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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reunion may refer to:

Contents

Geography

Architecture and sculpture

Film

  • Reunion (1989 film), a feature film directed by Jerry Schatzberg based on a screenplay written by Harold Pinter adapted from the novel by Fred Uhlman
  • Reunion (2001 film) (also known as American Reunion), a feature film directed by Leif Tilden and Mark Poppi
  • Reunion (1936 film), directed by Norman Taurog
  • The Dukes of Hazzard: Reunion!, a 1997 made-for-television film which reunites the surviving cast members of The Dukes of Hazzard
  • Reunion (2010 TVB film), an upcoming TVB film

Gaming

  • X3: Reunion, a computer game produced by Egosoft and released late 2005
  • Reunion (video game), a space strategy game developed by Amnesty Design in 1995

Literature

  • Force Heretic: Reunion, the third novel in a three-part story by Sean Williams and Shane Dix
  • Knights of the Old Republic: Reunion, a two-part story arc in the Knights of the Old Republic series of comic books
  • Reunion (Buffy comic), a comic based on the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel
  • Reunion (novel), a 2001 science fiction novel by Alan Dean Foster
  • Reunion (Star Trek), a 1991 novel by Michael Jan Friedman based in the Star Trek: The Next Generation universe
  • Reunion (novella), a novella by Fred Uhlman
  • Reunion (play), a play by David Mamet
  • Reunion (The Mediator) , a young-adult novel by Meg Cabot

Music

Television

  • Reunion with James Brolin (TV series), a 1990 realty television series hosted by James Brolin
  • "Reunion" (Star Trek: The Next Generation), a 1990 episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation
  • Dynasty: The Reunion, a 1991 mini-series which reunited the characters from the popular primetime television soap opera Dynasty
  • "Reunion" (Harsh Realm), the fifth episode of the short-lived Fox science-fiction action series Harsh Realm, first aired in 2000
  • "Reunion" (Angel), a 2000 episode of Angel
  • Reunion (TV series), a 2005 television series on FOX starring Matthew St. Patrick and Sean Faris
  • "Reunion: The Remaining Time", episode 182 of the anime series Naruto, first aired in 2006
  • "Reunion" (Stargate Atlantis), a 2007 episode of Stargate Atlantis
  • "Reunion" (30 Rock), a 2008 episode of 30 Rock

See also


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Flag
Image:re-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Saint-Denis
Government overseas department of France
Currency euro (EUR)
Area 2,517 sq km
Population 787,584 (July 2006 est.)
Language French (official), Creole widely used
Religion Roman Catholic 86%, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist (1995)
Electricity 230V/50Hz (French plug)
Calling Code +262
Internet TLD .re
Time Zone UTC +4

Reunion (French: Réunion [1]) is a French overseas territory located in the midst of the Indian Ocean, east of the island of Madagascar.

Map of Reunion
Map of Reunion
  • Saint-Denis, the capital of Reunion island
  • Saint-Gilles, situated on the west coast, where all the white sand beaches are.
  • Saint-Leu, a well-established city of surf.
  • Saint-Pierre, second most important town of Reunion Island
  • Etang-Salé, a small town on the west coast with one of the black (volcanic) sand beach
  • Saint-Benoit, where you can find the vanilla cooperative factory
  • Cilaos
  • Salazie
  • Mafate

Understand

The Portuguese discovered the uninhabited island in 1513. From the 17th to the 19th centuries, French immigration supplemented by influxes of Africans, Chinese, Malays, and Malabar Indians gave the island its ethnic mix. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cost the island its importance as a stopover on the East Indies trade route.

Although remote from mainland France (France métropolitaine), Réunion nonetheless officially forms an integral part of the Republic, representing its own département.

Get in

Passport and Visa

Reunion is an integral part of France so it has the same rules as France, which you can get from France's page.

By plane

The main airport is Roland Garros international Airport located near Saint-Denis (RUN). Companies flying to Reunion are Air France [2], Air Austral [3], Corsair [4] and Air Mauritius [5], with direct flights to Paris, Mauritius, Sydney, Bangkok among other destinations.

As always, consider a cheap flight to a direct gateway, for example Paris. It can often cost less than a connecting flight through to Reunion.

