuan.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although controlled by the Dutch, the Ming loyalist Koxinga defeated the Dutch garrisons and set up Taiwan as a rump Ming Empire with the hope of reconquering Qing China.^ In 1664, a fleet led by the Ming loyalist Cheng Ch'eng-kung (Zheng Chenggong, known in the West as Koxinga) retreated from the mainland and occupied Taiwan.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MAINLAND CHINA’S OFFICIAL POSSESSION - Mainland China officially staked its claim on Taiwan in 1683, when Admiral Shi Lang of the Qing Dynasty decimated the rogue Kingdom of Tungning.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CIVIL CONFLICT - In 1662, The Fujian province of China lead by Koxinga defeated the Dutch inhabitants and took over the Island for themselves as Ming-Loyalists when the Ming Dynasty fell and the Qing dynasty began to rise.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

His son surrendered to the Qing in the late 1600s. .Although contact between China and Taiwan dates back thousands of years, it was not until larger numbers of Han residents arrived during the Ming and Qing dynasties that Taiwan was formally integrated into China as part of Fujian province.^ And Taiwan is a part of China forever!
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Taiwan has been a part of China for hundreds of years.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact is, Taiwan is part of China, and has been for centuries.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.It became a separate province in 1885. Defeated by the Japanese, the Qing Empire ceded Taiwan to Japan under the terms of the treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. Japan ruled the island until 1945, and exerted profound influences on its development.^ In 1895, military defeat forced China to cede Taiwan to Japan.
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1895, a weakened Imperial China ceded Taiwan to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki following the first Sino-Japanese war.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Qing-Dynasty China lost the First Sino-Japanese war (1894-1895), China ceded Taiwan to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.The island's entertainment and pop culture was and still is heavily influenced by that of Japan.^ He developed a political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People which still heavily influences Chinese government today.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan still has many, many locations unique to it, and a cultural history that goes back a long way.

.Much of the Japanese-built infrastructure can still be seen on the island today, and has been in fact continuously used up to the present day (e.g.^ But it still has a number of gaps, and will feel incomplete after a few days of use.

^ This republic calendar system is still used in Taiwan today.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm going to spend the next 90 days up in the Japanese Alps, searching for enlightenment among the lichen."

rail-road crossing gates, administrative buildings, and the old port at Kaohsiung).
.In the early 20th century, the Nationalists (Kuomintang, KMT) and Communists fought a major civil war in China.^ This want for independance is not shared by all on the island of Taiwan, as from the last parliamentary results on the island, the Pro-Blue coalition (led by the KMT, which is not a so-called “Taiwanese” party as its official name is translated to be “Kuomintang of China” or “Chinese Nationalist Party”)won a majority in the elections and therefore hold control of the legislative yuan.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its civil war defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC).
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Anyway, how could China claim that Taiwan ’stole’ their property (such as the artifacts of the National Palace Museum after the Chinese civil war) if Taiwan is part of China itself?
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the two sides were briefly united against Japan during World War II, they quickly began fighting again after the war was over.^ SKELTON. Those were overt acts that the rest of the world could see that Japan was embarking on adventurism and the rest of the world was hoping that it would stop, and then it turned into World War II in the Pacific.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ During the period of authoritarian rule, Taiwan still managed to achieve economic prosperity and was recognized as the official government of China by the United States due to its Cold-War prejudices against communism in the PRC. .
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States and Japan are the two main sources of Taiwan's foreign investment, jointly accounting for over half of cumulative foreign investment approvals.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eventually, the Communists were victorious. .The Nationalist government, the remnant of their army, and hundreds of thousands of supporters fled to Taiwan.^ Taiwan reverted to Chinese control after World War II. Following the Communist victory on the mainland in 1949, 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government using the 1946 constitution drawn up for all of China.
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major issue before the provisional government was gaining the support of Yuan Shikai, the man in charge of the Beiyang Army, the military of northern China.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This collection was moved from the mainland in 1949 when Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Party (KMT) fled to Taiwan.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Taipei, they continued to assert their right as the sole legitimate government of all China.^ Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ Let the world’s governments and bodies decide who they will recognize as the legitimate government, not on opinion of individuals.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And you are right, if Taiwan merges with China, they definitely will lose their freedom.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.Initially repressive, the government began to loosen control under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek's son, Chiang Ching-kuo.^ Chiang Ching-kuo .
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ INTERNAL POLITICAL CONFLICTS - After President Chiang Ching-Kuo (Chiang Kai-Shek’s son and successor) ended martial law in 1987 and appointed a native-Taiwanese vice president, Taiwan began to liberalize.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The illegally formed Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was created in 1986, and Chiang Ching-Kuo’s successor Lee Teng-Hui began localization, in which native Taiwanese history and culture was promoted over their traditional Chinese roots.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.Taiwan also experienced rapid economic growth and modernisation under the leadership of Chiang Ching-kuo, becoming one of the world's richest and most modern economies and earning it a place as one of the East Asian Tigers.^ Chiang Ching-kuo .
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ INTERNAL POLITICAL CONFLICTS - After President Chiang Ching-Kuo (Chiang Kai-Shek’s son and successor) ended martial law in 1987 and appointed a native-Taiwanese vice president, Taiwan began to liberalize.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among his accomplishments were accelerating the process of modernization to give Taiwan a 13% growth rate, $4600 per capita income, and the world's second largest foreign exchange reserves.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taiwan still remains a leader in consumer electronics and is home to well-known computer brands such as Acer, Asus and HTC. Democratization began in earnest through the 1980s and 1990s, culminating with the first direct presidential elections in 1996, and the first peaceful transition of power between two political parties in 2000.
.Taiwanese politics remain dominated by the issue of relations between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China, which still claims Taiwan as a "renegade province" and regularly threatens military action if Taiwan attempts to break away from the current awkward One China status quo, where both sides agree that there is only one Chinese nation, but disagree on whether that one nation is governed by the PRC or the ROC. To summarize a very complex situation, the Pan-Blue group spearheaded by the KMT supports eventual unification with the mainland, while the Pan-Green group led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) supports eventual independence.^ However, Taiwan is still a province of China, in the past, now and in the future.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or you guys are supporting that one province of Republic Of CHINA that is TAIWAN is an independent country.
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chinese people living in China are brainwashed.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

.The split extends down to trivial issues like Chinese romanization — the KMT prefers the mainland's hanyu pinyin, the DPP prefers a Taiwan-made variant called tongyong pinyin — and political demonstrations and rallies, always turbulent, on occasion turn violent.^ In sharp contrast to the tenets of both KMT and P.R.C. policy, a number of prominent DPP politicians openly advocate independence for Taiwan.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the majority of the political, labor, and student demonstrations and marches are non-violent, some have on occasion become confrontational.
  • Korea, Republic of 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chiang Kai-shek's current popularity in Taiwan is sharply divided among political lines, enjoying greater support among KMT voters and the mainlander population.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

People

.Taiwan was originally populated by indigenous tribes that spoke various Austronesian languages, which are related to Malay, Tagalog and Bahasa Indonesia.^ HISTORY Taiwan's indigenous peoples, who originated in Austronesia and southern Asia, have lived on Taiwan for 12,000 to 15,000 years.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE INDIGENOUS INHABITANTS - Taiwan was originally settled around 4000 years ago by people of Malaysian and Polynesian decent (these later became the so-named “indigenous” Taiwanese which comprise a whopping 2% of Taiwan’s population).
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In contrast, the citizens of Taiwan are discouraged from writing their native languages (viz., Taiwanese, Hakka, and various aboriginal languages) and it is only recently that it has been possible to teach them in the schools.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

.Today these people form only about 2% of the population, with the other 98% being from China mainland.^ The relationship between China, the United States, and other countries is complicated, and the debate about China and Taiwan is reemerging in our Country.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It seems to me highly unlikely that Taiwan, 23 million people vis-a-vis 1.3 billion on the mainland, and has only defensive weapons, is going to attack the mainland first.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If you look at the number of people speaking the southern Fukien dialect in Taiwan, mainland China, and Southeast Asia, it's quite significant.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese are further split into Taiwanese forming about 84% of the population, whose families migrated during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, as well as mainlanders, forming about 14% of the population, whose families fled to Taiwan from mainland China after the communist takeover in 1949. Among the Taiwanese group, Hoklo (Minnan) speakers form the majority, which is about 70% of the population while the remaining 14% are largely Hakka speakers.^ What is Taiwan's relationship to mainland China?
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Taiwan is a Country 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The post-1949 Republic of China on Taiwan .
  • Taiwan Legal Research at the University of Washington 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC lib.law.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Well, that what I think about Taiwan and China.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

There is also a sizeable Japanese community, many of whom work in the entertainment industry. The previous Japanese population that was largely centered on the East Coast while Taiwan was under Japanese rule left after WWII.

Climate

Taiwan has a marine tropical climate, meaning cool winters (8°C at night) and sweltering, humid summers (above 30°C, 86°F) from Jun-Sep. .The best time of year to visit is thus from Oct-Dec, although occasional typhoons can spoil the fun.^ The best times to visit are between 8:00 and 11:00 PM on Fridays or Saturdays.

^ Ninety percent of women marry in their twenties, although the average age of first-time brides has increased from 20.4 years in 1950 to 25.9 years in 1997.
  • Culture of South Korea - History and ethnic relations , Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spring is also nice, although it rains more than during autumn. During the typhoon season, the east coast bears the brunt of the damage as it is facing the Pacific Ocean.
.However, you might encounter temperate conditions when you head into mountainous regions.^ Sapporo can be beautiful in the winter, but it's also a great place to start a hiking trip from into the mountainous regions farther east during the summer.

.In fact, it snows every year on Taiwan's highest mountains and occasionally on mountains like Alishan so be prepared if visiting Taiwan's mountainous regions.^ He returned to Taiwan in 1968 to become visiting professor of political science at the National Taiwan University, serving as chairman of the Political Science Department and dean of the Graduate Institute of Political Science the following year.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He passed the bar exams before the completion of his junior year with the highest score, earning him the distinction of being Taiwan's youngest lawyer.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taiwanese calendar

.The Minguo (民國) calendar, counting years from the establishment of the ROC (1911), is commonly used in Taiwan, so don't be too surprised to find dates like "98-05-03" on tickets or bags of chips — ROC 98 is 2009 AD. To convert a Minguo date to A.D., just add 11. Months and days are according to the standard Gregorian calendar.^ Two years later, the Spanish established a settlement on the northwest coast of Taiwan, which they occupied until 1642 when they were driven out by the Dutch.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UTC (or GMT/Zulu)-time used: Friday, September 4, 2009 at 03:01:05 UTC is Coordinated Universal Time, GMT is Greenwich Mean Time.
  • The World Clock (long version) 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dates before October 1582 are given in the Julian calendar, not in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Festivals

.As Taiwan is dominated by ethnic Chinese, traditional Chinese festivals are celebrated by the Taiwanese.^ Along with the political status of Taiwan, it is disputed whether Taiwanese culture is a segment of Chinese culture (due to the Han ethnicity and a shared language and traditional customs with mainland Chinese) or a distinct culture separate from Chinese culture (due to the long period of recent political separation and the past colonization of Taiwan).
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DPP has sought to identify itself with the Taiwanese (ethnic Chinese who immigrated to Taiwan during the past 300 years, mostly from Fujian Province).
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TAIWANESE i believe so, NOT CHINESE… ive seen countries with 12000 people and they are already a country themselves, and taiwan with 23 million people is still not an independent country?!
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

Among the most notable are:
  • Chinese New Year (春節)
.This is the most important festival for the Taiwanese and many shops and restaurants close on the first three days so it is not an ideal time to visit.^ And most places will let you store your big bags there while you go on a short trip for a few days (if you want to travel light at that time.

