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Respiratory System
Respiratory system complete en.svg
.A complete, schematic view of the human respiratory system.^ A life-size reproduction of the complete human respiratory system.
  • Lungs Model Respiratory System Pulmonary Bronchi 800-686-5232 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.buyamag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The oxides of both sulfur and nitrogen attack the human respiratory system.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Review Describes the various parts of the human respiratory system and then explains how that system brings fresh oxygen...
  • What Is The Respiratory System - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

Latin systema respiratorium
.The respiratory system's function is to allow gas exchange through all parts of the body.^ Functionally, the respiratory system consists of two parts: .
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The primary functions of the respiratory system .
  • The Anatomy of the Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lungs are a vital part of the respiratory system.
  • Respiratory System KWL | WELCOME TO THE USING TECHNOLOGY WITH CITW BLOG 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC sites.epals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The space between the alveoli and the capillaries, the anatomy or structure of the exchange system, and the precise physiological uses of the exchanged gases vary depending on organism.^ The gases move by diffusion between blood capillaries and alveoli.
  • Respiratory System - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internal respiration - the exchange of gases between the blood and the systemic tissues.
  • BIOL 238 Class Notes - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • BIOL 238 Class Notes - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC webanatomy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In humans and other mammals, for example, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles.^ The lower respiratory system includes the bronchial tubes and lungs.
  • Health: Respiratory Problems, Age 12 and Older; respiratory system . Upper respiratory system ... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]
  • New York Health - Respiratory Problems, Age 11 and Younger. respiratory system... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: General]

^ Lungs are a vital part of the respiratory system.
  • Respiratory System KWL | WELCOME TO THE USING TECHNOLOGY WITH CITW BLOG 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC sites.epals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a quick overview of the respiratory system including breathing, air, airway, lungs, heart, carbon dioxide, and lung health.
  • What Is The Respiratory System - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous external environment and the blood.^ The blood loses oxygen and gains carbon dioxide.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Blood pH .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The gases move by diffusion between blood capillaries and alveoli.
  • Respiratory System - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This exchange process occurs in the alveolar region of the lungs.^ They arise off of alveolar ducts , regions that simultaneously have a gas exchange function and serve as a final airway.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effect of cold actually slows the process of alveolar ventilation in the lungs responsible for the assimilation of oxygen into the blood.
  • Upper Respiratory System - East West School of Herbology - Come study with Michael Tierra 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.planetherbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alveolar suffocation, on the other hand, results from water in the alveoli of the lungs preventing the exchange of gasses.
  • The Physiology of the Respiratory System: Alternative Health Newsletter 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with very simple anatomical features, and in amphibians even the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange.^ The respiratory system’s work is very important.

^ In other words the respiratory system is vital to one's daily existence.
  • Respiratory System KWL | WELCOME TO THE USING TECHNOLOGY WITH CITW BLOG 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC sites.epals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The respiratory system allows gas exchange in living organisms.
  • Respiratory System KWL | WELCOME TO THE USING TECHNOLOGY WITH CITW BLOG 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC sites.epals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals.^ The respiratory system allows gas exchange in living organisms.
  • Respiratory System KWL | WELCOME TO THE USING TECHNOLOGY WITH CITW BLOG 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC sites.epals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reactions are reverse of systemic gas exchange .
  • Chapter 22 Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The exchange of oxygen and CO2 between systemic capillaries and tissue cells is called internal respiration or systemic gas exchange.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The respiratory system in plants also includes anatomical features such as holes on the undersides of leaves known as stomata.^ In addition, many of the defenses set up to protect the respiratory system become less efficient, leaving the system open to infections.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Includes information on the anatomy of the respiratory system, and includes a discussion of how the various parts work.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Simply put, a plant absorbs sunlight into chlorophyll (green pigment located in plant cells called chloroplasts) and takes in carbon dioxide from the air through stomata (microscopic openings on the underside of its leaves).
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Anatomy in vertebrates

Mammals

.For mammals, including humans, respiration is essential.^ The lungs, are not only the essential organs of respiration but they also perform few other cardinal functions in the general homeostasis of the human body.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In these organisms, the respiratory system can be subdivided into an upper respiratory tract and a lower respiratory tract based on anatomical features.^ Lower respiratory tract conduction system objectives: .
  • Chapter 22 Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The tract can be divided into an upper and a lower part.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This prevents food or liquids from passing into the lower respiratory tract.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.The upper respiratory tract includes the nasal passages, pharynx and the larynx, while the lower respiratory tract comprises the trachea(or windpipe), the primary bronchi and lungs.^ The lower respiratory system includes the bronchial tubes and lungs.
  • Health: Respiratory Problems, Age 12 and Older; respiratory system . Upper respiratory system ... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]
  • New York Health - Respiratory Problems, Age 11 and Younger. respiratory system... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: General]

^ Lower respiratory tract .
  • Chapter 22 Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These organs include the nasal cavity (or nose), pharynx (or throat), larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs.

.The respiratory system can also be divided into physiological, or functional, zones.^ The primary functions of the respiratory system .
  • The Anatomy of the Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name the function of the respiratory system.

^ Forms the initial segment of the upper respiratory tract divided anatomically into three regions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx (hypopharynx).

.These include the conducting zone (the region for gas transport from the outside atmosphere to just above the alveoli), the transitional zone, and the respiratory zone (the alveolar region where gas exchange occurs).^ Consists of the respiratory and conducting zones .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The contain the alveoli needed for gas exchange.

^ The gas exchange areas are the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and individual alveoli.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] (See also respiratory tract.)

Comparative anatomy and physiology

Horses
Horses are obligate nasal breathers. .That is, they are different from many other mammals in that they do not have the option of breathing through their mouths and must take in air through their nose.^ If the nose is plugged, we breathe through our mouth, for example.
  • The Physiology of the Respiratory System: Alternative Health Newsletter 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air is inhaled through the mouth or through the nose.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through the nose and mouth they are in direct connexion with the external atmosphere.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .(See also Respiratory system of the horse.^ ClueMBSD In doctors office trying to see what's wrong with my respiratory system.
  • Respiratory System - The Gaea News 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

^ Let’s See What You Have Learned * Use quizstar or any similar program Check the numbers that best illustrates the proper care for the respiratory system.

