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CAS number 57444-62-9
PubChem 104826
MeSH resiniferatoxin
Molecular formula C37H40O9
Molar mass 628.71 g/mol
Density 1.35 ± 0.1 g/cm³
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a naturally occurring, ultrapotent capsaicin analog[1] that activates the vanilloid receptor in a subpopulation of primary afferent sensory neurons involved in nociception (the transmission of physiological pain).[2][3] RTX causes a novel ion channel in the plasma membrane of sensory neurons — the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 — to become permeable to cations, most particularly the calcium cation; this evokes a powerful irritant effect followed by desensitization and analgesia.[4][5]

Research is being conducted at the National Institutes of Health[6][7] and the University of Pennsylvania[8] to design a novel class of analgesics from the latex of resin spurge (Euphorbia resinifera), a cactus-like plant commonly found in Morocco that contains high concentrations of RTX.

A total synthesis of (+)-resiniferatoxin was completed by the Wender group at Stanford University in 1997.[9] As of 2007, this represents the only complete total synthesis of any member of the daphnane family of molecules.[10]

See also


  1. ^ *Christopher S. J. Walpole, et al. (1996). "Similarities and Differences in the Structure-Activity Relationships of Capsaicin and Resiniferatoxin Analogues". J. Med. Chem. 39: 2939–2952. doi:10.1021/jm960139d.  
  2. ^ Szallasi A, Blumberg PM (1989). "Resiniferatoxin, a phorbol-related diterpene, acts as an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, the irritant constituent in red pepper". Neuroscience 30 (2): 515–20. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90269-8.  
  3. ^ Szallasi A, Blumberg PM (1990). "Resiniferatoxin and its analogs provide novel insights into the pharmacology of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor". Life Sci. 47 (16): 1399–408. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(90)90518-V.  
  4. ^ Szallasi A, Blumberg PM (1992). "Vanilloid receptor loss in rat sensory ganglia associated with long term desensitization to resiniferatoxin". Neurosci Lett. 140 (1): 51–4. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(92)90679-2.  
  5. ^ Olah Z et al. (2001). "Ligand-induced dynamic membrane changes and cell deletion conferred by vanilloid receptor 1". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (14): 11021–30. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008392200. PMID 11124944.  
  6. ^ Neubert JK et al. (2003). "Peripherally induced resiniferatoxin analgesia". Pain 104 (1-2): 219–28. doi:10.1016/S0304-3959(03)00009-5.  
  7. ^ Karai L et al. (2004). "Deletion of vanilloid receptor 1-expressing primary afferent neurons for pain control". J Clin Invest. 113 (9): 1344–52.  
  8. ^ Brown DC et al. (2005). "Physiologic and antinociceptive effects of intrathecal resiniferatoxin in a canine bone cancer model". Anesthesiology 103 (5): 1052–9. doi:10.1097/00000542-200511000-00020.  
  9. ^ Wender, P.A. (1997). "The First Synthesis of a Daphnane Diterpene: The Enantiocontrolled Total Synthesis of (+)-Resiniferatoxin". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119: 12976–12977. doi:10.1021/ja972279y.  
  10. ^

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