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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively short period of time. Aristotle described two types of political revolution:

  1. Complete change from one constitution to another
  2. Modification of an existing constitution.[1]

Revolutions have occurred through human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology. Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions.

Scholarly debates about what does and does not constitute a revolution center around several issues. Early studies of revolutions primarily analyzed events in European history from a psychological perspective, but more modern examinations include global events and incorporate perspectives from several social sciences, including sociology and political science. Several generations of scholarly thought on revolutions have generated many competing theories and contributed much to the current understanding of this complex phenomenon.

Contents

Political and socioeconomic revolutions

The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution
Sun Yat-sen, leader of the Chinese Xinhai Revolution in 1911

Perhaps most often, the word 'revolution' is employed to denote a change in socio-political institutions.[2][3][4] Jeff Goodwin gives two definitions of a revolution. A broad one, where revolution is "any and all instances in which a state or a political regime is overthrown and thereby transformed by a popular movement in an irregular, extraconstitutional and/or violent fashion"; and a narrow one, in which "revolutions entail not only mass mobilization and regime change, but also more or less rapid and fundamental social, economic and/or cultural change, during or soon after the struggle for state power."[5] Jack Goldstone defines them as

an effort to transform the political institutions and the justifications for political authority in society, accompanied by formal or informal mass mobilization and noninstitutionalized actions that undermine authorities.[6]

Political and socioeconomic revolutions have been studied in many social sciences, particularly sociology, political sciences and history. Among the leading scholars in that area have been or are Crane Brinton, Charles Brockett, Farideh Farhi, John Foran, John Mason Hart, Samuel Huntington, Jack Goldstone, Jeff Goodwin, Ted Roberts Gurr, Fred Halliday, Chalmers Johnson, Tim McDaniel, Barrington Moore, Jeffery Paige, Vilfredo Pareto, Terence Ranger, Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Theda Skocpol, James Scott, Eric Selbin, Charles Tilly, Ellen Kay Trimbringer, Carlos Vistas, John Walton, Timothy Wickham-Crowley and Eric Wolf.[7]

Jack Goldstone differentiates four 'generations' of scholarly research dealing with revolutions.[6] The scholars of the first generation such as Gustave Le Bon, Charles A. Ellwood or Pitirim Sorokin, were mainly descriptive in their approach, and their explanations of the phenomena of revolutions was usually related to social psychology, such as Le Bon's crowd psychology theory.[2]

Second generation theorists sought to develop detailed theories of why and when revolutions arise, grounded in more complex social behavior theories. They can be divided into three major approaches: psychological, sociological and political.[2]

The works of Ted R. Gurr, Ivo K. Feierbrand, Rosalind L. Feierbrand, James A. Geschwender, David C. Schwartz and Denton E. Morrison fall into the first category. They followed theories of cognitive psychology and frustration-aggression theory and saw the cause of revolution in the state of mind of the masses, and while they varied in their approach as to what exactly caused the people to revolt (e.g. modernization, recession or discrimination), they agreed that the primary cause for revolution was the widespread frustration with socio-political situation.[2]

The second group, composed of academics such as Chalmers Johnson, Neil Smelser, Bob Jessop, Mark Hart, Edward A. Tiryakian, Mark Hagopian, followed in the footsteps of Talcott Parsons and the structural-functionalist theory in sociology; they saw society as a system in equilibrium between various resources, demands and subsystems (political, cultural, etc.). As in the psychological school, they differed in their definitions of what causes disequilibrium, but agreed that it is a state of a severe disequilibrium that is responsible for revolutions.[2]

Finally, the third group, which included writers such as Charles Tilly, Samuel P. Huntington, Peter Ammann and Arthur L. Stinchcombe followed the path of political sciences and looked at pluralist theory and interest group conflict theory. Those theories see events as outcomes of a power struggle between competing interest groups. In such a model, revolution happen when two or more groups cannot come to terms within a normal decision making process traditional for a given political system, and simultaneously have enough resources to employ force in pursuing their goals.[2]

The second generation theorists saw the development of the revolutions as a two-step process; first, some change results in the present situation being different from the past; second, the new situation creates an opportunity for a revolution to occur. In that situation, an event that in the past would not be sufficient to cause a revolution (ex. a war, a riot, a bad harvest), now is sufficient – however if authorities are aware of the danger, they can still prevent a revolution (through reform or repression).[6]