^ Structure of the respiratory system: The upper respiratory division (See Figure 23.2) includes the nasal cavity and pharynx .
  • BIOL 238 Class Notes - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: Academic]

)
Elephants
.The elephant is the only animal known to have no pleural space.^ The space between these layers, sometimes called the pleural space or cavity, is really only a potential space, normally just the layer of serous fluid secreted by the membranes.
  • BIOL 238 Class Notes - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Rather, the parietal and visceral pleura are both composed of dense connective tissue and joined to each other via loose connective tissue.^ The serous fluid binds the two layers together so that if the parietal layer is expanded by movement of the ribcage or diaphragm, so is the visceral pleura and so are the lungs.
  • BIOL 238 Class Notes - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC webanatomy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas the endothelial lining of the capillaries and the epithelial lining of the alveoli share a common basement membrane, in other areas, the two membranes are separated by a thin layer of loose connective tissue containing smooth muscle fibers, elastic fibers and few lymphocyte s .
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dense connective tissue that connect attach the cricoid cartilage to the inferior edge of the thyroid cartilage is called the cricothyroid ligament .
  • Respiratory system - The Anatomy Wiki 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC anatowiki.wetpaint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .This lack of a pleural space, along with an unusually thick diaphragm, are thought to be evolutionary adaptations allowing the elephant to remain underwater for long periods of time while breathing through its trunk which emerges as a snorkel.^ These patients can breathe because the motor roots of the phrenic nerve, innervating the diaphragm, emerge from the cervical portion of the spine above the lesion.
  • http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/TEXT1.htm 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The magnitude of the unevenness in V E distribution depends therefore on the curvilinearity of the pressure-volume curve and on the pleural pressure inequalities along the pleural space.
  • http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/TEXT1.htm 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ COMPRESSIVE ATELECTASIS .This type of pulmonary atelectasis is due to pressure against the lung or part of the lung by a filled pleural cavity , an elevated diaphragm, or a space-occupying pulmonary lesion and pneumothorax.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Birds

.The respiratory system of birds differs significantly from that found in mammals, containing unique anatomical features such as air sacs.^ The air that enters the respiratory system, ultimately reaches the alveolar sacs.

^ It was a quick overview of the respiratory system including breathing, air, airway, lungs, heart, carbon dioxide, and lung health.
  • What Is The Respiratory System - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ A major function of the upper airways is to warm and humidify air entering the respiratory system, which prevents drying and cooling of the delicate epithelial barrier in the lungs.
  • structure and function of the respiratory system 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.web-articles.info [Source type: Academic]

.The lungs of birds also do not have the capacity to inflate as birds lack a diaphragm and a pleural cavity.^ When the diaphragm (the dome-shaped sheet of muscle beneath the lungs that separates the thoracic chest cavity from the abdominal cavity) contracts, it flattens and moves downward.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If the chest wall is penetrated by a wound, air is readily sucked into the pleural cavity, separating the two pleural layers and collapsing the lung.
  • The Anatomy of the Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's formed from the mesoderm of the primitive pleural cavity into which the lung bud expands during organogenesis.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gas exchange in birds occurs between air capillaries and blood capillaries, rather than in alveoli.^ Gas exchange doesn't occur in bronchioles.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exchange of gases between the blood and the alveolar air is done at the level of the acinus.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ External respiration gas exchange between the lungs and the blood .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.See Avian respiratory system for a detailed description of these and other features.^ Also has a link that details the structure of the respiratory system.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Air flow through the avian respiratory system during inspiration (a) and expiration (b).
  • Bird Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The portion considered as part of the respiratory system is known as naso and laryngeo pharynx, the other segment is the oropharynx.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

Reptiles

.The anatomical structure of the lungs is less complex in reptiles than in mammals, with reptiles lacking the very extensive airway tree structure found in mammalian lungs.^ It destroys the delicate structures of the lungs and the tracheobronchial tree.

^ Inspired pulmonary ventilation is usually slightly larger than expired ventilation ( V E ) because the ratio between CO 2 produced and O 2 used is less than 1, but the difference is very small.
  • http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/TEXT1.htm 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Airflow in mammalian lungs is bidirectional during the respiratory cycle, with highly reduced airflow in peripheral structures, i.e., bronchioles and, particularly, the gas-exchanging alveoli.
  • Bird Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Gas exchange in reptiles still occurs in alveoli, however.^ The contain the alveoli needed for gas exchange.

^ Gas exchange doesn't occur in bronchioles.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alveoli that make up the sacs are the site of gas exchange or external respiration.

Reptiles do not possess a diaphragm. .Thus, breathing occurs via a change in the volume of the body cavity which is controlled by contraction of intercostal muscles in all reptiles except turtles.^ Exhalation becomes active only during forceful breathing as occurs while playing a wind instrument or during exercise, when the abdominal and internal intercostals contract.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Because of the differences in V O 2 /kg and V E /kg among species, it is conceivable that the main regulatory feedback loops controlling the breathing pattern vary with body size, possibly contributing to, or caused by, the differences in V E .
  • http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/TEXT1.htm 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In exhalation, the diaphragm moves upward and the chest wall muscles relax, causing the chest cavity to contract.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In turtles, contraction of specific pairs of flank muscles governs inspiration or expiration.^ The process of inspiration is active and requires energy for muscle contraction.
  • Upper Respiratory System - East West School of Herbology - Come study with Michael Tierra 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.planetherbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, expansion and contraction of the flexible ribs and the chest can aid in inspiration and expiration.
  • The Physiology of the Respiratory System: Alternative Health Newsletter 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.See also reptiles for more detailed descriptions of the respiratory system in these animals.^ Also has a link that details the structure of the respiratory system.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For more information on the Respiratory System: .
  • The Physiology of the Respiratory System: Alternative Health Newsletter 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cilia are an essential part of the respiratory system's defense mechanisms.
  • The Physiology of the Respiratory System: Alternative Health Newsletter 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Amphibians

Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. .The skin of these animals is highly vascularized and moist, with moisture maintained via secretion of mucus from specialized cells.^ Note: In humans, these cells and their secretion develop towards the very end of the third trimester, just before birth.

