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In the Roman Senate, Cicero denounces Catiline.
.Rhetoric is the art of using language to communicate effectively.^ This special line of argument for enthymeme forms the whole of the Art of Rhetoric in use before Theodorus.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.It involves three audience appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos, as well as the five canons of rhetoric: invention or discovery, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.^ Rhetoric: Essays in invention and Discovery.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.Along with grammar and logic or dialectic, rhetoric is one of the three ancient arts of discourse.^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With regard to the persuasion achieved by proof or apparent proof: just as in dialectic there is induction on the one hand and syllogism or apparent syllogism on the other, so it is in rhetoric.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No other of the arts draws opposite conclusions: dialectic and rhetoric alone do this.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.From ancient Greece to the late 19th Century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments.^ Besides, an emotional speaker always makes his audience feel with him, even when there is nothing in his arguments; which is why many speakers try to overwhelm their audience by mere noise.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] The very act of defining has itself been a central part of rhetoric, appearing among Aristotle's Topics.[2] .The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical",[3] from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker",[4] related to ῥημα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying",[5] and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erô), "to speak, say".[6] In its broadest sense, rhetoric concerns human discourse.^ It is clear, then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, the priestess enjoined upon her son not to take to public speaking: 'For', she said, 'if you say what is right, men will hate you; if you say what is wrong, the gods will hate you.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If, then, a speaker uses the very words which are in keeping with a particular disposition, he will reproduce the corresponding character; for a rustic and an educated man will not say the same things nor speak in the same way.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[7][8]
.Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times.^ These are the essential features of a speech; and it cannot in any case have more than Introduction, Statement, Argument, and Epilogue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is this simplicity that makes the uneducated more effective than the educated when addressing popular audiences-makes them, as the poets tell us, 'charm the crowd's ears more finely'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions like courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large.^ Now the style of oratory addressed to public assemblies is really just like scene-painting.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important and effective qualification for success in persuading audiences and speaking well on public affairs is to understand all the forms of government and to discriminate their respective customs, institutions, and interests.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, religion, journalism, fiction, history, cartography, and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law.^ Even here, however, we will mention those points which it is of practical importance to distinguish, their fuller treatment falling naturally to political science.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Form, Genre, and the Study of Political Discourse.
  • Presidential Rhetoric Sources 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[9] .Public relations, lobbying, law, marketing, professional and technical writing, and advertising are modern professions that employ rhetorical practitioners.^ "Ronald Reagan and "The Speech": The Rhetoric of Public Relations Politics."
  • Presidential Rhetoric Sources 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Uses of rhetoria

Rhetoric as a civic art

.Throughout European history, rhetoric has concerned itself with persuasion in public and political settings such as assemblies and courts.^ It is clear, then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let us now try to give some account of the systematic principles of Rhetoric itself-of the right method and means of succeeding in the object we set before us.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Ronald Reagan and "The Speech": The Rhetoric of Public Relations Politics."
  • Presidential Rhetoric Sources 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Because of its associations with democratic institutions, rhetoric is commonly said to flourish in open and democratic societies with rights of free speech, free assembly, and political enfranchisement for some portion of the population.^ The truth is, as indeed we have said already, that rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics; and it is partly like dialectic, partly like sophistical reasoning.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Rhetoric as a course of study

.As a course of study, rhetoric trains students to speak and/or write effectively.^ Studies in Rhetorical Public Speaking in Honor of James A. Winans.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

The rhetorical curriculum is nearly as old as the rhetorical tradition itself. .Over its many centuries, the curriculum has been transformed in a number of ways, but, in general, it has emphasized the study of principles and rules of composition as a means for moving audiences.^ By special law I mean that written law which regulates the life of a particular community; by general law, all those unwritten principles which are supposed to be acknowledged everywhere.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As to Ways and Means, then, the intending speaker will need to know the number and extent of the country's sources of revenue, so that, if any is being overlooked, it may be added, and, if any is defective, it may be increased.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a general rule that a written composition should be easy to read and therefore easy to deliver.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Greece, rhetoric originated in a school of pre-Socratic philosophers known as Sophists circa 600 BC. It was later taught in the Roman Empire and during the Middle Ages as one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (along with logic and grammar).^ Rhetoric has three distinct ends in view, one for each of its three kinds.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Murphy, James J. Cicero's Rhetoric in the Middle Ages.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

[11]
From the late 19th century, rhetoric, particularly the oral skills, has been a much lesser part of education, a trend opposed by proponents of "oracy". In the 20th century the field of communication theory has been a primary rubric under which rhetoric is studied at the tertiary education level.

Epistemology

The relationship between rhetoric and knowledge is one of its oldest and most interesting problems. .The contemporary stereotype of rhetoric as "empty speech" or "empty words" reflects a radical division of rhetoric from knowledge, a division that has had influential adherents within the rhetorical tradition, most notably Plato in ancient Athens, and Peter Ramus in 16C Renaissance Europe.^ Rhetoric falls into three divisions, determined by the three classes of listeners to speeches.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Classical Rhetoric and Its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

[12] It is a division that has been strongly associated with Enlightenment thinking about language.
.Researchers in the rhetoric of science, however, have shown how the two are difficult to separate, and how discourse helps to create knowledge.^ Kindness is great if shown to one who is in great need, or who needs what is important and hard to get, or who needs it at an important and difficult crisis; or if the helper is the only, the first, or the chief person to give the help.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In rhetoric, however, the term 'rhetorician' may describe either the speaker's knowledge of the art, or his moral purpose.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] This perspective is often called "epistemic rhetoric," where communication among interlocutors is fundamental to the creation of knowledge in communities.
Emphasizing this close relationship between discourse and knowledge, contemporary rhetoricians have been associated with a number of philosophical and social scientific theories that see language and discourse as central to, rather than in conflict with, knowledge-making (See Critical Theory, Post-structuralism, Hermeneutics, Dramatism, Reflexivity).

History

.The earliest mention of oratorical skill occurs in Homer's Iliad, where heroes like Achilles, Hektor, and Odysseus were honored for their ability to advise and exhort their peers and followers (the Laos or army) in wise and appropriate action.^ Again, that is good which has been distinguished by the favour of a discerning or virtuous man or woman, as Odysseus was distinguished by Athena, Helen by Theseus, Paris by the goddesses, and Achilles by Homer.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the rise of the democratic polis, speaking skill was adapted to the needs of the public and political life of cities in Ancient Greece, much of which revolved around the use of oratory as the medium through which political and judicial decisions were made, and through which philosophical ideas were developed and disseminated.^ The style of written prose is not that of spoken oratory, nor are those of political and forensic speaking the same.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The introductions of political oratory will be made out of the same materials as those of the forensic kind, though the nature of political oratory makes them very rare.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The useful has been previously examined in connexion with political oratory; let us now proceed to examine the pleasant.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.For modern students today, it can be difficult to remember that the wide use and availability of written texts is a phenomenon that was just coming into vogue in Classical Greece.^ We must also take into account the nature of our particular audience when making a speech of praise; for, as Socrates used to say, 'it is not difficult to praise the Athenians to an Athenian audience.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as the use of conjunctions makes many statements into a single one, so the omission of conjunctions acts in the reverse way and makes a single one into many.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Corbett, Edward P. J. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.In Classical times, many of the great thinkers and political leaders performed their works before an audience, usually in the context of a competition or contest for fame, political influence, and cultural capital; in fact, many of them are known only through the texts that their students, followers, or detractors wrote down.^ Virtue is, according to the usual view, a faculty of providing and preserving good things; or a faculty of conferring many great benefits, and benefits of all kinds on all occasions.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The facts themselves are to be taken on trust; proof of them is only submitted on those rare occasions when they are not easily credible or when they have been set down to some one else.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.As has already been noted, rhetor was the Greek term for orator: A rhetor was a citizen who regularly addressed juries and political assemblies and who was thus understood to have gained some knowledge about public speaking in the process, though in general facility with language was often referred to as logôn techne, "skill with arguments" or "verbal artistry."^ Political speaking urges us either to do or not to do something: one of these two courses is always taken by private counsellors, as well as by men who address public assemblies.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Holders of public office-generals, orators, and all who possess such powers-can do many people a good turn.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a political debate the man who is forming a judgement is making a decision about his own vital interests.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[14]
.Rhetoric thus evolved as an important art, one that provided the orator with the forms, means, and strategies for persuading an audience of the correctness of the orator's arguments.^ One of these is not provided by the orator's art, viz.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The special forms of oratorical argument having now been discussed, we have next to treat of those which are common to all kinds of oratory.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today the term rhetoric can be used at times to refer only to the form of argumentation, often with the pejorative connotation that rhetoric is a means of obscuring the truth.^ Today the term rhetoric can be used at times to refer only to the form of argumentation, often with the pejorative connotation that rhetoric is a means of obscuring the truth.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What we mean by "better" is itself up for debate, of course, and it is here that the negative conception of rhetoric comes into play that of rhetoric as the art of persuasion , where convincing others is seen as the hand-waving and sophistry that is used in place of reasoned argument.

^ Technically, syllogism is a term used in science and dialectic (according to Aristotle) and rhetoric is concerned with the term enthymeme .

.Classical philosophers believed quite the contrary: the skilled use of rhetoric was essential to the discovery of truths, because it provided the means of ordering and clarifying arguments.^ All the persons mentioned define their term and get at its essential meaning, and then use the result when reasoning on the point at issue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What you should do in your introduction is to state your subject, in order that the point to be judged may be quite plain; in the epilogue you should summarize the arguments by which your case has been proved.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This special line of argument for enthymeme forms the whole of the Art of Rhetoric in use before Theodorus.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The Sophists

.Organized thought about public speaking began in Ancient Greece.^ Whether our argument concerns public affairs or some other subject, we must know some, if not all, of the facts about the subject on which we are to speak and argue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Possibly, the first study about the power of language may be attributed to the philosopher Empedocles (d.^ Bring yourself on the stage from the first in the right character, that people may regard you in that light; and the same with your adversary; but do not let them see what you are about.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

ca. 444 BC), whose theories on human knowledge would provide a basis for many future rhetoricians. The first written manual is attributed to Corax and his pupil Tisias. .Their work, as well as that of many of the early rhetoricians, grew out of the courts of law; Tisias, for example, is believed to have written judicial speeches that others delivered in the courts.^ Their work, as well as that of many of the early rhetoricians, grew out of the courts of law; Tisias, for example, is believed to have written judicial speeches that others delivered in the courts.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the most influential manuscripts and editions, Aristotle's Rhetoric was surrounded by rhetorical works and even written speeches of other Greek and Latin authors, and was seldom interpreted in the context of the whole Corpus Aristotelicum.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Classical poetry was written for the speaking voice, and Hermogenes' {4} instructions would have applied to literary work, law suits and speeches in the Roman senate.
  • rhetoric in poetry 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.textetc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Teaching in oratory was popularized in the 5th century BC by itinerant teachers known as sophists, the best known of whom were Protagoras (c.481-420 BC), Gorgias (c.483-376 BC), and Isocrates (436-338 BC). The Sophists were a disparate group who travelled from city to city, teaching in public places to attract students and offer them an education. Their central focus was on logos or what we might broadly refer to as discourse, its functions and powers. .They defined parts of speech, analyzed poetry, parsed close synonyms, invented argumentation strategies, and debated the nature of reality.^ It is only natural that methods of 'heightening the effect' should be attached particularly to speeches of praise; they aim at proving superiority over others, and any such superiority is a form of nobleness.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It follows, then, that the only necessary parts of a speech are the Statement and the Argument.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 'Reply to the Opponent' is not a separate division of the speech; it is part of the Arguments to break down the opponent's case, whether by objection or by counter-syllogism.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.They claimed to make their students "better," or, in other words, to teach virtue.^ Enough has been said to make clear the grounds on which, and the persons against whom, Indignation is felt-they are those mentioned, and others like him.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And of two good things that is the better whose addition to a third thing makes a better whole than the addition of the other to the same thing will make.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The above are the motives that make men do wrong to others; we are next to consider the states of mind in which they do it, and the persons to whom they do it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.They thus claimed that human "excellence" was not an accident of fate or a prerogative of noble birth, but an art or "techne" that could be taught and learned.^ Those things, also, are noble for which men strive anxiously, without feeling fear; for they feel thus about the good things which lead to fair fame.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

They were thus among the first humanists. .Several sophists also questioned received wisdom about the gods and the Greek culture, which they believed was taken for granted by Greeks of their time, making them among the first agnostics.^ For instance, it was a saying of Xenophanes that to assert that the gods had birth is as impious as to say that they die; the consequence of both statements is that there is a time when the gods do not exist.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They must not be given without supplement if they express disputed or paradoxical views: we must, in that case, either put the supplement first and make a maxim of the conclusion, e.g.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, they argued that cultural practices were a function of convention or nomos rather than blood or birth or phusis.^ They are dignified rather than arrogant, for the respect in which they are held inspires them with dignity and therefore with moderation-dignity being a mild and becoming form of arrogance.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are not shy, but shameless rather; caring less for what is noble than for what is useful, they feel contempt for what people may think of them.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They look at the good side rather than the bad, not having yet witnessed many instances of wickedness.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.They argued even further that morality or immorality of any action could not be judged outside of the cultural context within which it occurred.^ And we must, further, make much of the particular season and occasion of an action, arguing that we could hardly have looked for it just then.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now that we see how we are to argue in each case separately, we see also how we are to argue when they occur in pairs, namely, when you are willing to accept the oath but not to offer it; to offer it but not to accept it; both to accept and to offer it; or to do neither.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They may occur then; so may even accusation and defence, often enough; but they form no essential part of a political speech.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The well-known phrase, "Man is the measure of all things" arises from this belief.^ The above are pretty well all the things admittedly good.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Well then', asked his opponent, 'did not you propose the same measures as they?'-'Yes.'-'Well then, would not you too be justly put to death?'-'Not at all', said he; 'they were bribed to do it, and I did it from conviction'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no man in all things prosperous, and        .
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

One of their most famous, and infamous, doctrines has to do with probability and counter arguments. .They taught that every argument could be countered with an opposing argument, that an argument's effectiveness derived from how "likely" it appeared to the audience (its probability of seeming true), and that any probability argument could be countered with an inverted probability argument.^ Men do speak in this strain when they are deeply stirred, and so, once the audience is in a like state of feeling, approval of course follows.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or take the argument of Iphicrates, 'Goodness is true nobility; neither Harmodius nor Aristogeiton had any nobility before they did a noble deed'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are not generous, because money is one of the things they must have, and at the same time their experience has taught them how hard it is to get and how easy to lose.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, if it seemed likely that a strong, poor man were guilty of robbing a rich, weak man, the strong poor man could argue, on the contrary, that this very likelihood (that he would be a suspect) makes it unlikely that he committed the crime, since he would most likely be apprehended for the crime.^ But while it is easier to supply parallels by inventing fables, it is more valuable for the political speaker to supply them by quoting what has actually happened, since in most respects the future will be like what the past has been.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus if you are urging somebody not to make a friend of an old man, you will appeal to the proverb,        .
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only, it must be recognized beforehand that the other man is more likely than you are to commit the crime in question.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.They also taught and were known for their ability to make the weaker (or worse) argument the stronger (or better).^ This sort of argument illustrates what is meant by making the worse argument seem the better.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They should not precede the Enthymemes: that will give the argument an inductive air, which only rarely suits the conditions of speech-making.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also those who are attacking people weaker than we are: either they are already formidable, or they will be so when they have thus grown stronger.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Aristophanes famously parodies the clever inversions that sophists were known for in his play The Clouds.
The word "sophistry" developed strong negative connotations in ancient Greece that continue today, but in ancient Greece sophists were nevertheless popular and well-paid professionals, widely respected for their abilities but also widely criticized for their excesses.

Isocrates

Isocrates sought to improve human character through good speech.
.Isocrates (436-338 BC), like the sophists, taught public speaking as a means of human improvement, but he worked to distinguish himself from the Sophists, whom he saw as claiming far more than they could deliver.^ Isocrates means more than that, and uses the word with a new meaning.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only, it must be recognized beforehand that the other man is more likely than you are to commit the crime in question.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We also fear those who are to be feared by stronger people than ourselves: if they can hurt those stronger people, still more can they hurt us; and, for the same reason, we fear those whom those stronger people are actually afraid of.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.He suggested that while an art of virtue or excellence did exist, it was only one piece, and the least, in a process of self-improvement that relied much more heavily on native talent and desire, constant practice, and the imitation of good models.^ He suggested that while an art of virtue or excellence did exist, it was only one piece, and the least, in a process of self-improvement that relied much more heavily on native talent and desire, constant practice, and the imitation of good models.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examination of the variety of ways through which people seek to influence one another; development of practical skills that can be relied on in everyday experiences; development of theoretical concepts for more advanced courses in communication studies.

^ Transhumanists did not create our contemporary forgetfulness of virtues and vices, our eroded standards of comportment, our debunking of moral excellence, and our culture of immediate gratification.
  • The New Atlantis » The Rhetoric of Extinction 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.thenewatlantis.com [Source type: Original source]

.Isocrates believed that practice in speaking publicly about noble themes and important questions would function to improve the character of both speaker and audience while also offering the best service to a state.^ Isocrates believed that practice in speaking publicly about noble themes and important questions would function to improve the character of both speaker and audience while also offering the best service to a state.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He shows how the speaker may so indicate his own character and the goodness of his motive as to prepossess the audience in his favour, and proceeds to furnish materials to this end.

