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Murska Republika
Republika Slovenska okroglina
Republika Prekmurje
Mura Köztársaság
Vendvidéki Köztársaság
Republic of Prekmurje
Historical unrecognized state

1919
 

Flag

The Prekmurje
Capital Murska Sobota
Government Republic
President Vilmos Tkálecz
Historical era World War I
 - Established May 29, 1919
 - Disestablished June 6, 1919

The Republic of Prekmurje or Mura Republica (Prek+Murje meaning Trans+Mura), also known Hungarian: Vendvidéki Köztársaság, Mura Köztársaság, Slovene: Murska Republika, Republika Prekmurje Prekmurian: Reszpublika Szlovenszka okroglina, or Mörszka Reszpublika) was an unrecognized state in the Prekmurje. The Mura Republic in the primary Hungarian records: "The Republic of Wendic March worker, soldier and ploughman board," or "Republic of Mura March." The traditional Hungarian name for the country was Vendvidék (Wendic March). At the end of June 6, 1919, Prekmurje was incorporated in the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929.

The state was bordered by Austria in the North, Hungary in the East, and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in the West and South.

Contents

Origins

There was such a notion of a "Great Slovenian territory" under the 1st World War, which spread from Friuli of northeast Italy up the South-Balaton country all the way to Croatia. Here was a historical duchy, where the Slovenes lived. The ruler was a prince named Pribina of Slovakian descent of the Principality of Nitra. This area had already been settled by the Magyars some time between 895–900. The Magyar presence declined by the 14th century, and the Magyars were swept away from the Prekmurje region. But the Slovenes either broke away or assimilated with the Hungarians. A few Slovenes settled near the Mura River, where isolation evolved and come off to be the Prekmurian Slovenian people. The greatest peculiarity of this Prekmurians is their separate dialect – the Prekmurian language (Hungarian: Vend nyelv, "Wendish dialect"). In the 16th and 18th century numerous Slovene families from the Mura and Raba territory settled in Somogy County.

History

During World War I in Prekmurje, the leaders of the Slovenian minority were mostly Catholic and Evangelical priests. After the collapse of the Monarchy, together with vernacular leaders (but with diverging political views), the Catholic Prekmurjan Slovene clerics sided with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The pro-Hungarian Evangelical Slovenes, however still supported the Hungarian rule. The Catholic Party was to proclaim an independent state, while the Evangelical Slovenes, and Prekmurian Hungarians desired to remain in Hungary.

The (mutinied) Croatian Army in 1918 annexed Prekmurje, but the 83rd Hungarian Infantry Regiment recaptured it. Soon, the Truce of Belgrade in 1918 gave Mura and Raba Country to Hungary, but the Serbs had second thoughts and schemed a formation of a common Yugoslav-Czechoslovakian frontier.

In March 21, 1919 the Hungarian communists and Social Democrats created the Hungarian Soviet Republic, which was anti-religious, internationalist and pro-Soviet. The communists wanted to expropriate the ecclesiastical assets, starting with all the lordships. Then the Evangelicals and the Catholics clamped down. The Catholic Party in order to be rid of the communist, decided to develop an autonomous republic. The Hungarian and Slovenian socialists wanted to get the Soviets in Prekmurje, but support was scant and a few people gave aid to the Soviet Republic. In Međimurje the Serbian and Croatian military aligned themselves against Prekmurje.

In Lendava, the anti-communist military campaign started off well, but soon unraveled. In Murska Sobota the socialist Vilmos Tkálecz, former schoolmaster and soldier in the first World War, was ensnared into illegal trade, that the communist statues forbade. Tkálecz was not a leftist, Yugoslav, or pro-Hungarian. On May 29, Tkálecz and some followers declared their independence from Hungary. Tkálecz was allude to the Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson, which granted autonomy rights for national minorities. The new state recognized Austria as a measure to get some weapons, together with those from Hungarian military units. Tkálecz however frustrated the Catholics and the Prekmurians did not uphold the republic.

The Prekmurje Republic wanted to expand its' boundaries and they received minute pieces of land: In Murska Sobota, the republic got territory of the districts Murska Sobota, Lendava, Szentgotthárd and some villages in the Őrség country, however they already possessed the North-, Central- and South-West Mura march districts. Lendava and Szentgotthárd was not expected and Hungary was not against the annexations at the first place. The principal settlements of the republic were Murska Sobota, Szentgotthárd, Lendava, Beltinci and Dobrovnik.