^ For instance, (1) the primary goal of most fish is to avoid detection, or avoid being exposed during certain times of the day.

^ To show the depth of feeling that many Taiwanese have for their native language, I would like to close with a poem by Chen Lei (b.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

.However, the days leading up to the festival as well as the fourth to fifteenth days are ideal for soaking up the atmosphere and listening to Chinese New Year songs.^ At the rates of demand it experiences, the system has historically been subject to overcrowding during travel seasons such as Chunyun during Chinese New Year.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Last time I also checked, Singapore is an independent country, and Korean are clebrating Chinese New Year and worships Confucius.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Twelve years after the law, only one Chinese city was making an effort to clean up its water discharges.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

  • Ching Ming Festival (清明節)
This is when many Taiwanese would pay respects at their ancestors' graves.
  • Dragon Boat Festival (端午節)
.This festival honours Qu Yuan, a patriotic official from the state of Chu during the Warring States period of Chinese history who committed suicide by jumping into a river when Chu was conquered by Qin.^ Chiang's strategy during the War opposed the strategies of both Mao Zedong and the United States.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has stated that it was during this period that he realized the unfairness of the political system in Taiwan and became politically active as a member of the Tangwai movement.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PRC officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.9% of the total population.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

To prevent the fishes from eating his body, villagers threw rice dumplings into the river to feed the fishes and rowed dragon boats with drums being beaten on them to scare away the fishes. .Since then, dragon boat racing has been carried out on this day and rice dumplings are also eaten.^ Dates for the three festivals -- which include Chinese Lunar New Year day, Dragon Boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn (Moon) Festival -- change with the lunar calendar.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The popular Chinese dragon boat racing ( 龙舟 ) occurs during the Dragon Boat Festival.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

  • Hungry Ghost Festival (中元節)
.This festival runs throughout the seventh month of the Chinese calendar.^ Dates for the three festivals -- which include Chinese Lunar New Year day, Dragon Boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn (Moon) Festival -- change with the lunar calendar.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is believed that the gates of hell open during this period and hungry ghosts are allowed to roam freely into our world.^ During the administration of President Chen, Taiwan lobbied strongly for admission into the United Nations and other international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In order to appease the ghosts and prevent misfortune, many Taiwanese will offer food and burn joss paper for them. .In addition, traditional Chinese performances such as Chinese opera and puppet shows are held to appease these wandering spirits.^ They further argue that many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, Chinese art, literature, and performing arts like Beijing opera, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Chinese Taiwan-held island such as Pratas or Itu Aba.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These teas can either be purchased in attractive packages for use at home or sampled in one of the island's many traditional Chinese-style tea houses.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Mid-Autumn Festival (中秋節)
.Legend has it that on this day, a woman known as Chang E swallowed some divine pills to prevent her power hungry husband from becoming immortal.^ In the legend, Tan'gun was born of a divine father, Hwan-ung, a son of the heavenly king, and a woman who had been transformed from a bear.
  • Culture of South Korea - History and ethnic relations , Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three days before Chen's inauguration, the Taiwan Affairs Office of the People's Republic of China issued what has become known as the May 17 Declaration.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Afraid of being killed by her husband, she fled to the moon and it is believed that the moon shines brightest on this day. This is when many lanterns will be put up for decoration in various parks and shops, which is quite a beautiful sight. .Mooncakes are also eaten on this day so it would be an ideal time to try some.^ Some hostels don't care if you stay more than 3 days, if you pay for one day at a time.

Cliffs meet the eastern coast of Taiwan, Hualien County
Cliffs meet the eastern coast of Taiwan, Hualien County
.Taiwan is largely mountainous with a chain of mountains running from north to south at the centre of the island.^ In the South China Sea, China claims exclusive sovereignty over the Spratly and Paracel island groups – claims disputed by Brunei, the Philippines, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: Two thirds of the island is largely mountainous with 100 peaks over 3,000 meters (9,843 ft.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 80 percent of the U.S.- made process control systems sold in Taiwan go to state-run firms and large-scale private enterprises.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The west coast is largely plains and unsurprisingly is where most of the population is concentrated, and is where all the larger cities like Taichung and Kaohsiung are located.^ Department Stores: There are over 50 department stores on Taiwan, concentrated in the large cities.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taiwan also has a large population (23million) that all agree that Taiwan should be its own country.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Twelve-day tours to the West Coast, including two nights in Hawaii, continue to be the most popular tours.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The east coast also has some plains but are more sparsely populated due to the higher typhoon risk, but is also home to the cities of Hualien and Taitung with significant populations.^ Bunun The Bunun's original home was on Taiwan's west coast, in the central and northern plains, but some have more recently settled in the area around Taitung and Hualien.
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, an independent survey by East China Normal University estimated the Christian population at 40 million, much higher than the government's numbers but much lower than numbers favored by some Western observers.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

Sports

.Baseball was brought to Taiwan by the Japanese during the colonial period.^ His works often depict with the struggles of Taiwan intellectuals in coping with Japanese colonization and critique the delusion of enlightenment brought about by the apparent modernity of his society.
  • Chinese Text Sampler: Readings in Chinese Literature, History, and Popular Culture 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www-personal.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese colonial experience in Taiwan was partially liberating for those who wished to write in Taiwanese, but the focus was very much on education and writing in Japanese.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ He has stated that it was during this period that he realized the unfairness of the political system in Taiwan and became politically active as a member of the Tangwai movement.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its popularity rose greatly when the Taiwanese baseball team finished second in the Japanese national championships.^ Karaoke is incredibly popular in Taiwan, where it is known as KTV and is an example of something the Taiwanese have drawn from contemporary Japanese culture.
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, baseball retains a strong following and remains by far the most popular team sport in Taiwan.^ A potential military confrontation with Taiwan, and the prospect of U.S. military intervention, remain the PLA’s most immediate military concerns.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So by asking yourself the following you will know if Taiwan is a country: “are you a human being if most people say you’re not?” .
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States remains the most popular destination outside of Asia, with 453,924 visitors in 1994 (an increase of 22.1 percent from 1993) according to Taiwan statistics.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several Taiwanese players have also gone on to successful careers in MLB and the Taiwanese national baseball team is considered to be one of the strongest in the world.^ In particular, press control is notoriously tight: the controversial organization Reporters Without Borders considers the PRC one of the least free countries in the world for the press.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world, spanning the course of several millennia.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

Besides baseball, basketball also has a sizeable following in Taiwan. Other sports which are popular include Taekwondo, table tennis and golf.

Get in

Visa Information

.Citizens of 31 countries, including the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, and most other EU members and Switzerland, may enter Taiwan visa-free for up to 30 days (90 days for citizens of Japan and the UK) provided that their passports do not expire within six months.^ Check with your nearest embassy, but for most western countries (including England, Canada, Australia, and the U.S,) you can just enter Japan and stay up to 90 days (This is called "a temporary tourist visa."

^ It is authorized to issue visas, accept passport applications, and provide assistance to U.S. citizens in Taiwan.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Taiwan has signed bilateral agreements with 20 nations including 12 EU countries, South Africa, Singapore, Korea, New Zealand, Australia, Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland to implement ATA carnet.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Residents of Hong Kong and Macau who hold valid SAR passports should apply for an entry permit, which can be done on arrival or online before departure if they were born in their respective territories or have been to Taiwan previously after 1983. From July 2008, holders of mainland Chinese passports may visit Taiwan for tourism if they join an approved guided tour.^ Together with refugee businessmen from the mainland, they managed Taiwan's transition from an agricultural to a commercial, industrial economy.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may take it for granted that a child born in Taiwan of Taiwanese-speaking parents will begin his or her life speaking Taiwanese.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Sun was a uniting figure in post-imperial China, and remains unique among 20th century Chinese politicians for being widely revered in both mainland China and Taiwan.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For further information consult the Bureau of Consular Affairs [4].^ Consular Affairs Publications , which contain information on obtaining passports and planning a safe trip abroad, are also available at http://www.travel.state.gov .
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs, manages this site as a portal for information from the U.S. State Department.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home » Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs » Bureau of Public Affairs » Bureau of Public Affairs: Electronic Information and Publications Office » Background Notes » Taiwan (10/09) .
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By plane

.Taiwan's main international gateway is Taiwan Taoyuan near Taipei, with Kaohsiung a distant second and very limited international services to Taichung and Hualien.^ The democratization process continued with the first direct elections of the Mayors of Taiwan's two largest cities (Taipei and Kaohsiung) and the Governor of Taiwan Province in December 1994.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taiwan is divided into counties, provincial municipalities, and two special municipalities, Taipei and Kaohsiung.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CTC tenders may be local (limited to firms with a Taiwan office or representative) or international (open to firms outside of Taiwan), but both kinds of tenders are generally conducted fairly and openly.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport (formerly Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport) [5] (TPE) is Taiwan's main international airport.^ The Communists were thus pushed into the interior as Chiang Kai-shek sought to destroy them, and Chiang consolidated rule, establishing a Nationalist Government in Nanjing in 1928.
    • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It just takes hardly 45 minutes to drive to the Chang Kai Shek International Airport from the Grand Formosa Regent Hotel in Taipei and just 15 minutes to drive to the Taipei Song Shan Airport.
    • Grand Formosa Regent Taipei, Taiwan 22 September 2009 21:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chiang Kai-shek established a "provisional" Republic of China (R.O.C.) capital in Taipei in December 1949.
    • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Located 40km to the southwest of Taipei, it has good connections to major Asian cities and North America.^ The Location of Grand Formosa Regent Hotel in Taipei is in the center of the city which is the commercial, financial and the social hub of city.
    • Grand Formosa Regent Taipei, Taiwan 22 September 2009 21:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The palaces, shrines, and other vestiges of the Choson Dynasty are still prominent features of the city north of the Han River, serving as major tourist attractions.
    • Culture of South Korea - History and ethnic relations , Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For travel within Taipei and various other major cities, taxi drivers are obliged to use the meter to calculate the fare.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The airport has direct buses to Taipei, Taichung and other nearby cities.^ The democratization process continued with the first direct elections of the Mayors of Taiwan's two largest cities (Taipei and Kaohsiung) and the Governor of Taiwan Province in December 1994.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For travel within Taipei and various other major cities, taxi drivers are obliged to use the meter to calculate the fare.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although normal precautions should be taken by visitors, the streets of Taipei and other cities are safe at any hour.
    • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alternatively, the U-Bus company operates shuttles to HSR Taoyuan station for high-speed train connections to Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi, Tainan, and Kaohsiung; and to Jhongli Transit Station, for mainline TRA train and southbound bus connections to Tainan, Hsinchu etc.
  • Songshan Airport [6] (TSA) in downtown Taipei serves mostly domestic flights only, plus limited daily charter flights to mainland China.
  • The Kaohsiung [7] (KHH) domestic and international airports are located in the same complex.^ At the same time, China has reached out to the international community to form joint ventures and gain greater access to the latest technologies and the world's capital markets.
    • IAS Plus - Jurisdictional Updates - China 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.iasplus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A wide variety of domestic and international human rights groups generally operated without restriction by authorities, investigating and publishing their findings on human rights cases.
    • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More than one million Taiwan people are estimated to be residing in China, and more than 70,000 Taiwan companies have operations there.
    • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .International flights are only to other Asian cities, as well as charter flights to mainland China.
  • Taichung Airport (RMQ) serves domestic flights as well as international flights to Hong Kong and Vietnam and cross-strait charters to mainland China.
  • Hualien Airport [8] (HUN) serves domestic flights as well as some international charter flights to Japan, South Korea (ROK) and Macau.^ China borders 14 nations (counted clockwise from south): Vietnam, Laos, Burma, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, [51] Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia and North Korea.
    • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Search for some other city Personal World Clock - shows just the cities you need Meeting Planner - find a suitable time for an international meeting Time Zone Converter - Convert time between two time zones.
    • The World Clock - Time Zones - North America 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Today, the People's Republic of China has dozens of major cities with one million or more long-term residents, including the three global cities of Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai.
    • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