^ People always think well of speeches adapted to, and reflecting, their own character: and we can now see how to compose our speeches so as to adapt both them and ourselves to our audiences.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .He thus wrote his speeches as "models" for his students to imitate in the same way that poets might imitate Homer or Hesiod.^ He thus wrote his speeches as "models" for his students to imitate in the same way that poets might imitate Homer or Hesiod.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Complete Item Description) Abstract: In the final lesson using the same speech text of Lessons 1 -3, students are guided to identify and articulate the methods of persuasion in the speech.
  • Browse: Keywords: Rhetoric | OER Commons 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.oercommons.org [Source type: General]

^ He was charged to instruct students in accordance with the models and exercises of Quintilian, but when Francis J. Child occupied the same chair in 1851, it was as Professor of English.
  • RHETORIC – FREE RHETORIC information | Encyclopedia.com: Find RHETORIC research 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

His was the first permanent school in Athens and it is likely that Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum were founded in part as a response to Isocrates. .Though he left no handbooks, his speeches ("Antidosis" and "Against the Sophists" are most relevant to students of rhetoric) became models of oratory (he was one of the canonical "Ten Attic Orators") and he had a marked influence on Cicero and Quintilian, and through them, on the entire educational system of the west.^ In political speeches you may maintain that a proposal is impracticable; or that, though practicable, it is unjust, or will do no good, or is not so important as its proposer thinks.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (The Attic orators are particularly fond of this method of speech.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This, then, is the most essential function and distinctive property of the introduction, to show what the aim of the speech is; and therefore no introduction ought to be employed where the subject is not long or intricate.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Plato

Plato outlined the difference between true and false rhetoric.
.Plato (427-347 BC) famously outlined the differences between true and false rhetoric in a number of dialogues; particularly the Gorgias and Phaedrus wherein Plato disputes the Sophistic notion that the art of persuasion (the Sophists' art which he calls "rhetoric"), can exist independent of the art of dialectic.^ We have also noted the differences between it and the syllogism of dialectic.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No other of the arts draws opposite conclusions: dialectic and rhetoric alone do this.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Plato claims that since Sophists appeal only to what seems probable, they are not advancing their students and audiences, but simply flattering them with what they want to hear.^ Again we are angry with those who rejoice at our misfortunes or simply keep cheerful in the midst of our misfortunes, since this shows that they either hate us or are slighting us.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, things look better merely by being divided into their parts, since they then seem to surpass a greater number of things than before.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.While Plato's condemnation of rhetoric is clear in the Gorgias, in the Phaedrus he suggests the possibility of a true art wherein rhetoric is based upon the knowledge produced by dialectic, and relies on a dialectically informed rhetoric to appeal to the main character: Phaedrus, to take up philosophy.^ Enthymemes based upon ordinary Signs are those which argue from some universal or particular proposition, true or false.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is possible that in developing his own theory of knowledge, Plato coined the term "rhetoric" both to denounce what he saw as the false wisdom of the Sophists, and to advance his own views on knowledge and method.^ In doing so, we shall at the same time be finding out how to make our hearers take the required view of our own characters-our second method of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another method is to denounce calumny, showing what an enormity it is, and in particular that it raises false issues, and that it means a lack of confidence in the merits of his case.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In rhetoric, however, the term 'rhetorician' may describe either the speaker's knowledge of the art, or his moral purpose.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Plato's animosity against the Sophists derives not only from their inflated claims to teach virtue and their reliance on appearances, but from the fact that his teacher: Socrates, was accused of being a Sophist and ultimately sentenced to death for his teaching.

Aristotle

Aristotle standardised the method of Greek rhetoric.
Plato's student Aristotle (384-322 BC) famously set forth an extended treatise on rhetoric that still repays careful study today. In the first sentence of The Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle says that "rhetoric is the counterpart [literally, the antistrophe] of dialectic." As the "antistrophe" of a Greek ode responds to and is patterned after the structure of the "strophe" (they form two sections of the whole and are sung by two parts of the chorus), so the art of rhetoric follows and is structurally patterned after the art of dialectic because both are arts of discourse production. .Thus, while dialectical methods are necessary to find truth in theoretical matters, rhetorical methods are required in practical matters such as adjudicating somebody's guilt or innocence when charged in a court of law, or adjudicating a prudent course of action to be taken in a deliberative assembly.^ Required course in composition theory and practice .
  • Rhetoric Review's 2007 Survey of Doctoral Programs 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, while dialectical methods are necessary to find truth in theoretical matters, rhetorical methods are required in practical matters such as adjudicating somebody's guilt or innocence when charged in a court of law, or adjudicating a prudent course of action to be taken in a deliberative assembly.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Required ESL courses are prerequisites to rhetoric courses.

.For Plato and Aristotle, dialectic involves persuasion, so when Aristotle says that rhetoric is the antistrophe of dialectic, he means that rhetoric as he uses the term has a domain or scope of application that is parallel to but different from the domain or scope of application of dialectic.^ With regard to the persuasion achieved by proof or apparent proof: just as in dialectic there is induction on the one hand and syllogism or apparent syllogism on the other, so it is in rhetoric.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the persons mentioned define their term and get at its essential meaning, and then use the result when reasoning on the point at issue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jokes made by altering the letters of a word consist in meaning, not just what you say, but something that gives a twist to the word used; e.g.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

In Nietzsche Humanist (1998: 129), Claude Pavur explains that "[t]he Greek prefix 'anti' does not merely designate opposition, but it can also mean 'in place of.'" .When Aristotle characterizes rhetoric as the antistrophe of dialectic, he no doubt means that rhetoric is used in place of dialectic when we are discussing civic issues in a court of law or in a legislative assembly.^ All the persons mentioned define their term and get at its essential meaning, and then use the result when reasoning on the point at issue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 'free-running' style I mean the kind that has no natural stopping-places, and comes to a stop only because there is no more to say of that subject.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence in many places, as we have said already, irrelevant speaking is forbidden in the law-courts: in the public assembly those who have to form a judgement are themselves well able to guard against that.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The domain of rhetoric is civic affairs and practical decision making in civic affairs, not theoretical considerations of operational definitions of terms and clarification of thought – these, for him, are in the domain of dialectic.^ Again, somebody calls actors 'hangers-on of Dionysus', but they call themselves 'artists': each of these terms is a metaphor, the one intended to throw dirt at the actor, the other to dignify him.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the more we try to make either dialectic rhetoric not, what they really are, practical faculties, but sciences, the more we shall inadvertently be destroying their true nature; for we shall be re-fashioning them and shall be passing into the region of sciences dealing with definite subjects rather than simply with words and forms of reasoning.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle's treatise on rhetoric is an attempt to systematically describe civic rhetoric as a human art or skill (techne).^ Aristotle's treatise on rhetoric is an attempt to systematically describe civic rhetoric as a human art or skill (techne).
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The extant treatise on rhetoric (also by Aristotle?

^ A.D. 260) published an Art of Rhetoric which is still extant; and the more celebrated treatise On Sublimity (-rEpi iikovs), if not his work, is at least of the same period.

.His definition of rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion," essentially a mode of discovery, seems to limit the art to the inventional process, and Aristotle heavily emphasizes the logical aspect of this process.^ Of the modes of persuasion some belong strictly to the art of rhetoric and some do not.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

But the treatise in fact also discusses not only elements of style and (briefly) delivery, but also emotional appeals (pathos) and characterological appeals (ethos). He thus identifies three steps or "offices" of rhetoric—invention, arrangement, and style—and three different types of rhetorical proof:
  • ethos: how the character and credibility of a speaker can influence an audience to consider him/her to be believable.
.Today, this is still an effective means of persuading an audience; however, shrewd, critical listeners will note whether the "expert's" actual arguments are as impressive and satisfying as his or her title, to avoid the informal logical fallacy of an Appeal to Authority.^ Further, we must consider the question of utility, noting whether the contract is against the interest of the judges or not; and so on-these arguments are as obvious as the others.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor does it matter whether we are arguing against an actual opponent or against a mere proposition; in the latter case we still have to use speech and overthrow the opposing arguments, and we attack these as we should attack an actual opponent.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.
    • This could be any position in which the speaker—whether an acknowledged expert on the subject, or an acquaintance of a person who experienced the matter in question—knows about the topic.
    • For instance, when a magazine claims that An MIT professor predicts that the robotic era is coming in 2050, the use of big-name "MIT" (a world-renowned American university for the advanced research in math, science, and technology) establishes the "strong" credibility.
  • pathos: the use of emotional appeals to alter the audience's judgment.^ Clearly counsel can only be given on matters about which people deliberate; matters, namely, that ultimately depend on ourselves, and which we have it in our power to set going.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Another line is to consider whether the accused person can take or could have taken a better course than that which he is recommending or taking, or has taken.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Diviners use these vague generalities about the matter in hand because their predictions are thus, as a rule, less likely to be falsified.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • This can be done through metaphor, amplification, storytelling, or presenting the topic in a way that evokes strong emotions in the audience.
  • logos: the use of reasoning, either inductive or deductive, to construct an argument.^ Another line of argument is used when we have to urge or discourage a course of action that may be done in either of two opposite ways, and have to apply the method just mentioned to both.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Besides, an emotional speaker always makes his audience feel with him, even when there is nothing in his arguments; which is why many speakers try to overwhelm their audience by mere noise.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every one who effects persuasion through proof does in fact use either enthymemes or examples: there is no other way.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Logos appeals include appeals to statistics, math, logic, and objectivity. For instance, when advertisements claim that their product is 37% more effective than the competition, they are making a logical appeal.
    • Inductive reasoning uses examples (historical, mythical, or hypothetical) to draw conclusions.
    • Deductive reasoning, or "enthymematic" reasoning, uses generally accepted propositions to derive specific conclusions.^ It is this simplicity that makes the uneducated more effective than the educated when addressing popular audiences-makes them, as the poets tell us, 'charm the crowd's ears more finely'.
      • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ We also fear those who are to be feared by stronger people than ourselves: if they can hurt those stronger people, still more can they hurt us; and, for the same reason, we fear those whom those stronger people are actually afraid of.
      • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ By mixing up the man's merits with what is bad, they do their best to make use of them to damage him.
      • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

      The term logic evolved from logos. Aristotle emphasized enthymematic reasoning as central to the process of rhetorical invention, though later rhetorical theorists placed much less emphasis on it.
.Aristotle also identifies three different types or genres of civic rhetoric: forensic (also known as judicial, was concerned with determining truth or falsity of events that took place in the past, issues of guilt), deliberative (also known as political, was concerned with determining whether or not particular actions should or should not be taken in the future), and epideictic (also known as ceremonial, was concerned with praise and blame, values, right and wrong, demonstrating beauty and skill in the present).^ These witnesses are concerned with past events.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since only possible actions, and not impossible ones, can ever have been done in the past or the present, and since things which have not occurred, or will not occur, also cannot have been done or be going to be done, it is necessary for the political, the forensic, and the ceremonial speaker alike to be able to have at their command propositions about the possible and the impossible, and about whether a thing has or has not occurred, will or will not occur.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ceremonial orator is, properly speaking, concerned with the present, since all men praise or blame in view of the state of things existing at the time, though they often find it useful also to recall the past and to make guesses at the future.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

One of the most famous of Aristotelian doctrines was the idea of topics (also referred to as common topics or commonplaces). .Though the term had a wide range of application (as a memory technique or compositional exercise, for example) it most often referred to the "seats of argument"—the list of categories of thought or modes of reasoning—that a speaker could use in order to generate arguments or proofs.^ All the persons mentioned define their term and get at its essential meaning, and then use the result when reasoning on the point at issue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most enthymemes are in fact based upon these particular or special Lines of Argument; comparatively few on the common or general kind.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other arguments about a witness-that he is a friend or an enemy or neutral, or has a good, bad, or indifferent reputation, and any other such distinctions-we must construct upon the same general lines as we use for the regular rhetorical proofs.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The topics were thus a heuristic or inventional tool designed to help speakers categorize and thus better retain and apply frequently used types of argument.^ Another line of argument is used when we have to urge or discourage a course of action that may be done in either of two opposite ways, and have to apply the method just mentioned to both.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, gold is a better thing than iron, though less useful: it is harder to get, and therefore better worth getting.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here, then, we must use, as our modes of persuasion and argument, notions possessed by everybody, as we observed in the Topics when dealing with the way to handle a popular audience.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, since we often see effects as "like" their causes, one way to invent an argument (about a future effect) is by discussing the cause (which it will be "like").^ Another line of argument is to show that if the cause is present, the effect is present, and if absent, absent.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But while it is easier to supply parallels by inventing fables, it is more valuable for the political speaker to supply them by quoting what has actually happened, since in most respects the future will be like what the past has been.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pleasantness of victory implies of course that combative sports and intellectual contests are pleasant (since in these it often happens that some one wins) and also games like knuckle-bones, ball, dice, and draughts.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.This and other rhetorical topics derive from Aristotle's belief that there are certain predictable ways in which humans (particularly non-specialists) draw conclusions from premises.^ Hence you should not ask any further questions after drawing the conclusion, nor put the conclusion itself in the form of a further question, unless there is a large balance of truth on your side.
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^ With regard to the persuasion achieved by proof or apparent proof: just as in dialectic there is induction on the one hand and syllogism or apparent syllogism on the other, so it is in rhetoric.
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^ Every one who effects persuasion through proof does in fact use either enthymemes or examples: there is no other way.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Based upon and adapted from his dialectical Topics, the rhetorical topics became a central feature of later rhetorical theorizing, most famously in Cicero's work of that name.^ Most enthymemes are in fact based upon these particular or special Lines of Argument; comparatively few on the common or general kind.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As, in dialectic, for instance, it may be argued that what-is-not is, on the ground that what-is-not is what-is-not: or that the unknown can be known, on the ground that it can be known to he unknown: so also in rhetoric a spurious enthymeme may be based on the confusion of some particular probability with absolute probability.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Topics of Argumentative invention in Latin Rhetorical Theory from Cicero to Boethius.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

Cicero

For the Romans, oration became an important part of public life. Cicero (106-43 BC) was chief among Roman rhetoricians. Rhetorica ad Herennium, formerly attributed to Cicero but of unknown authorship, is one of the most significant works on rhetoric and is still widely used as a reference today. .It is an extensive reference on the use of rhetoric, and in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, it achieved wide publication as an advanced school texts on rhetoric.^ Murphy, James J. Cicero's Rhetoric in the Middle Ages.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory From St. Augustine to the Renaissance.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.Cicero is considered one of the most significant rhetoricians of all time.^ In considering this subject we must look at all the categories: an act may be an act of kindness because (1) it is a particular thing, (2) it has a particular magnitude or (3) quality, or (4) is done at a particular time or (5) place.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.His works include the early and very influential De Inventione (On Invention, often read alongside the Ad Herennium as the two basic texts of rhetorical theory throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance), De Oratore (a fuller statement of rhetorical principles in dialogue form), Topics (a rhetorical treatment of common topics, highly influential through the Renaissance), Brutus (a discussion of famous orators) and Orator (a defense of Cicero's style).^ The special forms of oratorical argument having now been discussed, we have next to treat of those which are common to all kinds of oratory.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the defence,...This topic forms the whole Art of Rhetoric both of Pamphilus and of Callippus.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This form of argument has two varieties; one consisting in the mention of actual past facts, the other in the invention of facts by the speaker.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Cicero also left a large body of speeches and letters which would establish the outlines of Latin eloquence and style for generations to come. .It was the rediscovery of Cicero's speeches (such as the defence of Archias) and letters (to Atticus) by Italians like Petrarch that, in part, ignited the cultural innovations that we know as the Renaissance.^ But whereas the defendant will begin by dealing with this sort of thing, the prosecutor will take quite another line and deal with such matters in the closing part of his speech.
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^ Further-good parts, strong memory, receptiveness, quickness of intuition, and the like, for all such faculties are productive of what is good.
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^ They may occur then; so may even accusation and defence, often enough; but they form no essential part of a political speech.
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Quintilian

Frontispiece of a 1720 edition of the Institutio Oratoria, showing Quintilan teaching rhetorics
Quintilian (35-100 AD) began his career as a pleader in the courts of law; his reputation grew so great that Vespasian created a chair of rhetoric for him in Rome. .The culmination of his life's work was the Institutio oratoria (Institutes of Oratory, or alternatively, The Orator's Education), a lengthy treatise on the training of the orator in which he discusses the training of the "perfect" orator from birth to old age and, in the process, reviews the doctrines and opinions of many influential rhetoricians who preceded him.^ The special forms of oratorical argument having now been discussed, we have next to treat of those which are common to all kinds of oratory.
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^ Now good birth in a race or a state means that its members are indigenous or ancient: that its earliest leaders were distinguished men, and that from them have sprung many who were distinguished for qualities that we admire.
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^ So much for the types of character that distinguish youth, old age, and the prime of life.
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In the Institutes, Quintilian organizes rhetorical study through the stages of education that an aspiring orator would undergo, beginning with the selection of a nurse. .Aspects of elementary education (training in reading and writing, grammar, and literary criticism) are followed by preliminary rhetorical exercises in composition (the progymnasmata) that include maxims and fables, narratives and comparisons, and finally full legal or political speeches.^ Again, introduction, comparison of conflicting arguments, and recapitulation are only found in political speeches when there is a struggle between two policies.
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^ Greek Rhetoric and Literary Criticism.
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^ Political and Legal Aspects of the Trial of Rabirius.
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The delivery of speeches within the context of education or for entertainment purposes became widespread and popular under the term "declamation." Rhetorical training proper was categorized under five canons that would persist for centuries in academic circles:
  • Inventio (invention) is the process that leads to the development and refinement of an argument.
  • Once arguments are developed, dispositio (disposition, or arrangement) is used to determine how it should be organized for greatest effect, usually beginning with the exordium.
  • Once the speech content is known and the structure is determined, the next steps involve elocutio (style) and pronuntiatio (presentation).
  • Memoria (memory) comes to play as the speaker recalls each of these elements during the speech.
  • Actio (delivery) is the final step as the speech is presented in a gracious and pleasing way to the audience - the Grand Style.
This work was available only in fragments in medieval times, but the discovery of a complete copy at Abbey of St. Gall in 1416 led to its emergence as one of the most influential works on rhetoric during the Renaissance.
.Quintilian's work describes not just the art of rhetoric, but the formation of the perfect orator as a politically active, virtuous, publicly minded citizen.^ Particularly in political oratory, but also in lawsuits, it adds much to an orator's influence that his own character should look right and that he should be thought to entertain the right feelings towards his hearers; and also that his hearers themselves should be in just the right frame of mind.
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^ So just as earlier in this work we drew up a list of useful propositions for the orator, let us now proceed in the same way to analyse the subject before us.
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^ The Art of Rhetoric of Callippus is made up of this line of argument, with the addition of those of Possibility and the others of that kind already described.
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His emphasis was on the ethical application of rhetorical training, in part a reaction against the growing tendency in Roman schools toward standardization of themes and techniques. .At the same time that rhetoric was becoming divorced from political decision making, rhetoric rose as a culturally vibrant and important mode of entertainment and cultural criticism in a movement known as the "second sophistic," a development which gave rise to the charge (made by Quintilian and others) that teachers were emphasizing style over substance in rhetoric.^ In a political debate the man who is forming a judgement is making a decision about his own vital interests.
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^ In doing so, we shall at the same time be finding out how to make our hearers take the required view of our own characters-our second method of persuasion.
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^ The introductions of political oratory will be made out of the same materials as those of the forensic kind, though the nature of political oratory makes them very rare.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Medieval to Enlightenment