By boat

You can travel by boat between the islands of Mauritius and Reunion.

Get around

By bus

Intercity bus travel around the island is served by Car Jaune ("Yellow Bus", buses are easily recognizable by their yellow color). There are 13 lines. Apart from these buses there are also local buses. Most of lines operate between 6AM and 6PM. You can get schedules and details on their official website [6]. Click on "Plans et tarifs" for a map of the network.

  • Car Jaune, Ligne B, from Saint-Denis to Saint-Pierre and back, Par les Bas (via the cost). Operates approximately every one and a half hours.

By car

There is one main road around the island (74km of it is four-lane) and another road from Saint-Pierre to Saint-Benoit through the inner part of the island.

Due to the high number of cars, traffic jams often occur so you should avoid travelling during peak times.

Because of the volcano, road is sometimes closed on the east side. Because of the rain (mostly between December and March), the four-lane between La Possession and Saint-Denis is "basculée", that is switched to a two-lane road.

Roads are well maintained.

Car hire is available.

Hiking

Reunion Island almost has one thousand kilometers of hiking trails, in an astonishingly variety of landscapes for an island. The cirques, plains and volcano have been classified as a french national natural park. The best hikings are probably in the Mafate circus and on the volcano. The exceptionnal Mafate circus has no roads, and about 800 inhabitants.

You can find hostings on main hiking places.

Volcano landscape
Volcano landscape

French is the official language of Reunion, although Creole is widely spoken. Everyone understands French but few people understand English.

English speakers meet every Monday evening between 7:30PM and 11:00PM (including during holidays) at the Moda Bar, 75 rue Pasteur, in Saint-Denis. Infoline 0692 560220. If you speak English it is a good way of sharing ones accent, culture and language to meet travelling and resident couchsurfers. Ten to twenty people attend each week. In January the group either meets at the St Hubert PMU bar one block north on Monday nights or as proposed for January 2010 on Friday nights at the same bar. The bar allows people to bring take out food.

See also: French phrasebook, French/Creole dictionnary [7]

Buy

Reunion is part of the Eurozone, so as in many other European Union countries the currency used is the euro (symbol: ).

It is compulsory, for the large majority of businesses, to post prices in windows. Hotels and restaurants must have their rates visible from outside.

Most shops accept international credit cards (Visa and Mastercard) but most of them require a minimum amount for credit cards payments (usually €15).

There is a good number of ATM (called "gabier") which don't charge you for using them.

Shops

Most shops are closed on Sunday.

Most of supermarkets are opened from 9:00AM to 8:00PM, Monday to Saturday. Some of them are opened on Sunday morning.

You can find traditional objects in some shops but it's often easier and cheaper to go to a market (marché). The market in Saint-Paul is famous and you'll also find fruits and vegetables: it gathers on Friday morning and afternoon and on Saturday morning.

It's a good place where to buy African traditional objects, such as Oware .

Gifts

Here are some ideas for gifts:

  • shirts;
  • rum;
  • spices;
  • local music;
  • book or dvd about volcano's last eruption;
  • local fruits (might be forbidden depending on your country).

Eat

Thanks to its history, Reunionese cuisine is a mix between different cultures: French, Indian, Chinese & African

Typical dishes are cari and rougail which are a meat or a fish cooked in a sauce and eaten with rice.

Depending on the season, many tropical fruits are available, like litchees (december), mangos, pineaples (the Victoria types in Reunion are said to be the tastiest), bananas, papaya...

At lunchtime, you can have many kinds of sandwiches and samoussas in snack-bars (cheap but not very balanced, except for the spicy "achards sandwich"), and find restaurants easily (average of 10-15 USD).

Reunionese cuisine is quite safe, but ask for some dishes to ensure that they're not too spicy. The spice level is below that of much indian cuisine.

Sleep

There are many possible accommodation types in reunion: Ordinary hotels; privately run Gîtes d'Étape; Gîtes de Montagne are mountain cabins or lodges located in the central areas appropriate and operated by Maison de la Montagne; youth hostels are operated by Auberge de jeunesse de la réunion [8] (Official site). There are five youth hostels at Réunion Island ; Hell Bourg, Bernica, Entre Deux, Saint Denis and Cilaos.