Many such early studies of revolutions tended to concentrate on four classic cases—famous and uncontroversial examples that fit virtually all definitions of revolutions, like the Glorious Revolution (1688), the French Revolution (1789–1799), the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Chinese Revolution (1927–1949).[6] In his famous "The Anatomy of Revolution", however, the eminent Harvard historian, Crane Brinton, focused on the English Civil War, the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Russian Revolution.[8] In time, scholars began to analyze hundreds of other events as revolutions (see list of revolutions and rebellions), and differences in definitions and approaches gave rise to new definitions and explanations. The theories of the second generation have been criticized for their limited geographical scope, difficulty in empirical verification, as well as that while they may explain some particular revolutions, they did not explain why revolutions did not occur in other societies in very similar situations.[6]

The criticism of the second generation led to the rise of a third generation of theories, with writers such as Theda Skocpol, Barrington Moore, Jeffrey Paige and others expanding on the old Marxist class conflict approach, turning their attention to rural agrarian-state conflicts, state conflicts with autonomous elites and the impact of interstate economic and military competition on domestic political change. Particularly Skocpol's States and Social Revolutions became one of the most widely recognized works of the third generation; Skocpol defined revolution as "rapid, basic transformations of society's state and class structures...accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below", attributing revolutions to a conjunction of multiple conflicts involving state, elites and the lower classes.[6]

The fall of the Berlin Wall and most of the events of the Autumn of Nations in Europe, 1989, were sudden and peaceful.

From the late 1980s a new body of scholarly work began questioning the dominance of the third generation's theories. The old theories were also dealt a significant blow by new revolutionary events that could not be easily explain by them. The Iranian and Nicaraguan Revolutions of 1979, the 1986 People Power Revolution in the Philippines and the 1989 Autumn of Nations in Europe saw multi-class coalitions topple seemingly powerful regimes amidst popular demonstrations and mass strikes in nonviolent revolutions. Defining revolutions as mostly European violent state versus people and class struggles conflicts was no longer sufficient. The study of revolutions thus evolved in three directions, firstly, some researchers were applying previous or updated structuralist theories of revolutions to events beyond the previously analyzed, mostly European conflicts. Secondly, scholars called for greater attention to conscious agency in the form of ideology and culture in shaping revolutionary mobilization and objectives. Third, analysts of both revolutions and social movements realized that those phenomena have much in common, and a new 'fourth generation' literature on contentious politics has developed that attempts to combine insights from the study of social movements and revolutions in hopes of understanding both phenomena.[6]

While revolutions encompass events ranging from the relatively peaceful revolutions that overthrew communist regimes to the violent Islamic revolution in Afghanistan, they exclude coups d'états, civil wars, revolts and rebellions that make no effort to transform institutions or the justification for authority (such as Józef Piłsudski's May Coup of 1926 or the American Civil War), as well as peaceful transitions to democracy through institutional arrangements such as plebiscites and free elections, as in Spain after the death of Francisco Franco.[6]

Types

A Watt steam engine in Madrid. The development of the steam engine propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. The steam engine was created to pump water from coal mines, enabling them to be deepened beyond groundwater levels.

There are many different typologies of revolutions in social science and literature. For example, classical scholar Alexis de Tocqueville differentiated[9] between 1) political revolutions 2) sudden and violent revolutions that seek not only to establish a new political system but to transform an entire society and 3) slow but sweeping transformations of the entire society that take several generations to bring about (ex. religion). One of several different Marxist typologies divides revolutions into pre-capitalist, early bourgeois, bourgeois, bourgeois-democratic, early proletarian, and socialist revolutions.[10] Charles Tilly, a modern scholar of revolutions, differentiated[11] between a coup, a top-down seizure of power, a civil war, a revolt and a "great revolution" (revolutions that transform economic and social structures as well as political institutions, such as the French Revolution of 1789, Russian Revolution of 1917, or Islamic Revolution of Iran).[12] Other types of revolution, created for other typologies, include the social revolutions; proletarian or communist revolutions inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism); failed or abortive revolutions (revolutions that fail to secure power after temporary victories or large-scale mobilization) or violent vs. nonviolent revolutions.