.After the breakup of the western Roman Empire, the study of rhetoric continued to be central to the study of the verbal arts; but the study of the verbal arts went into decline for several centuries, followed eventually by a gradual rise in formal education, culminating in the rise of medieval universities.^ The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World.
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^ Rhetoric in Greco-Roman Education.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Jenkinson, E. M. Further Studies in the Curriculum of the Roman Schools of Rhetoric in the Republican Period.
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But rhetoric transmuted during this period into the arts of letter writing (ars dictaminis) and sermon writing (ars praedicandi). .As part of the trivium, rhetoric was secondary to the study of logic, and its study was highly scholastic: students were given repetitive exercises in the creation of discourses on historical subjects (suasoriae) or on classic legal questions (controversiae).^ Neither rhetoric nor dialectic is the scientific study of any one separate subject: both are faculties for providing arguments.
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^ It is therefore ridiculous to imitate a poetical manner which the poets themselves have dropped; and it is now plain that we have not to treat in detail the whole question of style, but may confine ourselves to that part of it which concerns our present subject, rhetoric.
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^ Rhetorical Discourses on the Preliminary Exercises of Apthonius.
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Although he is not commonly regarded as a rhetorician, St. Augustine (354-430) was trained in rhetoric and was at one time a professor of Latin rhetoric in Milan. .After his conversion to Christianity, he became interested in using these "pagan" arts for spreading his religion.^ This we gather from the fact that these two classes of terms, the proper or regular and the metaphorical-these and no others-are used by everybody in conversation.
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This new use of rhetoric is explored in the Fourth Book of his De Doctrina Christiana, which laid the foundation of what would become homiletics, the rhetoric of the sermon. Augustine begins the book by asking why "the power of eloquence, which is so efficacious in pleading either for the erroneous cause or the right", should not be used for righteous purposes (IV.3).
One early concern of the medieval Christian church was its attitude to classical rhetoric itself. Jerome (d. 420) complained, "What has Horace to do with the Psalms, Virgil with the Gospels, Cicero with the Apostles?" Augustine is also remembered for arguing for the preservation of pagan works and fostering a church tradition which led to conservation of numerous pre-Christian rhetorical writings.
Rhetoric would not regain its classical heights until the renaissance, but new writings did advance rhetorical thought. .Boethius (480?-524), in his brief Overview of the Structure of Rhetoric, continues Aristotle's taxonomy by placing rhetoric in subordination to philosophical argument or dialectic.^ Neither rhetoric nor dialectic is the scientific study of any one separate subject: both are faculties for providing arguments.
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^ Raphael, S. Rhetoric, Dialectic and Syllogistic Argument: Aristotle's Position in Rhetoric I-II .
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^ The Topics of Argumentative invention in Latin Rhetorical Theory from Cicero to Boethius.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

[18] .The introduction of Arab scholarship from European relations with the Muslim empire (in particular Al-Andalus) renewed interest in Aristotle and Classical thought in general, leading to what some historians call the twelfth century renaissance.^ The maxim, as has been already said, a general statement and people love to hear stated in general terms what they already believe in some particular connexion: e.g.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.A number of medieval grammars and studies of poetry and rhetoric appeared.^ It thus appears that rhetoric is an offshoot of dialectic and also of ethical studies.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Late medieval rhetorical writings include those of St. Thomas Aquinas (1225?-1274), Matthew of Vendome (Ars Versificatoria, 1175?), and Geoffrey of Vinsauf (Poetria Nova, 1200–1216). .Pre-modern female rhetoricians, outside of Socrates' friend Aspasia, are rare; but medieval rhetoric produced by women either in religious orders, such as Julian of Norwich (d.^ In rhetoric, however, the term 'rhetorician' may describe either the speaker's knowledge of the art, or his moral purpose.
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1415), or the very well-connected Christine de Pizan (1364?-1430?), did occur if not always recorded in writing.
In his 1943 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation in English, Canadian Marshall McLuhan (1911–1980) surveys the verbal arts from approximately the time of Cicero down to the time of Thomas Nashe (1567-1600?).[19] .His dissertation is still noteworthy for undertaking to study the history of the verbal arts together as the trivium, even though the developments that he surveys have been studied in greater detail since he undertook his study.^ His dissertation is still noteworthy for undertaking to study the history of the verbal arts together as the trivium, even though the developments that he surveys have been studied in greater detail since he undertook his study.
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^ In his 1943 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation in English, Canadian Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) surveys the verbal arts from approximately the time of Cicero down to the time of Thomas Nashe (1567-1600?
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^ Notes 1 The study of art through history is the study of visual metaphors.
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.As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic.^ As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic.
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^ Music was a part of the Quadrivium of the Seven Liberal Arts and so had an academic history of relations to the artes dicendi (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic).
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^ Quintilian's masterful work was not enough to curb this movement, but his dismayed response cemented the scholarly opinion that 2nd century C.E. rhetoric fell into decadence and political irrelevance, despite its wide popularity and cultural importance.
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.Another interesting record of medieval rhetorical thought can be seen in the many animal debate poems popular in England and the continent during the Middle Ages, such as The Owl and the Nightingale (13th century) and Geoffrey Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls (1382?).^ Murphy, James J. Cicero's Rhetoric in the Middle Ages.
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^ Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory From St. Augustine to the Renaissance.
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Sixteenth century

.Walter J. Ong's encyclopedia article "Humanism" in the 1967 New Catholic Encyclopedia provides a well-informed survey of Renaissance humanism, which defined itself broadly as disfavoring medieval scholastic logic and dialectic and as favoring instead the study of classical Latin style and grammar and philology and rhetoric.^ Intensive study of classical and new rhetorics.
  • Course Descriptions | Rhetoric and Writing 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC ualr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Walter J. Ong's encyclopedia article "Humanism" in the 1967 New Catholic Encyclopedia provides a well-informed survey of Renaissance humanism, which defined itself broadly as disfavoring medieval scholastic logic and dialectic and as favoring instead the study of classical Latin style and grammar and philology and rhetoric.
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^ A number of medieval grammars and studies of poetry and rhetoric appeared.
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(Reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 69-91.))
Desiderius Erasmus was a proponent of classical rhetoric
One influential figure in the rebirth of interest in classical rhetoric was Erasmus (c.1466-1536). .His 1512 work, De Duplici Copia Verborum et Rerum (also known as Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style), was widely published (it went through more than 150 editions throughout Europe) and became one of the basic school texts on the subject.^ It is evident from what has been said that it is these three subjects, more than any others, about which the orator must be able to have propositions at his command.
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^ Again, if one science is more honourable and valuable than another, the activity with which it deals is also more honourable and valuable; as is the science, so is the reality that is its object, each science being authoritative in its own sphere.
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^ 'At any rate, my deeds are more akin to those of Harmodius and Aristogeiton than yours are'.
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.Its treatment of rhetoric is less comprehensive than the classic works of antiquity, but provides a traditional treatment of res-verba (matter and form): its first book treats the subject of elocutio, showing the student how to use schemes and tropes; the second book covers inventio.^ Political oratory is less given to unscrupulous practices than forensic, because it treats of wider issues.
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^ Again, where one good is always accompanied by another, but does not always accompany it, it is greater than the other, for the use of the second thing is implied in the use of the first.
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^ Thus, gold is a better thing than iron, though less useful: it is harder to get, and therefore better worth getting.
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.Much of the emphasis is on abundance of variation (copia means "plenty" or "abundance", as in copious or cornucopia), so both books focus on ways to introduce the maximum amount of variety into discourse.^ Much of the emphasis is on abundance of variation ( copia means "plenty" or "abundance", as in copious or cornucopia), so both books focus on ways to introduce the maximum amount of variety into discourse.
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.For instance, in one section of the De Copia, Erasmus presents two hundred variations of the sentence "Semper, dum vivam, tui meminero." Another of his works, the extremely popular The Praise of Folly, also had considerable influence on the teaching of rhetoric in the later sixteenth century.^ Those who praise or attack a man aim at proving him worthy of honour or the reverse, and they too treat all other considerations with reference to this one.
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^ For instance, Anaschetos (proper name) ouk anaschetos: where you say that what is so-and-so in one sense is not so-and-so in another; well, if the man is unpleasant, the joke fits the facts.
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^ There are two opposite kinds of paean, one of which is suitable to the beginning of a sentence, where it is indeed actually used; this is the kind that begins with a long syllable and ends with three short ones, as        .
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.Its orations in favour of qualities such as madness spawned a type of exercise popular in Elizabethan grammar schools, later called adoxography, which required pupils to compose passages in praise of useless things.^ And we also feel friendly towards those who praise such good qualities as we possess, and especially if they praise the good qualities that we are not too sure we do possess.
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^ Praise is the expression in words of the eminence of a man's good qualities, and therefore we must display his actions as the product of such qualities.
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^ Such passages must be acted, not delivered with the same quality and pitch of voice, as though they had only one idea in them.
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Juan Luis Vives (1492–1540) also helped shape the study of rhetoric in England. A Spaniard, he was appointed in 1523 to the Lectureship of Rhetoric at Oxford by Cardinal Wolsey, and was entrusted by Henry VIII to be one of the tutors of Mary. Vives fell into disfavor when Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon and left England in 1528. His best-known work was a book on education, De Disciplinis, published in 1531, and his writings on rhetoric included Rhetoricae, sive De Ratione Dicendi, Libri Tres (1533), De Consultatione (1533), and a rhetoric on letter writing, De Conscribendis Epistolas (1536).
.It is likely that many well-known English writers would have been exposed to the works of Erasmus and Vives (as well as those of the Classical rhetoricians) in their schooling, which was conducted in Latin (not English) and often included some study of Greek and placed considerable emphasis on rhetoric.^ Hence in many places, as we have said already, irrelevant speaking is forbidden in the law-courts: in the public assembly those who have to form a judgement are themselves well able to guard against that.
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^ Also those whom many people wish to be like; those who have many acquaintances or friends; those whom admire, or whom we ourselves admire; and those who have been praised and eulogized by poets or prose-writers.
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^ With the same end in view he must, besides, have studied the wars of other countries as well as those of his own, and the way they ended; similar causes are likely to have similar results.
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.See, for example, T.W. Baldwin's William Shakspere's Small Latine and Lesse Greeke, 2 vols.^ See, for example, T.W. Baldwin's William Shakspere's Small Latine and Lesse Greeke , 2 vols.
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.(University of Illinois Press, 1944).^ New York: Oxford University Press; 1944; III pp.
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^ Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press; 1991.
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^ Frederick Burwick (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967), 81-133.
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.The mid-1500s saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics — those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek.^ The mid-1500s saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics — those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek.
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^ The primary focus, however, will be on the history of rhetoric rather than psychology.
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^ In the most influential manuscripts and editions, Aristotle's Rhetoric was surrounded by rhetorical works and even written speeches of other Greek and Latin authors, and was seldom interpreted in the context of the whole Corpus Aristotelicum.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Leonard Cox's The Art or Crafte of Rhetoryke (c. 1524-1530; second edition published in 1532) is considered to be the earliest text on rhetorics in English; it was, for the most part, a translation of the work of Philipp Melanchthon.[20] .A successful early text was Thomas Wilson's The Arte of Rhetorique (1553), which presents a traditional treatment of rhetoric.^ A successful early text was Thomas Wilson's The Arte of Rhetorique (1553), which presents a traditional treatment of rhetoric.
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^ The Art of Rhetorique, by Thomas Wilson (1553), afterwards secretary of state , embodied rules chiefly from Aristotle, with help from Cicero and Quintilian.

^ For instance, Wilson presents the five canons of rhetoric (Invention, Disposition, Elocutio , Memoria , and Utterance or Actio ).
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For instance, Wilson presents the five canons of rhetoric (Invention, Disposition, Elocutio, Memoria, and Utterance or Actio). Other notable works included Angel Day's The English Secretorie (1586, 1592), George Puttenham's The Arte of English Poesie (1589), and Richard Rainholde's Foundacion of Rhetorike (1563).
.During this same period, a movement began that would change the organization of the school curriculum in Protestant and especially Puritan circles and lead to rhetoric losing its central place.^ During this same period, a movement began that would change the organization of the school curriculum in Protestant and especially Puritan circles and lead to rhetoric losing its central place.
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^ A.D. 260) published an Art of Rhetoric which is still extant; and the more celebrated treatise On Sublimity (-rEpi iikovs), if not his work, is at least of the same period.

^ Aristotle emphasized enthymematic reasoning as central to the process of rhetorical invention, though later rhetorical theorists placed much less emphasis on it.
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A French scholar, Pierre de la Ramée, in Latin Petrus Ramus (1515–1572), dissatisfied with what he saw as the overly broad and redundant organization of the trivium, proposed a new curriculum. .In his scheme of things, the five components of rhetoric no longer lived under the common heading of rhetoric.^ In his scheme of things, the five components of rhetoric no longer lived under the common heading of rhetoric.
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^ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial No Derivative Works 3.0 License .

^ At any rate the Rhetoric gives a sort of defining characterization: “I call the same thing element and topos ; for an element or a topos is a heading under which many enthymemes fall” ( Rhet.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, invention and disposition were determined to fall exclusively under the heading of dialectic, while style, delivery, and memory were all that remained for rhetoric.^ It should be noted that only where the question in dispute falls under the first of these heads can it be true that one of the two parties is necessarily a rogue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence this line too falls under the head of fallacies by omission.
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^ Rhetoric falls into three divisions, determined by the three classes of listeners to speeches.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.See Walter J. Ong, Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason (Harvard University Press, 1958; reissued by the University of Chicago Press, 2004, with a new foreword by Adrian Johns).^ New York: Oxford University Press; 1990.
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^ New Haven: Yale University Press; 1914.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1975.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

Ramus, rightly accused of sodomy and erroneously of atheism, was martyred during the French Wars of Religion. His teachings, seen as inimical to Catholicism, were short-lived in France but found a fertile ground in the Netherlands, Germany and England.[21]
John Milton, English poet and rhetorician
One of Ramus' French followers, Audomarus Talaeus (Omer Talon) published his rhetoric, Institutiones Oratoriae, in 1544. This work provided a simple presentation of rhetoric that emphasized the treatment of style, and became so popular that it was mentioned in John Brinsley's (1612) Ludus literarius; or The Grammar Schoole as being the "most used in the best schooles." Many other Ramist rhetorics followed in the next half-century, and by the 1600s, their approach became the primary method of teaching rhetoric in Protestant and especially Puritan circles. .See Walter J. Ong, Ramus and Talon Inventory (Harvard University Press, 1958); Joseph S. Freedman, Philosophy and the Art Europe, 1500-1700: Teaching and Texts at Schools and Universities (Ashgate, 1999).^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1942;(Loeb Classical Library.
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^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1957; XVI(The Loeb Classical Library.
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^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1949;(The Loeb Classical Library.
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.John Milton (1608–1674) wrote a textbook in logic or dialectic in Latin based on Ramus' work, which has now been translated into English by Walter J. Ong and Charles J. Ermatinger in The Complete Prose Works of John Milton (Yale University Press, 1982; 8: 206-407), with a lengthy introduction by Ong (144-205).^ New Haven: Yale University Press; 1914.
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^ The grounds on which we must base our arguments, when we are speaking for or against a proposal, have now been set forth more or less completely.
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^ Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press; 1968.
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.The introduction is reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 111-41).^ The introduction is reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 111-41).
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^ (Reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 69-91.
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Ramism could not exert any influence on the established Catholic schools and universities, which remained by and large stuck in Scholasticism, or on the new Catholic schools and universities founded by members of the religious orders known as the Society of Jesus or the Oratorians, as can be seen in the Jesuit curriculum (in use right up to the 19th century, across the Christian world) known as the Ratio Studiorum (that Claude Pavur, S.J., has recently translated into English, with the Latin text in the parallel column on each page (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2005)). If the influence of Cicero and Quintilian permeates the Ratio Studiorum, it is through the lenses of devotion and the militancy of the Counter-Reformation. The Ratio was indeed imbued with a sense of the divine, of the incarnate logos, that is of rhetoric as an eloquent and humane means to reach further devotion and further action in the Christian city, which was absent from Ramist formalism. The Ratio is, in rhetoric, the answer to St Ignatius Loyola's practice, in devotion, of "spiritual exercizes." This complex oratorical-prayer system is absent from Ramism.

Seventeenth century New England

.In New England and at Harvard College (founded 1636), Ramus and his followers dominated, as Perry Miller shows in The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century (Harvard University Press, 1939).^ New York: Oxford University Press; 1990.
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^ New Haven: Yale University Press; 1914.
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^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1975.
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.However, in England, several writers influenced the course of rhetoric during the seventeenth century, many of them carrying forward the dichotomy that had been set forth by Ramus and his followers during the preceding decades.^ However, in England, several writers influenced the course of rhetoric during the seventeenth century, many of them carrying forward the dichotomy that had been set forth by Ramus and his followers during the preceding decades.
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^ One of Ramus' French followers, Audomarus Talaeus (Omer Talon) published his rhetoric, Institutiones Oratoriae , in 1544.
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^ Another interesting record of medieval rhetorical thought can be seen in the many animal debate poems popular in England and the continent during the Middle Ages, such as The Owl and the Nightingale (13th century) and Geoffrey Chaucer 's Parliament of Fowls (1382?
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.Of greater importance is that this century saw the development of a modern, vernacular style that looked to English, rather than to Greek, Latin, or French models.^ Of greater importance is that this century saw the development of a modern, vernacular style that looked to English, rather than to Greek, Latin, or French models.
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^ The mid-1500s saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics — those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek.
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^ The locus classicus for Greek and Latin primary texts on rhetoric is the Loeb Classical Library of the Harvard University Press , published with an English translation on the facing page.
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Francis Bacon (1561–1626), although not a rhetorician, contributed to the field in his writings. .One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time.^ One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time.
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^ Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment."
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^ In fact instructions to the newly founded Polytechnic School, tasked with training the scientific and technical elites, made it clear that written reporting was to supersede oral reporting.
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.Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment."^ Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment."
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^ One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time.
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^ And with those who treat us less well than they treat everybody else; it is another mark of contempt that they should think we do not deserve what every one else deserves.
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.On matters of style, he proposed that the style conform to the subject matter and to the audience, that simple words be employed whenever possible, and that the style should be agreeable.^ On matters of style, he proposed that the style conform to the subject matter and to the audience, that simple words be employed whenever possible, and that the style should be agreeable.
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^ You cannot ask a series of questions owing to the incapacity of the audience to follow them; and for this reason you should also make your enthymemes as compact as possible.
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^ His central tenet was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons."
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[22]
Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) also wrote on rhetoric. Along with a shortened translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric, Hobbes also produced a number of other works on the subject. .Sharply contrarian on many subjects, Hobbes, like Bacon, also promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly.^ Sharply contrarian on many subjects, Hobbes, like Bacon, also promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly.
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^ By 'free-running' style I mean the kind that has no natural stopping-places, and comes to a stop only because there is no more to say of that subject.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The written style is the more finished: the spoken better admits of dramatic delivery-like the kind of oratory that reflects character and the kind that reflects emotion.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Perhaps the most influential development in English style came out of the work of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), which in 1664 set up a committee to improve the English language.^ Perhaps the most influential development in English style came out of the work of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), which in 1664 set up a committee to improve the English language.
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^ The " Asianism " of style which thus came to be constrasted with " Atticism " found imitators at Rome , among whom must be reckoned the orator Hortensius (c.