^ Any excess of these can injure the lungs by depriving them of sufficient mucus to maintain proper lubrication (called lung yin).
  • Upper Respiratory System - East West School of Herbology - Come study with Michael Tierra 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.planetherbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On microscopic examination, the goblet cells are hypertrophic and loaded with mucus secretion, the submucosa is edematous and infiltrated with few inflammatory cells, predominantly neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.While the lungs are of primary importance to breathing control, the skin's unique properties aid rapid gas exchange when amphibians are submerged in oxygen-rich water.^ Importance of hypoxic vasoconstriction in maintaining oxygenation during acute lung injury.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Like the leaves of a tree, the lungs contain the sites of gas exchange.

^ The exchange of oxygen and CO2 between systemic capillaries and tissue cells is called internal respiration or systemic gas exchange.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

[7]

Fish

.In most fish the respiration takes place through gills.^ Fish and most other aquatic animals use gills for respiration.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Carbon dioxide, produced as a waste product by the fish's cells, diffuses from the capillaries through the gills into the passing water.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Respiration takes place as soon as oxygen enters the body.

(See also aquatic respiration.) .Lungfish, however, do possess one or two lungs.^ On entering the lungs, the primary bronchi divide to form the secondary (lobar) bronchi , one for each lobe of the lung ( three on the right and two on the left ).
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The labyrinth fish have developed a special organ that allows them to take advantage of the oxygen of the air, but is not a true lung.^ The process of taking air into the lungs.

^ Once air has filled the lungs, the oxygen in that air must be transported to all the cells in the body.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It's within these 'air capillaries' that the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the lungs & the blood occurs.
  • Bird Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

Anatomy in invertebrates

Insects

.Air enters the respiratory system of most insects through a series of external openings called spiracles.^ The air that enters the respiratory system, ultimately reaches the alveolar sacs.

^ The respiratory system is also called the tree.

^ This is called the respiratory system.

.These external openings, which act as muscular valves in some insects, lead to the internal respiratory system, a densely-networked array of tubes called trachea.^ These tubes are called endoscopes and are used to assess the condition of the passages of the respiratory system.

^ The respiratory system is also called the tree.

^ This is called the respiratory system.

.The tracheal system within an individual is composed of interconnecting transverse and longitudinal tracheae which maintain equivalent pressure throughout the system.^ The respiratory system is basically composed of the nares (nostrils), nasal cavity, sinuses within the skull, pharynx (back of the mouth), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi (the branches of the trachea going into the lungs), and the lungs.
  • Respiratory System: Anatomy & Function in Cats 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Air flow is driven by changes in pressure within the respiratory system: .
  • Bird Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout the period of these measurements, PaCO2 constantly maintained normocapnia and arterial blood pressure was kept within normal range.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These tracheae branch repeatedly, eventually forming tracheoles, which are blind-ended, water-filled compartments only one micrometer in diameter.^ The alveolar ducts will branch and terminate in blind-ended alveolar sacs.

^ These are perhaps only some of the physiological reasons that either crying or laughing tend to make one feel better.
  • Upper Respiratory System - East West School of Herbology - Come study with Michael Tierra 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.planetherbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lining of all bronchi is TRE. In the image on the right you can also see one of the large arteries that run alongside the bronchi: these are branches of the pulmonary artery.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .It is at this level of the tracheoles that oxygen is delivered to the cells for respiration.^ The exchange of oxygen and CO2 between systemic capillaries and tissue cells is called internal respiration or systemic gas exchange.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ You will also know how these structures work together to bring oxygen to the cells of the body in the process called respiration.

^ Find this article online Gnaiger E, Kuznetsov AV 21 (2002) Mitochondrial respiration at low levels of oxygen and cytochrome c.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: A Biophysical Model of the Mitochondrial Respiratory System and Oxidative Phosphorylation 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.Insects were once believed to exchange gases with the environment continuously by the simple diffusion of gases into the tracheal system.^ Permit gas exchange by simple diffusion .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The exchange of gases — oxygen and carbon dioxide — occurs through diffusion, much like in human lungs.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ So, in bird lungs, more oxygen is available to diffuse into the blood ( avian respiratory system ).
  • Bird Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

.More recently, however, large variation in insect ventilatory patterns have been documented and insect respiration appears to be highly variable.^ Even in cold-blooded animals, however, oxidation appears to be more rapid the smaller the animal.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More recently, this has been treated in these infants with humidicribs and various surfactant therapies.

^ Missing image Respiratorysystemtanatomy-8.jpg I. In all the more highly organized animals there are special respiratory organs: the lungs in the higher vertebrates; the gills in fishes; the tracheae in insects; and various rudimentary forms of lungs or gills in other higher invertebrates.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some small insects do demonstrate continuous respiration and may lack muscular control of the spiracles.^ CONCLUSION: We have clearly demonstrated that lidocaine may produce direct bronchoconstriction and worsen some agonist-induced bronchoconstriction, but it prevents reflex airway constriction.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is still the carbon dioxide stimulus that regulates the breathing, although with excessive muscular work other accessory factors may come in to some extent.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other tumors with very high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios (such as some lymphomas) may demonstrate nuclear molding.

.Others, however, utilize muscular contraction of the abdomen along with coordinated spiracle contraction and relaxation to generate cyclical gas exchange patterns.^ Any two neighboring alveoli are separated from each other by a blood vessel, which is therefore exposed to the air on either side, facilitating gas exchange.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is because branches of the pulmonary artery travel along the respiratory tree to become distributed in a capillary network over the alveoli, where gas exchange occurs.

^ During ideal gas exchange, blood flow and ventilation would perfectly match each other, resulting in no alveolar-arterial PO 2 difference.
  • Respiratory Failure: eMedicine Critical Care 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most extreme form of these patterns is termed discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGC).^ All of these structures bear alveoli, the tiny air sacs in which the gas exchange takes place.

