Republic of Singapore Navy: Wikis

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Republic of Singapore Navy
RSN crest.jpg
RSN Crest
Founded 1 April 1975
Country  Singapore
Branch Navy
Part of Singapore Armed Forces
Engagements Iraq War
Commanders
Chief of Navy Rear Admiral Chew Men Leong
Aircraft flown
Helicopter Sikorsky SH-60B Seahawk
Patrol Fokker F50

The Republic of Singapore Navy (Abbreviation: RSN; Malay: Angkatan Laut Republik Singapura; Chinese: 新加坡共和国海军部队; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் கடல் படை) is the naval component of the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF), responsible for the defence of Singapore against sea-borne threats and protection of its sea lines of communications. Operating within the crowded littoral waters of the Singapore Strait, the RSN is regarded as one of the best in the region.[1] All commissioned ships of the RSN have the prefix RSS (Republic of Singapore Ship).

Contents

History

Republic of Singapore Navy
Naval Ensign of Singapore.svg
Formations
Fleet
Maritime Security Task Force
Naval Diving Unit
Naval Logistics Command
Training Command
Ships
List of ships of the Republic of Singapore Navy
Bases
Tuas Naval Base
Changi Naval Base
Former Brani Naval Base

The RSN traces its origins to the Royal Navy in the 1930s with only two patrol craft. The Straits Settlements Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve was established on 20 April 1934 and in 1941 became the Singaporean division of the Malayan Volunteer Reserve during World War II.

In 1948 the Malayan Force was raised by the Singaporean government and was later granted the title of the Royal Malayan Navy in 1952 in recognition of its services in action during the Malayan Emergency.

On 16 September 1963, Singapore was admitted as a state of Malaysia under the terms of confederation and the Royal Malayan Navy was renamed the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN). The Singapore division of the Malayan Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve was formally transferred from the command of the Royal Navy to the RMN on 22 September 1963, becoming the Singapore Volunteer Force (SVF).

On 9 August 1965, Singapore seceded from Malaysia to form an independent and sovereign nation within the Commonwealth of Nations. The fledging navy had only two wooden ships then, namely RSS Panglima and RSS Singapura[2]. On 22 January 1966, the SVF was renamed the Singapore Naval Volunteer Force (SNVF).

On 5 May 1967, the SNVF ensign was hoisted for the first time. A few months later in September, the SNVF was renamed the People's Defence Force (Sea) under the Sea Defence Command (SDC).

The SDC was renamed the Maritime Command (MC) in 1968, which is the predecessor of the RSN. The MC then went on an expansion program to carry out its seaward defence more effectively. The RSN came into being on 1 April 1975, when the SAF established its component forces into three distinct services.[3]

Organisation

The RSN is led by the Chief of Navy (CNV). The current CNV is Rear Admiral Chew Men Leong and he is responsible for the RSN's overall operational capabilities and administration. The CNV reports directly to the Chief of Defence Force (CDF), a three-star general. The organisation chart below shows the peacetime administrative chain of command with five formations: the Fleet, Maritime Security Task Force, Naval Diving Unit, Naval Logistics Command and Training Command.[4]

                                         CNV
                                          |
        Chief of Staff - Naval Staff -----| 
                                          |
                              HQ RSN -----|
                                          |
          ________________________________|___________________________________
          |                |              |              |                   |
        Fleet       Naval Logistics  Naval Diving     Training              MSTF
   _______|________     Command          Unit         Command        ________|________
   |      |       |                       |              |           |       |       |
  1st     |      3rd                      |              |        Ops Grp   CMA     IACG
 __|__    |    ___|___              ______|______     ___|___     ___|___      ______|______
 |   |    |    |     |              |   |   |   |     |     |     |     |      |   |   |   |
185 188  171  191 192/193          Cbt UDG CDG Dive  IMW  IMOS  182/9  194    MPA PCG ICA Customs
                                   DG           Sch                           Rep Rep Rep Rep
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Maritime Security Task Force

The Maritime Security Task Force (MSTF) is a SAF-level task force, formed as a result of the restructuring of the RSN's Coastal Command on 19 January 2009.[5] Its role is to ensure Singapore's maritime security and act as a co-ordinating agency for all national maritime agencies to allow for the seamless execution of maritime security operations.[6] Commander MSTF reports directly to the CDF, but CNV would have oversight over its various peacetime operations. Assets from the navy, air force and army will be assigned to MSTF as required by operations. MSTF also has the ability to co-op assets from national agencies such as the Police Coast Guard, Immigration and Checkpoints Authority, Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore and Singapore Customs for a unified response to maritime security threats. MSTF is based at the Singapore Maritime Security Centre within the Changi Command and Control Centre at Changi Naval Base.