^ Of greater importance is that this century saw the development of a modern, vernacular style that looked to English, rather than to Greek, Latin, or French models.
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Among the committee's members were John Evelyn (1620–1706), Thomas Sprat (1635–1713), and John Dryden (1631–1700). .Sprat regarded "fine speaking" as a disease, and thought that a proper style should "reject all amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style" and instead "return back to a primitive purity and shortness" (History of the Royal Society, 1667).^ Sprat regarded "fine speaking" as a disease, and thought that a proper style should "reject all amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style" and instead "return back to a primitive purity and shortness" ( History of the Royal Society , 1667).
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^ His central tenet was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons."
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^ Instead, invention and disposition were determined to fall exclusively under the heading of dialectic, while style, delivery, and memory were all that remained for rhetoric.
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.While the work of this committee never went beyond planning, John Dryden is often credited with creating and exemplifying a new and modern English style.^ While the work of this committee never went beyond planning, John Dryden is often credited with creating and exemplifying a new and modern English style.
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^ His chief work is the Traité de l'argumentation - la nouvelle rhétorique (1958), with Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, which was translated into English as The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, by John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver (1969).
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^ Perhaps the most influential development in English style came out of the work of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), which in 1664 set up a committee to improve the English language.
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.His central tenet was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons."^ On the contrary, knowing the central role of our subjectivity, we should feel inspired by it and eager to engage in the creation of those phantasms (conventionalities) which we call culture.
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.As such, he advocated the use of English words whenever possible instead of foreign ones, as well as vernacular, rather than Latinate, syntax.^ As such, he advocated the use of English words whenever possible instead of foreign ones, as well as vernacular, rather than Latinate, syntax.
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^ The mid-1500s saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics — those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek.
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^ One merit, then, of good style lies in the right use of connecting words.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
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.His own prose (and his poetry) became exemplars of this new style.^ His own prose (and his poetry) became exemplars of this new style.
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Rhetoric in the 18th and 19th centuries

.Arguably one of the most influential schools of rhetoric during this time was Scottish Belletristic rhetoric, exemplified by such professors of rhetoric as Hugh Blair whose Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres saw international success in various editions and translations.^ And things easily effected; for these are practicable (in the sense of being easy); such things are those in which every one, or most people, or one's equals, or one's inferiors have succeeded.
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Modern rhetoric

At the turn of the twentieth century, there was a revival of rhetorical study manifested in the establishment of departments of rhetoric and speech at academic institutions, as well as the formation of national and international professional organizations. .Theorists generally agree that a significant reason for the revival of the study of rhetoric was the renewed importance of language and persuasion in the increasingly mediated environment of the twentieth century (see Linguistic turn) and through the twenty-first century, with the media focus on the wide variations and analyses of political rhetoric and its consequences.^ This concludes our discussion of style, both in its general aspects and in its special applications to the various branches of rhetoric.
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^ It is clear, then, that rhetorical study, in its strict sense, is concerned with the modes of persuasion.
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^ Now it was because poets seemed to win fame through their fine language when their thoughts were simple enough, that the language of oratorical prose at first took a poetical colour, e.g.
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.The rise of advertising and of mass media such as photography, telegraphy, radio, and film brought rhetoric more prominently into people's lives.^ Such people are apt to put that sort of thing into verse.
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^ Missing this distinction, people fail to notice that the more correctly they handle their particular subject the further they are getting away from pure rhetoric or dialectic.
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.Reflecting this, more recently the term rhetoric has been applied to media forms other than verbal language, e.g.^ Next comes liberality; liberal people let their money go instead of fighting for it, whereas other people care more for money than for anything else.
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^ Only, it must be recognized beforehand that the other man is more likely than you are to commit the crime in question.
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^ That which is dearly prized is better than what is not-the sort of thing that some people have only one of, though others have more like it.
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Visual rhetoric. The goal is to analyze how non-verbal communication persuades. .For example, a soft drink advertisement showing an image of young people drinking and laughing is making the case that the consumer, by using the product, will be healthy and happy.^ Hyperboles are for young men to use; they show vehemence of character; and this is why angry people use them more than other people.
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^ For the other way shows good sense, but this shows good character; good sense making us go after what is useful, and good character after what is noble.
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Notable modern theorists

  • Chaim Perelman was a philosopher of law, who studied, taught, and lived most of his life in Brussels. He was among the most important argumentation theorists of the twentieth century. His chief work is the Traité de l'argumentation - la nouvelle rhétorique (1958), with Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, which was translated into English as The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation, by John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver (1969). .Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca move rhetoric from the periphery to the center of argumentation theory.^ The Topics of Argumentative invention in Latin Rhetorical Theory from Cicero to Boethius.
    • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    Among their most influential concepts are "the universal audience," "quasi-logical argument," and "presence."
  • Henry Johnstone Jr. was an American philosopher and rhetorician known especially for his notion of the "rhetorical wedge" and his re-evaluation of the ad hominem fallacy. He was the founder and longtime editor of the journal Philosophy and Rhetoric.[23]
  • Kenneth Burke was a rhetorical theorist, philosopher, and poet. .Many of his works are central to modern rhetorical theory: A Rhetoric of Motives (1950), A Grammar of Motives (1945), Language as Symbolic Action (1966), and Counterstatement (1931).^ Since a given action can be done from many motives, the former must try to disparage it by selecting the worse motive of two, the latter to put the better construction on it.
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    Among his influential concepts are "identification," "consubstantiality," and the "dramatistic pentad."
  • Lloyd Bitzer is a rhetorician who is best known for his notion of "the rhetorical situation."[24]
  • Edwin Black was a rhetorical critic best known for his book Rhetorical Criticism a Study in Method[25] (1965) in which he criticized the dominant "neo-Aristotelian" tradition in American rhetorical criticism as having little in common with Aristotle "besides some recurrent topics of discussion and a vaguely derivative view of rhetorical discourse." Furthermore, he contended, because rhetorical scholars had been focusing primarily on Aristotelian logical forms they often overlooked important, alternative types of discourse. He also published several highly influential essays including: "Secrecy and Disclosure as Rhetorical Forms.",[26] "The Second Persona,"[27] and "A Note on Theory and Practice in Rhetorical Criticism."[28]
  • Marshall McLuhan was a media theorist whose discoveries are important to the study of rhetoric. McLuhan's famous dictum "the medium is the message" highlighted the important role of the mass media in modern communication.[29]
  • I.A. Richards was a literary critic and rhetorician. .His The Philosophy of Rhetoric is an important text in modern rhetorical theory.^ Notes: Rhetoric - Modern Theory .
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    .In this work, he defined rhetoric as "a study of misunderstandings and its remedies,"[30] and introduced the influential concepts tenor and vehicle to describe the relationship of metaphors and ideas.
  • Stephen Toulmin is a philosopher whose models of argumentation have had great influence on modern rhetorical theory.^ Neither rhetoric nor dialectic is the scientific study of any one separate subject: both are faculties for providing arguments.
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    ^ "A Case Study in Philosophic Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt."
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    ^ The Topics of Argumentative invention in Latin Rhetorical Theory from Cicero to Boethius.
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    .His Uses of Argument is an important text in modern rhetorical theory and argumentation theory.^ This special line of argument for enthymeme forms the whole of the Art of Rhetoric in use before Theodorus.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    [31]
  • Edward Bernays is the father of modern public relations. .As such, he devised works about intricate sales and marketing practices to market to goods to people.^ Holders of public office-generals, orators, and all who possess such powers-can do many people a good turn.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since, however, it often happens that people agree that two things are both useful but do not agree about which is the more so, the next step will be to treat of relative goodness and relative utility.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And things easily effected; for these are practicable (in the sense of being easy); such things are those in which every one, or most people, or one's equals, or one's inferiors have succeeded.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    A nephew to Sigmund Freud, he used late 19th century psychology in application of his techniques.
  • Richard E. Vatz is a professor of rhetoric and communication whose framing of persuasion as the struggle for salience/agenda and then struggle for infusion of meaning/spin was first articulated in "The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation" [32] and later in “The Mythical Status of Situational Rhetoric".[33]

Methods of analysis

.There does not exist an analytic method that is widely recognized as "the" rhetorical method, partly because many in rhetorical study see rhetoric as merely produced by reality (see dissent from that view below).^ Rational desires are those which we are induced to have; there are many things we desire to see or get because we have been told of them and induced to believe them good.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It does indeed make men more supercilious and more reckless; but there is one excellent quality that goes with it-piety, and respect for the divine power, in which they believe because of events which are really the result of chance.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is important to note that the object of rhetorical analysis is typically discourse, and therefore the principles of "rhetorical analysis" would be difficult to distinguish from those of "discourse analysis."^ Let us now try to give some account of the systematic principles of Rhetoric itself-of the right method and means of succeeding in the object we set before us.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cope, E. M. An Introduction to Aristotle's Rhetoric with Analysis, Notes, and Appendices.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.However, rhetorical analytic methods can also be applied to almost anything, including objects—a car, a castle, a computer, a comportment.^ Let us now try to give some account of the systematic principles of Rhetoric itself-of the right method and means of succeeding in the object we set before us.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Generally speaking, rhetorical analysis makes use of rhetorical concepts (ethos, logos, kairos, mediation, etc.) to describe the social or epistemological functions of the object of study. .When the object of study happens to be some type of discourse (a speech, a poem, a joke, a newspaper article), the aim of rhetorical analysis is not simply to describe the claims and arguments advanced within the disourse, but (more important) to identify the specific semiotic strategies employed by the speaker to accomplish specific persuasive goals.^ The other kinds of introduction employed are remedial in purpose, and may be used in any type of speech.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or it may be employed to attack some one's character, or to eulogize him-only then you will not be doing what the political speaker, as such, has to do.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Therefore, after a rhetorical analyst discovers a use of language that is particularly important in achieving persuasion, she typically moves onto the question of "How does it work?"^ With regard to the persuasion achieved by proof or apparent proof: just as in dialectic there is induction on the one hand and syllogism or apparent syllogism on the other, so it is in rhetoric.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It must therefore be pleasant as a rule to move towards a natural state of being, particularly when a natural process has achieved the complete recovery of that natural state.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It will be most convincing if it does so in both respects; for if the thing in question both happens oftener as we represent it and happens more as we represent it, the probability is particularly great.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.That is, what effects does this particular use of rhetoric have on an audience, and how does that effect provide more clues as to the speaker's (or writer's) objectives?^ We must also take into account the nature of our particular audience when making a speech of praise; for, as Socrates used to say, 'it is not difficult to praise the Athenians to an Athenian audience.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every one who effects persuasion through proof does in fact use either enthymemes or examples: there is no other way.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are some scholars who do partial rhetorical analysis and defer judgments about rhetorical success.^ Again there is the lawsuit about Demosthenes and the men who killed Nicanor; as they were judged to have killed him justly, it was thought that he was killed justly.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.In other words, some analysts attempt to avoid the question of "Was this use of rhetoric successful [in accomplishing the aims of the speaker]?"^ Another line of proof is got by considering some modification of the key-word, and arguing that what can or cannot be said of the one, can or cannot be said of the other: e.g.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parties in a law-case aim at establishing the justice or injustice of some action, and they too bring in all other points as subsidiary and relative to this one.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or perhaps that the law in question contradicts some other highly-esteemed law, or even contradicts itself.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

To others, however, that is the preeminent point: is the rhetoric strategically effective and what did the rhetoric accomplish? .This question allows a shift in focus from the speaker's objectives to the effects and functions of the rhetoric itself.^ Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Rhetorical criticism

.Rhetorical critics explain texts and speeches by investigating their rhetorical situation, typically placing them in a framework of speaker/audience exchange.^ Texts in Context: Critical Dialogues on Significant Episodes in American Political Rhetoric.
  • Presidential Rhetoric Sources 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[34]
The opposing view, gaining currency, is from The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation, PHILOSOPHY AND RHETORIC (Summer: 1973), that the source of rhetorical persuasion is the rhetor who competes with other rhetors for his or her agenda and the spin to infuse meaning into the chosen focus.[35]
Rhetorical critics use a variety of concepts from contemporary and classical rhetoric in order to conduct their analyses. .Though any text, in principle, could be the subject of a rhetorical criticism, most rhetorical critics focus on the public and professional texts and speeches that have been the primary concern of the rhetorical tradition for centuries.^ Still, the whole business of rhetoric being concerned with appearances, we must pay attention to the subject of delivery, unworthy though it is, because we cannot do without it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This, then, is the most essential function and distinctive property of the introduction, to show what the aim of the speech is; and therefore no introduction ought to be employed where the subject is not long or intricate.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Media Rhetoric: Criticism and the Public Perception of the 1980 Presidential Debates."
  • Presidential Rhetoric Sources 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These kinds of texts are rhetorical because they are attempts to solve real-world problems by addressing specific audiences who have decision-making power.^ Hence those who stand by us in poverty or in banishment, even if they do not help us much, are yet really kind to us, because our need is great and the occasion pressing; for instance, the man who gave the mat in the Lyceum.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Aenesidemus is said to have sent the 'cottabus' prize to Gelon, who had just reduced a town to slavery, because Gelon had got there first and forestalled his own attempt.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is this simplicity that makes the uneducated more effective than the educated when addressing popular audiences-makes them, as the poets tell us, 'charm the crowd's ears more finely'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.Though fiction would not seem to qualify as "rhetorical" in any traditional sense, some have argued that rhetorical criticism can be used as a way to understand it.^ The materials of metaphor must be beautiful to the ear, to the understanding, to the eye or some other physical sense.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same way the theory of rhetoric is concerned not with what seems probable to a given individual like Socrates or Hippias, but with what seems probable to men of a given type; and this is true of dialectic also.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As, in dialectic, for instance, it may be argued that what-is-not is, on the ground that what-is-not is what-is-not: or that the unknown can be known, on the ground that it can be known to he unknown: so also in rhetoric a spurious enthymeme may be based on the confusion of some particular probability with absolute probability.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his 1961 Rhetoric of Fiction, Wayne Booth makes this case, that the writer of fiction, like the rhetor, is addressing an audience in order to solve a problem.^ It is this simplicity that makes the uneducated more effective than the educated when addressing popular audiences-makes them, as the poets tell us, 'charm the crowd's ears more finely'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Booth writes, " the rhetoric resourse available to the writer of epic, novel or short story as he tries, consciously or unconsciously, to impose his fictional word upon the reader."A number of recent critics of prose fiction and of narrative or non-narrative poems have emphasized the author"s use of a variety of means- including the authorial presence or "voice"that he or she projects- in order to engage the interest and guide the imaginative and emotional response of the reader to whom the literary work is addressed.^ Isocrates means more than that, and uses the word with a new meaning.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Words of ambiguous meaning are chiefly useful to enable the sophist to mislead his hearers.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jokes made by altering the letters of a word consist in meaning, not just what you say, but something that gives a twist to the word used; e.g.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Conversation analysis
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Argument Reconstruction

French rhetoric

Rhetoric was part of the curriculum in Jesuit and, to a lesser extent, Oratorian colleges until the French Revolution. .For Jesuits, right from the foundation of the Society in France, rhetoric was an integral part of the training of young men toward taking up leadership positions in the Church and in State institutions, as Marc Fumaroli has shown it in his foundational Age de l’éloquence (1980).^ And the best part of a good thing is particularly good; as when Pericles in his funeral oration said that the country's loss of its young men in battle was 'as if the spring were taken out of the year'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, the priestess enjoined upon her son not to take to public speaking: 'For', she said, 'if you say what is right, men will hate you; if you say what is wrong, the gods will hate you.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reply might be, 'On the contrary, you ought to take to public speaking: for if you say what is right the gods will love you; if you say what is wrong, men will love you.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Oratorians, by contrast, reserved it a lesser place, in part due to the stress they placed on modern language acquisition and a more sensualist philosophy (Bernard Lamy’s Rhetoric is an excellent example of their approach).^ The acquisition of a greater in place of a lesser good, or of a lesser in place of a greater evil, is also good, for in proportion as the greater exceeds the lesser there is acquisition of good or removal of evil.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The type of language employed-is the same in all these examples; but the more briefly and antithetically such sayings can be expressed, the more taking they are, for antithesis impresses the new idea more firmly and brevity more quickly.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Nonetheless, in the 18th Century, rhetoric was the structure and crown of secondary education, with works such as Rollin’s Treatise of Studies achieving a wide and enduring fame across the Continent.[37]
The French Revolution, however, turned this around. .Philosophers such as Condorcet, who drafted the French revolutionary chart for a people’s education under the rule of reason, dismissed rhetoric as an instrument of oppression in the hands of clerics in particular.^ They may be those who are trustful instead of being cautious and watchful, since all such people are easy to elude.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Holders of public office-generals, orators, and all who possess such powers-can do many people a good turn.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It follows therefore that fear is felt by those who believe something to be likely to happen to them, at the hands of particular persons, in a particular form, and at a particular time.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The Revolution went as far as to suppress the Bar, arguing that forensic rhetoric did disservice to a rational system of justice, by allowing fallacies and emotions to come into play. Nonetheless, as later historians of the 19th century were keen to explain, the Revolution was a high moment of eloquence and rhetorical prowess, although set against a background of rejecting rhetoric.
Under the First Empire and its wide-ranging educational reforms, imposed on or imitated across the Continent, rhetoric regained little ground. In fact, instructions to the newly founded Polytechnic School, tasked with training the scientific and technical elites, made it clear that written reporting was to supersede oral reporting. .Rhetoric reentered secondary curriculum in fits and starts, but never regained the prominence it had enjoyed under the ancien régime, although the penultimate year of secondary education was known as the Class of Rhetoric.^ 'It is not true that we ought to know ourselves: anyhow, if this man had known himself, he would never have thought himself fit for an army command.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

When manuals were redrafted in the mid-century, in particular after the 1848 Revolution to formulate a national curriculum, care was taken to distance their approach to rhetoric from that of the Church, which was seen as an agent of conservatism and reactionary politics.
.By the end of the 1870s, a major change had taken place: philosophy of the rationalist or eclectic kind, by and large Kantian, had taken over rhetoric as the true end stage of secondary education (the so-called Class of Philosophy bridged secondary and university education).^ By 'an element of enthymeme' I mean the same thing as a line of enthymematic argument-a general class embracing a large number of particular kinds of enthymeme.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That the three kinds of rhetoric do aim respectively at the three ends we have mentioned is shown by the fact that speakers will sometimes not try to establish anything else.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhetoric has three distinct ends in view, one for each of its three kinds.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Rhetoric was then relegated to the study of literary figures of speech, a discipline later on taught as Stylistics within the French literature curriculum. More decisively, in 1890, a new standard written exercise superseded the rhetorical exercises of speech writing, letter writing and narration. The new genre, called dissertation, had been invented in 1866, for the purpose of rational argument in the philosophy class. Typically, in a dissertation, a question is asked, such as: “Is history a sign of humanity’s freedom?” The structure of a dissertation consists in an introduction that elucidates the basic definitions involved in the question as set, followed by an argument or thesis, a counter-argument or antithesis, and a resolving argument or synthesis that is not a compromise between the former but the production of a new argument, ending with a conclusion that does not sum up the points but opens onto a new problem. The dissertation design was influenced by Hegelianism. It remains today the standard of writing in French humanities.
.By the beginning of the 20th century, rhetoric was fast losing the remains of its former importance, and eventually was taken out of the school curriculum altogether at the time of the Separation of State and Churches (1905).^ Jenkinson, E. M. Further Studies in the Curriculum of the Roman Schools of Rhetoric in the Republican Period.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