    It is also one of the airports designated to serve cross-strait direct flights.
.In addition, the airports at Makung, Taitung and Kinmen have also been designated for cross-strait flights to mainland China, though of these, only Makung currently has regular flights to mainland China.^ President Ma has moved quickly to resume the SEF-ARATS dialogue, expand charter flights, and take other steps to enhance cross-Strait relations.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These flights are open to mainland tourists, as well as Taiwan and foreign travelers.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2008, Taiwan and P.R.C. carriers began operating cross-Strait charter flights every weekend.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a break of 60 years, regular cross-Strait flights between Taiwan and China started on 4 Jul 2008. From 15 Dec 2008, the frequency of these flights were increased to daily, and travel times on some popular routes have been reduced significantly as flights no longer have to be routed through Hong Kong airspace.^ Taiwan has been a part of China for hundreds of years.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Communist China had no ability to cross the strait to reunite Taiwan island at that time.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, the appreciation of the New Taiwan dollar (NTD), rising labor costs, and increasing environmental consciousness in Taiwan caused many labor-intensive industries, such as shoe manufacturing, to move to China and Southeast Asia.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Previously, the usual practice was to fly via either Hong Kong or Macau, which have good connections both ways.^ Exact figures are difficult to obtain, as much Taiwan investment in the P.R.C. is via Hong Kong and other third-party jurisdictions.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twenty-two provinces, five autonomous regions and four municipalities can be collectively referred to as "mainland China", a term which usually excludes Hong Kong and Macau .
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ The term "Mainland China" is often used to denote the areas under PRC rule, but usually excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

Major airlines

.The main Taiwanese carriers are China Airlines [9] and EVA Air [10].^ China is developing air- and ground-launched LACMs, such as the YJ-63 and DH-10 systems for stand-off, precision strikes.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.China Airlines has a relatively poor safety record (12 major crashes in 30 years [11]), whereas EVA Air is ranked one of the safest airlines in the world; as a result, many opt for EVA Air whenever possible.^ China is one of the countries with the longest histories in the world .
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ January 5, 2009 at 7:17 pm (58) motherland says: From China’s perspective, there is only one China in the world.
  • Is Taiwan a Country? 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC geography.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the words of one high-ranking Administration official, if we treat China as an enemy, it most assuredly will become one.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

  • AirAsia X (LCC) from/to Kuala Lumpur only.
  • Cathay Pacific - 2715 2333
  • China Airlines - 2715 1212
  • EVA Airways - 2501 1999
  • Jetstar Asia (LCC) from/to Singapore only.
  • KLM Asia - 2711 4055
  • Malaysia Airlines
  • Northwest - 2772 2188
  • Silkair
  • Singapore Airlines - 2551 6655
  • Thai Airways - 2509 6800
  • United Airlines
  • Vietnam Airlines
.For up-to-date information on cheap flights, check the advertisement pages of one of the three local daily English newspapers (see media below).^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A local partner can give the best advice on where and how to advertise, but participation in the major trade shows and advertisement in the relevant Taiwan trade journals and industry newspapers is important.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Page 28 PREV PAGE TOP OF DOC     The Russo-Chinese relationship is now one of long standing and it is continuing to evolve, as this morning's newspapers indicated.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

By boat

.As of 2008, all scheduled passenger ferry services between Taiwan and Japan have been suspended.^ Telecom services providers are expected to benefit from the planned signing of a financial MOU between Taiwan and China, through which they will be able...
  • Login to DIGITIMES archive & research 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

.Star Cruises [12] operates limited cruise services from Keelung and Kaohsiung to Hong Kong and various Japanese islands.^ China’s ground doctrine for “active defense” warfare and new forces are placing emphasis on integrated operations operational methods across the various services.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Fuzhou, China, there are two daily ferries to Matsu. .Take bus 69 from Fuzhou train station to Wuyilu, then bus 73 to the end station Mawei harbor.^ Example: If you are in Tokyo station, and you want to go to Gotunda station you would want to take the JR train, using the Yamanote line.

^ You can ride from one end of the line to the other, and back for the price of the cheapest ticket on the line (as long as you don't leave the train and exit one of the stations along the way.

^ Lockers:     Many train and bus stations have pay lockers where you can store your bags if you want to walk around a city for a few days.

.The ferry costs ¥350 from China and $1300 from Taiwan.^ Taiwan is China’s single largest source of foreign direct investment, and an extended campaign would wreck Taiwan’s economic infrastructure, leading to high reconstruction costs.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The trip takes two hours. The old website, mit30.com.tw, appears to be down. From Matsu, there are two daily ferries to Keelung in Taiwan. $1050 includes a bed, as the trip takes 10 hours. Bookings can be made at +886 2 2424 6868
.At Mawei harbour in Fuzhou there is an opportunity to buy an inclusive ticket all the way to Taipei that includes the Fuzhou to Matsu ferry above and a domestic flight from Matsu to Taipei (or Taichung).^ For Japan, you must buy a stamp for 2000 yen on your way to the international departure gates, and present the stamp to customs there.

^ When you want to buy a ticket, look for a ticket machine that accepts a train card (not all machines do.

^ There are also several domestic airports and domestic airlines that provide fast and convenient connecting flights between Taiwan's larger cities, as well as outlying islands.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The price (780RMB) includes transfer between port and airport on Matsu, and a coupon for lunch at the airport while you wait for your connection.^ When you get your plane ticket, you'll want to arrive at Narita Airport, if you plan on spending most of your time in Tokyo.

^ There are a number of ways to transfer funds from Japan to your home country, but each method has drawbacks, and you really need to shop around to get the best deal.

^ Processing your ticket will take a while, and then you have to wait in several lines as you try to get to your gate.

The ferry leaves Fuzhou at 9:30AM. Get to Mawei at 8AM to buy tickets.
.There are also several ferry services between Xiamen and Quanzhou on the mainland and the island of Kinmen.^ ADMINISTRATION The authorities in Taipei exercise control over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu (Pescadores) and several other smaller islands.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was governed under a corrupt military administration leading to widespread island unrest and increasing tensions between Taiwanese and mainlanders.
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Domestic plane, Taiwan
Domestic plane, Taiwan

By plane

.Taiwan's main domestic carriers are Mandarin Airlines [13], a China Airlines subsidiary; UNI Air [14], controlled by EVA; and TransAsia Airways [15].^ The fact remains that Mandarin is the prestige language of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China on Taiwan, the Republic of Singapore, and the Hongkong Special Administrative Region.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In a June 2004 meeting with expatriates in San Francisco, she proposed to officially rename her country "Taiwan Republic of China" to pacify domestic disputes over Taiwan's identity.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analysts in and out of government project that China could not have an operational, domestically-produced carrier before 2015.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flights are frequent, and it is usually unnecessary to book flights in advance.^ Book your flight in advance.

.Taipei and Kaohsiung have regular services and links to most other domestic airports; however, it may not be possible to fly from one domestic airport to another.^ Principal Growth Sectors As in other developed economies, services are the sector growing most rapidly.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, you may need to take the JR line to one station, walk outside and downstairs to the underground, and then buy another ticket to hop the subway.

^ The Shinkansen (bullet train owned by JR) is the fastest and most expensive, and is good for going from one end of the country to the other.

.The popularity of the high-speed train has drastically cut flights on the once popular west coast sectors, with eg.^ Twelve-day tours to the West Coast, including two nights in Hawaii, continue to be the most popular tours.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taipei-Kaohsiung flights only a shadow of what they once were.^ The only catch is that you have to buy the entire collection at once, they won't sell those books singly.

.If you want to visit Taiwan's smaller islands, the plane is still the best option, and is the only practical option of travelling to Penghu, Kinmen or Matsu.^ A personal letter from the applicant addressed to the Embassy of Taiwan, explaining the purpose of the trip, dates of travel, cities to be visited, and place of accommodation.
  • Taiwan Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Taiwan Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC taiwan.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ADMINISTRATION The authorities in Taipei exercise control over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu (Pescadores) and several other smaller islands.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you get your plane ticket, you'll want to arrive at Narita Airport, if you plan on spending most of your time in Tokyo.

.Fares are not too expensive, and local planes are very good.^ Japan does have a good health-care system, but it is expensive, and can be very stressful for foreigners.

.The domestic airport in Taipei is Song Shan Airport [16], which is in the north of the Taipei and easily reached by Taxi.^ The Grand Formosa Regent Hotel in Taipei is a 20 storeyed skyscraper.The Grand Formosa Regent Hotel in Taipei stands tall on the Chung Shan North Road.
  • Grand Formosa Regent Taipei, Taiwan 22 September 2009 21:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It just takes hardly 45 minutes to drive to the Chang Kai Shek International Airport from the Grand Formosa Regent Hotel in Taipei and just 15 minutes to drive to the Taipei Song Shan Airport.
  • Grand Formosa Regent Taipei, Taiwan 22 September 2009 21:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Domestic destinations include Kaohsiung, Tainan, Chiayi, Taichung, Pingtung, Taitung, Hualien, Makung (Penghu / Pescadores), Kinmen, Hengchun, Nangan and Beigan.^ ADMINISTRATION The authorities in Taipei exercise control over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu (Pescadores) and several other smaller islands.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changhua, Chiayi [county], Hsinchu, Hualien, Kaohsiung [county], Kinmen, Lienchiang, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei [county], Taitung, Taoyuan, Yilan, and Yunlin municipalities: Chiayi [city], Hsinchu, Keelung, Taichung, Tainan special municipalities: Kaohsiung [city], Taipei [city] .
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chiayi Taiwan Suao Taiwan Hsinchu Taiwan Taichung Taiwan Hualien Taiwan Tainan in Taiwan Jiufen Taiwan Taipei Taiwan Puli Taiwan Taiwan Tourist Attractions .
  • Taiwan Travel, Taiwan Travel Information, Taiwan Travel Guide 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Travelers heading to Kenting can avail themselves of the direct and frequent bus service from Kaohsiung airport that connect with flights arriving from Taipei.^ There are also several domestic airports and domestic airlines that provide fast and convenient connecting flights between Taiwan's larger cities, as well as outlying islands.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Navigation
.In mid-sized and smaller cities, your main reference point is going to be the train station.^ The point is, some of the smaller towns have better selections than the bigger cities do.