Current fleet

Submarines

In 1995, the RSN acquired a Challenger class (formerly known as Sjöormen class) submarine from the Swedish Navy and another three in 1997, making them Singapore's first underwater platforms.[7] As the submarines were designed by the Swedish for operations in the Baltic Sea, various modifications were required to suit them to tropical waters. A comprehensive tropicalisation programme was carried out for all four submarines, which involved installing air conditioning, marine growth protection systems and corrosion-resistant piping.[8] It is believed that the Challenger class were purchased to develop the required submarine operations expertise before selecting a modern class of submarines to replace them, since all the boats are over 40 years old.[9] The four submarines form the 171 Squadron of the RSN.

Boats
  • RSS Challenger—launched 9 Jan 1968
    recommissioned 1997
  • RSS Conqueror—launched 29 June 1967
    recommissioned 1999
  • RSS Centurion—launched 25 Jan 1967
    recommissioned 1999
  • RSS Chieftain—launched 21 March 1968
    recommissioned 2001
Launch of RSS Chieftain in Sweden
© MINDEF
Length 51 metres
Beam 6.1 metres
Displacement 1130 tonnes surfaced, 1200 tonnes submerged
Crew 28
Speed 10 knots (19 km/h) surfaced, 16 knots (30 km/h) submerged
Weapons torpedoes launched from four torpedo tubes


Singapore's Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) signed an agreement with Kockums for the supply of two Archer class (formerly known as Västergötland class) submarines to the RSN on 4 November 2005.[10] More than 20 years old and previously in reserve with the Swedish Navy, the submarines will be transferred to the RSN on completion of the modernisation and conversion for operation in tropical waters. RSS Archer was launched on 16 June 2009.[11] The Archer class submarines are equipped with an air independent propulsion system.[12] This enables the submarines to have longer submerged endurance and lower noise signature, enhancing the stealth capability of the submarines. The advanced sonar system allows the submarines to detect contacts at a further distance, while the torpedo system has a better target acquisition capability, which allows the submarines to engage contacts at a further range.[13] The Archer class submarines are expected to enter service from 2010 and may replace some of the Challenger class submarines.

Boats
  • RSS Archer—launched 16 June 2009
  • RSS Swordsman
Launch of RSS Archer in Sweden
Length 60.5 metres
Beam 6.1 metres
Displacement 1400 tonnes surfaced, 1500 tonnes submerged
Crew 28
Speed 8 knots (15 km/h) surfaced, >15 knots (28 km/h) submerged
Weapons torpedoes launched from nine torpedo tubes


MV Swift Rescue, a submarine support and rescue ship was launched 29 Nov 2008. She carries the deep submergence rescue vehicle Deep Search and Rescue Six (DSAR-6).[14][15]

Ships
  • MV Swift Rescue—launched 29 Nov 2008
MV Swift Rescue in Singapore
Length 85 metres
Beam 18 metres
Displacement unknown
Crew unknown
Speed unknown
Weapons none


Frigates

The Formidable class multi-role stealth frigates are the latest platforms to enter into service with the RSN, and are multi-mission derivatives of the French Navy’s La Fayette class frigate.[16] The frigates are key information nodes and fighting units, and are “by far the most advanced surface combatants in Southeast Asia".[17]

The frigates will be equipped with Sikorsky S-70B naval helicopters, an international derivative of the United States Navy SH-60B Seahawk. The MINDEF signed a contract with Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation in January 2005 to acquire six of these helicopters, which will be organic to the frigates. These naval helicopters are equipped with anti-surface and anti-submarine combat systems, extending the ship’s own surveillance and over-the-horizon targeting and anti-submarine warfare capabilities. The naval helicopters will be raised as a squadron in the Republic of Singapore Air Force and piloted by air force pilots, but the system operators will be from the RSN. The naval helicopters are projected for delivery in late 2009.[18]