  • Hôtel des Palme is located some kilometers from the center of Saint-Gilles Les Bains on 205, Rue du Général de Gaulle. Two-starred with bungalow-type apartments and with swimming pool.

House rentals Reunion Island

"Clin d'Oeil de l'Océan [9]" is situated at Etang Saint Leu near "Saint Gilles les bains"

Work

For European people coming from an EU country, working in Reunion is allowed without a visa or work permit. If you're from outside the EU, you will probably need a work permit. Check with the French Embassy in your country. Do not forget, though, that the unemployment rate is high. If you work in the health sector (doctor, nurse), it will be much easier.

Voluntary service: Volontariat Civil à l'Aide Technique (VCAT). Conditions: you must be French or from another EU-member state or a country belonging to the European Economic Area. You must be over 18 and under 28 years old (inclusive). You must not have had your civic rights revoked by a court or have been convicted of certain offences. VCAT [10]

Stay safe

Reunion is fairly safe. You must, however, respect some simple principles:

  • Don't walk around alone at night in big cities.
  • Be careful of signs of riches (cameras, too many jewels, ...).
  • Don't resist in case of aggression.

Most of crimes are family-related and linked with alcoholic behaviors.

Stay healthy

WARNING: Reunion has been experiencing an epidemic of Chikungunya virus. As of April 6th, 2006, 230,000 people have been infected, which amounts to 29% of the population. The epidemic is over actually, no new cases have been reported in the summer 2006-2007. Travelers should still take precaution against mosquito bites.

Caution should be taken when spending time in the sun.

Sanitary and medical facilities in Reunion are very good.

Health care in Reunion is controlled by a state-owned organization (Sécurité Sociale).

The major hospital is in Saint-Denis but there are various others in important cities. There are doctors in almost every village.

Tap water is usually safe for consumption. Public sources of water are unsafe if labeled with "Eau non potable" (Water not drinkable).

Visitors from European Union should bring an EHIC (European Health Insurance Card) - obtained in their own country before departure. The E111 form is no longer valid. Ask for details at your local health care organization.

  • emergency services: 112 (which can be dialed by any mobile phone, even if not connected to a GSM network);
  • fire brigade: 18;
  • police station: 17;
  • specialized emergency medical service (called SAMU): 15.

Cyclones

During the cyclonic season (November to April), you should check cyclone warnings shown in newspapers or broadcast by the radio or TV. There is three state of warning:

  • Vigilance cyclonique (cyclone watch): cyclonic risk in more than 24hrs, you should buy in advance enough food and water as well as batteries and candles;
  • Alerte orange (orange alert): cyclonic risk in the next 24hrs, schools are closed, try to avoid getting around;
  • Alerte rouge (red alert): cyclonic risk in the next hours, don't move from your home and avoid using the phone, stay calm.

Contact

Phones

Country code: 262

Dialing within Reunion: all numbers have 10 digits. Landlines begin by 0262 and mobile phones by 0692 and with 0693.

Dialing to Reunion: international prefix + 262 + phone number without the first 0 (this leads to dial twice 262 which is normal). If you dial from France, just use the 10 digits number.

Dialing from Reunion: the international prefix is 00.

Calling to a mobile phone is more expensive than to a landline. Number beginning by 0800 are free phone. Number beginning by 089 are premium-rate.

Few foreign mobile phone companies offer international roaming to Reunion so double-check before leaving. Your company should provide specific roaming to Reunion since it has deferent mobile phone companies than in mainland France.

Alternatively, you should be able to get a Pay-as-you-go SIM card from various locations. There are two companies offering wireless services: SRR [11] and Orange Réunion [12].

Post

Post offices are found in all cities.

Letter boxes are colored in yellow.

Rates

Less than 20g (postcard, letter with one or two pages in a regular envelop) :

  • France (including Overseas Territories DOM-TOM) and Europe : 0,53€
  • Area 1 (South Africa, Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania) : 0,75 €
  • Area 2 (rest of the world) : 0,90 €
Marianne
Marianne

The basic stamp for regular mail is red with the head of "Marianne" (the Republic logo). It does not carry its value and can therefore be used even after a price increase. It is sold in all Post Offices, Bureaux de Tabacs (Tobacco sellers identified by a red lozenge) and postcard vendors. The latter may also carry other common stamps.