^ If your destination station is large (like Shinjuku,) getting out of the station may be as confusing as trying to find the train you want.

^ Lockers:     Many train and bus stations have pay lockers where you can store your bags if you want to walk around a city for a few days.

.If you're having trouble finding English speaking people, try looking for college or high school students.^ But if you're at a gaijin house, or an older apartment, you may find that there're too many people competing for the shower, or that there's no hot water during the winter.

^ Contact a big university, and they may be able to put you in contact with the school you want, or look in the Yellow Pages under language schools in case KEN School is listed there.

^ If so, you may find that the non-reserved cars are completely filled with people at the peak times.

Taiwan High Speed train
Taiwan High Speed train
Map of Taiwan High Speed Rail
Map of Taiwan High Speed Rail
.Taiwan's train system is excellent, with stops in all major cities.^ Police Boxes are located near most train stations, and at major intersections throughout the city.

^ Selling to the Taiwan authorities deserves a special mention as there are both excellent opportunities and major obstacles for U.S. firms interested in Taiwan authority procurement.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The below phrases will not only get you to the correct train platform, but also the right store, the right city, or the right bus stop.

.Train stations are often located in the centers of most cities and towns and serve as a convenient hub for most types of transportation.^ However, the use of nares (like nostrils, located on the top of the head) to detect pheromones is probably the most important type of chemoreception in fishes.

.In addition, the train system allows you to bypass the highways, which can become extremely crowded on weekends and national holidays.^ On a crowded train, someone may feel you up.

^ Trains and subways are the easiest ways to get around, once you know the system.

.The new train backbone is Taiwan High Speed Rail (HSR, 高鐵 gāotiě) [17], a bullet train based on Japanese Shinkansen technology that covers the 345 km (215 mi) route on the West Coast from Taipei to Zuoying (Kaohsiung) in 90 min.^ Taiwan is divided into counties, provincial municipalities, and two special municipalities, Taipei and Kaohsiung.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Shinkansen (bullet train owned by JR) is the fastest and most expensive, and is good for going from one end of the country to the other.

^ New technologies and tools also demand improved training and dissemination methods in China.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Other stops on the route are Banqiao, Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Taichung, Chiayi and Tainan, but note that many THSR stations have been built a fair distance from the cities they serve (e.g.^ Lockers:     Many train and bus stations have pay lockers where you can store your bags if you want to walk around a city for a few days.

^ It would be like trying to imagine history of Athens, Rome, Alexandria and other great cities of antiquity if they were destroyed at the height of their golden age.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Changhua, Chiayi [county], Hsinchu, Hualien, Kaohsiung [county], Kinmen, Lienchiang, Miaoli, Nantou, Penghu, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei [county], Taitung, Taoyuan, Yilan, and Yunlin municipalities: Chiayi [city], Hsinchu, Keelung, Taichung, Tainan special municipalities: Kaohsiung [city], Taipei [city] .
  • Taiwan (Republic of China) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.my-world-guide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

a taxi from downtown Tainan costs up to NT$400, but there's a free shuttle bus). .A one way ticket from Taipei to Kaohsiung costs NT$1,490 in economy or NT$2,440 in business class, but economy seats have plush seats and ample legroom, so there's little reason to pay extra.^ Most western airlines bury this tax in the cost of the ticket, so you don't know that you're actually paying it.

^ You can ride from one end of the line to the other, and back for the price of the cheapest ticket on the line (as long as you don't leave the train and exit one of the stations along the way.

^ Warrants or summons were required by law except when there was ample reason to believe the suspect may flee, or when circumstances were too urgent to apply for a summons prior to questioning.
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All signage and announcements are in English as well, making navigation a snap. .Bookings are accepted online and via phone up to two weeks in advance at +886-2-6626-8000 (English spoken), with payment required only when you pick up the tickets.^ Landlords frequently require deposits of up to two months' rent, and tenants are usually responsible for utilities.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hostel in Tokyo is always booked weeks in advance, because it is central to where the action is.

^ Do not confuse this form with the in-flight catalog mail-order form that will be handed out to Japanese residents -- it is easy to get the two mixed up if you are not familiar with the procedure.

.Credit cards are accepted.^ Japan is a cash-based society, which means that checks are not used very much, and international credit cards are accepted mainly by hotels and restaurants.

^ In addition, internationally-recognized credit cards are accepted in many hotels, restaurants, and shops.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mainline trains are run by the separate Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA, 台鐵) [18], whose services are generally efficient and reliable.^ C. Communications In general, Taiwan's telecommunications systems are efficient and convenient.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Taiwan Railway Administration operates an extensive rail network that is more than 1,000 kilometers in length.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reserving tickets well in advance is recommended when traveling with the train on weekends, especially for long distance travel.^ So, if you can, reserve a seat via the JR window at the train station, a few days in advance.

^ You can ride from one end of the line to the other, and back for the price of the cheapest ticket on the line (as long as you don't leave the train and exit one of the stations along the way.

^ Otherwise, try to get your travel agent to book your hotel in advance (which saves you the long-distance phone bill if you do it yourself.

.Slower (but more frequent) commuter trains without reserved seating are also available.^ When the number of seats to be allotted to each political party under Item 1 of Paragraphs 1 and 2 is not fewer than five and not more than ten, one seat shall be reserved for a female delegate.
  • East Asian Studies Documents: Constitution of the Republic of China, 1947 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.isop.ucla.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So, if you can, reserve a seat via the JR window at the train station, a few days in advance.

^ For several years, Deloitte has made available, in the public interest and without charge, its English language IFRS e-learning training materials.
  • IAS Plus - Jurisdictional Updates - China 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.iasplus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Train timetables and online booking [19] (up to 2 weeks in advance) are available on the TRA website; however, the online services only work between 8AM and 9PM or thereabouts and there is a small charge, $7, for online bookings.^ The hostel in Tokyo is always booked weeks in advance, because it is central to where the action is.

^ The second is a reading library that contains books on sake and wine production all around the world, and there's a computerized look-up system too (only in Japanese though.

^ Applicants with advanced degrees may qualify for National Defense Service, consisting of reserve officer training followed by four years of work in a government or academic research institution.
  • Taiwan (10/09) 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note that booking online only establishes a reservation as there is no Internet payment option.^ Not only is there no expectation that this child will learn to read and write Taiwanese, at the present moment in history it is virtually impossible for this child to read and write Taiwanese because there are no accepted norms for writing in that language.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ There were generally no official restrictions on access to the Internet and individuals and groups could engage in peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by email.
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You must pay for the tickets you reserved at your local train station or post office to actually receive it.^ When you have your ticket, go to the ticket gates.

^ If you buy the cheapest ticket you can, you can pay the difference when you exit the train station.

^ You do not want to lose your ticket.

.Children under 115 cm (45 in) height go free, and taller kids shorter than 145 cm (57 in) and under 12 years of age get half-price tickets.^ The minimum wage is adjusted in August every year, based on the inflation rate (measured by the Consumer Price Index) plus half of the increase in labor productivity.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin allowed Chiang Ching-kuo to return to China with his Russian wife and two children in April 1937 after living in Russia for 12 years.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midsummer, and the second half of December are heavy tourist seasons, which means that getting plane tickets for those times will be more difficult and the prices will be higher than for other dates in the year.

If you get return tickets there is a small discount depending upon travel distance. .There are also vending machines at the larger stations.^ There are a variety of vending machines every 50 feet or so, but most sell only soda and cigarettes.

^ There are three kinds of ticket vending machines: Fixed denomination: This machine only sells one value of ticket.

.Round island tourist rail passes are also available which allow the holder to embark and disembark a set number of times for a fixed price are also available at most larger train stations.^ If you want to do any travelling by train, consider buying a Japan Rail Pass.

^ A note on Tokyo trains:     Most train lines radiate out from Tokyo station.

^ Make sure that you have some tissues for those times when you need to use a public toilet (as in the train stations) because there won't be any toilet paper.

A foreign passport may be required for purchase.
Service
Aside from THSR, the fastest train is Tzu-Chiang, and the slowest is Pingkuai (Ordinary/Express). .There is often little to choose between prices and destination times for adjacent train classes, but the gap can be quite large between the fastest and the slowest.^ There was often conflict between the philosophies, such as the individualistic Song Dynasty neo-Confucians, who believed Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism.
  • People's Republic of China - a knol by Per- Jonas Xia Mehus 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Continued renovations to the former Soviet Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier suggest China may choose to use the platform for training purposes.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you need to switch trains a couple of times to get to your destination, don't panic.

.
  • Tzu-Chiang (自強 ziqiang): The fastest (and most expensive).^ The Shinkansen (bullet train owned by JR) is the fastest and most expensive, and is good for going from one end of the country to the other.

    Assigned seating. Non-reserved (standing) tickets are also sold at full price.
  • Chu-Kuang (莒光 juguang): Second fastest. Assigned seating.
  • Fu-hsing (復興 fuxing): Third fastest. Assigned seating. .Non-reserved tickets are sold at 80% of original price.
  • EMU (Electric multiple unit, 電車 dianche) and DRC (Diesel railcar / 柴客): Short to medium distance commuter train, stops at all stations.^ So, if you can, reserve a seat via the JR window at the train station, a few days in advance.

    ^ Express trains are like locals, except that they only stop at certain stations along the line.

    ^ You can ride from one end of the line to the other, and back for the price of the cheapest ticket on the line (as long as you don't leave the train and exit one of the stations along the way.

    .No assigned seating.
  • Express / Ordinary (普通 putong): Stops at all stations, no air conditioning, most inexpensive.^ Express trains are like locals, except that they only stop at certain stations along the line.

    No assigned seating. .Some Express trains (the light blue ones running on West Trunk Line) are air-conditioned while others (dark blue ones) are not equipped with air conditioners.
  • Diesel Express: Only available on East Trunk Line and South Link Line.^ The Shinkansen (bullet train owned by JR) is the fastest and most expensive, and is good for going from one end of the country to the other.

    ^ Single-line, multiple denomination: These machines sell a variety of ticket values, and some of them accept train cards (see the section on Phone and Train Cards.

    ^ But to put it in a few words, not only with regard to Taiwan but more broadly, the purpose of Chinese military power is turning slowly away from inland concerns to its north, south, and west, to mission requirements to its east and southeast.
    • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

    Mainly serve as commuter trains. No air conditioning. Tickets are the same price as Express and Ordinary.
.For travel to nearby cities, you can travel on electric dianche (電車) commuter trains .^ The below phrases will not only get you to the correct train platform, but also the right store, the right city, or the right bus stop.

^ Train cards are good if you do a lot of travelling on a particular train line, and can be purchased at nearly any station connected to the specific train line you want.

^ If you want to do any travelling by train, consider buying a Japan Rail Pass.

These arrive very frequently (about once every ten to fifteen minutes). .In addition, "standing tickets" may be purchased on trains with assigned seating that have no available seats.^ Train cards are very similar to phone cards, except that they're a little smaller, and are used only for purchasing train tickets.