The frigates have a special surface-to-air missile configuration, combining the Thales Herakles radar with the Sylver A50 launcher and a mix of MBDA Aster 15 and 30 missiles.[19]

The lead ship of the class, RSS Formidable was commissioned on 5 May 2007, marking the 40th year of the RSN. The six frigates form the 185 Squadron of the RSN.

Ships
  • RSS Formidable (68)—commissioned 2007
  • RSS Intrepid (69)—commissioned 2008
  • RSS Steadfast (70)—commissioned 2008
  • RSS Tenacious (71)—commissioned 2008
  • RSS Stalwart (72)—commissioned 2009
  • RSS Supreme (73)—commissioned 2009
RSS Steadfast with a USN SH-60B Seahawk helicopter during flight deck qualifications

RSS Intrepid at Changi Naval Base during the Navy Open House 2007
Length 114.8 metres
Beam 16.3 metres
Displacement 3200 tonnes
Crew 70, excluding air attachment of about 15
Speed 27 knots (50 km/h)
Weapons


Corvettes

In 1983, the RSN ordered six Victory class corvettes from Fredrich Lürssen Werft of Germany.[20] The first corvette was built in Germany while the remaining five were built locally by ST Marine. The corvettes were also the first class of ships in the RSN to have an anti-submarine capability.[21] The corvettes are noted for their tall mast, making them top-heavy compared to ships of similar class. However, this is suitable within the fairly calm Singapore waters. The six corvettes form the 188 Squadron of the RSN.

Ships
  • RSS Victory (88)—commissioned 1990
  • RSS Valour (89)—commissioned 1990
  • RSS Vigilance (90)—commissioned 1990
  • RSS Valiant (91)—commissioned 1991
  • RSS Vigour (92)—commissioned 1991
  • RSS Vengeance (93)—commissioned 1991
RSS Victory fires its 76mm gun at a surface target during a gunnery exercise with the U.S. Navy

RSS Vengeance launches two Barak missiles during Exercise Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training
Length 62 metres
Beam 8.5 metres
Displacement 600 tonnes
Crew 46
Speed 30 knots (56 km/h)
Weapons


Patrol vessels

The Fearless class patrol vessels were built locally by ST Marine to replace the older coastal patrol crafts, which were transferred to the Police Coast Guard. The first six vessels of the class are armed for anti-submarine warfare missions, and were placed under the command of the Fleet as 189 Squadron upon commission. In January 2003, RSS Courageous was badly damaged in a collision with a container ship in the Singapore Strait.[22] In January 2005, 189 Squadron was transferred to the then-Coastal Command from the Fleet, and the twelve ships now form the 182/189 Squadron.[23]

Ships
  • RSS Fearless (94)—commissioned 1996
  • RSS Brave (95)—commissioned 1996
  • RSS Courageous* (96)—commissioned 1996
  • RSS Gallant (97)—commissioned 1997
  • RSS Daring (98)—commissioned 1997
  • RSS Dauntless (99)—commissioned 1997
  • RSS Resilience (82)—commissioned 1998
  • RSS Unity (83)—commissioned 1998
  • RSS Sovereignty (84)—commissioned 1998
  • RSS Justice (85)—commissioned 1998
  • RSS Freedom (86)—commissioned 1998
  • RSS Independence (87)—commissioned 1998
RSS Resilience at sea
Mistral surface-to-air missiles on the Simbad twin-tube launcher/mount
Length 55 metres
Beam 8.6 metres
Displacement 500 tonnes
Crew 30
Speed 20 knots (37 km/h)
Weapons


Amphibious transport docks

The Endurance class amphibious transport docks are the biggest class of ships in the RSN. They were designed and built locally by ST Marine to replace the old County class tank landing ships (LST). Each ship is fitted with a well dock which can accommodate four landing crafts, as well as a flight deck which can accommodate two medium lift helicopters.[24] While the RSN describes the Endurance class as LSTs, they lack the beaching capability traditionally associated with LSTs and their well docks and flight decks qualifies the Endurance class more as amphibious transport docks.