In most Post Offices you will find an automatic machine (yellow) with a scale and a screen. Just put your mail on the scale, tell the machine (French or English) the destination, pay the indicated amount and the machine will deliver a printed stamp.

Parcels

Chronopost, UPS and DHL offer parcel services.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

REUNION, known also by its former name Bourbon, an island and French colony in the Indian Ocean, 400 m. S.E. of Tamatave, Madagascar, and 130 S.W. of Port Louis, Mauritius. It is elliptic in form; its greatest length is 45 m. and its greatest. breadth 32 m., and it has an area of 965 sq. m. It lies between 20° 51' and 21 0 22' S. and 55° 15' and 55° 54' E.

The coast-line (about 130 m.) is little indented, there are no, natural harbours and no small islets round the shore. The narrow coast-lands are succeeded by hilly ground which in turn gives place to mountain masses and tableland, which occupy the greater part of the island. The main axis runs N.W. and. S.E., and divides the island into a windward (E.) district and a leeward (W.) district, the dividing line being practically that of the watershed. The form of the mountains. is the result of double volcanic action. First there arose from the sea a mountain whose summit is approximately represented by Piton des Neiges (10,069 ft.), a denuded crater of immense proportions, and at a later date another crater opened towards the E., which, piling up the mountain mass of Le Volcan, turned what was till then a circle into an ellipse. The oldest erupted rocks belong to the type of the andesites; the newest are varieties of basalt. The two massifs are united by high tablelands. In the older massif the most striking features are now three areas of subsidence - the cirques of Salazie, Riviere des Galets and Cilaos - which lie N.W. and S. of the Piton des Neiges. The first, which may be taken as typical, is surrounded by high almost perpendicular walls of basaltic lava, and its. surface is rendered irregular by hills and hillocks of debris fallen from the heights. Towards the S. lies the vast stratum of rocks (150 to 200 ft. deep) which, on the 26th of November 1875, suddenly sweeping down from the Piton des Neiges and the Gros Morne (a "shoulder" of the piton), buried the little village of Grand Sable and nearly a hundred of its inhabitants. Besides the Piton des Neiges and the Gros Morne the chief heights in this part of the island are the pyramidical Cimandef (73 00 ft.), another shoulder of the piton, and the Grand Bernard (949 0 ft.), separating the cirques of Mafate and Cilaos.

The second massif, Le Volcan, is cut off from the rest of the island by two "enclosures," each about 500 or 600 ft. deep.

The outer enclosure runs across the island in a N. and S. direction; the inner forms a kind of parabola with its arms (Rempart du Tremblet on the S. and Rempart du Bois Blanc on the N.) stretching E. to the sea and embracing not only the volcano proper but also the great eastward slope known as the Grand Brule. The 30 m. of mountain wall round the volcano is perhaps unique in its astonishing regularity. It encloses an area of about 40 sq. m. known as the Grand Enclos. There are two principal craters, each on an elevated cone, - the more westerly, now extinct, known as the Bory Crater (8612 ft.), after Bory de St Vincent, the geologist, and the more easterly called the Burning Crater or Fournaise (8294 ft.). The latter is partially surrounded by an "enclosure" on a small scale with precipices 200 ft. high. Eruptions, though not infrequent (thirty were registered between 1735 and 1860), are seldom serious; the more noteworthy are those of 1 745, 1 77 8, 1791, 1812, 1860, 1870, 1881. Hot mineral springs are found on the flanks of the Piton des Neiges; the Source de Salazie (discovered in 1831) lies 2860 ft. above sea-level, has a temperature of 90°, and discharges 200 to 220 gallons per hour of water impregnated with bicarbonate of soda, and carbonates of magnesium and lime, iron, &c.; that of Cilaos (discovered in 1826) is 3650 ft. above the sea with a temperature of ioo°; and that of Mafate 2238 ft. and 87°.

Vertically Reunion may be divided into five zones. The first or maritime zone contains all the towns and most of the villages, built on the limited areas of level alluvium occurring at intervals round the coast. In the second, which lies between 2600 and 4000 ft., the sugar plantations made a green belt round the island and country houses abound. The third zone is that of the forests; the fourth that of the plateaus, where European vegetables can be cultivated; and above this extends the region of the mountains.