^ These provide an enormous surface area-roughly the size of a tennis court — for gas exchange.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, the unidirectional flow design offers an opportunity for extremely efficient gas exchange [ Fig.6 ].
  • http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/TEXT1.htm 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

[9]

Mollusks

.Mollusks generally possess gills that allow exchange of oxygen from an aqueous environment into the circulatory system.^ The exchange of oxygen and CO2 between systemic capillaries and tissue cells is called internal respiration or systemic gas exchange.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This system provides oxygen, gets rid of the carbon dioxide, and allows you to speak.
  • Langkawi Yoga - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.langkawi-yoga.com [Source type: General]

^ The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen in the air to be taken into the body, while also enabling the body to get rid of carbon dioxide in the air breathed out.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These animals also possess a heart that pumps blood which contains hemocyanin as its oxygen-capturing molecule.^ Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All of these substances contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in known, though different, proportions, and the former also contains a known amount of nitrogen and a little sulphur .
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Return of the oxygenated blood to the heart occurs by way of the four pulmonary veins, which drain into the left atrium.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Hence, this respiratory system is similar to that of vertebrate fish.^ Vertebrate lungs: structure, topography and mechanics: A comparative perspective of the progressive integration of respiratory system, locomotor apparatus and ontogenetic development .
  • Bird Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC people.eku.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In vertebrates, two systems of pipes with their respective pumps convey gases to and from the cells, the respiratory system, which operates with a gaseous or liquid medium, and the cardiovascular system, in which blood represents the convection medium.
  • http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/TEXT1.htm 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Let’s See What You Have Learned * Use quizstar or any similar program Check the numbers that best illustrates the proper care for the respiratory system.

.The respiratory system of gastropods can include either gills or a lung.^ The lower respiratory system includes the bronchial tubes and lungs.
  • Health: Respiratory Problems, Age 12 and Older; respiratory system . Upper respiratory system ... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]
  • New York Health - Respiratory Problems, Age 11 and Younger. respiratory system... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: General]

^ It was a quick overview of the respiratory system including breathing, air, airway, lungs, heart, carbon dioxide, and lung health.
  • What Is The Respiratory System - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ This...either involving the lungs and respiratory system or signals from the brain that control breathing.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

Physiology in mammals

.For more detailed descriptions see also Respiratory physiology or Respiration.^ [See pp 530-535 of Ross et al., 3rd edition for more details.

^ For more information, see the topic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) .
  • New York Health - Respiratory Problems, Age 11 and Younger. respiratory system... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: General]

^ However, a CT scan gives a more detailed picture of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system.

Ventilation

.Ventilation of the lungs is carried out by the muscles of respiration.^ When the muscle moves forward (towards the animal's head), it causes the lungs to compress and force air out (exhale), thus ridding the body of used air.
  • Respiratory System: Anatomy & Function in Cats 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pulmonary ventilation moving air into and out of the lungs .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For experation there are different muscles involved: the internal intercostal muscles which lie deep to the external intercostal muscles and upon contraction forces the lungs to expire waste material out of the lungs.
  • Respiratory system - The Anatomy Wiki 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC anatowiki.wetpaint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Control

.Ventilation occurs under the control of the autonomic nervous system from parts of the brain stem, the medulla oblongata and the pons.^ The breathing is regulated from a nervous centre situated in the medulla oblongata, which is the lowest part of the brain .
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internal Wind refers to the nervous system, especially the Central nervous system of the brain.
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^ The medullary rhythmicity area in the medulla oblongata controls the basic rhythm of respiration (inspiratory and expiratory areas).
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This area of the brain forms the respiration regulatory center, a series of interconnected brain cells within the lower and middle brain stem which coordinate respiratory movements.^ According to the evidence at present available, it is only within living cells that the respiratory oxygen is consumed and the carbon dioxide formed.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The upper part of each of these long tubes or stem bronchi is outside the lung and in the middle mediastinum of the thorax, the lower part embedded in the substance of the lung.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by groups of neurons in the brain stem.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The sections are the pneumotaxic center, the apneustic center, and the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups.^ That area is the apneustic center and the pneumotaxic center .
  • Respiratory system - The Anatomy Wiki 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC anatowiki.wetpaint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dorsal respiratory group (DRG), or inspiratory center: .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The area from which nerve impulses are sent to respiratory muscles is called the respiratory center and consists of groups of neurons functionally divided into three areas.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

This section is especially sensitive during infancy, and the neurons can be destroyed if the infant is dropped and/or shaken violently. The result can be death due to "shaken baby syndrome."[10]

Inhalation

.Inhalation is initiated by the diaphragm and supported by the external intercostal muscles.^ (Muscles of inhalation: SCM, scalenes, pectoralis minor, external intercostals and the diaphragm .
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The respiratory muscles are the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first step in expanding the lungs during normal quiet inhalation involves contraction of the main muscles of inhalation the diaphragm and external intercostals.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Normal resting respirations are 10 to 18 breaths per minute, with a time period of 2 seconds.^ What is the normal resting minute volume?
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In different individuals the frequency of breathing varies considerably - from about 7 to 25 per minute, the depth of each breath varying about inversely as the frequency.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During muscular work the volume of air breathed may be six or eight times as much as during rest.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During vigorous inhalation (at rates exceeding 35 breaths per minute), or in approaching respiratory failure, accessory muscles of respiration are recruited for support.^ Excites the inspiratory muscles and sets eupnea (12-15 breaths/minute) .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From the data obtained we may conclude that the respiratory volume per minute in man is about 366 cub.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In different individuals the frequency of breathing varies considerably - from about 7 to 25 per minute, the depth of each breath varying about inversely as the frequency.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These consist of sternocleidomastoid, platysma, and the scalene muscles of the neck.
.Under normal conditions, the diaphragm is the primary driver of inhalation.^ The foregoing facts enable us to understand the regulation of breathing under normal conditions.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under normal circumstances, energy is expended during inhalation, but not during exhalation.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The breathing is thus so regulated as to keep the percentage of carbon dioxide constant; and under normal conditions this regulation is surprisingly exact.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the diaphragm contracts, the ribcage expands and the contents of the abdomen are moved downward.^ When the diaphragm is stimulated to contact, it moves downward.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the diaphragm (the dome-shaped sheet of muscle beneath the lungs that separates the thoracic chest cavity from the abdominal cavity) contracts, it flattens and moves downward.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Upon inhalation the diaphragm is pushed down and puts pressure on the abdomen and all its contents including the intra-abdominal veins.
  • Upper Respiratory System - East West School of Herbology - Come study with Michael Tierra 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.planetherbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This results in a larger thoracic volume and negative (suction) pressure (with respect to atmospheric pressure) inside the thorax.^ This action reduces the pressure inside the lungs relative to the pressure of the outside atmospheric air.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At sea level the air pressure inside the lungs just before each inhalation is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere, which at sea level is about 760 millimeters of mercury or 1 atmosphere .
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For inhalation to occur, the lungs must expand, which increases lung volume and thus decreases the pressure in the lungs to below atmospheric pressure.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.As the pressure in the chest falls, air moves into the conducting zone.^ Air moves in down the pressure gradient .
  • LECTURE: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC mason.gmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Conduction zone is where the air goes.