The ships provide sea transportation for personnel and equipment for SAF's overseas training, as well as a training platform for RSN's midshipmen. RSS Endurance became the first RSN ship to circumnavigate the globe when it participated in the 2000 International Naval Review in New York City.[25] The ships are also actively involved in humanitarian and disaster relief operations, notably in East Timor, the Persian Gulf and the tsunami-hit Indonesian province of Aceh. The four ships form the 191 Squadron of the RSN.

Ships
  • RSS Endurance (207)—commissioned 2000
  • RSS Resolution (208)—commissioned 2000
  • RSS Persistence (209)—commissioned 2001
  • RSS Endeavour (210)—commissioned 2001
RSS Endurance during IMDEX 2001
© Jane's
RSS Endurance, RSS Persistence and RSS Endeavour in Meulaboh, Indonesia as part of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami humanitarian relief efforts
© MINDEF
Length 141 metres
Beam 21 metres
Displacement 6000 tonnes
Crew 65
Speed 15 to 20 knots (28 to 37 km/h)
Weapons


Mine countermeasures vessels

The RSN acquired mine countermeasure capabilities as early as 1975, when the USN's USS Thrasher and USS Whippoorwill were reactivated by the RSN's engineers and technicians in California. The Redwing class coastal minesweepers were commissioned as RSS Jupiter and RSS Mercury.[26]

These two ships were eventually replaced by the Bedok class mine countermeasures vessels. The first ship, RSS Bedok, was built by Karlskronavarvet in Sweden based on the Landsort class design. The remaining three ships were prefabricated in Sweden and transferred to Singapore for final assembly by ST Marine. The ships are constructed of glass reinforced plastic to maintain low magnetic and acoustic signatures. The ships form the 194 Squadron of the RSN.

Ships
  • RSS Bedok (M105)—commissioned 1995
  • RSS Kallang (M106)—commissioned 1995
  • RSS Katong (M107)—commissioned 1995
  • RSS Punggol (M108)—commissioned 1995
Bedok class MCMVs berthed at Changi Naval Base during the Navy Open House 2007
Length 47.5 metres
Beam 9.6 metres
Displacement 360 tonnes
Crew 28
Speed 15 knots (28 km/h)
Weapons


Others

The RSN operates the Protector unmanned surface vehicles. They were deployed together with the Endurance class landing platform dock ships to the North Persian Gulf for peacekeeping operations in 2005, where they performed surveillance and reconnaissance, as well as force protection duties for more than eight hours at a go.[27]

Ships (2) Protector USV
A Republic of Singapore Navy Protector USV on patrol in the Persian Gulf. © MINDEF
Length 9 metres
Beam N/A
Displacement N/A
Crew none
Speed 40 knots
Weapons Typhoon Weapon System with the CIS 50 12.7 mm machine gun


Historical Fleet

Missile gunboats

The Sea Wolf class missile gunboats were acquired in 1968, based on the TNC 45 design from Fredrich Lürssen Werft.[28] The first two gunboats were constructed in Germany, while the remaining four were constructed locally by ST Marine (then known as Singapore Shipbuilding and Engineering). As new technology became available, these gunboats underwent a number of upgrading programmes in the 1980s and 1990s to increase their strike capability and sophistication.[29] On 13 May 2008, all six gunboats were retired at a sunset decommissioning ceremony held at Changi Naval Base following 33 years of service.[30]

Ships
  • RSS Sea Wolf (P76)—commissioned 1975
  • RSS Sea Lion (P77)—commissioned 1975
  • RSS Sea Dragon (P78)—commissioned 1975
  • RSS Sea Tiger (P79)—commissioned 1976
  • RSS Sea Hawk (P80)—commissioned 1976
  • RSS Sea Scorpion (P81)—commissioned 1976
RSS Sea Dragon docked at Changi Naval Base during the Navy Open House 2007
Length 45 metres
Beam 6.5 metres
Displacement 270 tonnes
Crew 40
Speed 30 knots (56 km/h)
Weapons


Bases

Tuas Naval Base

Tuas Naval Base (TNB) is the second naval base in the RSN's history. Located at the western tip of Singapore, it occupies 0.28 km² (0.11 mi²) of land. It was officially opened on 2 September 1994 by the second prime minister Goh Chok Tong.