Part of the argument was that rhetoric remained the last element of irrationality, driven by religious arguments, in what was perceived as inimical to Republican education. The move, initiated in 1789, found its resolution in 1902 when rhetoric was expunged from all curricula. .However, it must be noted that, at the same time, Aristotelian rhetoric, owing to a revival of Thomistic philosophy initiated by Rome, regained ground in what was left of Catholic education in France, in particular at the prestigious Faculty of Theology of Paris, now a private entity.^ The true and the approximately true are apprehended by the same faculty; it may also be noted that men have a sufficient natural instinct for what is true, and usually do arrive at the truth.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are not generous, because money is one of the things they must have, and at the same time their experience has taught them how hard it is to get and how easy to lose.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If, then, a speaker uses the very words which are in keeping with a particular disposition, he will reproduce the corresponding character; for a rustic and an educated man will not say the same things nor speak in the same way.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Yet, for all intents and purposes, rhetoric vanished from the French scene, educational or intellectual, for some 60 years.
In the early 1960s a change began to take place, as the word rhetoric and the body of knowledge it covers began to be used again, in a modest and almost secret manner. .The new linguistic turn, through the rise of semiotics as well as of structural linguistics, brought to the fore a new interest in figures of speech as signs, the metaphor in particular (in the works of Roman Jakobson, Michel Charles, Gérard Genette) while famed Structuralist Roland Barthes, a classicist by training, perceived how some basic elements of rhetoric could be of use in the study of narratives, fashion and ideology.^ Enthymemes based upon ordinary Signs are those which argue from some universal or particular proposition, true or false.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We must also take into account the nature of our particular audience when making a speech of praise; for, as Socrates used to say, 'it is not difficult to praise the Athenians to an Athenian audience.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How easily such impressions may be conveyed we can see from the way in which we get some inkling of things we know nothing of by the mere look of the messenger bringing news of them.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Knowledge of rhetoric was so dim in the early 1970s that his short memoir on rhetoric was seen as highly innovative. Basic as it was, it did help rhetoric regain some currency in avant-garde circles. .Psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, his contemporary, makes references to rhetoric, in particular to the Pre-Socratics.^ We must also take into account the nature of our particular audience when making a speech of praise; for, as Socrates used to say, 'it is not difficult to praise the Athenians to an Athenian audience.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Philosopher Jacques Derrida wrote on Voice.
.At the same time, more profound work was taking place that eventually gave rise to the French school of rhetoric as it exists today.^ Concerning things which exist or will exist inevitably, or which cannot possibly exist or take place, no counsel can be given.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In doing so, we shall at the same time be finding out how to make our hearers take the required view of our own characters-our second method of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The more a saying has these qualitis, the livelier it appears: if, for instance, its wording is metaphorical, metaphorical in the right way, antithetical, and balanced, and at the same time it gives an idea of activity.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[38]
This rhetorical revival took place on two fronts.[39] .First, in 17th century French studies, the mainstay of French literary education, awareness grew that rhetoric was necessary to push the limits of knowledge further, and also to provide an antidote to Structuralism and its denial of historicism in culture.^ Grube, G. M. A. Educational, Rhetorical and Literary Theory in Cicero.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.This was the pioneering work of Marc Fumaroli who, building on the work of classicist and Neo-Latinist Alain Michel and French scholars such as Roger Zuber, published his famed Age de l’Eloquence (1980), was one of the founders of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric and was eventually elevated to a chair in rhetoric at the prestigious College de France.^ Well, any one who believes that the work of a god exists, cannot help also believing that gods exist.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory From St. Augustine to the Renaissance.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

He is the editor in chief of a monumental History of Rhetoric in Modern Europe.[40] His disciples form the second generation,[41] with rhetoricians such as Françoise Waquet and Delphine Denis, both of the Sorbonne, or Philippe-Joseph Salazar (fr:Philippe-Joseph Salazar on the French Wikipedia), until recently at Derrida's College international de philosophie, laureate of the Harry Oppenheimer prize and whose recent book on Hyperpolitique has attracted the French media's attention on a "re-appropriation of the means of production of persuasion" ([1]
Second, in the area of Classical studies, in the wake of Alain Michel, Latin scholars fostered a renewal in Cicero studies. .They broke away from a pure literary reading of his orations, in an attempt to embed Cicero in European ethics.^ Missing this distinction, people fail to notice that the more correctly they handle their particular subject the further they are getting away from pure rhetoric or dialectic.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Meanwhile, among Greek scholars, the literary historian and philologist Jacques Bompaire, the philologist and philosopher E. Dupréel, and later the literature historian Jacqueline de Romilly pioneered new studies in the Sophists and the Second Sophistic. .The second generation of Classicists, often trained in philosophy as well (following Heidegger and Derrida, mainly), built on their work, with authors such as Marcel Detienne (now at Johns Hopkins), Nicole Loraux, Medievalist and logician Alain De Libera (Geneva), Ciceronian scholar Carlos Lévy (Sorbonne, Paris) and Barbara Cassin (Collége international de philosophie, Paris).^ Consequently if the rules for trials which are now laid down some states-especially in well-governed states-were applied everywhere, such people would have nothing to say.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is clear that counter-syllogisms can be built up from the same lines of arguments as the original syllogisms: for the materials of syllogisms are the ordinary opinions of men, and such opinions often contradict each other.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] Sociologist of science Bruno Latour and economist Romain Laufer may also be considered part of, or close to this group.
Links between the two strands – literary and philosophical – of the French school of rhetoric are strong and collaborative, and bear witness to the revival of rhetoric in France.[43] A recent issue of Philosophy & Rhetoric presents current writing in the field [2].

Chinese rhetoric

.In Chinese civilization, rhetoric has been primarily written, not oral, due to regional differences in language, and the centrality of the written Classical Chinese language to the empire; accordingly, calligraphy and studies of classical Chinese literature have received more attention than oral delivery.^ Still, the whole business of rhetoric being concerned with appearances, we must pay attention to the subject of delivery, unworthy though it is, because we cannot do without it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is better than other things which is more useful than they are for a number of different purposes; for example, that which promotes life, good life, pleasure, and noble conduct.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.In imperial China, bureaucrats would be sent to different regions, where they would be able to communicate in writing but relatively less in speech, and in the 20th century the speeches of Mao Zedong were frequently incomprehensible to most Chinese listeners due to his heavy regional accent, with his rhertoric being better known through his writings and calligraphy, and particularly his Quotations from Chairman Mao (Little Red Book).^ It is only natural that methods of 'heightening the effect' should be attached particularly to speeches of praise; they aim at proving superiority over others, and any such superiority is a form of nobleness.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, it is better not to have everything always just corresponding to everything else-your hearers will see through you less easily thus.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And that is a greater good which would be chosen by a better man, either absolutely, or in virtue of his being better: for instance, to suffer wrong rather than to do wrong, for that would be the choice of the juster man.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

Miscellaneous terms
Political speech resources

Notes

  1. ^ The definition of rhetoric is a controversial subject within the field and has given rise to philological battles over its meaning in Ancient Greece. See, for instance, Johnstone, Henry W. Jr. (1995). "On Schiappa versus Poulakos." Rhetoric Review. 14:2. (Spring), 438-440.
  2. ^ "...rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics..." Aristotle. Rhetoric. (trans. W. Rhys Roberts). I:4:1359.
  3. ^ Perseus.Tufts.edu, Rhetorikos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  4. ^ Perseus.Tufts.edu, Rhetor, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  5. ^ Perseus.Tufts.edu, Rhema, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  6. ^ Perseus.Tufts.edu, Ero, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  7. ^ Young, R. E., Becker, A. L., & Pike, K. L. (1970). Rhetoric: discovery and change. New York,: Harcourt Brace & World. p. 1
  8. ^ For more information see Dr. Greg Dickinson of Colorado State University.
  9. ^ John S. Nelson, Allan Megill, and Donald N. McCloskey The Rhetoric of Human Sciences: Language and Argument in Scholarship and Public Affairs, London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987. ; "In the last ten years, many scholars have investigated exactly how rhetoric works within a particular field." Theodora Polito, Educational Theory as Theory of Culture: A Vichian perspective on the educational theories of John Dewey and Kieran Egan Educational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2005; Deirdre N. McCloskey (1985) The Rhetoric of Economics; JSTOR.org (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press); Nelson, J. S. (1998) Tropes of Politics (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press); Brown, R. H. (1987) Society as Text (Chicago, University of Chicago Press).
  10. ^ Garsten, B. (2005). Saving Persuasion: A Defense of Rhetoric and Judgment. Harvard UP. pp. 1-2.; Katula, R.A. (1995). Greek Democracy and the Study of Rhetoric. In Murphy, J.J. and Katula, R.A. (eds.) A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. Hermagoras Press. 3-16. pp. 3-4.
  11. ^ cf. Conley, T.M. (1990) Rhetoric in the European Tradition. University of Chicago Press.; Kennedy, G.A. (1994). A New History of Classical Rhetoric. Princeton University Press.
  12. ^ cf. Kennedy, G.A. (1994). A New History of Classical Rhetoric. Princeton University Press., pp. 30-43.; Ong, W.J. (2004). Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason. University of Chicago Press.
  13. ^ cf. Gross, A.G. (1994). The Rhetoric of Science. Harvard University Press.; McCloskey, D. (1998). The Rhetoric of Economics. University of Wisconsin Press.; Latour, B. & Woolgar, S. (1986). Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Princeton University Press.; Fahnestock, J. (1999). Rhetorical Figures in Science. Oxford University Press.
  14. ^ cf. Mogens Herman Hansen The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes (Blackwell, 1991); Josiah Ober Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens (Princeton UP, 1989); Jeffrey Walker, Rhetoric and Poetics in Antiquity (Oxford UP, 2000).
  15. ^ cf. Kennedy, G.A. (1994). A New History of Classical Rhetoric. Princeton University Press. p. 3.
  16. ^ Isocrates. "Against the Sophists." In Isocrates with an English Translation in three volumes, by George Norlin, Ph.D., LL.D. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1980.; Isocrates. "Antidosis." In Isocrates with an English Translation in three volumes, by George Norlin, Ph.D., LL.D. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1980.
  17. ^ Napoletano.net
  18. ^ Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present, Boston: Bedford / St. Martins, 2nd ed., 2001, p. 486.
  19. ^ McLuhan's dissertation is scheduled to be published in a critical edition by Gingko Press in April 2006 with the title The Classical Trivium: The Place of Thomas Nashe in the Learning of His Time.
  20. ^ Frederic Ives Carpenter, "Leonard Cox and the First English Rhetoric," Modern Language Notes, Vol. 13, No. 5 (May 1898), pp. 146-47 (available at JSTOR - subscription required).
  21. ^ See Marc Fumaroli, Age de l'Éloquence, 1980, for an extensive presentation of the intricate political and religious debates concerning rhetoric in France and Italy at the time
  22. ^ See Lisa Jardine, Francis Bacon: Discovery and the Art of Discourse (Cambridge University Press, 1975).
  23. ^ Enos, R.J. (2000). Always... An Epitaphios to Henry W. Johnstone, Jr. (1920-2000). Rhetoric Review, Vol. 19, nos. 1/2, Fall.
  24. ^ Bitzer. L. (1968). The rhetorical situation. Philosophy and Rhetoric. 1:1. 1-14.
  25. ^ Black, Edwin. (1965)Rhetorical Criticism a Study in Method. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  26. ^ Black, Edwin. "Secrecy and Disclosure as Rhetorical Forms." Quarterly Journal of Speech. 74:2 (May 1988): 133.
  27. ^ Black, Edwin. "The Second Persona." Quarterly Journal of Speech. 56:2 (1970)109.
  28. ^ Black, Edwin. "A Note on Theory and Practice in Rhetorical Criticism." Western Journal of Speech Communication: WJSC 44.4 (Fall1980 1980): 331-336.
  29. ^ When McLuhan was working on his 1943 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation on the verbal arts and Nashe, mentioned above, he was also preparing the materials that were eventually published as the book The Mechanical Bride: The Folklore of Industrial Man (Vanguard Press, 1951). .This book is a compilation of exhibits of ads and other materials from popular culture with short essays about them by McLuhan.^ He did not speak about the culture, he did not implicate teammates, he did not accuse others.
    • Rhetoric Notes 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www2.wabash.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The essays involve rhetorical analyses of the ways in which the material in an item aims to persuade and comment on the persuasive strategies in each item. After studying the persuasive strategies involved in such an array of items in popular culture, McLuhan shifted the focus of his rhetorical analysis and began to consider how communication media themselves have an impact on us as persuasive devices. In other words, the communication media as such embody and carry a persuasive dimension. McLuhan uses hyperbole to express this insight when he says "The medium is the message". .This shift in focus from his 1951 book led to his two most widely known books, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (University of Toronto Press, 1962) and Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (McGraw-Hill, 1964).^ Two factors in particular seem to have led to Turkey's shift away from Israel and toward Syria.

    ^ Since most interpreters refer the word ‘ sullogismos ’ to the syllogistic theory (see the entry on Aristotle's logic ) according to which a proper deduction has exactly two premises, those lines have led to the wide spread understanding that Aristotle defines the enthymeme as a sullogismos in which one of two premises has been suppressed, i.e.
    • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You must aim at one of two objects-you must make yourself out a good man and him a bad one either in yourselves or in relation to your hearers.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    .These two books led McLuhan to become one of the most publicized thinkers in the 20th century.^ As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic.
    • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It should be noted that only where the question in dispute falls under the first of these heads can it be true that one of the two parties is necessarily a rogue.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And similarly with the serious sports; some of these become pleasant when one is accustomed to them; while others are pleasant from the first, like hunting with hounds, or indeed any kind of hunting.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    .No other scholar of the history and theory of rhetoric was as widely publicized in the 20th century as McLuhan.^ As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic.
    • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If the theory of rhetoric fell into neglect, the practice, however, was encouraged by the public exercises (" acts " and " opponencies ") in the schools.

    ^ Anthropology, practice and the moral imagination (2001), with chapters by Paul Friedrich, James Clifford, Michael Herzfeld, James Boon and other scholars inside and outside anthropology whose work can be considered as being close to rhetoric culture theory.
    • International Rhetoric Culture Project 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.rhetoricculture.org [Source type: Original source]

    McLuhan read Lonergan's Insight, mentioned above, in 1957 (see Letters of Marshall McLuhan, 1987: 251). Lonergan's book is an elaborate guidebook to cultivate one's inwardness and on attending to and reflecting on one's inward consciousness. .McLuhan's 1962 and 1964 books represent an inward turn to attending to one's consciousness that is far more pronounced than anything found in his 1951 book or in his 1943 dissertation.^ Next comes liberality; liberal people let their money go instead of fighting for it, whereas other people care more for money than for anything else.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Another line of argument is founded upon some decision already pronounced, whether on the same subject or on one like it or contrary to it.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Again, if one science is more honourable and valuable than another, the activity with which it deals is also more honourable and valuable; as is the science, so is the reality that is its object, each science being authoritative in its own sphere.
    • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    .By contrast, many other thinkers in the study of rhetoric are more outward oriented toward sociological considerations and symbolic interaction.^ Web Site Types--for individual access, for group access, for interactive contact, for 1-directional contact, Web Studies ( More ) (300 of 388) click to view all ( Collapse ) .
    • Academia.edu | People | People who have Visual Rhetoric as a research interest (91) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Many other Ramist rhetorics followed in the next half-century, and by the 1600s, their approach became the primary method of teaching rhetoric in Protestant and especially Puritan circles.
    • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times.
    • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  30. ^ Richards, I. A. (1965)The Philosophy of RhetoricNew York: Oxford.
  31. ^ Toulmin, Stephen (2003). The Uses of Argument. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521534833. 
  32. ^ RE Vatz, "The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation" (Summer, 1973) Philosophy and Rhetoric
  33. ^ RE Vatz, “The Mythical Status of Situational Rhetoric" (January, 2009) Review of Communication
  34. ^ Bitzer, Lloyd F. (1968). The Rhetorical Situation. Philosophy & Rhetoric, Winter. (1.1), 1-14. Bitzer was instrumental in moving the traditional focus of rhetorical criticism from the mind of the speaker to the conditions of the situation: "Not the rhetor and not persuasive intent, but the situation is the source and ground of rhetorical activity—and, I should add, of rhetorical criticism."
  35. ^ Vatz, Richard E. (1973). The Myth of the Rhetorical Situation. Philosophy & Rhetoric, Summer. (6.3), 154-161. Vatz builds on his argument in a later piece(2009)that the situational view is anti-rhetorical, making rhetoric a secondary study. See Vatz, Richard E. (2009). The Mythical Status of Situational Rhetoric: Implications for Rhetorical Critics' Relevance in the Public Arena, Review of Communication, January. (9.1), 1-5.
  36. ^ Bitzer, Lloyd F. (1968). The Rhetorical Situation. Philosophy & Rhetoric, Winter. (1.1), 1-14. "Prior to the creation and presentation of discourse, there are three constituents of any rhetorical situation: the first is the exigence; the second and third are elements of the complex, namely the audience to be constrained in decision and action, and the constraints which influence the rhetor and can be brought to bear upon the audience."
  37. ^ See Thomas M. Conley, Rhetoric in the European Tradition, University of Chicago Press, 1990 for insights on French pre-1789 rhetoricians;for a fuller historical review with excerpts, Philippe-Joseph Salazar, L'art de parler, Paris, Klincksieck, 2003.
  38. ^ See also article on fr:Rhétorique in the French Wikipedia
  39. ^ See Philippe-Joseph Salazar's overview, "Rhetoric Achieves Nature. A View from Old Europe", Philosophy & Rhetoric 40(1), 2007, 71-88
  40. ^ Histoire de la rhétorique dans l'Europe moderne 1450-1950, Marc Fumaroli ed., Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1999. ISBN 2130495265
  41. ^ Refer to « De l’éloquence à la rhétoricité, trente années fastes », Dix-Septième Siècle 236, LIX (3), 2007, 421-426 ISBN 978-2-13-056096-8
  42. ^ Barbara Cassin,L'effet sophistique, Paris, Gallimard, 1995
  43. ^ Alongside the French school, the work of Belgians Chaim Perelman and his disciple Michel Meyer is noteworthy, although Perelman’s foundational work remained by and large unknown in France until the 1990s.