^ This book is not available for downloading on the CASC website but may be purchased in bookstores in China.
  • IAS Plus - Jurisdictional Updates - China 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.iasplus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No deputy to the National People's Congress may be arrested or placed on criminal trial without the consent of the Presidium of the current session of the National People's Congress or, when the National People's Congress is not in session, without the consent of its Standing Committee.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

Standing tickets are 80% the original ticket price and may be useful for last minute travelers. .The downside is, of course, that you will be required to stand during your entire trip.^ If you can read kanji, this map will tell you how much your trip will cost.

^ You need to contact your local consulate to get the paperwork for this visa, and to determine the requirements for receiving it.

^ And most places will let you store your big bags there while you go on a short trip for a few days (if you want to travel light at that time.

.Also, do try to get your destination station written in Chinese and try to do some "mix and match" with the system map as well as looking out for the matching Chinese characters written on the station.^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

^ The Chinese people must fight against those forces and elements, both at home and abroad, that are hostile to China's socialist system and try to undermine it.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Selected Legal Provisions of the People's Republic of China Affecting Criminal Justice 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.cecc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This will help you read the signs, and will let some kind Japanese person figure out where you are trying to go.

.Unfortunately for foreigners, announcements are only made in Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka so English would not be of much help in the train.^ (Lin 1990) In 2003, bilingual education in Taiwan is more likely to signify instruction in English and Mandarin or Taiwanese.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ (McArthur 2002: 357) In 1990, bilingual education ( shuāngyǔ jiàoyù 雙語教育) in Taiwan signified instruction in Mandarin and Taiwanese or Hakka.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Sapporo International Communication Plaza, Sapporo, Hokkaido (3rd floor)     phone: 011-211-2105     Much more professional, and aimed more at helping out foreigners.

.Therefore, be alert and always be on the lookout for your destination station, or you risk missing it.^ When you get to your destination, go to the ticket gates.

^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

^ So, if you can, have your train line, and destination written down on paper in Hiragana and kanji.

By bus

Intercity buses are called keyun, as opposed to gongche which run within the county and city. .Buses run by private companies are generally more luxurious (often boasting wide, soft seats, foot-rests and individual video screens) than those run by government-owned companies.^ While a five-day workweek has been mandated for the public sector, according to a CLA survey, more than half of private sector enterprises also reduced the normal workweek to five days.
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 80 percent of the U.S.- made process control systems sold in Taiwan go to state-run firms and large-scale private enterprises.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All revenues accruing to the national autonomous areas under the financial system of the state shall be managed and used by the organs of self-government of those areas on their own.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Still, even the government-owned buses are comfortable, punctual, and maintain clean facilities on board.^ Even the government cannot institute a workable scheme because its own advisers have different views on how to cope with the dilemma.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

Bus stop in Taipei
.
Bus stop in Taipei
In major cities, bus transportation is extensive.
^ For travel within Taipei and various other major cities, taxi drivers are obliged to use the meter to calculate the fare.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The below phrases will not only get you to the correct train platform, but also the right store, the right city, or the right bus stop.

^ Bus services in major cities are quite extensive, but can be incomprehensible to the foreign visitor.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Route maps, however, are almost entirely in Chinese, though the destinations indicated on the front of buses are in English.^ I have collected several English phrasebooks written entirely in Chinese characters that date from the late Qing period to the late twentieth century.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in the Chinese world, almost nobody uses the Mandarin version Sun Yixian, nor the Cantonese version Sun Yat-sen.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you're staying at a hotel, have the clerk suggest some routes for you, and circle your destination on the map.^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

^ If you need to switch trains a couple of times to get to your destination, don't panic.

^ If you can find a place to stay, then all you need are some good maps, the Walking Guide to Tokyo from one of the FTP sites, and some spending money.

.Show this to the bus driver, and he/she will hopefully remember to tell you when to get off.^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

^ However: You pay for the bus just before you get off.

.In smaller cities, there is often no local bus service, though the out-of-town buses will sometimes make stops in the suburbs.^ There are, for example, no requirements that firms transfer technology, locate in a specified location, or hire a certain number of local employees in exchange for permission to invest.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another hint: In Himeji, a smaller tourist town between Kyoto and Hiroshima, there's a really nice little manga store that has the entire collections of Orange Road , City Hunter , and Pat Labor .

^ Bus services in major cities are quite extensive, but can be incomprehensible to the foreign visitor.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are taxi ranks at all airports and bus terminals.^ To get there, take the bus from the airport in to Seoul.

^ G. Food Chinese cuisine ranks among the best in the world, and there is no better place to sample it in all its infinite variety than in Taiwan.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Occasionally a bus driver might stop a bus away from the curb at a bus stop. Sometimes it is due to a vehicle illegally parked at a bus stop. .(Taiwanese traffic law and regulation prohibit vehicles from stopping or parking within 10 m (33 ft) of a bus stop.^ The law prohibits teachings, writings, or research that advocate communism or communist united front organizations, which endanger the public order or good morals, or violate regulations or laws.
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ministries and commissions issues orders, directives and regulations within the jurisdiction of their respective departments in accordance with the law and the administrative rules and regulations, decisions and orders issued by the State Council.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, they adopt and issue regulations and examine and decide on plans for local economic and cultural development and for the development of public services.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

) .However, a bus driver might stop a bus away from the curb just because he or she does not want to wait for overtaking traffic while leaving a bus stop.^ Page 22 PREV PAGE TOP OF DOC     So I believe that they are wary of this and will—just because they are wary of us does not mean that it is less of a threat to us.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However: You pay for the bus just before you get off.

^ Of course, what you really want is one of the big bookstores, like Kinokuniya, that carry just about everything, because they will have the widest selection of manga.

.Therefore, be much more careful when getting on or off a bus stopped away from a curb, as many motorcycles, motor scooters, and bicycles will definitely be tempted to overtake on the right side of the stopped bus where people get on and off!^ It's used more as an insult, and will turn people off of you.

^ If nothing else you'll notice that you're getting dirty looks from people if you so much as carry an empty pop can as you walk along.

^ Seoul is a much more relaxed version of Tokyo, and the people of most outlying cities have never seen foreigners.

(As traffic drives on the right side of the road in Taiwan, buses have doors on the right side.)
.In Taiwan you need to hail the bus you want as you see it coming - much like hailing a taxi.^ These would most likely be Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines, where its chance of prevailing militarily are much better.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Clearly, they cannot come out against reunification because it has implications for Taiwan; but nonetheless, they are worried about what a unified Korea—reunified Korea would be like.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They see that the Russians are making too much money selling weapons to the PRC and they would like to do the same.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Both end points of the route are listed on the front of the bus in Chinese and sometimes English, so it is important to make sure the bus you get on is going the right direction.^ If you plan on staying for one month or more, make sure that all medical and health concerns are addressed before you leave (ie.

^ There is still money to be made as an English teacher, but you're really going to have to hustle to find it.

^ And if you wear glasses or contacts, make sure that you bring a spare pair, and/or your prescription.

.In Taipei, you sometimes pay getting on the bus and sometimes getting off (whether with cash or the ubiquitous Easy Card).^ However: You pay for the bus just before you get off.

^ Assuming that you plan on staying for a few months, you should consider getting business cards printed with your address in Japan, both in English and Japanese.

^ Lockers:     Many train and bus stations have pay lockers where you can store your bags if you want to walk around a city for a few days.

.As you get into the bus there will be an illuminated sign opposite you.^ There will be a Marui (OIOI) store on the opposite corner, depending on which end of the station you exited.

^ A couple of buildings later, there's a doorway with the sign on the opposite side.

^ Is there any parallel that causes you to think that China would enter into adventurism a la the scenarios with Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines and their military orientation?
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.If the first character is 上 pay as you get in, if it is 下 pay as you get out (or just watch the other people).^ To avoid paying for train fare, they will walk through the ticket gate of the fare adjustment window in the middle of the crush of other people that walk by flashing their pass cards.

^ Narita airport is quite a ways out from Tokyo, and Tokyo itself can be pretty confusing when you first enter it.

^ If you have a tattoo, be warned that some sentos have a restriction against people with tattoos, as a method intended for keeping Yakusa members out.

Taipei MRT
Taipei MRT
.Taipei has an excellent, fairly comprehensive subway system called the MRT that makes traveling around the city a snap, and Kaohsiung's metro finally opened in March 2008. Prepaid travel cards such as the Easy Card in Taipei for bus and metro travel are available at metro stations.^ The democratization process continued with the first direct elections of the Mayors of Taiwan's two largest cities (Taipei and Kaohsiung) and the Governor of Taiwan Province in December 1994.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make sure that you have the toll-free information phone number for your card company -- to find the nearest office to you, just call that phone number.

^ Lockers:     Many train and bus stations have pay lockers where you can store your bags if you want to walk around a city for a few days.

.Easy Cards are read via proximity sensors so you do not need to remove the card from your wallet or purse.^ Your home country bank may tell you that you can use your ATM card at ATMachines in Japan.

^ Assuming that you plan on staying for a few months, you should consider getting business cards printed with your address in Japan, both in English and Japanese.

^ You need to contact your local consulate to get the paperwork for this visa, and to determine the requirements for receiving it.

.The MRT is very clean as there is no eating, drinking, or smoking inside of the stations or subway trains.^ Subways:     Now, Tokyo's subways are very much like the train lines, and the ticket machines work the same.

^ Make sure that you have some tissues for those times when you need to use a public toilet (as in the train stations) because there won't be any toilet paper.

^ By looking at the train map, you'll see that there is no station marked "Ginza."

.There is also a special waiting area that is monitored by security camera for those who are concerned about security late at night.^ There is no—if there are indeed Chinese analysts who are suggesting that we would be too concerned about our trade in order to defend Taiwan, they are very, very sadly mistaken.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The state helps the national autonomous areas train large numbers of cadres at different levels and specialized personnel and skilled workers of different professions and trades from among the nationality or nationalities in those areas.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]
  • Selected Legal Provisions of the People's Republic of China Affecting Criminal Justice 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.cecc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Betel nut beauties
.The highways of Taiwan are lined with brightly lit booths staffed by attractive, skimpily dressed girls, but they're not plying the world's oldest trade; instead, they're betel nut beauties, who compete for the attention of customers to sell the mildly addictive stimulant betel nut (檳榔 bīnláng), not themselves.^ Taiwan has been able to join the Asia-Pacific Cooperation (APEC) dialogue as on "economy" and is applying to join the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a "customs territory."
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under this ideology, Taiwan was seen as a place for mainlanders to resent as they waited for the re-conquest of the Maoist mainland.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning about 18 months ago, the Taiwan authorities accelerated the pace of reform in order to pave the way to accede to the World Trade Organization (WTO).
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trade has prompted much moral hand-wringing and sale by scantily clad girls is banned in Taipei and a handful of other counties - mostly out of fears of a negative international reputation or more practically the fear of traffic accidents and congestion from rubber-necking.^ On the other hand, office drinking parties, where everyone from the department goes out together, are also common.

^ They—there is no one more painfully aware of the gap between Chinese mission requirements on the one hand and its desired capabilities on the other than the Chinese themselves.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Sapporo International Communication Plaza, Sapporo, Hokkaido (3rd floor)     phone: 011-211-2105     Much more professional, and aimed more at helping out foreigners.