Aftermath

The Hungarian Red Army in June 6 marched into Prekmurje and dismantled the Republic. Tkálecz break away and fled to Austria. The Communist militia made up of 50 peasants killed the anti-communists. Besides the 5 million Krown indemnity pay was laid by the people and the Red Terror that was harsh and direful.

On August 1, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was vanquished by Romanian forces, and soon the Serbian Army marched into Prekmurje. Vilmos Tkálecz single-handily declared the Prekmurje state. The idea was headlonged, with the disagreement by the Catholics' vernacular autonomy movement, which for years has weltered to non-existence.

In 1920, Tkálecz lived in Hungary in the village Nagykarácsony (Fejér County) as a schoolmaster. The 1921 Treaty of Trianon drew the present-day Hungarian borders.

Population

The population of the Prekmurje republic was approx. 100,000, of which 20-22,000 were Hungarians, the other ethnic was German minority at 8,000 (in particular of villages Alsószölnök, Gerlinci and Fikšinci), and a Croatian minority at 3,000. Other ethnic groups Jews (ethnoreligious definition) and Gypsies. The religious composition was as follows: Over half are Lutheran Christians and a third were Roman Catholics, some Calvinist and Jewish minorities. In a few villages, Romanies (Gypsies) speak both Prekmurian, or Hungarian as their mother tongues.

Geography

His important regions of the state is the Raba region (in our days in Hungary the Vendvidék), in north the Goričko, near Murska Sobota the Ravensko and near Lendava the Markovsko, together with the Őrség, namely thereon village's which ones the minutes was include. There were still sixteen Slovenian villages in three district during the 19th century but in the 2001 census only 44 people declared themselves as Slovenes in the whole Somogy. In our days the Vendvidék (Windic March) in the maps go near in Szentgotthárd, its territory is 94 km².

See also

References

  • László Göncz: The Mura country 1919 (Hungarian)
  • Republic of Vendvidék (Hungarian)
  • Az Őrség és a Vendvidék,kalauz turistáknak és természetbarátoknak, (The Őrség and the Vendvidék, tourist-guide) B.K.L. kiadó (B.K.L. Publisher), Szombathely 2004.
  • Bilkei Irén – Káli Csaba – Petánovics Katalin: Zalavár, Száz Magyar Falu Könyvesháza, (Zalavár, Hundred Hungarian Village Book-House) ISBN 963 9287 63 6 ISSN 1586 – 0469
  • Csorba Csaba – Estók János – Salamon Konrád: Magyarország képes története (History of Hungary in Pictures), Magyar Könyvklub (Hungarian Book-Club), Budapest 1999. ISBN 963 548 961 7
  • Hornyák Árpád: "A magyar-jugoszláv határ kialakulása az első világháború után,"különös tekintettel a Muravidékre. In: A Mura mente és a trianoni békeszerződés. (The maturation of the Hungarian-Yugoslaw border) Lendvai Füzetek (Booklets of Lendava) 17; Magyar Nemzetiségi Művelődési Intézet (Hungarian Gentilitial and Community Centre)
  • Julij Titl: Murska Republika (Mura Republic) 1919, Pomurska Založba Murska Sobota 1970.
  • Kozár, Mária and Gyurácz, Ferenc: Felsőszölnök, Száz Magyar Falu Könyvesháza (Felsőszölnök Hundred Hungarian Village), ISBN 963 9287 20 2
  • L. Nagy Zsuzsa: Magyarország története 1848-1945. (History of Hungary 1848-1945) Debrecen, 1995. (Történelmi Figyelő Könyvek/Historical Monitor Books)
  • Mukicsné Kozár, Mária: A Magyarországi Szlovének Néprajzi Szótára (Etnichal Vocabulary of the Hungarian Slovenes), Monošter-Szombathely 1996. ISBN 963 7206 620
  • Schopper, Tibor: Őrség, Corvina Kiadó (Corvina Publisher), Budapest 1982. ISBN 963 13 1419 7
  • Változó Világ: A magyarországi szlovének, (Chaging World: The Hungarian Slovenes) by Mária Mukics, Press Publica 2003. ISBN 963 9001 83 X

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