References

Primary sources
.The locus classicus for Greek and Latin primary texts on rhetoric is the Loeb Classical Library of the Harvard University Press, published with an English translation on the facing page.^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1975.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1969.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1986.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

Secondary sources
  • Jacqueline de Romilly, The Great Sophists in Periclean Athens (French orig. 1988; English trans. .Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, 1992).
  • Ralf van Bühren: Die Werke der Barmherzigkeit in der Kunst des 12.–18. Jahrhunderts.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1971.
    • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1912; pp.
    • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1952.
    • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

    Zum Wandel eines Bildmotivs vor dem Hintergrund neuzeitlicher Rhetorikrezeption
    (Studien zur Kunstgeschichte, vol. 115), Hildesheim / Zürich / New York: Verlag Georg Olms 1998. ISBN 3-487-10319-2
  • Eugene Garver, Aristotle's Rhetoric: An Art of Character (University of Chicago Press, 1994).
  • Lisa Jardine, Francis Bacon: Discovery and the Art of Discourse (Cambridge University Press, 1975)

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
  • "The rhetorical process functioned in many areas other than speech: Curtius wrote about 'rhetorical landscape representations' while Serpieris speaks of 'la retorica al teatro' (the rhetorical use of theatrical space), and music historians have learned that the language and approach of musical theory in the Middle Ages were borrowed directly from medieval grammar and rhetoric."^ The other kinds of introduction employed are remedial in purpose, and may be used in any type of speech.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Again, where one good is always accompanied by another, but does not always accompany it, it is greater than the other, for the use of the second thing is implied in the use of the first.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Other arguments about a witness-that he is a friend or an enemy or neutral, or has a good, bad, or indifferent reputation, and any other such distinctions-we must construct upon the same general lines as we use for the regular rhetorical proofs.
    • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Thomas Binkley (1997). "The work is not the performance", Companion to Medieval & Renaissance Music. .Oxford University Press.^ New York: Oxford University Press; 1990.
      • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

      ^ New York: Oxford University Press; 1944; III pp.
      • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

      ^ London: Oxford University Press; 1971.
      • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

      ISBN 0198165404.
  • I consider theology to be the rhetoric of morals.
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up rhetoric in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Contents

Introduction

.Aristotle defined rhetoric as the art of persuasion through all available means, and, generally speaking, the definition stuck.^ Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the persons mentioned define their term and get at its essential meaning, and then use the result when reasoning on the point at issue.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But rhetoric we look upon as the power of observing the means of persuasion on almost any subject presented to us; and that is why we say that, in its technical character, it is not concerned with any special or definite class of subjects.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Rhetoric is firmly rooted in the idea that messages are delivered to specific audiences, and that successful communication requires that the speaker or writer appeal to the expectations, values, and conventions of those audiences. .Rhetorical preferences have changed with the centuries, although the Modern Enlightenment's emphasis on objectivity generated a preference in speaking, writing, or even now in other communication media, to present your ideas in the clearest, most concise manner possible.^ To know the former means that you are not obliged, as otherwise you are, to hold your tongue when you wish to communicate something to the general public.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The general subject of apparent possibility and impossibility will be handled later on, since it is relevant not only to forensic but to all kinds of speaking.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And, speaking generally, towards those who are really fond of their friends and do not desert them in trouble; of all good men, we feel most friendly to those who show their goodness as friends.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Your clear, concise delivery should resonate with your audience in a way that leads them to not only believe what you are saying, but also to be persuaded to your causes.^ Another good occasion is when you expect to show that your opponent is contradicting either his own words or what every one believes.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here, again, rightness does not consist either in rapidity or in conciseness, but in the happy mean; that is, in saying just so much as will make the facts plain, or will lead the hearer to believe that the thing has happened, or that the man has caused injury or wrong to some one, or that the facts are really as important as you wish them to be thought: or the opposite facts to establish the opposite arguments.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Obscurity is also caused if, when you intend to insert a number of details, you do not first make your meaning clear; for instance, if you say, 'I meant, after telling him this, that and the other thing, to set out', rather than something of this kind 'I meant to set out after telling him; then this, that, and the other thing occurred.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Here is a basic primer on Rhetoric.

Key Scholars

Related Wikibooks

Helpful Links

A Handbook of Rhetorical devices http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

RHETORIC (Gr. .pnTopuci) Txvn, the art of the orator), the art of using language in such a way as to produce a desired impression upon the hearer or reader.^ While Plato's condemnation of rhetoric is clear in the Gorgias, in the Phaedrus he seems to suggest the possibility of a true art of rhetoric based upon the knowledge produced by dialectic, and he relies on such a dialectically informed rhetoric to appeal to the main character, Phaedrus, to take up philosophy.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How easily such impressions may be conveyed we can see from the way in which we get some inkling of things we know nothing of by the mere look of the messenger bringing news of them.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The arts of language cannot help having a small but real importance, whatever it is we have to expound to others: the way in which a thing is said does affect its intelligibility.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The object is strictly persuasion rather than intellectual approval or conviction; hence the term, with its adjective " rhetorical," is commonly used for a speech or writing in which matter is subservient to form or display.^ The use of persuasive speech is to lead to decisions.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A satirical look at non-traditional but commonly used rhetorical forms.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its treatment of rhetoric is less comprehensive than the classic works of antiquity, but provides a traditional treatment of res-verba (matter and form): its first book treats the subject of elocutio , showing the student how to use schemes and tropes ; the second book covers inventio .
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So in grammar, a " rhetorical question " is one which is asked not for the purpose of obtaining an answer, but simply for dramatic effect.^ In other words, journalists do not ask “why are we still subsidizing corn” because no one of any importance (to journalism) is asking that question.
  • Rhetorica: Press-Politics Journal 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetorica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having first got this answer about the other, do not go on to ask him about the obviously true one, but just state the conclusion yourself.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The best moment to a employ this is when your opponent has so answered one question that the putting of just one more lands him in absurdity.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The power of eloquent speech is recognized in the earliest extant writings. .Homer describes Achilles as a " speaker of words, as well as a doer of deeds ": Nestor, Menelaus and Odysseus are all orators as well as statesmen and soldiers.^ Again, that is good which has been distinguished by the favour of a discerning or virtuous man or woman, as Odysseus was distinguished by Athena, Helen by Theseus, Paris by the goddesses, and Achilles by Homer.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

Again the brilliant eloquence of Pericles is the theme of Aristophanes and Eupolis. .Naturally the influence wielded by the great orators led to an investigation of the characteristics of successful rhetoric, and especially from the time of Aristotle the technique of the art ranked among the recognized branches of learning.^ First published Thu May 2, 2002 Aristotle's rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In applying them to a term of conventional rhetoric Aristotle appeals to a well known rhetorical technique, but, at the same time, restricts and codifies the original meaning of ‘enthymeme’: properly understood, what people call ‘enthymeme’ should have the form of a sullogismos , i.e.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle's treatise on rhetoric is an attempt to systematically describe civic rhetoric as a human art or skill (techne).
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A lost work of Aristotle is quoted by Diogenes Laertius (viii. 57) as saying that Empedocles " invented " (EUpE .v) rhetoric; Zeno, dialectic (i.e. logic, the art of making a logical argument, apart from the style). .This is certainly not to be understood as meaning that Empedocles composed the first " art " of rhetoric.^ First published Thu May 2, 2002 Aristotle's rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is of this line of argument that Corax's Art of Rhetoric is composed.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the scholastics rhetoric eventually becomes again the original Sicilian art of the Sophists, a means of speaking skilfully and sophistically, the hallmark of priestly casuistry.
  • International Rhetoric Culture Project 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.rhetoricculture.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is rather to be explained by Aristotle's own remark, cited by Laertius from another lost treatise, that Empedocles was " a master of expression and skilled in the use of metaphor " - qualities which may have found scope in his political oratory, when, after the fall of Thrasydaeus in 472 B.C., he opposed the restoration of a tyranny at Agrigentum.^ Another example may be found in the Alexander.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While in the later tradition the use of metaphors has been seen as a matter of mere decoration, which has to delight the hearer, Aristotle stresses the cognitive function of metaphors.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Metaphor, moreover, gives style clearness, charm, and distinction as nothing else can: and it is not a thing whose use can be taught by one man to another.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The founder of rhetoric as an art was Corax of Syracuse Early (c. 466 B.C.).^ It is of this line of argument that Corax's Art of Rhetoric is composed.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A successful early text was Thomas Wilson's The Arte of Rhetorique (1553), which presents a traditional treatment of rhetoric.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 466 a democracy was established in Syracuse. .One of the immediate consequences was a mass of litigation on claims to property, urged - Corax. by democratic exiles who had been dispossessed by Thrasybulus, Hiero or Gelo.^ Consequently, whenever you want to praise any one, think what you would urge people to do; and when you want to urge the doing of anything, think what you would praise a man for having done.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such claims, going many years back, would often require that a complicated series of details should be stated and arranged.^ They have lived many years; they have often been taken in, and often made mistakes; and life on the whole is a bad business.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if Kennedy had lived, we imagine that the President would have found it very hard to back down from such bold declarations of principle once he had made them so repeatedly during his first three years in office.
  • John Kennedy's Vietnam Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC mcadams.posc.mu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even today, dozens of years after the Dazhai campaign, such an image would offer a dream version of what life could be for countless Chinese rural villages.
  • ACJ Article: Dazhai: Imagistic Rhetoric as Cultural Instrument 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.acjournal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It would also, in many instances, lack documentary support, and rely chiefly on inferential reasoning. Hence the need of professional advice. .The facts known as to the " art " of Corax perfectly agree with these conditions.^ We now see to whom, why, and under what conditions kindness is shown; and these facts must form the basis of our arguments.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Art of Poetry, as we have already said, will be found definitions of these kinds of words; a classification of Metaphors; and mention of the fact that metaphor is of great value both in poetry and in prose.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.He gave rules for arrangement, dividing the speech into five parts, - proem, narrative, arguments (&y &ves), subsidiary remarks (7rapbc(acns) and peroration.^ It follows, then, that the only necessary parts of a speech are the Statement and the Argument.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Have some narrative in many different parts of your speech; and sometimes let there be none at the beginning of it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the Western tradition of rhetoric, one divides an essay into three parts: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Next he illustrated the topic of general probability (E1K6s), The showing its two-edged use: e.g., if a puny man is accused of assaulting a stronger, he can say, " Is it likely that I should have attacked him ?^ Those who praise or attack a man aim at proving him worthy of honour or the reverse, and they too treat all other considerations with reference to this one.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That the Israeli claims were used to both motivate and justify these actions illustrates how the rhetoric of ‘terrorism’ been a causal factor in generating even more terrorism.
  • Tomis Kapitan's Home Page 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.niu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The simile differs from the metaphor in the form of expression: while in the metaphor something is identified or substituted, the simile compares two things with each other, using words as “like,” “as” etc.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

" If vice versa, the strong man can argue, " Is it likely that I should have committed an assault where the presumption was sure to be against me ?" This topic of Elan, in its manifold forms, was in fact the great weapon of the earliest Greek rhetoric. .It was further developed by Tisias, the pupil of Corax, as we see from Plato's Phaedrus, in an " art " of rhetoric which antiquity possessed, but of which we know little else.^ First published Thu May 2, 2002 Aristotle's rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is of this line of argument that Corax's Art of Rhetoric is composed.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Plato's condemnation of rhetoric is clear in the Gorgias, in the Phaedrus he seems to suggest the possibility of a true art of rhetoric based upon the knowledge produced by dialectic, and he relies on such a dialectically informed rhetoric to appeal to the main character, Phaedrus, to take up philosophy.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aristotle gives the EiKOs a place among the topics of the fallacious enthymeme which he enumerates in Rhet. ii.^ The topoi for real enthymemes are given in chapter II.23, for fallacious enthymemes in chapter II.24.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At any rate the Rhetoric gives a sort of defining characterization: “I call the same thing element and topos ; for an element or a topos is a heading under which many enthymemes fall” ( Rhet.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, if some sign-enthymemes are valid deductions and some are not, it is tempting to ask whether Aristotle regarded the non-necessary sign-enthymemes as apparent or fallacious arguments.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

24, remarking that it was the very essence of the treatise of Corax; he points out the fallacy of omitting to distinguish between abstract and particular probability, quoting the verses of Agatho, - " Perhaps one might call this very thing a probability, that many im probable things will happen to men." Gorgias of Leontini captivated the Athenians in 427 B.C. by his oratory (Diod. xii. 53), which, so far as we can judge, was xxIII. 8a characterized by florid antithesis, expressed in short jerky sentences. .But he has no definite place in the development of rhetoric as a system.^ There is no doubt that Aristotle himself regards his system of rhetoric as something useful, but the good purposes for which rhetoric is useful do not define the rhetorical capacity as such.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a fraud; the probability it handled was not genuine but spurious, and has a place in no art except Rhetoric and Eristic.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Aristotle characterizes rhetoric as the antistrophe of dialectic, he no doubt means that rhetoric is used in place of dialectic when we are discussing civic issues in a court of law or in a legislative assembly.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is doubtful whether he left a written " art "; and his mode of teaching was based on learning prepared passages by heart, diction (AE ts), not invention or arrangement, being his great object.
.The first extant Greek author who combined the theory with the practice of rhetoric is the Athenian Antiphon, the first of the Attic orators, and the earliest representative Anti- at Athens of a new profession created by the new art of rhetoric - that of the Xo-yo-ypa/os, the writer of forensic speeches for other men to speak in court.^ In the most influential manuscripts and editions, Aristotle's Rhetoric was surrounded by rhetorical works and even written speeches of other Greek and Latin authors, and was seldom interpreted in the context of the whole Corpus Aristotelicum.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But we ought only to bring in a new name if it indicates a real species with distinct specific qualities; otherwise the practice is pointless and silly, like the way Licymnius invented names in his Art of Rhetoric-'Secundation', 'Divagation', 'Ramification'.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First published Thu May 2, 2002 Aristotle's rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His speeches show the art of rhetoric in its transition from the technical to the practical stage, from the school to the law court and the assembly.^ But because there is born in us the power to persuade each other and to show ourselves whatever we wish, we not only have escaped from living as brutes, but also by coming together have founded cities and set up laws and invented arts, and speech has helped us attain practically all of the things we have devised.
  • International Rhetoric Culture Project 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.rhetoricculture.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Public relations, lobbying, law, marketing, professional and technical writing, and advertising are modern professions that employ rhetorical practitioners.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Aristotle characterizes rhetoric as the antistrophe of dialectic, he no doubt means that rhetoric is used in place of dialectic when we are discussing civic issues in a court of law or in a legislative assembly.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The organic lines of the rhetorical pleader's thought stand out in bold relief, and we are enabled to form a clear notion of the logographer's method.^ This special line of argument for enthymeme forms the whole of the Art of Rhetoric in use before Theodorus.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.We find a striking illustration of the fact that the topic of " probability " is the staple of this early forensic rhetoric.^ Although not widely read in Roman times, the Rhetorica ad Herennium (sometimes attributed to Cicero, but probably not his work) is a notable early work on Latin rhetoric.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most striking are the affinities to the (also early) Topics ; if, as it is widely agreed, the Topics represents a pre-syllogistic state of Aristotelian logic, the same is true of the Rhetoric : we actually find no hints of syllogistic inventory in it.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Viewed generally, the works of Antiphon are of great interest for the history of Attic prose, as marking how far it had then been influenced by a theory of style.^ Stephen Toulmin is a philosopher whose models of argumentation have had great influence on modern rhetorical theory.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, these authors were neither interested in an authentic interpretation of the Aristotelian works nor in the philosophical sources and backgrounds of the vocabulary that Aristotle had introduced into rhetorical theory.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In his “Principles of a New Science concerning the Nature of the Nations” (1725) he developed a theory of how the history of culture was based on rhetorical imagination.
  • International Rhetoric Culture Project 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.rhetoricculture.org [Source type: Original source]

The movement of Antiphon's prose has a certain grave dignity, " impressing by its weight and grandeur," as a Greek critic in the Augustan age says, " not charming by its life and flow. ." Verbal antithesis is used, not in a diffuse or florid way, but with a certain sledge-hammer force, as sometimes in the speeches of Thucydides.^ Modern Western European ways of thinking are based on a print culture that tends to use verbal metaphors, and indigenous ways of thinking are based on oral culture that tends to use visual metaphors.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The imagery, too, though bold, is not florid. .The structure of the periods is still crude; and the general effect of the whole, though often powerful and impressive, is somewhat rigid.^ Still, the whole business of rhetoric being concerned with appearances, we must pay attention to the subject of delivery, unworthy though it is, because we cannot do without it.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A whole and its parts are supposed to be identical, though often they are not.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Antiphon represents what was afterwards named the " austere " or " rugged " style (ai'oipa appovia), Lysias was the model of an artistic and versatile simplicity. .But while Antiphon has a place in the history of rhetoric as an art, Lysias, with his.^ It was a fraud; the probability it handled was not genuine but spurious, and has a place in no art except Rhetoric and Eristic.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Covino, William A. The Art of Wondering: A Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric.
  • Rhetoric bibliography, FSEM019, Fall 1996 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC wrt-howard.syr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Covino, William A. The Art of Wondering: a Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric .

more attractive gifts, belongs only to the history of. oratory. Ancient writers quote an " art " of rhetoric by Isocrates, but its authenticity was questioned. It is certain, however, that Isocrates taught the art as such. .He is said to have Isocrates. defined rhetoric " as the science of persuasion " (Sext.^ Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Part 2 Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The truth is, as indeed we have said already, that rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics; and it is partly like dialectic, partly like sophistical reasoning.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Empir. Adv. Mathem.ii. § 62, p. 301 seq.). Many of his particular precepts, both on arrangement and on diction, are cited, but they do not give a complete view of his method. .The cfcXoa'oc51a (" theory of culture ") which Isocrates expounds in his discourses Against the Sophists and on the Antidosis, was in fact rhetoric applied to politics.^ Posted in: Academia , Blogging , Culture , Journalism , Media Ethics , Politics , Rhetoric , media bias .
  • Rhetorica: Press-Politics Journal 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetorica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The truth is, as indeed we have said already, that rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics; and it is partly like dialectic, partly like sophistical reasoning.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After thousands of years of following the Western European tradition of rhetoric (the art of using language), we have finally come to accept the fact that this scholarly tradition is culture bound.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

First came technical expositions: the pupil was introduced to all the artificial resources which prose composition employs (ras Was airavas air o X&yor Tu'yxavet Xpcb,ckevos, Antid. § 183). .The same term (ib cu) is also used by Isocrates in a narrower sense, with reference to the " figures " of rhetoric, properly called cr ipara (Panath.^ For Plato and Aristotle, dialectic involves persuasion, so when Aristotle says that rhetoric is the antistrophe of dialectic, he means that rhetoric as he uses the term has a domain or scope of application that is parallel to but different from the domain or scope of application of dialectic.
  • Rhetoric encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At any rate the Rhetoric gives a sort of defining characterization: “I call the same thing element and topos ; for an element or a topos is a heading under which many enthymemes fall” ( Rhet.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In applying them to a term of conventional rhetoric Aristotle appeals to a well known rhetorical technique, but, at the same time, restricts and codifies the original meaning of ‘enthymeme’: properly understood, what people call ‘enthymeme’ should have the form of a sullogismos , i.e.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

§
.2); sometimes, again, in a sense still more general, to the several branches or styles of literary composition (Antid.^ This concludes our discussion of style, both in its general aspects and in its special applications to the various branches of rhetoric.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