Nonetheless, the practice is still going strong in much of the country, and Binlang is available everywhere from small roadside shops and stalls. Binlang itself is worth a try and there is a chance you will be offered it in the company of farmers or working-class Taiwanese. Be warned - it stains your teeth blood red. To consume it, bite and spit off the cap at the top of the nut, then chew the rest of the bundle. Spit frequently and enjoy the buzz. .One sampling on your trip shouldn't be a problem, but do keep in mind that this little treat is habit-forming and cancer-causing for long-term "users."^ Keep in mind, too, that the airport will be pure chaos during those days, and give yourself lots of time for waiting in long lines.

^ If your electronics have a power cord, keep in mind that some parts of Japan are 110vac - 60Hz, and other parts are not.

^ If you can hold your own and have plenty of cash, consider going to one of the more popular bars, and keep your ears open.

.Taxis are a dime a dozen in major Taiwanese cities.^ For travel within Taipei and various other major cities, taxi drivers are obliged to use the meter to calculate the fare.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You don't need to look for a taxi - they'll be looking for you.^ Page 53 PREV PAGE TOP OF DOC     So what I am suggesting is that they don't need a computer-controlled system such as we are putting in place today.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They need to keep their industry going too, and I don't think that we need to look for deep reasons.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Contact a big university, and they may be able to put you in contact with the school you want, or look in the Yellow Pages under language schools in case KEN School is listed there.

The standard yellow cabs scour roads looking for potential riders such as lost foreigners. It is possible but generally unnecessary to phone for a taxi. .To hail one, simply place your hand in front of you parallel to the ground.^ And most places will let you store your big bags there while you go on a short trip for a few days (if you want to travel light at that time.

^ And, many places do not have towels for drying your hands when you wash them -- your handkerchief is supposed to be for wiping your face and hands, not blowing your nose.

^ If you want to meet some Japanese (and practice your language lessons on them), and any number of foreign English teachers, conversation houses are the places to be.

.But they'll often stop for you even if you're just waiting to cross the street or for a bus.^ That's where you are expected to put your money, and that's where they'll put your change.

^ And if you're looking for a particular address, you'll notice that the buildings aren't numbered sequentially (rather, it's in the order that they were constructed on that street.

^ When someone answers you, they'll probably speak too fast for you to follow them, even if you do know a little Japanese.

In less heavily trafficked areas further out from the transit hubs, taxis are always available by calling taxi dispatch centers.
.Drivers generally cannot converse in English or read Westernized addresses (except for special Taoyuan airport taxis).^ Since most taxi drivers cannot speak English, the visitor should always carry Chinese-language versions of both his hotel namecard and desired destination.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Have the hotel desk or a Taiwanese friend write out your destination in Chinese, and also take a business card from the hotel.^ Assuming that you plan on staying for a few months, you should consider getting business cards printed with your address in Japan, both in English and Japanese.

^ The more experienced hitchers have a large notebook and black magic marker, for writing out their destinations both in hiragana and kanji (or maybe romanji and kanji.

^ You can convert your checks to cash at the hotel front desk for free once in the country.

.Show the driver the Chinese writing of where you are going.^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

.Taxis are visibly metered, and cab drivers are strictly forbidden from taking tips.^ For travel within Taipei and various other major cities, taxi drivers are obliged to use the meter to calculate the fare.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A maximum of four people can ride in one cab, and for the price of one.^ Journalists from Xinhua News Agency and People's Daily were permitted to visit Taiwan but were not granted the maximum one-month stay.
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can ride from one end of the line to the other, and back for the price of the cheapest ticket on the line (as long as you don't leave the train and exit one of the stations along the way.

Relative to American taxicabs, Taiwanese cabs are inexpensive.
.Although taxi drivers in Taiwan tend to be more honest than in many other countries, not all are trustworthy.^ The relationship between China, the United States, and other countries is complicated, and the debate about China and Taiwan is reemerging in our Country.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, there are more people looking for all kinds of jobs than there are open positions.

^ More than 80 percent of the U.S.- made process control systems sold in Taiwan go to state-run firms and large-scale private enterprises.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An indirect trip might cost you half again as much.^ If you can read kanji, this map will tell you how much your trip will cost.

.A cab driver using night-time rates during the daytime will cost you 30% more (make sure he presses the large button on the left on his meter before 11PM).^ If you can, get as much sleep as possible during the "night" hours.

^ The cost is a little higher than for a business hotel, and is a great way to spend the night even if you sleep alone.

^ This is a great way to meet people, and possibly make friends, if you are on a real tight budget, or have lots of time for travelling.

.Avoid the especially overzealous drivers who congregate at the exits of train stations.^ You can ride from one end of the line to the other, and back for the price of the cheapest ticket on the line (as long as you don't leave the train and exit one of the stations along the way.

^ If you buy the cheapest ticket you can, you can pay the difference when you exit the train station.

.Also, stand your ground and insist on paying meter price only if any driving on mountain roads is involved - some drivers like to tack on surcharges or use night-time rates if driving to places like Wenshan or Wulai.^ This stands in sharp contrast to Chiang Kai-shek, whose pictures were mostly removed from public places in the 1990s, and whose likeness has gradually disappeared from coinage and currency.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phone Cards:     Phone cards are used in many pay phones, just like money.

^ The rates differ from place to place, and room to room, but you can rent a room for one hour or for the night.

Such attempts to cheat are against the law.
.From Taoyuan Airport (TPE), buses are a much more economical option but if you want a direct route Taoyuan airport drivers are the best choice.^ When you get your plane ticket, you'll want to arrive at Narita Airport, if you plan on spending most of your time in Tokyo.

^ The rules state that you have to study pretty much full-time, and can not work more that 20 hours a week.

^ Otherwise, when you change lines, you need to hand in your first ticket, follow the signs directing you to the train line you want, and the buy a second ticket.

.They're quite comfortable and get you to your destination as quick as possible.^ You're going to want to be as alert as possible when you arrive at the airport.

^ Again, you're best bet is to find a company in your home country that has a Japanese branch, and get posted that way.

^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Taiwan Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Taiwan Visas Online. 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC taiwan.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the TPE taxi drivers are interlinked by radio so they could be forewarned if there are police.^ While there are Police Department buidings as we know them in the west, they're less common, and hard to find.

Sometimes, if there are traffic jams and no police around, the driver will drive in the emergency lane. .Taxis from TPE to destinations in Tao Yuan, parts of Taipei county and some other destinations are 'allowed' to add an additional 50% to the meter fare.^ For travel within Taipei and various other major cities, taxi drivers are obliged to use the meter to calculate the fare.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the people's congress of an autonomous region, prefecture or county, in addition to the deputies of the nationality exercising regional autonomy in the administrative area, the other nationalities inhabiting the area are also entitled to appropriate representation.
  • Constitution of the People's Republic of China - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the people's congress of an autonomous region , prefecture or county, in addition to the deputies of the nationality or nationalities exercising regional autonomy in the administrative area, the other nationalities inhabiting the area are also entitled to appropriate representation.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

The badge and taxi driver identification are displayed inside and the license number marked on the outside. .You must also be wary that the driver turns on his meter, otherwise he might rip you off - in such a case, you aren't obliged to pay; but make sure you can find a police officer to settle the matter.^ It's used more as an insult, and will turn people off of you.

^ If you have a train map, each of the lines will be color-coded, with a color chart at the bottom listing the names of the lines (make sure that you have an English version of the map.

^ There aren't many bargains left to be found here, and if you want inexpensive electronics or clothing, you're better off visiting Taiwan or Korea.

.If there are stories of passengers boarding fake taxis and being attacked by the driver, it is best not to be paranoid about it.^ It is not necessary to tip in taxis unless assistance with luggage is rendered, but most drivers do appreciate being allowed to keep small change.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is in the testimony various military scenarios that the PLA is arguing about which would be best.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

Drivers may be more worried about passengers attacking them!
.If you do call a taxi dispatch center, you will be given a taxi number to identify the vehicle when it arrives.^ Make sure that you have the toll-free information phone number for your card company -- to find the nearest office to you, just call that phone number.

^ When you first arrive in Japan, you'll probably want to call your hotel or hostel to confirm your reservations or to simply find a place to stay.

^ You can find out how to join the IYHN by calling a travel agency, and asking for the phone number of the hostel office nearest to you.

.Generally, dispatch is extremely rapid and efficient, as the taxis are constantly monitoring dispatch calls from the headquarters using radio while they are on the move.^ In the meantime, they used so-called "milk names" (乳名) which were given to the infant shortly after his birth, and which were known only by the close family.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the courtesy name is the name used by people of the same generation to call the person, Chiang Kai-shek soon became known under this new name.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is also the safest way to take a taxi, especially for females.
.Taxis are also a flexible although relatively expensive way to travel to nearby cities.^ For travel within Taipei and various other major cities, taxi drivers are obliged to use the meter to calculate the fare.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have the advantage over the electric trains in that they run very late at night.^ Train cards are very similar to phone cards, except that they're a little smaller, and are used only for purchasing train tickets.

.Drivers are required to provide a receipt if asked, though you might find them unwilling to do so.^ These services can help you find an apartment, as well as providing job listings, fax and typewriter services, and message boards.

^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

^ If you are lost, or have an address for a place that you can't find, look for the nearest police box and ask for help.

Taxis, as elsewhere in Asia, are not keen on exchanging large bills. .Try to keep some smaller denomination bills on hand to avoid the hassle of fighting with the driver for change.^ It is not necessary to tip in taxis unless assistance with luggage is rendered, but most drivers do appreciate being allowed to keep small change.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you want a second-hand bicycle or VCR, trying visiting the backsides of apartment complexes some night.

.Taxi drivers are known for their strong political opinions as many spend all day listening to Taiwanese talk radio.^ Many old-fashioned scholars are of the opinion that they can solve the problem of sinographless vernacular morphemes by engaging in a search for what are known as běnzì 本字 ("original characters").
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

.Be careful about your opinions on sensitive political subjects (including, but not necessarily limited to cross-strait relations).^ According to Taiwan's Cross-Strait Relations Act, its citizens residing in the PRC will lose citizenship if they do not return within four years.
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, if you see what looks like blood spewing from the driver's mouth, or him spitting blood onto the street - not to fret, it's merely him chewing betel nut (see box).^ And if you're looking for a particular address, you'll notice that the buildings aren't numbered sequentially (rather, it's in the order that they were constructed on that street.

^ By looking at the train map, you'll see that there is no station marked "Ginza."

^ By looking at the Bilingual Atlas , you'll see that the nearest train station to the Ginza is Yuurakucho, on the JR Yamanote line.

Keep in mind, however, that betel nuts are a stimulant.
.Taxi drivers are generally friendly towards foreigners, and a few of them take the opportunity to try their limited English skills.^ The people of Taiwan are generally outgoing toward foreigners and often will go out of their way to assist visitors.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are most likely to ask you about yourself, and are a patient audience to your attempts at speaking Mandarin.^ Most working visas can be extended at least once, and sometimes you can get up to 3 extensions before your passport is stamped with "Final Extension."

^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

^ So, if you don't have good directions to follow yourself, stop by the nearest police box and ask for help.

.If you are traveling with small children, don't be surprised if they are given candy when you disembark.^ If you have a satellite dish, you can get a lot more programs, but the Japan Times listings only state that there are "cartoons" on in any given slot, they don't give actual titles.

^ The common Japanese philosophy holds that you digest food better after a good hot bath in the evening (they don't bathe of shower in the morning, but that is when they do shave.