Table of contents

Climate

The year divides into two seasons - that of heat and rain from November to April, that of dry and more bracing weather from May to October. The prevailing winds are from the S.E., sometimes veering round to the S., and more frequently to the N.E.; the W. winds are not so steady (three hundred and seven days of E. to fifty-eight of W. wind in the course of the year). It is seldom calm during the day, but there is usually a period of complete repose before the land wind begins in the evening. Several years sometimes pass without a cyclone visiting the island; at other times they occur more than once in a single "winter." The raz de maree occasionally does great damage. On the leeward side of the island the winds are generally from the W. and S.W., and bring little rain. Mist hangs almost all day on the tops of the mountains, but usually clears off at night. On the coast and lower zones on the windward side the mean temperature is about 73° F. in the "winter" and 78° F. in the "summer." On the leeward side the heat is somewhat greater. In the Salazie cirque the mean annual average is 66° F.; at the Plaine des Palmistes 62° F. The rainfall is very heavy on the windward side, some stations registering 160 in. a year, while on the "dry" side of the island not more than 50 in. are registered. On the mountain heights snow falls every year, and ice is occasionally seen. In general the island is healthy, but fever is prevalent on the coast.

Fauna and Flora

The fauna of Reunion is not very rich in variety of species. The mammals are a brown maki (Lemur mongoz, Linn.) from Madagascar, Pteropus edwardsii now nearly extinct, several bats, a wild cat, the tang or tamec (Centetes setosus, Denn.), several rats, the hare, and the goat. Among the more familiar birds are the "oiseau de la vierge" (Muscipeta borbonica), the tectec (Pratincola sybilla), Certhia borbonica, the cardinal (Foudia madagascariensis), various swallows, ducks, &c. The visitants from Madagascar, Mauritius and even India, are very numerous. Lizards and frogs of more than one species are common, but there is only one snake (Lycodon aulicum) known in the island. Various species of Gobius, a native species of mullet, Nestis cyprinoides, Osphronamus olfax and Doules rupestris are among the freshwater fishes. Turtles, formerly common, are now very rare.

In the forest region of the island there is a belt,4500-5000ft. above the sea, characterized by the prevalence of dwarf bamboo (Bambusa alpina); and above that is a similar belt of Acacia heterophylla. Besides this last the best timber-trees are Casuarina laterifolia, Foetida mauritiana, Imbricaria petiolaris, Elaeodendron orientate, Calophyllum spurium (red tacamahac), Terminalia borbonica, Parkia speciosa. The gardens of the coast districts display a marvellous wealth of flowers and shrubs, partly indigenous and partly gathered from all parts of the world. Among the indigenous varieties may be noted the vacoa (Pandanus utilis) and the aloe.

A species of coffee plant is also indigenous. Fruits grown in the island are: the banana, the coco-nut, bread-fruit and jack-fruit, the bilimbi, the carambola, the guava, the litchi, the Japanese medlar, the mango-steen, the tamarind, the Abelmoschus esculentus, the chirimoya, the papaya, &c. Forests originally covered nearly the whole island; the majority of the land has been cleared by the inhabitants, but there are still some 200 sq. m. of forest land and the administration has in part replanted the higher districts, such as Salazie, with eucalyptus and caoutchouc trees.

Inhabitants

The inhabitants are divided into various classes, the creoles, the mulattoes,.; the negroes, and Indians and other Asiatics. The creole population is descended from the first French settlers, chiefly Normans and Bretons, who married Malagasy women. Later settlers included European women, but the presence of non-European blood is so common among the creoles that the phrase "Bourbon white" was given in Mauritius to linen of doubtful cleanness. Three kinds of creoles are recognized - those of the towns and coasts, those of the mountains, and the petits creoles, originally a class of small farmers living in the uplands, now reduced to a condition of poverty and dependence on the planters. The creoles blancs de villes, the typical inhabitants of the island, are in general of a somewhat weak physique, quick-witted and of charming manners, brave and very proud of their island, but not of strong character. The mixed races tend to approximate to a single type, one in which the European strain predominates. The creole patois is French mixed with a considerable number of Malagasy and Indian words, and containing many local idioms. The population, about 35,000 towards the close of the 18th century, was in 1849, at the period of the liberation of the slaves, 120,000, of whom 60,800 were newly freed negroes. Thereafter coolies were introduced from India, and in 1870 the population had increased to 212,000. In 1882 the government of India ceased to authorize the emigration of coolies to Reunion, and in consequence of that and other economic causes the population decreased. In 1902 the inhabitants numbered 173,315. Of these 13,492 were British Indians, 4496 Malagasy, 9457 foreign-born negroes, and 1378 Chinese. Of the native born the creoles numbered about 3000, the remainder being negroes or of mixed race. Among the Indian population the males are as three to one to the females, and the birth-rate is lower than the death-rate.