§
ir). .When the technical elements of the subject had been learned, the pupil was required to apply abstract rules in actual composition, and his essay was revised by the master.^ You may apply this method of treatment by negation either to good or to bad qualities, according to which your subject requires.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Isocrates was unquestionably successful in forming speakers and writers. His school was famous during a period of some fifty years (390 to 340 B.C.). Among the statesmen whom it trained were Timotheus, Leodamas of Acharnae, Lycurgus and Hyperides; among the philosophers or rhetoricians were Speusippus, Plato's successor in the Academy, and Isaeus; among the historians, Ephorus and Theopompus. Cicero and through him all subsequent oratory owed much to the ample prose of the Isocratean school.
.In the person of Isocrates the art of rhetoric is thus thoroughly established, not merely as a technical method, but also as a practical discipline of life.^ First published Thu May 2, 2002 Aristotle's rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, Aristotle does not hesitate to concede on the one hand that his art of rhetoric can be misused.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thucydides, Isocrates, and the Rhetorical Method of Composition.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.If Plato's mildly ironical reference in the Euthydemus to a critic " on the borderland between philosophy and statesmanship " was meant, as is probable, for Isocrates, at least there was a wide difference between the measure of acceptance accorded to the earlier Sophists, such as Protagoras, and the influence which the school of Isocrates exerted through the men whom it had trained.^ It has, then, been stated above what is the nature of a Probability, of a Sign, and of a complete proof, and what are the differences between them.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under these circumstances, the difference between primary socialization in the home and the secondary socialization of the school system is one of social distance and personal alienation.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Take as an example the introduction to the Helen of Isocrates-there is nothing in common between the 'eristics' and Helen.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Rhetoric had won its place in education. It kept that place through varying fortunes to the fall of the Roman empire, and resumed it, for a while, at the revival of learning.
.Plato in the Gorgias and the Phaedrus satirized the ordinary textbooks of rhetoric, and himself gave directions for standard of work; but the detailed study of the art begins with Aristotle.^ There is no doubt that Aristotle himself regards his system of rhetoric as something useful, but the good purposes for which rhetoric is useful do not define the rhetorical capacity as such.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ First published Thu May 2, 2002 Aristotle's rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, Aristotle does not hesitate to concede on the one hand that his art of rhetoric can be misused.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle's Rhetoric belongs to the generation after Isocrates, having been composed (but see Aristotle) between 330 and 322 B.C. As controversial allusions sometimes hint it holds Isocrates for one of the foremost exponents of the subject.^ The visual representation of the growth metaphor It is not surprising that this parallelism between rhetorical theory and the growth metaphor exists since both are products of Aristotle's own system of thought.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As most topoi it includes (i) a sort of general instruction (“see, whether …”); further it mentions (ii) an argumentative scheme—in the given example the scheme ‘if the accidental predicate p belongs to the subject s , then the opposed P * cannot belong to s too’.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.From a purely literary point of view Aristotle's Rhetoric (with the partial exception of book iii.^ Style and Sense in Aristotle's Rhetoric Book 3.” In Revue Internationale de Philosophie 47: 50-69.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This, however, is not Aristotle's point of view: Even those who just try to establish what is just and true need the help of rhetoric when they are faced with a public audience.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

) is one of the driest works in the world. .From the historical or scientific point of view it is one of the most interesting.^ In scientific discovery, the process begins with a simple illustrative metaphor that provides a global perspective or point of view on how a subject area is to be organized.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bigger the throng, the more distant is the point of view: so that, in the one and the other, high finish in detail is superfluous and seems better away.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From this point of view we can perform just or unjust acts in either of two ways-towards one definite person, or towards the community.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.If we would seize the true significance of the treatise it is better to compare rhetoric with grammar than with its obvious analogue, logic.^ So with the things that earn greater honours than others-honour is, as it were, a measure of value; and the things whose absence involves comparatively heavy penalties; and the things that are better than others admitted or believed to be good.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.A method of grammar was the conception of the Alexandrian age, which had lying before it the standard masterpieces of Greek literature, and deduced the " rules " of grammar from the actual practice of the best writers.^ In literature, this original age of mankind is characterized by the legend of the Golden Age or by the story of the Garden of Eden before the apple of consciousness was eaten from the Tree of Knowledge.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aristotle in the latter years of the 4th century B.C. held the same position relatively to the monuments of Greek oratory which the Alexandrian methodizers of grammar held relatively to Greek literature at large. .Abundant material lay before him, illustrating how speakers had been able to persuade the reason or to move the feelings.^ Besides, an emotional speaker always makes his audience feel with him, even when there is nothing in his arguments; which is why many speakers try to overwhelm their audience by mere noise.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity-one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For this reason we feel most shame before those who will always be with us and those who notice what we do, since in both cases eyes are upon us.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

He therefore sought thence to deduce rules and so construct a true art. Aristotle's practical purpose was undoubtedly real. .If we are to make persuasive speakers, he believed, this is the only sound way to set about it.^ Clearly counsel can only be given on matters about which people deliberate; matters, namely, that ultimately depend on ourselves, and which we have it in our power to set going.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The persuasion is accomplished by character whenever the speech is held in such a way as to render the speaker worthy of credence.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

But the enduring interest of his Rhetoric is mainly retrospective. .It attracts us as a feat in analysis by an acute mind - a feat highly characteristic of that mind itself, and at the same time strikingly illustrative of the field over which the materials have been gathered.^ By a period I mean a portion of speech that has in itself a beginning and an end, being at the same time not too big to be taken in at a glance.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Rhetoric is divided into three books.^ Rhetoric falls into three divisions, determined by the three classes of listeners to speeches.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first book of the Rhetoric treats the three species in succession.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Part 3 Rhetoric falls into three divisions, determined by the three classes of listeners to speeches.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

It deals in great detail with the minutiae of the rhetorical craft. Book i. discusses the nature and object of rhetoric. .The means of persuasion (Trtarfts) are classified into " inartificial " (CLTExvot), i.e. the facts of the case external to the art, documents, laws, depositions, - and " artificial " (tvm voc), the latter subdivided into logical (the popular syllogism or " enthymeme," the " example," &c.^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Speeches that rely on examples are as persuasive as the other kind, but those which rely on enthymemes excite the louder applause.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotelian rhetoric is different in this respect: it is centered around the rhetorical kind of proof, the enthymeme (see below §6 ), which is called the most important means of persuasion.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

), ethical, and emotional. .Aristotle next deals with the " topics " (r57roc), i.e. the commonplaces of rhetoric, general or particular arguments which the rhetorician must have ready for immediate use.^ Most enthymemes are in fact based upon these particular or special Lines of Argument; comparatively few on the common or general kind.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other arguments about a witness-that he is a friend or an enemy or neutral, or has a good, bad, or indifferent reputation, and any other such distinctions-we must construct upon the same general lines as we use for the regular rhetorical proofs.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We must also take into account the nature of our particular audience when making a speech of praise; for, as Socrates used to say, 'it is not difficult to praise the Athenians to an Athenian audience.'
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rhetoric is then broadly divided into: - (r) deliberative (o-v,usovXevroci), concerned with exhortation or dissuasion, and with future time, its end (rc¦01) 'being the advantage or detriment of the persons addressed; (2) forensic (&KarLtd)), concerned with accusation and defence, and with time past, its standard being justice; (3) epideictic, the ornamental rhetoric of display, concerned with praise and blame, usually with the present time, its standard being honour and shame.^ While the deliberative and judicial species have their context in a controversial situation in which the listener has to decide in favor of one of two opposing parties, the third species does not aim at such a decision: the epideictic speech praises or blames somebody, it tries to describe things or deeds of the respective person as honorable or shameful.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The ceremonial orator is, properly speaking, concerned with the present, since all men praise or blame in view of the state of things existing at the time, though they often find it useful also to recall the past and to make guesses at the future.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhetoric must take into account that its target group has only restricted intellectual resources, whereas such concerns are totally absent from dialectic.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Each of these kinds is discussed, and the book ends with a brief analysis of the " inartificial proofs." In book ii. .Aristotle returns to the " artificial " proofs - those which rhetoric itself provides.^ This, however, is not Aristotle's point of view: Even those who just try to establish what is just and true need the help of rhetoric when they are faced with a public audience.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Purpose of Rhetoric 4.1 The Definition of Rhetoric 4.2 The Neutrality of Aristotelian Rhetoric 4.3 Why We Need Rhetoric 4.4 Aristotelian Rhetoric as Proof-centered and Pertinent 4.5 Is There an Inconsistency in Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory?
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

The " logical " proof having been discussed in book i., he turns to the " ethical." .He shows how the speaker may so indicate his own character and the goodness of his motive as to prepossess the audience in his favour, and proceeds to furnish materials to this end.^ There are three things which inspire confidence in the orator's own character-the three, namely, that induce us to believe a thing apart from any proof of it: good sense, good moral character, and goodwill.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That the orator's own character should look right is particularly important in political speaking: that the audience should be in the right frame of mind, in lawsuits.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, if one of two things is an end, and the other is not, the former is the greater good, as being chosen for its own sake and not for the sake of something else; as, for example, exercise is chosen for the sake of physical well-being.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The " emotional " proof is then discussed, and an analysis is given of the emotions on which the speaker may play.^ We will first consider Indignation-reserving the other emotions for subsequent discussion-and ask with whom, on what grounds, and in what states of mind we may be indignant.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This completes our discussion of the means by which the several emotions may be produced or dissipated, and upon which depend the persuasive arguments connected with the emotions.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.A consideration follows of the " universal commonplaces may (Kocvol To?ror.) which are suitable to all subjects.^ We may now be said to have in our hands the lines of argument for the various special subjects that it is useful or necessary to handle, having selected the propositions suitable in various cases.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In considering this subject we must look at all the categories: an act may be an act of kindness because (1) it is a particular thing, (2) it has a particular magnitude or (3) quality, or (4) is done at a particular time or (5) place.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The book ends with an appendix dealing with the " example " (rapaBECypa), , the general moral sentiments (yvCo,uac) and the enthymeme.^ As in the therefore, so in this work, we must distinguish, in dealing with enthymemes, the special and the general Lines of Argument on which they are to be founded.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The enthymeme and the example must, then, deal with what is in the main contingent, the example being an induction, and the enthymeme a syllogism, about such matters.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Enthymemes based upon Example are those which proceed by induction from one or more similar cases, arrive at a general proposition, and then argue deductively to a particular inference.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

In book iii. Aristotle considers expression (X cs), including the art of delivery (57r6rcpurts), and arrangement (Tc Ecs). .Composition, the use of prose rhythm, the periodic style (the " periodic " style, KarErrrpap,pfrf, being contrasted with the " running " (Eipopbm)) are all analysed, and the types of style literary (ypactin<) and oral (iywvLortfa)) are differentiated.^ The form of a prose composition should be neither metrical nor destitute of rhythm.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such, then, is the free-running kind of style; the compact is that which is in periods.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now it is number that limits all things; and it is the numerical limitation of the forms of a composition that constitutes rhythm, of which metres are definite sections.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Under " arrangement " he concludes with the parts of a speech, proem, narrative, proofs and epilogue.^ Have some narrative in many different parts of your speech; and sometimes let there be none at the beginning of it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is necessary briefly to consider Aristotle's general view of rhetoric as set forth in book i.^ But before considering this epistemological visual metaphor in detail, it is necessary to explicate the concept of visual metaphor as rhetoric.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, Aristotle regards deductive arguments as a set of sentences in which some sentences are premises and one is the conclusion, and the inference from the premises to the conclusion is guaranteed by the premises alone.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Style and Sense in Aristotle's Rhetoric Book 3.” In Revue Internationale de Philosophie 47: 50-69.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Rhetoric is properly an art. This is the proposition from which Aristotle sets out. .It is so because when a speaker persuades, it is possible to find out why he succeeds in doing so.^ In doing so, we shall at the same time be finding out how to make our hearers take the required view of our own characters-our second method of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rhetoric is, in fact, the popular branch of logic.^ The truth is, as indeed we have said already, that rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics; and it is partly like dialectic, partly like sophistical reasoning.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hitherto, Aristotle says, the essence of rhetoric has been neglected for the accidents.^ In saying that rhetoric is a counterpart to dialectic Aristotle obviously alludes to Plato's Gorgias (464bff.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle says that rhetoric is part of dialectic and resembles it ( Rhet.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Writers on rhetoric have hitherto concerned themselves mainly with " the exciting of prejudice, of pity, of anger, and such-like emotions of the soul." All this is very well, but " it has nothing to do with the matter in hand; it has regard a higher to the judge." .The true aim should be to prove your point, or seem to prove it.^ It is only natural that methods of 'heightening the effect' should be attached particularly to speeches of praise; they aim at proving superiority over others, and any such superiority is a form of nobleness.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What you should do in your introduction is to state your subject, in order that the point to be judged may be quite plain; in the epilogue you should summarize the arguments by which your case has been proved.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Here we may interpolate a comment which has a general bearing on Aristotle's Rhetoric. It is quite true that, if we start from the conception of rhetoric as a branch of logic, the phantom of logic in rhetoric claims precedence over appeals to passion.^ This concludes our discussion of style, both in its general aspects and in its special applications to the various branches of rhetoric.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First published Thu May 2, 2002 Aristotle's rhetoric has had an enormous influence on the development of the art of rhetoric.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhetoric By Aristotle Commentary: Several comments have been posted about Rhetoric .
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But Aristotle does not sufficiently regard the question - What, as a matter of experience, is most persuasive?^ Most of the examples Aristotle offers for types (i) to (iii) would not be regarded as metaphors in the modern sense; rather they would fall under the headings of metonomy or synecdoche.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason why the enthymeme as the rhetorical kind of proof or demonstration should be regarded as central for the rhetorical process of persuasion is that we are most easily persuaded when we think that something has been demonstrated.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not seem, however, that Aristotle himself saw a major conflict between these diverse tools of persuasion.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Logic may be more persuasive with the more select hearers of rhetoric; but rhetoric is for the many, and with the many appeals to passion will sometimes, perhaps usually, be more effective than syllogism.^ You may consider your crimes as bringing you solid profit, while their punishment is nothing more than being called bad names.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is this simplicity that makes the uneducated more effective than the educated when addressing popular audiences-makes them, as the poets tell us, 'charm the crowd's ears more finely'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With regard to the persuasion achieved by proof or apparent proof: just as in dialectic there is induction on the one hand and syllogism or apparent syllogism on the other, so it is in rhetoric.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.No formulation of rhetoric can correspond with fact which does not leave it absolutely to the genius of the speaker whether reasoning (or its phantom) is to be what Aristotle calls it, the " body of proof " (awµa 7riar€ms), or whether the stress of persuading effort should not be rather addressed to the emotions of the hearers.^ There is no doubt that Aristotle himself regards his system of rhetoric as something useful, but the good purposes for which rhetoric is useful do not define the rhetorical capacity as such.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotelian rhetoric is different in this respect: it is centered around the rhetorical kind of proof, the enthymeme (see below §6 ), which is called the most important means of persuasion.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle calls the enthymeme the “body of persuasion,” implying that everything else is only an addition or accident to the core of the persuasive process.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

But we can entirely agree with Aristotle in his next remark, which is historical in its nature. .The deliberative branch of rhetoric had hitherto been postponed, he observes, to the forensic.^ It has now been shown that the ordinary writers on rhetoric treat of non-essentials; it has also been shown why they have inclined more towards the forensic branch of oratory.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

We have, in fact, already seen that the very origin of rhetoric in Hellas was forensic. The relative subordination of deliberative rhetoric, however unscientific, had thus been human. .Aristotle's next statement, that the master of logic will be the master of rhetoric, is a truism if we concede the essential primacy of the logical element in rhetoric.^ Thus, Aristotle does not hesitate to concede on the one hand that his art of rhetoric can be misused.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Otherwise it is a paradox; and it is not in accord with experience, which teaches that speakers incapable of showing even the ghost of an argument have sometimes been the most completely successful in carrying great audiences along with them.^ For arguments about the Greatness and Smallness of things, the greater and the lesser, and generally great things and small, what we have already said will show the line to take.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides, an emotional speaker always makes his audience feel with him, even when there is nothing in his arguments; which is why many speakers try to overwhelm their audience by mere noise.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle never assumes that the hearers of his rhetorician are as of XapcevTES, the cultivated few; on the other hand, he is apt to assume tacitly - and here his individual bent comes out - that these hearers are not the great surging crowd, the 6XXos, but a body of persons with a decided, though imperfectly developed, preference for sound logic.^ So too with those who have done wrong to others, or have meant to, or mean to, or are likely to do so; there is something fine and pleasant in wronging such persons, it seems as though almost no wrong were done.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.What is the use of an art of rhetoric?^ This special line of argument for enthymeme forms the whole of the Art of Rhetoric in use before Theodorus.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

It is fourfold, Aristotle replies. .Rhetoric is useful, first of all, because truth and justice of are naturally stronger than their opposites.^ Again, where one good is always accompanied by another, but does not always accompany it, it is greater than the other, for the use of the second thing is implied in the use of the first.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He offers several formulas to describe this affinity between the two disciplines: first of all, rhetoric is said to be a “counterpart” ( antistrophos ) to dialectic ( Rhet.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Secondly, using rhetoric of the Aristotelian style it is easier to convince of the just and good than of their opposites.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

When been worsted by their own fault. This is worth correcting. Rhetoric is then (I) corrective. Next, it is (2) instructive, as a popular vehicle of persuasion for persons who could not be reached by the severer methods of strict logic. .Then it is (2) suggestive. Logic and rhetoric are the two impartial arts; that is to say, it is a matter of indifference to them, as arts, whether the conclusion which they draw in any given case is affirmative or negative.^ Both these arts draw opposite conclusions impartially.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We can always idealize any given man by drawing on the virtues akin to his actual qualities; thus we may say that the passionate and excitable man is 'outspoken'; or that the arrogant man is 'superb' or 'impressive'.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Suppose that I am going to plead a cause, and have a sincere conviction that I am on the right side. .The art of rhetoric will suggest to me what might be urged on the other side; and this will give me a stronger grasp of the whole situation.^ One sort of enthymeme really belongs to rhetoric, as one sort of syllogism really belongs to dialectic; but the other sort really belongs to other arts and faculties, whether to those we already exercise or to those we have not yet acquired.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No other of the arts draws opposite conclusions: dialectic and rhetoric alone do this.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Art of Rhetoric of Callippus is made up of this line of argument, with the addition of those of Possibility and the others of that kind already described.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lastly, rhetoric is (4) defensive. Mental effort is more distinctive of man than bodily effort; and " it would be absurd that, while incapacity for physical self-defence is a reproach, incapacity for mental defence should be no reproach."^ If you have witnesses, and the other man has not, you will argue that probabilities cannot be put on their trial, and that we could do without the evidence of witnesses altogether if we need do no more than balance the pleas advanced on either side.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only, it must be recognized beforehand that the other man is more likely than you are to commit the crime in question.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Political oratory deals with future events, of which it can do no more than quote past events as examples.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Rhetoric, then, is corrective, instructive, suggestive, defensive. But what if it be urged that this art may be abused? .The objection, Aristotle answers, applies to all good things, except virtue, and especially to the most useful things.^ The same effect is attained by the use of diminutives, which make a bad thing less bad and a good thing less good.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In all these jokes, whether a word is used in a second sense or metaphorically, the joke is good if it fits the facts.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Men may abuse strength, health, wealth, generalship.^ And if it be objected that one who uses such power of speech unjustly might do great harm, that is a charge which may be made in common against all good things except virtue, and above all against the things that are most useful, as strength, health, wealth, generalship.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The function of the medical art is not necessarily to cure, but to make such progress towards a cure as each case may admit.^ Sometimes in such a case the two answers differ: you may quite easily have a position like that in the Alcmaeon of Theodectes:        .
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes no practical difference whether such a supposition has been put into words or not, so that this distinction may be ignored.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So all acts of concentration, strong effort, and strain are necessarily painful; they all involve compulsion and force, unless we are accustomed to them, in which case it is custom that makes them pleasant.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Similarly it would be inaccurate to say that the function of rhetoric was to persuade. .Rather must rhetoric be defined as " the faculty of 'discerning in every case the available means of persuasion."^ Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That the thing will be done, in these cases, if the man is actually setting about it, or even if he means to do it later-for usually what we mean to do happens rather than what we do not mean to do.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, methodical persuasion must rest on a complete analysis of what it means to be persuasive.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Suppose that among these means of persuasion is some process of reasoning which the rhetorician himself knows to be unsound.^ These are supposed to be of some service in controversy.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also the so-called 'non-technical' means of persuasion; and we must now take a cursory view of these, since they are specially characteristic of forensic oratory.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Analytics a more explicit description has been given of these points; it is there shown why some of these reasonings can be put into syllogisms and some cannot.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