The term "revolution" has also been used to denote great changes outside the political sphere. Such revolutions are usually recognized as having transformed in society, culture, philosophy and technology much more than political systems; they are often known as social revolutions.[13] Some can be global, while others are limited to single countries. One of the classic examples of the usage of the word revolution in such context is the industrial revolution (note that such revolutions also fit the "slow revolution" definition of Tocqueville).[14]

List of revolutions

For a list of revolutions see:

See also

References

  1. ^ Aristotle, The Politics V, tr. T.A. Sinclair (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964, 1972), p. 190.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Jack Goldstone, "Theories of Revolutions: The Third Generation, World Politics 32, 1980:425-53
  3. ^ John Foran, "Theories of Revolution Revisited: Toward a Fourth Generation", Sociological Theory 11, 1993:1-20
  4. ^ Clifton B. Kroeber, Theory and History of Revolution, Journal of World History 7.1, 1996: 21-40
  5. ^ Goodwin, p.9.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Jack Goldstone, "Towards a Fourth Generation of Revolutionary Theory", Annual Review of Political Science 4, 2001:139-87
  7. ^ Jeff Goodwin, No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements, 1945-1991. Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.5
  8. ^ Crane Brinton, The Anatomy of Revolution, revised ed. (New York, Vintage Books, 1965). First edition, 1938.
  9. ^ Roger Boesche, Tocqueville's Road Map: Methodology, Liberalism, Revolution, and Despotism, Lexington Books, 2006, ISBN 0739116657, Google Print, p.86
  10. ^ (Polish) J. Topolski, "Rewolucje w dziejach nowożytnych i najnowszych (xvii-xx wiek)," Kwartalnik Historyczny, LXXXIII, 1976, 251-67
  11. ^ Charles Tilly, ''European Revolutions, 1492-1992, Blackwell Publishing, 1995, ISBN 0631199039, Google Print, p.16
  12. ^ Bernard Lewis, "Iran in History", Moshe Dayan Center, Tel Aviv University
  13. ^ Irving E. Fang, A History of Mass Communication: Six Information Revolutions, Focal Press, 1997, ISBN 0240802543, Google Print, p. xv
  14. ^ Warwick E. Murray, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 0415318009, Google Print, p.226

Bibliography

  • The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest: 1500 to the Present, ed. by Immanuel Ness, Malden, MA [etc.]: Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 1405184647
  • Perreau-Sausine, Emile, Les libéraux face aux révolutions : 1688, 1789, 1917, 1933, Commentaire, Spring 2005, pp. 181–193

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Revolution (from Late Latin revolutio which means "a turn around") is a significant change that usually occurs in a relatively short period of time.

Sourced

  • Revolution is not a dinner party, nor an essay, nor a painting, nor a piece of embroidery; it cannot be advanced softly, gradually, carefully, considerately, respectfully, politely, plainly, and modestly. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.
    • Mao Zedong. "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 66
  • A revolution is an idea which has found its bayonets.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte. Journal of International Affairs, By Columbia University. School of International Affairs, 1976, pg 94
  • The revolution is not an apple that falls when it is ripe. You have to make it drop.
    • Che Guevara. "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 69
  • REVOLUTIONARY: An oppressed person waiting for the opportunity to become an oppressor.
  • And I realized that the only purpose to revolution is to be able to love who you want, how you want, when you want and where you want...
  • Revolution: Political movement which gets many people´s hopes up, let´s even more people down, makes almost everybody uncomfortable, and a few, extraordinarily rich. It is widely held in high regard.
  • The first duty of society is to give each of its members the possibility of fulfilling his destiny. When it becomes incapable of performing this duty it must be transformed.
  • Every revolution was first a thought in one man's mind; and when the same thought occurs to another man, it is the key to that era.
  • The succeessful revolutionary is a statesman, the unsuccessful one a criminal.
  • A non-violent revolution is not a program of seizure of power. It is a program of transformation of relationships, ending in a peaceful transfer of power
  • Rebellion without truth is like spring in a bleak, arid desert.
  • A great revolution is never the fault of the people, but of the government.
    • Goethe, Conversations with Goethe, 1824
  • Everywhere revolutions are painful yet fruitful gestations of a people: they shed blood but create light, they eliminate men but elaborate ideas.
  • When hopes and dreams are loose in the street, it is well for the timid to lock doors, shutter windows and lie low until the wrath has passed.
  • We used to think that revolutions are the cause of change. Actually it is the other way around: change prepares the ground for revolution.
  • The first duty of a revolutionist is to get away with it. The second duty is to eat breakfast. I ain't going.
    • Abbie Hoffman, spoken to police immediately prior to his 1968 arrest in Chicago; quoted in Marty Jezer's biography of him, "Abbie Hoffman: American Rebel"
  • Perhaps a revolution can overthrow autocratic despotism and profiteering or power-grabbing oppression, but it can never truly reform a manner of thinking; instead, new prejudices, just like the old ones they replace, will serve as a leash for the great unthinking mass.
  • You cannot buy the Revolution. You cannot make the Revolution. You can only be the Revolution. It is in your spirit or it is nowhere.
  • This country, with its institutions, belongs to the people who inhabit it. Whenever they shall grow weary of the existing government, they can exercise their constitutional right of amending it, or exercise their revolutionary right to dismember or overthrow it.
  • The first lesson a revolutionary must learn is that he is a doomed man. Unless he understands this, he does not grasp the essential meaning of his life.
  • The Revolution will not be televised. The Revolution will be no rerun, brothers. The Revolution — will be live.