^ Travelling Lightly:     Do not bring things you don't want to carry.

Women are sometimes warned not to take taxis alone at night. This is not an extreme risk, although there have been incidents where women have been attacked. .To be more safe, women can have the hotel or restaurant phone a cab for them (ensuring a licensed driver), have a companion write down the license number of the driver (clearly displayed on the dashboard), or keep a cell phone handy.^ Travel agencies will book your hotel room for you, but you'll have to phone or write to a ryoukan or youth hostel on your own.

^ When a character in one of my stories says something, clearly it's one kind [of language], but when I write it down it's another kind [of language].
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

Do not get in if the driver doesn't have a license with picture clearly displayed in the cab.

By scooter or motorcycle

Scooters with an engine size of 50cc require a license to drive, and should be insured and registered in the owner's name. Until 2003 it wasn't possible to get a scooter above 150cc. .Many of the scooters within cities are only 50cc and incapable of going faster than 80 km/h (50 mph).^ More than 80 percent of the U.S.- made process control systems sold in Taiwan go to state-run firms and large-scale private enterprises.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, it's a lot more difficult to do within the bigger cities, so you'll be better off hitching only outside the cities.

.The more powerful versions known as zhongxing (heavy format) scooters are now quite common and can be rented for short-term use, or found for sale used at English In Taiwan [20] if you're going to need it for a while.^ It's used more as an insult, and will turn people off of you.

^ They are willing to absorb a short-term—they are sure it is going to be a short-term—hiccup in their economic growth in order to restore the national honor.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But for short-term crash space, they're rather pleasant.

.They are not allowed on freeways even if they are capable of going faster than 100 km/h (62 mph) unless used for certain police purposes, but that just means you have to take the scenic route.^ Otherwise, don't bother -- just go to the JR information window (or nearest tourist information office) and get a small copy of the map so you'll know what lines to take, and what stations to make your connections at.

^ If you just want to spend money on silly stuff, go to a grocery store and look around.

^ The approach to use here is to look to the side, say "Wakerimasen" -- I don't understand you -- and just keep walking.

.If you're just learning to drive a scooter on the streets of Taiwan, it would be a good idea to practice a bit on a back road or alley until you have a feel for the scooter - attempting to do so in the busier cities could easily be fatal.^ It could also attempt the and economic infrastructure to target the Taiwan equivalent of a blockade by declaring exercise or people’s confidence in their leadership.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just take a look: come to America And speak Shanghainese, Cantonese, Speak Shandongese, Pekingese; Would anyone dare to beat you for it?
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Since cards are required on nearly every business occasion, it is a good idea to carry sizable numbers of them at all times.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Certainly, things can get pretty hairy on Taiwanese roads and Taipei in particular has narrower more congested roads than many other cities.^ In most major Chinese cities one of the main streets is named "Zhongshan" (中山) to memorialize him, a name even more commonly found than other popular choices such as "Renmin Lu" (人民路), or The People's Road, and "Jiefang Lu" (解放路), or Liberation Road.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reality, more colloquial styles of Taiwanese would undoubtedly have fewer than 40% of their morphemes written with characters that everyone could agree were the right ones.
  • Taiwanese, Mandarin, and Taiwan's language situation 11 September 2009 12:18 UTC www.pinyin.info [Source type: Original source]

^ And, since Canadians, the British, and Australians can get working holiday visas, they are more likely to get work than other people that need to be sponsored for a working visa (which is a big hassle for the company.

.However if you know what you're doing, it's the perfect way to get around in a city.^ Most western airlines bury this tax in the cost of the ticket, so you don't know that you're actually paying it.

^ For the cost of repairing the flat, you have yourself a decent way to get around.

^ Again, you're best bet is to find a company in your home country that has a Japanese branch, and get posted that way.

.It should be possible to rent a scooter by the day, week or month, depending on the city in which you're staying.^ Please note that if one of the participants are in the United Kingdom, you should select a city there (e.g.
  • The World Clock Meeting Planner 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: News]

^ Airlines:     It's assumed that if you are only staying in Japan less than a month, that you have already booked your return flight.

^ If you plan on staying for one month or more, make sure that all medical and health concerns are addressed before you leave (ie.

.In Taipei, as of September 2008, the only place legally renting scooters and motorbikes to foreigners is the Bikefarm [21], which is run by a very friendly and helpful English guy called Jeremy.^ At the same time, word had gone out that Japan was a good place to come to for easy money -- the only qualification you needed was the ability to speak English.

^ It's a fun place to go climbing, and the people are very friendly.

^ The people are very friendly and helpful, the surroundings are more relaxed and user-friendly, and besides, Fukuoka is one of the most pleasant places I've visited in Japan.

.In Taichung, Foreigner Assistance Services In Taiwan F.A.S.T [22] offers a rental service for foreign visitors.^ In January 2006 CLA opened the Foreign Workers Service Center at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport.
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to NTD 40,000 and USD 5,000 can be brought into Taiwan by a foreign visitor.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Youth and Education Student Website Diplomatic History Student Career Programs Virtual Student Foreign Service Youth Exchange Programs Fulbright Program Exchange Visitor Program U.S. Diplomacy Center More...
  • Taiwan 28 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Otherwise, scooters are generally easy to rent in most major cities, with many such places being conveniently located near railway or bus stations.^ Police Boxes are located near most train stations, and at major intersections throughout the city.

^ However, the only real anime cards sold most places in each city are for Chibi Maruko Chan .

^ It should not be too surprising to know that alcoholism is a major problem in Japan, while most Japanese still don't recognise it as such.

.Most usually require some form of identification even if, in some cases, it consists of your expired Blockbuster video card!^ Therefore, even if you don't have a job, if you are staying at one place for more than a few weeks, you should have some cards made up with your home address and phone number included.

.The average price you may expect is $400 for 24 hours, this includes one or two helmets.^ Sometimes, you may need to take the JR line to one station, walk outside and downstairs to the underground, and then buy another ticket to hop the subway.

^ Don't pack more than you need for one or two weeks.

^ The rates differ from place to place, and room to room, but you can rent a room for one hour or for the night.

Another option is to rent a motorcycle. Many foreigners swear by their 125cc Wild Wolf motorcycles, and a trip around the island on a motorcycle can be a great way to see the island up close.
It is to be mentioned that since 2007, scooters and motorcycle over 450cc are allowed to go on expressway providing that they have a red license plate. .They are however to be considered as cars, and as such cannot be parked in scooter parking spaces.^ As a result of rising incomes, car ownership more than tripled from 1985 to 1994, causing a shortage of parking spaces, especially in urban areas.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By car

.An international driving license is required for driving in Taiwan and may be used for up to 30 days, after which you'll need to apply for a local permit.^ In other cases where licenses are required, the importer may need to first obtain the authorization of numerous agencies, such as Taiwan's Department of Health for medical equipment, and the Council of Agriculture for fishing and sporting boats--in the rare instances where import licenses have been granted--and many agricultural items.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, you may need to take the JR line to one station, walk outside and downstairs to the underground, and then buy another ticket to hop the subway.

^ You may be told that it's a 50 credit, or 100 credit card, but the magnetic strip is still convinced that it has been used heavily already.

Some municipalities may impose additional restrictions, so check ahead with the rental shop. VIP Rentals [23] in Taipei is quite happy to rent cars to foreigners, and will even deliver the car to a given destination. A deposit is often required, and the last day of rental is not pro-rated, but calculated on a per-hour basis at a separate (higher) rate.
.The numbered highway system is very good in Taiwan.^ Import Licenses Taiwan continues to maintain an import licensing system, but the number of items requiring import licenses is being gradually reduced.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1955 to 1960 Chiang administered the construction and completion of the Taiwan's highway system.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan does have a good health-care system, but it is expensive, and can be very stressful for foreigners.

.Most traffic signs are in international symbols, but many signs show names of places and streets in Chinese only.^ However, the only real anime cards sold most places in each city are for Chibi Maruko Chan .

^ Often it is shortened to Zhongshan only (as is usually done for Chinese names to show respect), and inside China one can find many instances of Zhongshan Avenue, Zhongshan Park, etc.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visitors who arrive at the Chiang Kai-shek International Airport in Taipei are greeted by signs in Chinese welcoming them to the "Zhongzheng International Airport."
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, almost all official directional signs will be written in both Chinese and English.^ It is advisable for foreign visitors to have their cards printed in both English and Chinese.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For both the trains and the subway, usually the signs will be in Kanji and English.

.However, the non-standardized Romanization means that English names can vary between road signs, making it rather confusing.^ BN- Birth Name PY- Pinyin romanization WG- Wade Giles romanization Y- Yale romanization Western names will be alphabetically sorted according to western biographical standards, or by surname.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To further expand the already confusing issue of Chiang Kai-shek's name, below are variations: .
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have a train map, each of the lines will be color-coded, with a color chart at the bottom listing the names of the lines (make sure that you have an English version of the map.

The highways are in excellent shape with toll stations around every 30 km (19 mi). Currently a car driver pays $40 when passing each toll station on a highway. .Prepaid tickets may be purchased at most convenience stores, allowing faster passage and eliminating the need to count out exact change while driving.^ Sometimes, you may need to take the JR line to one station, walk outside and downstairs to the underground, and then buy another ticket to hop the subway.

^ It is not necessary to tip in taxis unless assistance with luggage is rendered, but most drivers do appreciate being allowed to keep small change.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the department stores do purchase some merchandise on their own account, most of their sales are through the concessionaires.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While driving may be the best way to get around the countryside, in larger cities like Taipei and Kaohsiung, traffic jams are a problem as well as the difficulty of finding a good parking space, especially during the rush hour and traffic tends to get chaotic so you might be better off relying on public transport instead.^ If you view this as a frat house, you may be better off.

^ This is good for short trips around a city.

^ If you can, get as much sleep as possible during the "night" hours.

By thumb

.While Taiwanese themselves don't generally hitchhike, foreigners who have done so say that it was very easy.^ It is very difficult for most Japanese to meet new people -- they're so afraid of embarassing themselves and other people that they won't say anything at all.

.However, in rural areas people may not recognize the thumb in the air symbol, and you may have to try other ways - flagging down a car might work on a country lane with little or no public transportation, but doing so on a major road might lead to confusion, with the driver assuming that you are in trouble.^ If you work for a company that has a branch office, try to get them to transfer you to Japan.

^ PLA, the People's Liberation Army journals and other military publications are full of scenarios in which the People's Liberation Army engages an unnamed enemy which is technologically superior, and really has to be us, no question about it.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But if you're at a gaijin house, or an older apartment, you may find that there're too many people competing for the shower, or that there's no hot water during the winter.

.A sign, especially one in Chinese, would therefore be of great help.^ I think it is the Chinese unhappiness with one superpower that is causing the problems, and Taiwan is a manifestation of that but it is certainly—if Taiwan were to disappear tomorrow, I believe that the problem would still be there with the United States.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The East coast around Hualien and Taitung enjoys a reputation for being especially good for getting rides.^ U.S. goods enjoy a reputation for quality on the island; the reputation for high quality however, is coupled with a reputation for high-cost and, sometimes, poor service from U.S. vendors.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taiwanese people are very friendly and helpful, so striking up a conversation with someone at a transport cafe or freeway service station may well see you on your way.^ On a crowded train, someone may feel you up.