^ The Conducting Zone - area which conducts air into the lungs.
  • BIOL 238 Class Notes - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.unm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • BIOL 238 Class Notes - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC webanatomy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here, the air is filtered, warmed, and humidified as it flows to the lungs.^ They filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Warms, filter, clean, and humidifies air.

^ Warm and humidify air b.
  • ANS 331: Respiration 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC tw3a.siuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During forced inhalation, as when taking a deep breath, the external intercostal muscles and accessory muscles aid in further expanding the thoracic cavity.^ Which muscles help increase the size of the thoracic cavity during forced inspiration?
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Take a deep breath and then let it out.
  • What Is The Respiratory System - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ During deep, labored breathing, accessory muscles of inhalation include the SCM, scalenes and pectoralis minors).
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

Exhalation

.Exhalation is generally a passive process; however, active or forced exhalation is achieved by the abdominal and the internal intercostal muscles.^ Internal intercostal muscles .
  • Chapter 22 Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Forced exhalation is an active process that requires muscle contraction.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Exhalation becomes active only during forceful breathing as occurs while playing a wind instrument or during exercise, when the abdominal and internal intercostals contract.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.During this process air is forced or exhaled out.^ This forces more air out of the lungs.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the muscle moves forward (towards the animal's head), it causes the lungs to compress and force air out (exhale), thus ridding the body of used air.
  • Respiratory System: Anatomy & Function in Cats 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon dioxide, which is produced during the process of diffusion, moves out of these cells into the capillaries, where most of it is dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lungs have a natural elasticity: as they recoil from the stretch of inhalation, air flows back out until the pressures in the chest and the atmosphere reach equilibrium.^ Gases flow out of the lungs down the pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Inhalation (or inspiration) occurs when air flows into the lungs.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This forces more air out of the lungs.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

[11]
.During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles, generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, which forces air out of the lungs.^ Intercostal muscles contract and shrink the chest wall during forced exhalation.
  • Respiratory System/Pulmonary Anatomy - pulmonologychannel 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.pulmonologychannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internal intercostal muscles .
  • Chapter 22 Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This forces more air out of the lungs.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

Gas exchange

.The major function of the respiratory system is gas exchange between the external environment and an organism's circulatory system.^ Functions of the respiratory system .
  • Respiratory System: Anatomy & Function in Cats 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Name the function of the respiratory system.

^ The only externally visible part of the respiratory system that functions by: .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In humans and mammals, this exchange facilitates oxygenation of the blood with a concomitant removal of carbon dioxide and other gaseous metabolic wastes from the circulation.^ The blood loses oxygen and gains carbon dioxide.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The exchange of carbon dioxide from the blood with oxygen from the alveoli is called _respiration.

^ The exchange of gases — oxygen and carbon dioxide — occurs through diffusion, much like in human lungs.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.As gas exchange occurs, the acid-base balance of the body is maintained as part of homeostasis.^ The lungs play an important role in maintaining acid base balance in the body.

^ This is the first place where gas exchange can occur .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ncwc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Gas exchange occurs exclusively in the alveoli.
  • Human Anatomy Chapter 24 -- Evolution Atlas 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC cwx.prenhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If proper ventilation is not maintained, two opposing conditions could occur: respiratory acidosis, a life threatening condition, and respiratory alkalosis.^ Copd Drugs Diagnosing Respiratory Infections in Cats Correctly diagnosing the cause of your cat's respiratory problems could save his/her life.

^ The respiratory system functions to maintain proper levels of CO2 and I2 and is very responsive to changes in the levels of either in body fluids.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In either case this condition when associated with edema and profuse mucus secretion may interfere with the proper aeration of the lower respiratory tree and may even be life threatening because of the possibility of laryngeal obstruction and suffocation.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Upon inhalation, gas exchange occurs at the alveoli, the tiny sacs which are the basic functional component of the lungs.^ The contain the alveoli needed for gas exchange.

^ Tissues within the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Like the leaves of a tree, the lungs contain the sites of gas exchange.

.The alveolar walls are extremely thin (approx.^ The alveolar walls are extremely thin (approx.
  • Respiratory System | ENCOGNITIVE.COM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encognitive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The bronchioles are lined with cuboidal epithelium (Type I pneumocytes) and the alveoli with a thin squamous type that covers the capillaries in the connective tissue of the alveolar walls.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alveolar wall is lined by a very thin (as thin as 25 nm) squamous epithelium (so-called Type I cells) covered with a thin film of fluid rich in hydrophilic phospholipid.
  • Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 11: Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.anatomyatlases.org [Source type: Reference]

0.2 micrometres). .These walls are composed of a single layer of epithelial cells (type I and type II epithelial cells) in close proximity to the pulmonary capillaries which are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells.^ A layer of Type I and II alveolar cells and associated alveolar macrophages that constitutes the alveolar wall .
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The endothelial cells of the capillary.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Are a single layer of type I epithelial cells .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The close proximity of these two cell types allows permeability to gases and, hence, gas exchange.^ Type I pneumocytes are involved in gaseous exchange.