Unsourced

  • Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable.
  • All oppressed people are authorized, wherever they can, to rise and break their fetters.
  • The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time, with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.
  • If the abuse be enormous, nature will rise up, and claiming her original rights, overturn a corrupt political system.
  • No real social change has ever been brought about without a revolution... Revolution is but thought carried into action.
  • Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime.
  • The most radical revolutionary will become a conservative the day after the revolution.
  • The most important scientific revolutions all include, as their only common feature, the dethronement of human arrogance from one pedestal after another of previous convictions about our centrality in the cosmos.
  • The revolution […] is a dictatorship of the exploited against the exploiters.
  • The most heroic word in all languages is revolution.
  • It's a sad and stupid thing to have to proclaim yourself a revolutionary just to be a decent man.
  • Too many so-called leaders of the movement have been made into celebrities and their revolutionary fervor destroyed by mass media. They become Hollywood objects and lose identification with the real issues. The task is to transform society; only the people can do that—not heroes, not celebrities, not stars. The revolutionary’s place is in the community with the people.
  • By the end, everybody had a label — pig, liberal, radical, revolutionary […] If you had everything but a gun, you were a radical but not a revolutionary.
  • Revolution is a trivial shift in the emphasis of suffering.
  • Dwarfs can make revolutions easier than giants, because theirs will be unexpected!
  • There can be revolution only where there is a conscience.
    • Graffiti written during French student revolt, May 1968
  • The revolution must take place in men before it can be manifest in things.
    • Graffiti written during French student revolt, May 1968
  • To be a revolutionary is first of all to make sure of permanence and of one's good reception. After which intellectual masturbation is permitted.
    • Graffiti written during French student revolt, May 1968
  • A revolution is not a bed of roses ... a revolution is a struggle to the death between the future and the past.
  • At last I perceive that in revolutions the supreme power rests with the most abandoned.
  • When dictatorship is a fact, revolution becomes a right.
  • Revolutions are the locomotives of history.
  • The ultimate end of all revolutionary social change is to establish the sanctity of human life, the dignity of man, the right of every human being to liberty and well-being.
  • No revolution can ever succeed as a factor of liberation unless the MEANS used to further it be identical in spirit and tendency with the PURPOSES to be achieved. Revolution is the negation of the existing, a violent protest against man's inhumanity to man with all the thousand and one slaveries it involves. It is the destroyer of dominant values upon which a complex system of injustice, oppression, and wrong has been built up by ignorance and brutality. It is the herald of NEW VALUES, ushering in a transformation of the basic relations of man to man, and of man to society.