Towns and Communication

St Denis, the capital of the island, lies on the N. coast. It had in 1902 a population of 27,392. It is built in the form of an amphitheatre, and has several fine public buildings and centrally situated botanic gardens. It is the seat of a bishopric, a court of first instance and an appeal court. It has an abundant supply of pure water. The only anchorage for vessels is an open roadstead. St Pierre (pop. 28,885), the chief town on the leeward side of the island, has a small artificial harbour. Between St Pierre and St Denis, and both on the leeward shore, are the towns of St Louis (pop. 12,541) and St Paul (pop. 19,617).19,617). A few miles N. of St Paul on the S. side of Cape Pointe des Galets is the port of the same name, the only considerable harbour in the island. It was completed in 1886 at a cost of £2,700,000, covers 40 acres, is well protected, and has 28 ft. of water. A railway serving the port goes round the coast from St Pierre, by St Paul, St Denis, &c., to St Benoit (a town on the E. side of the island with a pop. of 12,523), a distance of 834 m. This line is carried through a tunnel nearly 62 m. long between La Possession and St Denis. Besides the railway the lower parts of the island are well provided with roads. There is regular steamship communication between Pointe des Galets, Marseilles, Havre and Madagascar. Telegraphic communication with all parts of the world was established in 1906 when a cable connecting Reunion with Tamatave and Mauritius was laid.

Industries

The Sugar Plantations. - The area of the cultivated lands is estimated at 148,200 acres (or 230 sq. m.), of which 86,450 acres are under sugar-cane, the remainder being under either maize, manioc, potatoes, haricots, or coffee, vanilla and cocoa. The sugar-cane, introduced in 1711 by Pierre Parat, is now the staple crop. In the 18th century the first place belonged to coffee (introduced from Arabia in 1715) and to the clove tree, brought from the Dutch Indies by Poivre at the risk of his life. Both are now cultivated on a very limited scale. Vanilla, introduced in 1818, was not extensively cultivated till about 1850. Bourbon vanilla, as it is called, is of high character, and next to sugar is the most important article of cultivation in the island. There are small plantations of cocoa and cinchona; cotton-growing was tried, but proved unsuccessful.

The sugar industry has suffered greatly from the competition with beet sugar and the effects of bounties, also from the scarcity of labour, from the ravages of the phylloxera (which made its appearance in 1878) and from extravagant methods of manufacture. It was not until 1906 that steps were taken for the creation of central sugar mills and refineries, in consequence of the compulsory shutting down of many small mills. Rum is largely distilled and forms an important article of export. There are also manufactories for the making of geranium essence, St Pierre being the centre of this industry. Other articles exported are aloe fibre and vacoa casks. The mineral wealth of the island has not been exploited, except for the mineral springs which yield waters highly esteemed. Almost all the products of the island are exported, so that the import trade is very varied. Cattle are imported from Madagascar; rice, the chief article of food, from Saigon and India; petroleum, largely used in manufactories, from America and Russia; almost everything else comes from France, to which country go the great majority of the exports. Over 15% of the shipping is under the French flag.

Commerce

The total trade amounted in 1860 to the value of 4,4 6 4, 000 (the highest during the century); in 1900, to £1,533,240. In 1905 the imports were valued at 727,000 and the exports at 428,000. Of the imports L500,000 were from France or French colonies; of the exports 388,000 went to France or French colonies. The currency consists of notes of the Banque de la Reunion (guaranteed by the government) and nickel token money. Neither the notes nor the nickel money have any currency outside Reunion; the rate of exchange varies from 5 to 20%.