^ These granules are characteristic of what cell type?

^ Type I cells are the main sites of gas exchange .
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This whole mechanism of gas exchange is carried by the simple phenomenon of pressure difference.^ Permit gas exchange by simple diffusion .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After gas exchange occurs in the lungs, the pulmonary capillaries carry the oxygenated (carrying oxygen) blood toward the heart.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Application of PLV+PEEP 10 initial did not change gas exchange, lung mechanics, or hemodynamics.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When the atmospheric pressure is low outside the air from lungs flow out.^ Air flows into the lungs, down its pressure gradient, until intrapleural pressure = atmospheric pressure .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Inspiration air flows into the lungs .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Gases flow out of the lungs down the pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When the air pressure is low inside, then the vice versa.^ Air moves into the lungs when the air pressure inside the lungs is less than the air pressure in the atmosphere and out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Air pressure in the chest cavity and lungs is reduced, and because gas flows from high pressure to low, air from the environment flows through the nose or mouth into the lungs.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At sea level the air pressure inside the lungs just before each inhalation is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere, which at sea level is about 760 millimeters of mercury or 1 atmosphere .
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

Non-respiratory functions

Vocalization

.The movement of gas through the larynx, pharynx and mouth allows humans to speak, or phonate.^ Air pressure in the chest cavity and lungs is reduced, and because gas flows from high pressure to low, air from the environment flows through the nose or mouth into the lungs.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vocalization, or singing, in birds occurs via the syrinx, an organ located at the base of the trachea.^ Larynx (LAR-ingks): Organ between the pharynx and trachea that contains the vocal cords.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ RESULTS: The results show that vortices occur immediately above the vocal folds and that the location and shape of the vortices depend on the phase of the phonation cycle.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The vibration of air flowing across the larynx (vocal chords), in humans, and the syrinx, in birds, results in sound.^ It contains the vocal cords that vibrate when air is expired to produce sound.

^ Sound originates from the vibration of the vocal folds, but the pharynx, mouth, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses all act as resonating chambers that give the voice its human and individual quality.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Loudness depends upon the force at which the air rushes across the vocal cords .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

Because of this, gas movement is extremely vital for communication purposes.

Temperature control

.Panting in dogs and some other animals provides a means of controlling body temperature.^ This means that it provides some moisture to the air because dry air is bad for the body.

^ Humans, like other animals, are able to breathe because of a special system that allows oxygen to be taken into the body.

^ If we were to perform the same operation of removing a part of the chest wall in a body not first frozen we should find, on the other hand, that the contents of the thorax are not by any means in such circumstances bulky enough to fill up the space provided for them.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This physiological response is used as a cooling mechanism.

Coughing and sneezing

.Irritation of nerves within the nasal passages or airways, can induce coughing and sneezing.^ Irritation of airways: coughing or sneezing results.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Symptoms may include cough, mild sore throat, nasal congestion, runny nose or sneezing, and occasionally a fever of 101 °F (38 °C) or lower.
  • Health: Respiratory Problems, Age 12 and Older; respiratory system . Upper respiratory system ... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]

^ With retention of the secretion, the nerve endings of the area are stimulated to trigger a cough reflex that remain in action until the entire passage is clear or the reflex is curtailed through medication.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These responses cause air to be expelled forcefully from the trachea or nose, respectively.^ The first of these organs, where air passes, is the nose.

^ These plates, called nasal conchae, help to slow down the passage of air, causing it to swirl in the nasal cavity.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, air can be forcefully expelled, such as during talking, singing, or playing a musical wind instrument.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this manner, irritants caught in the mucus which lines the respiratory tract are expelled or moved to the mouth where they can be swallowed.^ Cilia lining the nose and other parts of the upper respiratory tract move back and forth, pushing foreign matter that comes in with air (like dust) either toward the nostrils to be expelled or toward the pharynx.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some particles are swallowed and inactivated in the stomach, the smaller particles are trapped distally in the mucus layer of the respiratory passages.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Tobacco smoke also contains tars and other chemicals that damage the delicate cells in the mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

Development in animals

Humans and mammals

.The respiratory system lies dormant in the human fetus during pregnancy.^ The oxides of both sulfur and nitrogen attack the human respiratory system.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A life-size reproduction of the complete human respiratory system.
  • Lungs Model Respiratory System Pulmonary Bronchi 800-686-5232 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.buyamag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All forms of air pollution have some harmful effect on humans, especially on the respiratory system and its parts.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.At birth, the respiratory system becomes fully functional upon exposure to air, although some lung development and growth continues throughout childhood.^ Name the function of the respiratory system.

^ What are the functions of the respiratory system?
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Descriptors: methods and techniques, pharmacology, respiratory system, respiration, right pneumonectomy, experimental surgical techniques, laboratory techniques, alveolar cellular growth, cardiac output, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, lung air, lung function, lung volume, resting pulmonary function, septal volume, tissue volume, transpulmonary pressure.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Pre-term birth can lead to infants with under-developed lungs.^ PULMONARY ATELECTASIS Atelectasis which is a failure of expansion or collapse of the lung tissue that leads to loss of lung volume may be present at birth (neonatal atelectasis) or may appear after birth (acquired atelectasis).
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vicodin Lung Function at Birth May Predict Asthma Risk A new study suggests that healthy infants' lung function at birth may provide clues to their future respiratory health.