For about two decades, Brani Naval Base was the RSN's only base. An expansion of the fleet in the early 1980s meant that more space was needed for the fleet and its shore infrastructure. However, this was not possible as the land around Brani was reserved for use by the port authority to develop container facilities.[31] As a result, Tuas was selected as the site for a second naval base.

Better utilisation of space at TNB resulted in two and a half times more berthing space than Brani, even though TNB only has a shoreline of 850 m (0.5 mi). Provision was also made for recreational facilities. Automation was incorporated into the design of TNB to reduce manpower requirements, such as mechanical ramps for the loading and unloading of vehicles and an automatic storage and retrieval system. It also has a floating dock which can lift 600 tonnes and transfer a ship from sea to land to facilitate repairs and maintenance.[32]

Currently, the missile corvettes, patrol vessels and mine counter-measures vessels are based at TNB.

Changi Naval Base

Entrance to Changi Naval Base (CNB).

Changi Naval Base (CNB) is the latest naval facility of the RSN and was built to replace Brani Naval Base. Located on 1.28 km² (0.50 mi²) of reclaimed land at the eastern tip of Singapore, it was officially opened on 21 May 2004 by Goh Chok Tong.

Its 6.2 km (3.9 mi) berthing space can accommodate an aircraft carrier and is often used by visiting ships of the USN.[33]

Automation was incorporated into the design of CNB to reduce manpower requirements. It has an automated underground ammunition depot that allows ammunition to be loaded onto the ships and an automated warehouse system to store items. The base has a fibre optic broadband network for information management. The base was also designed to be environment-friendly, with small-scale wind turbines powering the lights along the breakwaters at night. Conventional roof construction materials were substituted by thin film solar panels and the solar energy generated lights the base. In addition, seawater is used in the air-conditioning system.[34]

Currently, the submarines, frigates and amphibious transport docks are based at CNB. Also co-located in CNB is the Changi Naval Training Base, also known as RSS Panglima - named in honour of the first ship of the navy.[35]