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up revolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also revolution

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Revolution

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Noun

Revolution f. (genitive Revolution, plural Revolutionen)

  1. revolution

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to Wii article)

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Nintendo Wii
Manufacturer Nintendo
Type Console
Release Date November 19, 2006 NA

December 2, 2006 JP
December 7, 2006 EU
December 8, 2006 AU

Media DVD, GameCube Optical Disc
Save Format On-Board Memory, SD Card, Memory Card (GameCube)
Input Options Wii Remote
Special Features Pointer and Motion Sensor, Virtual Console, WiiConnect24
Units Sold 48.72 Million as of March 25, 2009
Top Selling Game Wii Sports: 44.17 million as of March 25, 2009
Variants N/A
Competitor(s) Sony PlayStation 3

Microsoft Xbox 360

Predecessor Nintendo GameCube
Successor TBA


The Wii is the official name for Nintendo's next home game console. While the competing Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 push the limits of raw computing power (and cost), the Nintendo Wii is designed to be inexpensive, unobtrusive, and as focused on gaming as possible. It has been recently revealed that the Wii's software development kits are priced at the incredibly low sum of $2,000. This will, perhaps, pave the way for riskier and cheaper titles to appear on the Wii. [1]

Wii is best known for its unique, motion-sensing controller, as well as its virtual console functionality that will allow players to download and play the entire Nintendo catalog of games from the NES to the Nintendo 64, as well as TurboGrafx-16 and Sega Genesis games.

This console, along with their handheld system, the Nintendo DS, represents Nintendo's attempt at capturing untapped demographics of non-gamers. The theory behind their unique control system is that because it is intriguing and easier to use, non-gamers and former gamers (who stopped with the NES) will be more likely to buy the system. In this respect, they believe they are not competing with the PS3 or the Xbox 360.

Nintendo Wii North American Packaging.

Contents

Features

Wii games are 12cm diameter optical discs, the same size as a standard CD or DVD. The Wii will also accept and play the smaller GameCube game discs. Instead of a normal disc tray, the Wii will feature a self-loading media bay that will accept both the 12cm optical discs and the GameCube discs. Nintendo has stated that, in addition to being backwards compatible with the GameCube, the Wii will utilize Internet connectivity and internal emulation software to download and play Nintendo 64, Super NES, and NES games, and some titles are available that were never before released in America. On March 23, 2006, it was announced at Game Developers Conference 2006 that this system would also allow Sega Genesis and TurboGrafx-16 games to be played on the console. The feature has been named a virtual console.

The Wii console itself is stated to be roughly the size of three standard DVD cases stacked on top of one another. The system launched in North America on November 19, 2006 at the price of $249.99. It does not play DVD movies. Nintendo has said the reason for this decision is that the Wii is a game device, not an entertainment suite as Microsoft and Sony are attempting to make, and presumably DVD playback is isolated within the accessory such that the Wii itself doesn't burden the consumer with unnecessary cost.

Ports in the rear of the console accept GameCube controllers for backwards compatibility. This means peripherals such as the DK Bongo and the Wavebird are compatible.

Wii also features a number of "Channels" that serve different functions on the system. First is the Disc channel, which is used to load up and play Wii and Gamecube games. The Photo Channel lets you view photos and videos off of an SD memory card. The Mii channel allows you to create, from scratch, a cartoon-like caricature of yourself or friends which can then be used as playable characters in such games as Wii Sports. Mii's, as they are called, can also be shared with friends. The internet channel was released as a free download on December 26. It allows you to surf the internet via a wi-fi connection with a special beta version of the Opera Browser. Java and Flash 7 are supported, and typing is done with the use of a virtual keyboard that appears on screen. The full Opera browser was released in the summer of 2007 at a cost of 500 Wii Points ($5). The Forecast Channel allows users to not only check their local weather, but weather all over the globe. The Voting Channel was released on February 6th, 2007. It features popular polls that users can participate in, then are later sent the outcome.

Controller

On September 15, 2005, during the Tokyo Game Show, Nintendo finally revealed their offbeat controller, which was promised to play games in a whole new way. It is shaped like a remote control, with a D-Pad and large A-button on the top. On the bottom (where the player's fingers would naturally rest) is a B button, that will act like a trigger button. At E3 2006 Nintendo showed these slight variations to the controller. The "b" and "a" buttons are now "1" and "2", respectively. "Start" and "Select" have changed to "+" and "-". One of the biggest changes, however, is the inclusion of an internal speaker in the microphone, allowing for "depth of sound", and presumably the "+" and "-" buttons will change the speaker's volume. The "home" button, probably for Wii menu accessing, also now looks like a house. The controller also has a port at the bottom allowing for first- and third-party peripherals to be plugged in, including the new classic controller, featured below. There's also a Nunchuk device, featured to the right (sleek device attached to the controller) which will be used for a variety of games.