.These lungs show incomplete development of the alveolar type II cells, cells that produce surfactant.^ These substances can also attack the cells of the lungs.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The walls of alveoli consist of Type I and Type II alveolar cells .
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ What is the function of the Type I alveolar cells?
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The lungs of pre-term infants may not function well because the lack of surfactant leads to increased surface tension within the alveoli.^ Surface tension of the alveoli .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A dysfunction of either Organ can impair Fluid metabolism in the body, leading to either urinary incontinence or retention, or a Deficiency of Lung Yin from lack of moisture returning to the Lungs.
  • Upper Respiratory System - East West School of Herbology - Come study with Michael Tierra 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.planetherbs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surface tension of alveolar fluid draws alveoli to their smallest possible size .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, many alveoli collapse such that no gas exchange can occur within some or most regions of an infant's lungs, a condition termed respiratory distress syndrome.^ This condition is often associated with the Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the newborn.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A deficiency of surfactant in premature infants causes respiratory distress syndrome.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The contain the alveoli needed for gas exchange.

.Basic scientific experiments, carried out using cells from chicken lungs, support the potential for using steroids as a means of furthering development of type II alveolar cells.^ Type II cells secrete surfactant .
  • Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Macrophages, which in the lung are called dust cells , are also present within the alveolar spaces, they play an important role in the clearing of the alveolar spaces.
  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC iris.nyit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After 3 hours of preservation and 4 hours of reperfusion, right native lungs and left transplanted lungs were used to measure alveolar liquid clearance (ALC) in ex vivo liquid-filled lung preparations.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[12] In fact, once a pre-mature birth is threatened, every effort is made to delay the birth, and a series of steroid shots is frequently administered to the mother during this delay in an effort to promote lung growth.[13]

Disease

Disorders of the respiratory system can be classified into four general areas:
.
  • Obstructive conditions (e.g., emphysema, bronchitis, asthma attacks)
  • Restrictive conditions (e.g., fibrosis, sarcoidosis, alveolar damage, pleural effusion)
  • Vascular diseases (e.g., pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension)
  • Infectious, environmental and other "diseases" (e.g., pneumonia, tuberculosis, asbestosis, particulate pollutants): Coughing is of major importance, as it is the body's main method to remove dust, mucus, saliva, and other debris from the lungs.^ Pleurisy with effusion is also frequently a complication of valvular heart disease and dilatation of the heart, and in such cases is often associated with the formation of superficial pulmonary infarcts.
    • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other cases of pneumonia we get a certain amount of serous effusion into the pleura; and sometimes, especially in children, the pneumonia is followed by the development of an empyema.
    • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Descriptors: cardiovascular system, transport and circulation, pharmacology, respiratory system, respiration, veterinary medicine, medical sciences, acute lung injury, injury, respiratory system disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, respiratory system disease, vascular disease, chemically induced, vascular disease, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mpap], systemic vascular resistance.
    • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Inability to cough can lead to infection. Deep breathing exercises may help keep finer structures of the lungs clear from particulate matter, etc.
.The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to microbes due to the extensive surface area, which is why the respiratory system includes many mechanisms to defend itself and prevent pathogens from entering the body.^ Food is prevented from entering the respiratory system through the closure of the epiglottis.

^ Affecting primarily the respiratory and digestive systems, CF causes mucus in the body to be abnormally thick and sticky.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to a reduced flow of blood to a given area of the body?
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Disorders of the respiratory system are usually treated internally by a pulmonologist.^ This means the respiratory system is not usually affected by...
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The following are some of the more serious — and often fatal — disorders and diseases that can impair the functioning of the respiratory system or its parts.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The respiratory system is susceptible to a number of diseases, and the lungs are prone to a wide range of disorders caused by pollutants in the air.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Plants

.Plants use carbon dioxide gas in the process of photosynthesis, and then exhale oxygen gas, a waste product of photosynthesis.^ Plants exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with Earth's atmosphere, but in a different process.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Carbon dioxide is the waste gas produced when carbon is combined with oxygen as part of the energy-making processes of the body.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the process, a by-product or waste called carbon dioxide is produced.

.However, plants also sometimes respire as humans do, taking in oxygen and producing carbon dioxide.^ Carbon dioxide, which is produced during the process of diffusion, moves out of these cells into the capillaries, where most of it is dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EXTERNAL RESPIRATION. After inhalation, the air in the alveoli contains a high concentration of oxygen and a low concentration of carbon dioxide.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cells continuously use oxygen (O2) for the metabolic reactions that release energy from nutrient molecules and produce ATP. At the same time, these reactions release carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Plant respiration is limited by the process of diffusion.^ Plant respiration is limited by the process of diffusion.
  • Respiratory System | ENCOGNITIVE.COM 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encognitive.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is indeed the case, and diffusion represents the basic physical process governing respiration [ Fig.2 ].
  • http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/resp-web/TEXT1.htm 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Plants take in carbon dioxide through holes on the undersides of their leaves known as stomata (sing:stoma).^ Simply put, a plant absorbs sunlight into chlorophyll (green pigment located in plant cells called chloroplasts) and takes in carbon dioxide from the air through stomata (microscopic openings on the underside of its leaves).
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The mechanical process by which the body takes in oxygen and then releases carbon dioxide is called breathing or pulmonary ventilation.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Carbon dioxide, produced as a waste product by the fish's cells, diffuses from the capillaries through the gills into the passing water.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, most plants require little air.^ If, however, air containing abnormally little oxygen is breathed, the normal relation between oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveolar air is disturbed.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Most plants have relatively few living cells outside of their surface because air (which is required for metabolic content) can penetrate only skin deep.^ Oxygen is the most important for keeping us alive because body cells need it for energy and growth.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large number of cell surface and cytoplasmic antigens are considered to be of diagnostic usefulness, but few or none are totally specific.