Administration and Revenue. - Reunion is regarded practically as a department of France. It sends two deputies and one senator to the French legislature, and is governed by laws passed by that body. All inhabitants, not being aliens, enjoy the franchise, no distinction being made between whites, negroes or mulattoes, all of whom are citizens. At the head of the local administration is a governor who is assisted by a secretary-general, a procureur general, a privy council and a council-general elected by the suffrages of all citizens. The governor has the right of direct communication and negotiation with the government of South Africa and all states east of the Cape. The council-general has wide powers, including the fixing of the budget. For administrative purposes the island is divided into two arrondissements, the Windward, with five cantons and nine communes, and the Leeward, with four cantons and seven communes. The towns are subject to the French municipal law. The revenue, largely dependent on the prosperity of the sugar trade, declined from an average of 163,765 in the five years 1895-99 to an average of X 1 47, 22 5 in the five years 1900-4. For the same periods the average colonial expenditure, which includes the loss incurred in maintaining the harbour and railway, increased from 224,508 to 225,088. Deficits are made good by grants from France.

History

Reunion is usually said to have been first discovered in April 1513 by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Mascarenhas, and his name, or that of Mascarene Islands, is still applied to the archipelago of which it forms a part; but it seems probable that it must be identified with the island of Santa Apollonia discovered by Diego Fernandes Pereira on the 9th of February 1507. It was visited by the Dutch towards the close of the 16th century, and by the English early in the 17th century. When in 1638 the island was taken possession of by Captain Gaubert, or Gobert, of Dieppe, it was still uninhabited; a more formal annexation in the name of Louis XIII. was effected in 1643 by Jacques Pronis, agent of the Compagnie des Indes in Madagascar; and in 1649 Etienne de Flacourt, Pronis's more eminent successor, repeated the ceremony at a spot which he named La Possession. He also changed the name of the island from Mascarenhas to Bourbon. By decree of the Convention in 1793, Bourbon in turn gave place to Reunion, and, though during the empire this was discarded in favour of Ile Bonaparte, and at the Restoration people naturally went back to Bourbon, Reunion has been the official designation since 1848.

The first inhabitants were a dozen mutineers deported from Madagascar by Pronis, but they remained only three years (1646-49). Other colonists went thither of their own will in 1654 and 1662. In 1664 the Compagnie des Indes orientales de Madagascar, to whom a concession of the island was granted, initiated a regular colonization scheme. Their first commandant was Etienne Regnault, who in 1689 received from the French crown the title of governor. The growth of the colony was very slow, and in 1717 there were only some 2000 inhabitants. It is recorded that they lived on excellent terms with the pirates, who from 1684 onward infested the neighbouring seas for many years. In 1735 Bourbon was placed under the governor of the Ile de France (Mauritius). at that time the illustrious Mahe de Labourdonnais. The Compagnie des Indes orientales gave up its concession in 1767, and under direct administration of the crown liberty of trade was granted. The French Revolution effected little change in the island and occasioned no bloodshed; the colonists successfully resisted the attempts of the Convention to abolish slavery, which continued until 1848 (when over 60,000 negroes were freed), the slave trade being, however, abolished in 1817. During the Napoleonic wars Reunion, like Mauritius, served the French corsairs as a rallying place from which attacks on Indian merchantmen could be directed. In 1809 the British attacked the island, and the French were forced to capitulate on the 8th of July 1810; the island remained in the possession of Great Britain until April 1815, when it was restored to France. From that period the island has had no exterior troubles. The negro population, upon whom in 1870 the Third Republic conferred the full rights of French citizenship including the vote, being unwilling to labour in the plantations, the immigration of coolies began in 1860, but in 1882 the government of India prohibited the further emigration of labourers from that country, in consequence of the inconsiderate treatment of the coolies by the colonists. Reunion has also suffered from the disastrous effects of cyclones. A particularly destructive storm swept over the island in March 1879, and in 1904 another cyclone destroyed fully half of the sugar crop and 75% of the vanilla crop.