In addition to these features, the Wii controller also has a power button (like the Xbox jewel,) built in rumble features (of course) and, most surprisingly, the ability to transmit its exact location back to the Wii system. This feature functions like a 3-Dimensional mouse, allowing the game to respond to any and all movement of the controller. You can slash it like a sword to slash in a game, or swing it to simulate hitting a ball with a tennis racket, or twist it slightly to turn in a racing game. The whole thing is held with one hand.

For more traditional control, the controller can be turned 90 degrees so that players hold it sideways, turning it into an NES-like controller, which would have the 1 and 2 buttons function as the A and B buttons. This is to help play downloadable NES ports. There is also a "classic controller" that can be attached to the Wii remote, which features a shape like the SNES controller, but with two analog sticks at the bottom like PlayStation's Dual Shock.

More images of the controller can be found here. (Note that these images are old and don't have the changes brought upon the controller from E3 2006.)

Development and Announcement

Nintendo first spoke of the console at the 2004 E3 press conference and later unveiled the system at the 2005 E3. Satoru Iwata revealed a prototype of the controller at the September 2005 Tokyo Game Show. At E3 2006, the console won the first of several awards. By December 8, 2006, it completed its launch in four key markets. During the week of September 12, 2007, the Financial Times declared that the Wii is the current sales leader of its generation.

The console was conceived in 2001, as the Nintendo GameCube was first seeing release. According to an interview with Nintendo's game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, the concept involved focusing on a new form of player interaction. "The consensus was that power isn't everything for a console. Too many powerful consoles can't coexist. It's like having only ferocious dinosaurs. They might fight and hasten their own extinction."

Two years later, engineers and designers were brought together to further develop the concept. By 2005, the controller interface had taken form, but a public showing at that year's E3 was withdrawn. Miyamoto stated that, "We had some troubleshooting to do. So, we decided not to reveal the controller and instead we displayed just the console." Nintendo president Satoru Iwata later unveiled and demonstrated the Wii Remote at the September Tokyo Game Show.

The Nintendo DS is stated to have influenced the Wii design. Designer Ken'ichiro Ashida noted, "We had the DS on our minds as we worked on the Wii. We thought about copying the DS's touch-panel interface and even came up with a prototype." The idea was eventually rejected, with the notion that the two gaming systems would be identical. Miyamoto also expressed that, "If the DS had flopped, we might have taken the Wii back to the drawing board."

Games

Every console will launch with Wii Sports as a packed-in game.

Currently known or presumed Wii titles in planning or development include Metroid Prime 3: Corruption, Red Steel, Super Mario Galaxy, WarioWare: Smooth Moves, Sonic and the Secret Rings, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, Madden NFL 2007, Super Smash Bros. Brawl, Wii Orchestra, Elebits, Rayman Raving Rabbids, Tony Hawk's Downhill Jam and Project H.A.M.M.E.R..

Finally, in addition to these games, games (From all Nintendo consoles from the NES to the N64, as well as the Sega Genesis and Turbo Grafx-16) can be downloaded from the Virtual Console service for $5.00 to $10.00 apiece.

Virtual Console

As mentioned earlier, the Wii will be able to download and play a variety of games using the Wii's Virtual Console. It will be able to download NES, SNES, and N64 games as well as games for the Sega Genesis and TurboGrafx-16. Users purchase Wii points, which are used as a sort of online currency to buy the classic games. Prices start at $10 for 1,000 wii points, and are sold in increments of $10 thereafter. Game prices are as follows: NES Games: 500 Wii Points TurboGrafx-16: 600 Wii Points Genesis Games: 800 Wii Points SNES Games: 800 Wii Points Nintendo 64 Games: 1,000 Wii Points (it is rumored some N64 games may be higher) New games are released every Monday. Games are playable using the wii remote, a gamecube controller, and the new "Classic Controller", shown to the left.

Games shown at E3 2006 on the Virtual Console include Super Mario Bros., Super Mario World, Super Mario 64, an otherwise-unnamed Sonic the Hedgehog game, and Bonk's Adventure.

Hudson has stated that they will put every game they've made on these consoles available on the Wii.