In popular culture

Fictional television programs

  • Navy, first telecast 17 July 1990
  • Be Somebody, first telecast 25 May 2004

References

  1. ^ Huxley, Tim (2001). Defending the Lion City. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-118-3.  
  2. ^ "Factsheet - History of the SAF Day Parade". MINDEF. http://www.nexus.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2004/jul/01jul04_nr2/01jul04_fs.html.  
  3. ^ "History". Republic of Singapore Navy. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/navy/profile.html. Retrieved 2004-09-26.  
  4. ^ "Organisation Structure". Republic of Singapore Navy. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/mindef_websites/atozlistings/navy/about_us/org_structure.html. Retrieved 2007-04-20.  
  5. ^ "Navy News Issue 1/2009: Taken to Task!". Republic of Singapore Navy. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/mindef_websites/atozlistings/navy/newsevents/2009.-imindefPars-0134-DownloadFile.tmp/Navy1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-15.  
  6. ^ "SAF sets up integrated maritime security task force". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/publications/cyberpioneer/news/2009/February/23feb09_news.html. Retrieved 2009-03-21.  
  7. ^ "Challenger". Kockums. http://www.kockums.se/Submarines/challenger.html. Retrieved 2005-02-04.  
  8. ^ "Submarine Tropicalisation Programme". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/display.asp?number=945. Retrieved 2005-03-26.  
  9. ^ "The Republic of Singapore Navy". Navy League of Australia. http://navyleag.customer.netspace.net.au/fc_07ros.htm. Retrieved 2005-02-26.  
  10. ^ "Kockums receives Singapore order to two submarines". Kockums. http://www.kockums.se/news/oldnews/051104order.html. Retrieved 2005-11-19.  
  11. ^ "Singapore Navy Launches its First Archer-Class Submarine". Singapore Ministry of Defence. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2009/jun/16jun09_nr.html. Retrieved 2009-06-16.  
  12. ^ Choong, William (17 June), "New subs not sign of regional arms race", The Straits Times: A21  
  13. ^ Chow, Jermyn (18 June), "Silent Hunter", The Straits Times: B5  
  14. ^ "ST Marine Launches RSN Submarine Support and Rescue Ship". Defenseworld.net. http://www.defenseworld.net/go/defensenews.jsp?subcatid=107&id=2326&h=ST%20Marine%20Launches%20RSN%20Submarine%20Support%20Rescue%20Ship. Retrieved 2009-06-24.  
  15. ^ "Singapore Hosts Regional Submarine Conference". Singapore Ministry of Defense. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2009/jun/23jun09_nr2.html. Retrieved 2009-06-24.  
  16. ^ "Formidable Frigate". DCNS. http://www.dcn.fr/us/offre/batiments_surface/formidable.html. Retrieved 2007-05-28.  
  17. ^ Minnick, Wendell (2007-05-14). "Singapore’s Navy Cruises Toward Blue-Water Force". Defence News (Army Times Publishing Company).  
  18. ^ "Stealth ships set for action". http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_326960.html. Retrieved 2009-01-18.  
  19. ^ "Target acquisition - MAST highlights missile-defense concepts". Defence Technology International. http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aw/dti0108/index.php?startpage=38. Retrieved 2008-02-12.  
  20. ^ "Victory Class Corvettes". Lürssen. http://www.luerssen.de/php/ship.php?pageid=13223.  
  21. ^ "1988 - RSN's Missile Corvettes". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/history/maturing_saf/v04n06_history.html. Retrieved 2004-09-26.  
  22. ^ "One dead in naval collision". BBC News. 4 January 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2626959.stm.  
  23. ^ "COSCOM Expands". Navy News (Ministry of Defence (Singapore)) (1). 2005. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/navy/navynews/documents/2005/0501.pdf. Retrieved 2005-03-17.  
  24. ^ "Characteristics of the Endurance class LST". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2001/apr/07apr01_nr/07apr01_fs.html. Retrieved 2004-09-26.  
  25. ^ "Speech by Dr Tony Tan Keng Yam, Deputy Prime Minister & Minister for Defence, on the Occasion of the Commissioning Ceremony for the RSN Landing Ship Tank, RSS Endurance & RSS Resolution Held on Saturday, 18 March 2000 at 10:00 AM at Tuas Naval Base". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/resources/speeches/2000/18mar00_speech.html. Retrieved 2006-10-17.  
  26. ^ "Safe in my wake". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/cyberpioneer/backissuesfeb1.htm. Retrieved 2005-03-26.  
  27. ^ "The Next Wave". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/publications/cyberpioneer/3g_saf/2005/features/may05_cs.html. Retrieved 2007-04-21.  
  28. ^ "Fast Patrol Boats TNC 45". Lürssen. http://www.luerssen.de/php/ship.php?pageid=13234.  
  29. ^ "1975 - Missile Gunboats". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/history/birth_of_saf/v05n01_history.html. Retrieved 2004-09-26.  
  30. ^ "Missile Gunboats Retire After 33 Years of Distinguished Service". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/news_and_events/nr/2008/may/13may08_nr2.html. Retrieved 2008-05-13.  
  31. ^ "Tuas Naval Base". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/history/maturing_saf/v04n09_history.html. Retrieved 2005-05-07.  
  32. ^ "Tuas Naval Base". MINDEF. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/history/maturing_saf/v07n09_history.html. Retrieved 2005-05-07.  
  33. ^ "Our Bases". Republic of Singapore Navy. http://www.mindef.gov.sg/navy/assets_bases.html. Retrieved 2005-03-04.  
  34. ^ "DSTA gives Changi Naval Base a 'green' edge". DSTA. http://www.dsta.gov.sg/home/DisplayPage/ContentPage12.asp?id=2166. Retrieved 2005-05-07.  
  35. ^ "2004 - Changi Naval Base". MINDEF. http://www.nexus.gov.sg/imindef/about_us/history/maturing_saf/v10n05_history.html.  

External links


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