See A. G. Garsault, Notice sur la Reunion (Paris, 1900), a monograph prepared for the Paris exhibition of that year; E. Jacob de Cordemoy, Etude sur l'ile de la Reunion, geographic, richesses naturelles, &c. (Marseilles, 1905); W. D. Oliver, Crags and Craters;. Rambles in the island of Reunion (London, 1896); C. Keller, Natur and Volksleben der Insel Reunion (Basel, 1888); J. D. Brunet, Histoire de l'association generale des francs creoles de file Bourbon (St Denis, Reunion, 1885); Trouette, L'Ple Burtrbon pendant la periode revolutionnaire (Paris, 1888). Of earlier works consult Demanet, Nouv. Hist. de l'Afrique franchise (1767); P. U. Thomas, Essai de statistique de l'ile Bourbon (1828); Dejean de la Batie, Notice sur l'ile Bourbon (1847); J. Mauran, Impressions dans un voy. de Paris a Bourbon (1850); Maillard, Notes sur file de la Reunion (1862); Azema, Hist. de file Bourbon (1862). The geology and volcanoes of Reunion were the object of elaborate study by Bory de St Vincent in 1801 and 1802 (Voyages dans les quatre principales Iles des mers d'Afrique, Paris, 1804), and have since been examined by R. von Drasche (see Die Insel Reunion, &c., Vienna, 1878, and C. Velain, Descriptions geologique de ... file de la Reunion.. ., Paris, 1878). The best map is Pau Lepervanche's Carte de la Reunion r ioo,000 (Paris, 1906).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Breton

Proper noun

Reunion

  1. Réunion

Interlingua

Proper noun

Reunion

  1. Réunion

Polish

Proper noun

Reunion

  1. Réunion

Romanian

Proper noun

Reunion

  1. Réunion

Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Reunion could mean:

Contents

Architecture

  • Reunion Arena, an indoor arena in the Reunion district of downtown Dallas, Texas
  • Reunion Tower, a building located in Dallas, Texas, United States

Computer science

  • Reunion (genealogy software), a genealogy application for the Apple Macintosh

Film

  • Reunion (film), a film directed by Jerry Schatzberg based on a screenplay written by Harold Pinter

Gaming

  • The Reunion (MMOG), a multiplayer online game
  • X³: Reunion, a computer game produced by Egosoft and released late 2005,
  • Reunion, a space strategy game developed by Amnesty Design in 1994. The game was released on Amiga and PC (DOS).

Geography

  • Réunion, a French island in the Indian Ocean
  • Reunion District, Dallas, Texas, United States

Literature

  • Force Heretic: Reunion, the third novel in a three-part story by Sean Williams and Shane Dix
  • Knights of the Old Republic: Reunion, a two-part story arc in the Knights of the Old Republic series of comic books
  • Reunion (Buffy comic), a comic based on the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel
  • Reunion (novel), a science fiction novel by Alan Dean Foster
  • Reunion (novella), a novella by Fred Uhlman
  • Reunion (play), a play by David Mamet
  • Reunion (The Mediator), a YA novel by Meg Cabot

Music

  • Mel Tormé and the Marty Paich Dektette - Reunion, a 1988 album by the American jazz singer Mel Tormé
  • Re-union, a Dutch duo who performed at the Eurovision Song Contest 2004
  • Reunion (album), a live album released by metal group Black Sabbath in 1997
  • Réunion (album), an electronic music album by The Flashbulb
  • Reunion (band), a pop music group best known for their 1974 hit song "Life Is a Rock"
  • Reunion (Temptations album), a 1982 album by The Temptations for the Gordy label
  • Reunion: A Decade of Solas, the reunion album of Irish-American Celtic group, Solas, in 2006
  • Doomed for Live - Reunion 2002, a live album by Candlemass
  • Reunion Records, a Contemporary Christian music label home to artists like Michael W. Smith, Casting Crowns, and Joy Williams
  • www.ReunionStudio.org, a netlabel with free electronic music for download
  • The Reunion, a rap album by Capone-N-Noreaga
  • Reunion, an instrumental dedicated to Dana Reeve composed by British musician Nick Hinton

Television

  • Reunion (TV series), a 2005 television series on FOX starring Matthew St. Patrick and Sean Faris

Other pages

  • Class Reunion (disambiguation)
  • Family reunion (disambiguation)
  • La Reunion
  • Reunion.com








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