Connectivity

A Wii, showing the Gamecube controller and memory card slots

The Wii has built-in wireless Internet capabilities, and Nintendo DS connectivity, probably in the same breath. Nintendo has announced a partnership with GameSpy to create two kinds of networking services for Wii users: one that would allow typical free-for-all online play, and another that would restrict a person's play to a set list of people they have personally met in order to add to this list. Satoru Iwata's reason for this second option is his belief that current online games alienate most gamers, implicatively because of the chaos inherent in online games; see John Gabriel's Greater Internet Fuckwad Theory.

It has been said that upcoming DS titles will be able to link up with future Wii titles wirelessly. It's likely that the Wii will serve a router-type functionality, and allow DS users to extend their play to the greater Internet.

The Wii will also be able to download Nintendo DS demo games from Nintendo's free online service. The demos can then be transferred wirelessly to the DS.

Name controversy

Wii carry Case

Nintendo's fifth console will indeed be named something other than the "Nintendo Revolution". As of April 27, 2006, the console has been renamed "Wii". According to the Wii's website, "the code-name 'Revolution' expressed our direction, Wii represents the answer." Pronounced "We", the name is meant to represent the inclusiveness Nintendo aims for with this new direction. The use of two I's is meant to signify two players playing together, as well as two controllers.

The response from fans as well as the gaming media was almost entirely negative across the board. Many found the name "Revolution" to be better, and "Wii" to be a case of trying too hard to come up with a trendy name. Nintendo responded by claiming that other famous brand names, such as "Lexus", "Ikea" and "Google", are all odd sounding at first. Satoru Iwata also mentioned the purpose of the name is so that it will not have to be abbreviated, making it easier for casual consumers, some of whom don't know that the "GBA" is also the "Game Boy Advance."

It should be noted that the official name of the console is not "Nintendo Wii" or even "The Wii", but simply "Wii" according to Nintendo's style guide on their E3 2006 press packet site.

Launch details

Wii used in Advertisements

In a push to promote the Wii in Europe, Nintendo teamed up with Coca Cola to campaign the Wii across TV and other media for a month starting May 4, 2007. Ten winners who grabbed one of the lucky 182 million packs of Fanta, Sprite and Dr. Pepper received an "Ultimate Wii Game Room" which includes a Wii, a Samsung LCD TV, mini fridge and a case of Sprite, Fanta, and Dr. Pepper.

On April 26 2007 the fast food store Wendy's announced that they are coming out with a set of Wii toys of their Kids' Meal. There will be five toys in total.


Gallery

Japan

    • December 2nd
    • 25,000 Yen
    • One Wiimote controller + Nunchuk included
  • Accessories:
    • Wiimote (3800 Yen)
    • Classic Controller (1800 Yen)
    • Nunchuk (1800 Yen)
  • 30 Virtual Console games at launch, with 10 new Virtual Console games every month.

North America

    • November 19th
    • 249.99 USD
    • One Wiimote controller + Nunchuk included
    • Wii Sports packed in.
  • Accessories:
    • Wiimote (39.99 USD)
    • Classic Controller (19.99 USD)
    • Nunchuk (19.99 USD)
    • Wii Zapper (19.99 USD)
  • 30 Virtual Console games at launch, with 10 new Virtual Console games every month.

Launch titles

Related links

  • [2]
  • Nintendo Wii - The official Nintendo Wii website
  • Wii vs. PS3 on G4

Ads

  • LA Wii ad
  • Wii for all
  • Wii Naperville
  • Japanese ads
  • Wii Hong Kong ad

See also


This article uses material from the "Wii" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

revolution of Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijerd Jelckama]]

A Revolution is a very sharp change made to something. The word comes from Latin, and is related to the word revolutio (which means a turn around).

Revolutions are usually political in their nature. Some people feel unhappy with their lives. They might join together, share their ideas, and make a revolution. Often, revolutions include fighting, and civil unrest. But there are also revolutions that happen without fighting.

The Soviet Union fell apart into its different republics without much fighting in 1990. But in the French Revolution (1789), there was much bloodshed. The years right after this Revolution in France are often called the Reign of Terror. There have been 3 main revolutions, the American Revolution, the English revolution and the industrial revolution.[res?]

krc:Революция








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