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This is an article about a Greek urban guerilla group. For the Marxist theory, see World revolution. For the Irish militant group, see Revolutionary Struggle (Ireland)

Revolutionary Struggle (Greek: Επαναστατικός Αγώνας, Epanastatikos AgonasEA) is an anarchist Greek urban guerilla group known for its attacks on Greek government buildings and the American embassy in Athens. It is widely described as a terrorist group by both the Greek government[1] and the media.[2][3]


Attacks of 2003-2007

The group first emerged in 2003 with a bombing attack on an Athens courthouse complex, following that up with attacks in 2004 on the Greek labour ministry and police buses.[1] On 22 December 2005, the group published a manifesto in the Greek satirical magazine, To Pontiki, in which it expressed revolutionary, anti-globalisation and anti-American ideological aims.[2] In January 2007, an anonymous caller claiming to be from the group claimed responsibility for a missile attack on the U.S. embassy in Athens.[3] Following the January 12, 2007 missile attack, in which a light anti-armour rocket was used (apparently identical to that employed in a 17 November group attack on 7 April 1998), Greek authorities described the group as a spinoff of Revolutionary Organization 17 November.[4][5]

2007 statement

In a statement published in To Pontiki on January 25, Revolutionary Struggle admitted that it had carried out the embassy attack, claiming that the "strike was our answer to the criminal war against 'terrorism' that the US has unleashed over the entire planet with the help of fellow-traveling states".[6]

Terrorist designation

The European Union added RS to its list of designated terrorist organizations on June 29, 2007.[7] On May 18, 2009, a U.S. State Department spokesman announced in a press briefing that U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton had formally designated Revolutionary Struggle as a foreign terrorist organization under the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act.[8] The designation bars any form of support from people or organizations within the United States.

2009 implication

In January 2009, Greek police said their ballistics tests showed the weapon used in RS's 30 April 2007 attack was used again in a 5 January 2009 shooting of a police officer. A second weapon used in the 5 January attack was tied by the police to a 23 December 2008 attack on a police bus. That attack was reported to have been claimed by a group calling itself Popular Action (Λαϊκή Δράση, Laiki Drasi), as a response to the 2008 civil unrest in Greece.[9]

Revolutionary Struggle attacks

  • September 5, 2003: Bomb attack on an Athens courthouse.
  • May 5, 2004: Bomb attack on an Athens police station.
  • October 29, 2004: Bomb attack on Greek police buses.
  • June 2, 2005: Bomb attack on a labour ministry building.
  • December 12, 2005: Bomb attack on a finance ministry building in Syntagma Square, Athens.
  • May 30, 2006: Assassination attempt on Georgios Voulgarakis, the Culture Minister and former Public Order Minister.
  • January 12, 2007: Wasp 58 LAW rocket attack on the United States Embassy in Athens.
  • April 30, 2007: Shots fired at police station in Athens suburbe of Nea Ionia.
  • December 23, 2008: Shots fired at bus transporting riot police outside Athens University.
  • January 5, 2009: Shots fired at police guarding the Ministry of Culture building in Athens. A 21-year-old member of the riot police unit, Diamandis Mantzounis, was critically wounded in the body and leg. Weapons traced to those used in the 30 April 2007 and 23 December 2008 shootings.
  • February 18, 2009: Failed car bomb attack on the Citibank offices in central Athens. Police later said the bomb was powerful enough to destroy the four-story building.
  • 9 March 2009: Bomb attack on a Citibank branch in suburban Athens.[10]
  • 12 May 2009: Bomb attack on a Eurobank branch in suburban Athens.[11]
  • 3 July 2009: Suspected firebomb attack on a tax office in Athens Ambelokipi district.[12]
  • 3 July 2009: Suspected bomb attack on a McDonald's in Athens Ambelokipi district causes "extensive damage." [13]
  • 2 September 2009: Explosion outside the Athens stock exchange causing minor injures to one woman and significant damage to the surrounding area. A second bomb in Thessaloniki causing minor damage and no injuries. The group is suspect.[14]

External links




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