^ Type II (septal cells) are fewer in number and secrete alveolar fluid which keeps the surface between the cells and the air moist.
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.However, most plants are not involved in highly aerobic activities, and thus have no need of these living cells.^ Carbon dioxide, which is produced during the process of diffusion, moves out of these cells into the capillaries, where most of it is dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, non-NO-related mechanisms may also be involved.
  • Canine Models in Biomedical Research, 1990-2009 - Respiratory System: Animal Welfare Information Center 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxygen is the most important for keeping us alive because body cells need it for energy and growth.
  • Lungs and Respiratory System 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Notes

  1. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean, Hopkins Susan, Johnson Charles William, McLaughlin Maryanna Quon Warner David, LaHart Wright, Jill D. (2009). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs,: Prentice Hall. pp. 108–118. ISBN 0-12-981176-1. 
  2. ^ West, John B. (1995). Respiratory Physiology: the essentials, 5th Edition. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1–10. ISBN 0-683-08937-4. 
  3. ^ The Airways and The Lungs
  4. ^ West, John B.; Ravichandran (1993). "Snorkel breathing in the elephant explains the unique anatomy of its pleura". Respiration Physiology 126: 1–8. 
  5. ^ West, John B. (2002). "Why doesn't the elephant have a plural space?". News Physiol Sci 17: 47–50. 
  6. ^ Britannica On-line Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Gottlieb, G; Jackson DC (1976). "Importance of pulmonary ventilation in respiratory control in the bullfrog". Am J Physiol 230: 608–13. 
  8. ^ Introduction to Insect Anatomy
  9. ^ Lighton, JRB (January 1996). "Discontinuous gas exchange in insects". Annu Rev Entomology 41: 309–324. 
  10. ^ *Fact sheet on Shaken Baby Syndrome
  11. ^ A simple model of how the lungs are inflated can be built from a bell jar
  12. ^ Department of Environmental Biology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia
  13. ^ Pregnancy-facts.com

External links


Study guide

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^ If you answer yes to any of the following questions, click on the "Yes" in front of the question for information about how soon to see a health professional.
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^ Respiratory Starting a Respiratory Therapist Career in Ohio Learn how you can easily start a career as a respiratory therapist in Ohio.

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ The nature of alveoli can be hard to grasp from a section but you can refer to the sketch below for a better understanding of how the alveoli are built and how they relate to each other.
  • Exercise 25 Respiratory System I: Mammals 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC education.vetmed.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See significance of headache and body aches if you need information to help you answer the questions below.
  • Health: Respiratory Problems, Age 12 and Older; respiratory system . Upper respiratory system ... 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: General]

^ Each session is designed to make you fit and help you cope and prevent respiratory allergies and other diseases.
  • Langkawi Yoga - Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.langkawi-yoga.com [Source type: General]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Respiratory system" as an educational resource.^ In Lesson 1, you learned what the respiratory system is.

^ Our knowledgeable staff is here to help you find the information and resources you need.
  • Cystic Fibrosis and the Respiratory System - Carilion Clinic 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.carilionclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hide copyright information ) Copyright The Respiratory System .
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ Our knowledgeable staff is here to help you find the information and resources you need.
  • Cystic Fibrosis and the Respiratory System - Carilion Clinic 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.carilionclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Feel free to link to any page you wish.
  • Respiratory System - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you hold your breath, does your body start saying breath I need oxygen or does it say help the carbon dioxide levels that are out of whack?
  • Respiratory system - The Anatomy Wiki 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC anatowiki.wetpaint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wikipedia-logo.png .Run a search on Respiratory system at Wikipedia.^ Bird respiration from wikipedia This Wiki presents an overview of the bird's respiratory system.
  • Respiratory system and thermoregulation - Poultry Hub 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.poultryhub.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Jump to: navigation , search The respiratory system is one of the major systems of the body.
  • Respiratory system and thermoregulation - Poultry Hub 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.poultryhub.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Respiratory System Modelling Skip to content Skip to navigation Text only • Sign in Search: Search… .
  • Respiratory System Modelling 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www2.warwick.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

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.Without the Respiratory system in our body, we wouldn't be able to breathe, and live.^ The respiratory system is an important part of the body.
  • Respiratory System KWL | WELCOME TO THE USING TECHNOLOGY WITH CITW BLOG 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC sites.epals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a quick overview of the respiratory system including breathing, air, airway, lungs, heart, carbon dioxide, and lung health.
  • What Is The Respiratory System - Shop Smarter.com 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, carbon dioxide from the bodies cells is then taken via the circulatory system back to the respiratory system to be expelled from the body.
  • Respiratory System KWL | WELCOME TO THE USING TECHNOLOGY WITH CITW BLOG 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC sites.epals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parts of the Respiratory System

Nose

.When we breathe in, the air can be dry and cold.^ It's the reason you get a runny nose in cold air as the nasal tissue releases large quantities of fluid in an attempt to moisturize the cold dry air.
  • The Anatomy of the Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allergic reaction where IGE produced, exercise, or cold,dry air, asprin.

^ The first part of the airway (nose and mouth) is devoted to air conditioning -- warming up cold air, cooling hot air, moisturizing dry air, etc.
  • The Anatomy of the Respiratory System 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nose helps us make the air moist and warm.^ The nose also warms the air entering the body.

^ The first of the air passages is the nose, which filters, warms and humidifies the air entering the body.

^ The interior structures of the external nose warm, moisten and filter incoming air, detect olfactory stimuli and modify speech vibrations (resonance).
  • Respiratory 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www1.fccj.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The mouth does almost nothing to the air we breathe.^ Although it is almost impossible to be free from air pollution in modern urban areas, steps can be taken to reduce the amount of pollutants breathed in.
  • The Respiratory System – FREE The Respiratory System information | Encyclopedia.com: Find The Respiratory System research 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Forced breathing with air containing more than about 4% of carbon dioxide causes no apnoea, as the alveolar carbon dioxide does not fall.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is clear that the ventilation of the lungs in ordinary breathing does not merely depend on the quantity of air inspired at each breath, but also on the number of inspirations in a given time.
  • Respiratory system - LoveToKnow 1911 16 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


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1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Simple English

The respiratory system is the system of organs in a human or any breathing organism has. It is usually made up of lungs or gills, a trachea (or windpipe), and a mouth or nose.

There are four main requirements for a respiratory system:

  • It must remain moist at all times. If the respiratory system is dry, it does not have the essential elements of oxygen and carbon dioxide. It must be dissolved in water to be diffused across the membrane.
  • It must be thin so gases can pass through it.
  • There must be a source of oxygen.
  • It must be closely connected to the blood stream (which delivers gases to and from cells).

Problems in the respiratory system may result in asthma and other complications.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Respiratory system, which are similar to those in the above article.








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