^ You can have your resume printed up for you, bilingually, at any of the Information Services.

^ Sometimes, you may need to take the JR line to one station, walk outside and downstairs to the underground, and then buy another ticket to hop the subway.

.However, to avoid possible confusion later, ensure that the driver realizes that you want a free ride.^ However, the bigger stations have maps on the wall, showing you where you are, and how to find the exit you want.

^ So, when you insert your money, you must first select the name of the train line you want to ride.

^ If you have a JR Rail Pass, you can ride any JR train or bus for free as long as the pass is good.

By bike

.While known for being a major player in the bicycle industry (though companies such as Giant and Meridia), until fairly recently, bicycles in Taiwan were considered an unwanted reminder of less prosperous times.^ Taiwan is a major investor in China, and China recently passed the United States as Taiwan's largest export market.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A local partner can give the best advice on where and how to advertise, but participation in the major trade shows and advertisement in the relevant Taiwan trade journals and industry newspapers is important.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taiwan has comprehensive commercial laws, including a Company Law, Commercial Registration Law, Business Registration Law, Commercial Accounting Law, and laws for specific industries.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thankfully, this has changed in the Twenty-First Century. Bicycling is again on the rise, both as a tool for commuting and recreation, and support infrastructure is slowly being put into place. Several bike paths have been built, and recreational cycling has become quite popular amongst locals, especially on weekends. .However, you should also be aware that local drivers have a well deserved reputation for recklessness.^ You should have your destination written down on paper, at least in Hiragana, and ask your driver (preferably, in Japanese) to tell you when you have reached where you are going.

^ American-made chemical machinery has a strong reputation and is well accepted by local users.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As such, you should exercise extreme caution when cycling outside of designated bicycle lanes and trails.
In recent years, the government has been promoting bicycling as a method of clean recreation. Several designated bicycle paths have been built throughout Taiwan (especially along riverside parks). .Additionally, long distance rides, including through the Central Mountain Range, and along the coastline around the main island have become popular [24].^ You can ride from one end of the line to the other, and back for the price of the cheapest ticket on the line (as long as you don't leave the train and exit one of the stations along the way.

.For long distance trips, bicycles can be shipped as is using standard freight service from the Taiwan Railway Administration between larger stations.^ Telecom services providers are expected to benefit from the planned signing of a financial MOU between Taiwan and China, through which they will be able...
  • Login to DIGITIMES archive & research 20 November 2009 10:28 UTC www.digitimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Despite their long-standing enmity, commercial ties between the two sides of the Taiwan straits have grown rapidly since the late 1980s.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are making a long-distance call using a phone card, you can see the numbers on the readout decrease rather quickly.

A price table is available at: [25] (Chinese language only). .Non-folding bicycles may also be transported aboard the Taipei and Kaohsiung rapid transit systems if loaded at specific stations, during off peak hours (usually 10AM-4PM on weekdays, check with your local station personnel to confirm).^ If so, you may find that the non-reserved cars are completely filled with people at the peak times.

^ If your destination station is large (like Shinjuku,) getting out of the station may be as confusing as trying to find the train you want.

^ During peak tourist periods, you may need reservations for any given hostel.

  • Taipei MRT Bicycle Information: [26]
    • Taipei MRT Route Map, bicycles may be loaded at designated stations: [27]
  • Kaohsiung MRT Bicycle Information (passengers traveling with non-folding bicycles are assessed a flat rate NT$60 fare irrespective of distance): [28]
.Giant Bicycles Corporation operates a large network of bicycle retail stores that offer rentals for as little as $1000 per day, if requested one week in advance [29].^ Just remember that although Japan is a very modern country in most respects, an advanced, publically available computer network is not one of them.

^ You can get a variety of beers and cups of sake from vending machines on the streets in front of liquor stores, up until midnight on any day of the week.

^ Convenience Stores: Now over 1000 strong island wide, convenience stores, which offer food products and toiletries 24 hours a day, are major outlets for consumer food items, such as snack foods, beverages, and juices.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Public shared bicycles are also available for rent at automated kiosks in Taipei's Hsinyi District, and in Kaohsiung. .Rental fees in Taipei may be paid using the rapid transit EasyCard system, but require a deposit paid via credit card.^ You may be told that it's a 50 credit, or 100 credit card, but the magnetic strip is still convinced that it has been used heavily already.

^ Your home country bank may tell you that you can use your ATM card at ATMachines in Japan.

^ Japan is a cash-based society, which means that checks are not used very much, and international credit cards are accepted mainly by hotels and restaurants.

.Additionally, many local police stations provide basic support services for cyclists, such as air pumps, and as a rest stop.^ Express trains are like locals, except that they only stop at certain stations along the line.

Further cycling references:
You say Zhongshan, I say Chungshan...
.The Romanization of Chinese used in Taiwan is not standardized.^ "Chinese National Standards (CNS)", written and published by the National Bureau of Standards of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, list relevant standards requirements for imported products into Taiwan.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interim Provisions Concerning the Use of Donations in Foreign Exchange Made by Overseas Chinese and Compatriots From Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan in the Regulation of Foreign Exchange .

.Most older place names and personal names are derived from a bastardized version of Wade-Giles.^ Chinese names will be alphabetically sorted according to Wade- Giles romanization of the Chinese name.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often, the name is shortened to Zhongzheng only (Chung-cheng in Wade-Giles) in the style of typical courtesy names (out of respect).
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "school name" was actually the formal name of a person, the name used by older people to call the person, so it was the name that the person would use the most in the first decades of his life (as the person grew older, younger generations would have to use one of the courtesy names instead).
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though the national government mandated the controversial and oft-maligned Tongyong Pinyin system in 2002, local governments are free to override the order.^ Wang Jingwei's National Government, though popular with the masses, was weak militarily and was soon overtaken by a local warlord, forcing Wang and his leftist government into joining him in Nanjing.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His government sought to impose Chinese nationalism and repressed the local culture, such as by forbidding the use of Taiwanese in mass media broadcasts or in schools.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some local governments, such as that of Taipei City, have converted their street signs to Hanyu Pinyin, which sometimes results in a street sign posted by the city government next to a street sign by the national government having different romanization conventions.^ Some local trains will parallel the shinkansen lines and connect the cities together.

^ Although normal precautions should be taken by visitors, the streets of Taipei and other cities are safe at any hour.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1928, Chiang was named Generalissimo of all Chinese forces and Chairman of the National Government, a post he held until 1932 and later from 1943 until 1948.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Zhongshan, Chungshan, Jungshan and Jhongshan can easily be the same.
.This article attempts to use the Romanizations most commonly used in Taiwan (on street signs, buses, tourist maps, etc.^ Opened in 1980, the Hsinchu Science-Based Industrial Park is Taiwan's most visible attempt to move into technology-intensive industries.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). People know Romanisation as 'Roma-Pinyin'.
.A mix of Taiwanese (Minnan), Mandarin, Hakka and other Asian languages are spoken on the island, as well as several aboriginal Austronesian languages.^ This is the period that sees China proliferating to Pakistan and several other countries as well, stealing American secrets from various laboratories, and the administration looking the other way.
  • MILITARY CAPABILITIES OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC commdocs.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also several domestic airports and domestic airlines that provide fast and convenient connecting flights between Taiwan's larger cities, as well as outlying islands.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mandarin is the lingua franca, but Taiwanese is spoken by some 70% of the population. .In the North where there is a large concentration of so-called "mainlanders" (those whose families came to Taiwan from China in the mid 20th century), most people speak Mandarin as their primary language (although Taiwanese is spoken in abundance), but in the South of the island, Taiwanese is far more common.^ Department Stores: There are over 50 department stores on Taiwan, concentrated in the large cities.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English is by far the most popular foreign language, and large numbers of people speak it with fluency.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditionally, this name was not used in intercourse with people outside of the family, and inside mainland China or Taiwan few people know that his "real" name (the concept of real or original name is not as clear-cut in China as it is in the Western world) was Jiang Zhoutai (although other historical figures such as Mao Zedong are known by their "register name").
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the Matsu islands, the dominant Chinese dialect is Mindong or Eastern Min (also known as Hokchiu or Foochowese), which is also spoken in the area around Fuzhou and the coastal areas of northern Fujian.^ Taiwanese, a variant of the Fukien dialect, is also commonly spoken, especially in the southern and rural areas.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Mandarin in Taiwan is a bit different from the official Beijing Dialect; most notably, Taiwan continues to use traditional Chinese characters, not the simplified versions used on the mainland.^ His name also used to be officially written in Taiwan as "The Late President (space) Lord Chiang" (先總統 蔣公), where the one-character-wide space showed respect; this practice lost its popularity after Taiwan's democratization in the 1990s.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where possible, names will include Chinese character references in either traditional (BIG5) or simplified (GB) characters or both.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not surprisingly, the Chinese Communists always rejected the use of this name, and the name is not very well known in mainland China.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taiwanese Mandarin also tends to not differentiate between the "S" and "Sh" sounds in Mandarin. .All people schooled after 1945 are generally fluent in Mandarin, although it is sometimes not the first language of choice.^ You don't necessarily have to speak the language to survive in Japan, because many signs are in English, and a fair number of people have at least studied English in school.

^ The "school name" was actually the formal name of a person, the name used by older people to call the person, so it was the name that the person would use the most in the first decades of his life (as the person grew older, younger generations would have to use one of the courtesy names instead).
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mandarin is fairly popular with young people. .Some in the older generation are not fluent in Mandarin as they were schooled in Japanese or not at all.^ It's especially bad when talking to someone from an anime or manga studio, when they are surrounded by Japanese otaku all the time.

^ The listings may be old, but you'll get some more addresses this way, and you can ask these schools if they can refer you to other schools that also have job openings currently.

^ It is very difficult for most Japanese to meet new people -- they're so afraid of embarassing themselves and other people that they won't say anything at all.

.Universally the Taiwanese are very accepting of foreigners and react with curiosity and admiration for trying the local tongue.^ However, he has stated that his actions were also based on the premise that a Chinese identity and a Taiwanese identity are ultimately incompatible, a notion that is very controversial on the island, even among supporters of localization.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally, most people in Taiwan converse using a combination of Mandarin and Taiwanese by code-switching.^ China might Taiwan’s military and political leadership, and use a variety of lethal, punitive, or disruptive military possibly break the Taiwan people’s will to fight.
  • Military Power Report of People's Republic of China 2008 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "school name" was actually the formal name of a person, the name used by older people to call the person, so it was the name that the person would use the most in the first decades of his life (as the person grew older, younger generations would have to use one of the courtesy names instead).
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the courtesy name is the name used by people of the same generation to call the person, Chiang Kai-shek soon became known under this new name.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Taiwanese dialect is a variant of Minnan which is similar to the dialect spoken across the Taiwan Strait in Xiamen.^ Taiwanese, a variant of the Fukien dialect, is also commonly spoken, especially in the southern and rural areas.
  • 1996 Country Commercial Guides 19 September 2009 13:27 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 2, he met with Wang Daohan, the 90-year-old chairman of the mainland-based Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, and the representatives of Taiwanese businesspeople.
  • Exploring Chinese History :: Database Catalog :: Biographical Database :: Republic of China (Taiwan)- (1949- Present) 28 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]