That belongs to the province of rhetoric all the same. .In relation to logic, a man is called a " sophist " with regard to his moral purpose (irpoaipeois), i.e. if he knowingly used a fallacious syllogism.^ What makes a man a 'sophist' is not his faculty, but his moral purpose.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no doubt that Aristotle himself regards his system of rhetoric as something useful, but the good purposes for which rhetoric is useful do not define the rhetorical capacity as such.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In dialectic it is different: a man is a 'sophist' because he has a certain kind of moral purpose, a 'dialectician' in respect, not of his moral purpose, but of his faculty.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.But rhetoric takes no account of the moral purpose.^ There is no doubt that Aristotle himself regards his system of rhetoric as something useful, but the good purposes for which rhetoric is useful do not define the rhetorical capacity as such.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhetoric must take into account that its target group has only restricted intellectual resources, whereas such concerns are totally absent from dialectic.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus it is that mathematical discourses depict no character; they have nothing to do with moral purpose, for they represent nobody as pursuing any end.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.It takes account simply of the faculty (31vaµcs) - the faculty of discovering any means of persuasion.^ There are also the so-called 'non-technical' means of persuasion; and we must now take a cursory view of these, since they are specially characteristic of forensic oratory.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, the rhetorician has a complete grasp of his method, if he discovers the available means of persuasion, though he is not able to convince everybody .
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is clear, further, that its function is not simply to succeed in persuading, but rather to discover the means of coming as near such success as the circumstances of each particular case allow.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle's Rhetoric is incomparably the most scientific work which exists on the subject.^ The visual representation of the growth metaphor It is not surprising that this parallelism between rhetorical theory and the growth metaphor exists since both are products of Aristotle's own system of thought.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither rhetoric nor dialectic is the scientific study of any one separate subject: both are faculties for providing arguments.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.It may also be regarded as having determined the main lines on which the subject was treated by nearly all subsequent writers.^ The above are the general lines on which all, or nearly all, speeches of praise or blame are constructed.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is what appeals to weak-willed persons--and weakness of will may be shown with regard to all the objects of desire.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be said that every individual man and all men in common aim at a certain end which determines what they choose and what they avoid.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The extant treatise on rhetoric (also by Aristotle?) entitled 'Pnroparcri 7rpen AXiEa p OSpov, formerly ascribed to Anaximenes of Lampsacus, was written at latest by 340 B.C. The introductory letter prefixed to it is probably a late forgery. .Its relation towards Aristotle's Rhetoric is discussed in the article on Aristotle.^ Aristotle stresses that rhetoric is closely related to dialectic.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lost Cause of Rhetoric: The Relation of Rhetoric and Geometry in Aristotle and Lacan.
  • Rhetoric bibliography, FSEM019, Fall 1996 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC wrt-howard.syr.edu [Source type: Academic]

During the three centuries from the age of Alexander to that of Augustus the fortunes of rhetoric were governed by the new conditions of Hellenism. Aristotle's scientific method lived on in the Peripatetic school. .Meanwhile the fashion of florid declamation or strained conceits prevailed in the rhetorical schools of Asia, where, amid mixed populations, the pure traditions of the best Greek taste had been dissociated from the use of the Greek language.^ What is interesting about these early Greek traditions is that they have cultural counterparts among many indigenous language groups in the Americas.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After thousands of years of following the Western European tradition of rhetoric (the art of using language), we have finally come to accept the fact that this scholarly tradition is culture bound.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The " Asianism " of style which thus came to be constrasted with " Atticism " found imitators at Rome, among whom must be reckoned the orator Hortensius (c. 95 B.C.). Hermagoras of Temnos in Aeolis (c. IIo B.C.) claims mention as having done much to revive a higher conception. .Using both the practical rhetoric of the time before Aristotle and Aristotle's philosophical rhetoric, he worked up the results of both in a new system, following the philosophers so far as to give the chief prominence to " invention."^ There is no doubt that Aristotle himself regards his system of rhetoric as something useful, but the good purposes for which rhetoric is useful do not define the rhetorical capacity as such.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The visual representation of the growth metaphor It is not surprising that this parallelism between rhetorical theory and the growth metaphor exists since both are products of Aristotle's own system of thought.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is remarkable that Aristotle uses the qualification “either universally or for the most part”: obviously, he wants to say that in some cases the conclusion follows universally, i.e.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He thus became the founder of a rhetoric which may be distinguished as the scholastic.^ One may succeed in stating the required principles, but one's science will be no longer dialectic or rhetoric, but the science to which the principles thus discovered belong.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Through the influence of his school, Hermagoras did for Roman eloquence very much what Isocrates had done for Athens. Above all, he counteracted the view of " Asianism," that oratory is a mere knack founded on practice, and recalled attention to the study of it as an art.' .Cicero's rhetorical works are to some extent based on the technical system to which he had been introduced by Molon at Rhodes.^ Nevertheless, these authors were neither interested in an authentic interpretation of the Aristotelian works nor in the philosophical sources and backgrounds of the vocabulary that Aristotle had introduced into rhetorical theory.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As, in dialectic, for instance, it may be argued that what-is-not is, on the ground that what-is-not is what-is-not: or that the unknown can be known, on the ground that it can be known to he unknown: so also in rhetoric a spurious enthymeme may be based on the confusion of some particular probability with absolute probability.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This realization of culture boundness of thinking on the subject of rhetoric brings with it a sincere effort among rhetoricians to develop some insight into how a non-Western system of communication, or discourse, works.
  • Visual Metaphor, Cultural Knowledge, and the New Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But Cicero further made an independent Cicero. use of the best among the earlier Greek writers, Isocrates, Aristotle and Theophrastus. Lastly, he could draw, at least in the later of his treatises, on a vast fund of reflection and experience. .Indeed, the distinctive interest of his contributions to the theory of rhetoric consists in the fact that his theory can be compared with his practice.^ Nevertheless, these authors were neither interested in an authentic interpretation of the Aristotelian works nor in the philosophical sources and backgrounds of the vocabulary that Aristotle had introduced into rhetorical theory.
  • Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Corbett, Edward P.J. " The Theory and Practice of Imitation in Classical Rhetoric."
  • Rhetoric bibliography, FSEM019, Fall 1996 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC wrt-howard.syr.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Rhetoric: Readings in French Literature : Rhetorical Theory: a Practical Guide UNIVERSITY PROGRAMMES / RESEARCH CENTRES / RESEARCH PROJECTS .

.The result of such a comparison is certainly to suggest how much less he owed to his art than to his genius.^ Or that, as in the other arts, it does not pay to try to be cleverer than the doctor: for less harm comes from the doctor's mistakes than from the growing habit of disobeying authority.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile even Guardian columnists are declaring themselves less than sanguine about how the mullahs are trying protesters for being "Enemies Of God."

^ Their sensual passions have either altogether gone or have lost their vigour: consequently they do not feel their passions much, and their actions are inspired less by what they do feel than by the love of gain.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Some consciousness of this is perhaps implied in the idea which pervades much of his writing on oratory, that the perfect orator is the perfect man. .The same thought is present to Quintilian, in whose great work, De Institutione Oratoria, the scholastic rhetoric re- than. ceives its most complete expression (c. A.D. go).^ Those in power are more ambitious and more manly in character than the wealthy, because they aspire to do the great deeds that their power permits them to do.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Quintilian treats oratory as the end to which the entire mental and moral development of the student is to be directed. .Thus he devotes his first book to an early discipline which should precede the orator's first studies, and his last book to a discipline of the whole man which lies beyond them.^ That if that which is posterior in essence or in order of generation can come into being, so can that which is prior: thus if a man can come into being, so can a boy, since the boy comes first in order of generation; and if a boy can, so can a man, for the man also is first.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So attack that first-either the whole of it, or the most important, successful, or vulnerable points in it, and thus inspire confidence in what you have to say yourself-        .
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some notion of his comprehensive method may be derived from the circumstance that he introduces a succinct estimate of the chief Greek and Roman authors, of every kind, from Homer to Seneca (bk.^ Some Concepts of the Epicheireme in Greek and Roman Rhetoric.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

x. §§ 46-131). After Quintilian, the next important name is that of Hermogenes of Tarsus, who under Marcus Aurelius made a complete digest of the scholastic rhetoric from the time of Hermagoras of Temnos (I To B.C.). It is contained in five extant treatises, which are remarkable for clearness and acuteness, and still more remarkable as having been completed before the age of twenty-five. Hermogenes continued for nearly a century and a half to be one of the chief authorities in the schools. .Longinus (c. A.D. 260) published an Art of Rhetoric which is still extant; and the more celebrated treatise On Sublimity (-rEpi iikovs), if not his work, is at least of the same period.^ We also fear those who are to be feared by stronger people than ourselves: if they can hurt those stronger people, still more can they hurt us; and, for the same reason, we fear those whom those stronger people are actually afraid of.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That if a thing can be produced without art or preparation, it can be produced still more certainly by the careful application of art to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the later half of the 4th century Aphthonius composed the " exercises " (-irpoyv,uvaa,uara) which superseded the work of 1 See Jebb's Attic Orators, ii.^ Jebb, Richard C. The Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeus.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

.445 awards are not duly given, truth and justice must have In the 4th century B.C. Isocrates had taken pride in the name of oo/m.6T77s, which, indeed, had at no time wholly lost the good, or neutral, sense which originally belonged to it.^ There are three things which inspire confidence in the orator's own character-the three, namely, that induce us to believe a thing apart from any proof of it: good sense, good moral character, and goodwill.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There remains the paean, which speakers began to use in the time of Thrasymachus, though they had then no name to give it.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Rhetoric by Aristotle 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, we must be able to say which is the greater or lesser good, the greater or lesser act of justice or injustice; and so on.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The academic meaning which it acquired under the early empire lasted into the middle ages (see Du Cange, s.v., who quotes from Baldricus, " Egregius Doctor magnusque Sophista Geraldus ").^ By education I mean that education which is laid down by the law; for it is those who have been loyal to the national institutions that hold office under an aristocracy.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

While the word rhetor still denoted the faculty, the word sophistes denoted the office or rank to which the rhetor might hope to rise. So Lucian ("(" Teacher of Rhetoricians," § 1) says: " You ask, young man, how you are to become a rhetor, and attain in your turn to the repute of that most impressive and illustrious title, sophist." Lucian also satirizes the discussions of the nature of rhetoric in his parody the Parasite (cf. also his .Bis Accusatus). Vespasian (70-79 A.D.), according to Suetonius, was the first emperor who gave a public endowment to the teaching of rhetoric.^ Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 79-103.
  • Presidential Rhetoric Sources 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC www.wfu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Under Hadrian and the Antonines (A.D. 117-180) the public chairs of rhetoric became objects of the highest ambition. The complete constitution of the schools at Athens was due to Marcus Aurelius. The Philosophical school had four chairs (6povoc)--Platonic, Stoic, Peripatetic, Epicurean. .The Rhetorical school had two chairs, one for " sophistic," the other for " political " rhetoric.^ Deception in Aristotle's Rhetoric: How to Tell the Rhetorician from the Sophist, and Which One to Bet on."
  • Rhetoric bibliography, FSEM019, Fall 1996 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC wrt-howard.syr.edu [Source type: Academic]

.By " sophistic " was meant the academic teaching of rhetoric as an art, in distinction from its " political " application to the law-courts.^ The truth is, as indeed we have said already, that rhetoric is a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics; and it is partly like dialectic, partly like sophistical reasoning.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WE have now considered the materials to be used in supporting or opposing a political measure, in pronouncing eulogies or censures, and for prosecution and defence in the law courts.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The " sophistical " chair was superior to the " political " in dignity as in emolument, and its occupant was invested with a jurisdiction over the youth of Athens similar to that of the vice-chancellor in a modern university. The Antonines further encouraged rhetoric by granting immunities to its teachers. Three " sophists " in each of the smaller towns, and five in the larger, were exempted from taxation (Dig. xxvii. 1, 6, § 2). The wealthier sophists affected much personal splendour. Polemon (c. A.D. 130) and Adrian of Tyre (c. A.D. 170) are famous examples of extravagant display. The aim of the sophist was to impress the multitude. .His whole stockin-trade was style, and this was directed to astonishing by tours de force. The scholastic declamations were chiefly of historical or legendary subjects, in which some course of action was commended or censured (cf.^ The actions that we ought to do or not to do have also been divided into two classes as affecting either the whole community or some one of its members.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There must, of course, be some survey of the actions that form the subject-matter of the speech.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The usual subject for the introductions to speeches of display is some piece of praise or censure.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Juv. Sat.). .These suasoriae belonged to deliberative rhetoric (the 130VXWnKOv y z'01, deliberativum genus). (2) The controversiae turned especially on legal issues, and represented the forensic rhetoric (SucavtKO) 'y vo, judiciale genus). But it was the general characteristic of this period that all subjects, though formally " deliberative " or " forensic," were treated in the style and spirit of that third branch which Aristotle distinguished, the rhetoric of E71'L3ei t or " display."^ This concludes our discussion of style, both in its general aspects and in its special applications to the various branches of rhetoric.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Political oratory is less given to unscrupulous practices than forensic, because it treats of wider issues.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still, the whole business of rhetoric being concerned with appearances, we must pay attention to the subject of delivery, unworthy though it is, because we cannot do without it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The oratory produced by the age of the academic sophists can be estimated from a large extant literature. .It is shown under various aspects, and presumably at its best, by such writers as Dio Chrysostom at the end of the 1st century, Aelius Aristides (see Aristides, Aelius) in the 2nd, the chief rhetorician under the Antonines, Themistius, Himerius and Libanius in the 4th.^ Having now seen the nature of fear, and of the things that cause it, and the various states of mind in which it is felt, we can also see what Confidence is, about what things we feel it, and under what conditions.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We now see to whom, why, and under what conditions kindness is shown; and these facts must form the basis of our arguments.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Amid much which is tawdry or vapid, these writings occasionally present passages of true literary beauty, while they constantly offer matter of the highest interest to the student.^ These details carry conviction: the audience take the truth of what they know as so much evidence for the truth of what they do not.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In prose passages they are far less often fitting because the subject-matter is less exalted.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the medieval system of academic studies, grammar, logic and rhetoric were the subjects of the trivium, or course followed during the four years of undergraduateship.^ Neither rhetoric nor dialectic is the scientific study of any one separate subject: both are faculties for providing arguments.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Music, arithmetic, geometry and astronomy con- study of stituted the quadrivium, or course for the three years from the B.A. to the M.A. degree. These were the seven liberal arts. .In the middle ages the chief authorities on rhetoric were the latest Latin epitomists, such as Martianus Capella (5th cent.^ Murphy, James J. Cicero's Rhetoric in the Middle Ages.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory From St. Augustine to the Renaissance.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

), Cassiodorus (5th cent.) or Isidorus (7th cent.).
After the revival of learning the better Roman and Greek writers gradually returned into use. Some new treatises were also produced. Leonard Cox (d. 1549) wrote The Art or Craft of Rhetoryke, partly compiled, partly original, which was reprinted in Latin at Cracow. The Art of Rhetorique, by Thomas Wilson (1553), afterwards secretary of state, embodied rules chiefly from Aristotle, with help from Cicero and Quintilian. About the same time treatises on rhetoric were published in France by Tonquelin (1555) and Courcelles (1557). The general aim at this period was to revive and popularize the best teaching of the ancients on rhetoric. The subject was regularly taught at the universities, and was indeed important.
.At Cambridge in 1570 the study of rhetoric was Univer- based on Quintilian, Hermogenes and the speeches of sities. Cicero viewed as works of art.^ University of Alberta: Heurisis: Studies in Invention (Bracken) Cambridge University: Poetry and Cognition (Jarvis) University of Washington: Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: Rhetoric of the Disciplines (Stygall) Rhetoric of Science and Technology: .

An Oxford statute of 1588 shows that the same books were used there. .In 1620 George Herbert was delivering lectures on rhetoric at Cambridge, where he held the office of public orator.^ Holders of public office-generals, orators, and all who possess such powers-can do many people a good turn.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The decay of rhetoric as a formal study at the universities set in during the 18th century.^ Omri Ceren is a PhD candidate studying Rhetoric at the University of Southern California's Annenberg School for Communication.

^ Twentieth-Century Roots of Rhetorical Studies .

^ University of Cape Town: Centre for Rhetoric Studies Australasia: .

The function of the rhetoric lecturer passed over into that of correcting written themes; but his title remained long after his office had lost its primary meaning. .If the theory of rhetoric fell into neglect, the practice, however, was encouraged by the public exercises (" acts " and " opponencies ") in the schools.^ Rhetoric: Readings in French Literature : Rhetorical Theory: a Practical Guide UNIVERSITY PROGRAMMES / RESEARCH CENTRES / RESEARCH PROJECTS .

^ Doing What Comes Naturally: Change, Rhetoric and the Practice of Theory in Literary and Legal Studies .

^ The Ends of Rhetoric: History, Theory, Practice .

The college prizes for " declamations " served the same purpose.
.The fortunes of rhetoric in the modern world, as briefly sketched above, may suffice to suggest why few modern writers of ability have given their attention to the subject.^ Still, the whole business of rhetoric being concerned with appearances, we must pay attention to the subject of delivery, unworthy though it is, because we cannot do without it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has now been shown that the ordinary writers on rhetoric treat of non-essentials; it has also been shown why they have inclined more towards the forensic branch of oratory.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Perhaps one of the most notable modern contributions Writers to the art is the collection of commonplaces framed (in Latin) by Bacon, " to be so many spools from which the threads can be drawn out as occasion serves," a truly curious work of that acute and fertile mind. He called them " Antitheta." A specimen is sub joined: Uxor Et Liberi Against. " He who marries, and has children, has given hostages to fortune." " The immortality of brutes is in their progeny; of men, in their fame, services, and institutions." " Regard for the family too often overrides regard for the state." This is quite in the spirit of Aristotle's treatise. .The popularity enjoyed by Blair's Rhetoric in the latter part of the 18th and the earlier part of the 19th century was merited rather by the form than by the matter.^ Introductions are popular with those whose case is weak, or looks weak; it pays them to dwell on anything rather than the actual facts of it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are dignified rather than arrogant, for the respect in which they are held inspires them with dignity and therefore with moderation-dignity being a mild and becoming form of arrogance.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric, which found less wide acceptance than its predecessor, was superior to it in depth, though often marred by an imperfect comprehension of logic.^ They must themselves suppose that the thing can be done, and done by them: either that they can do it without being found out, or that if they are found out they can escape being punished, or that if they are punished the disadvantage will be less than the gain for themselves or those they care for.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, gold is a better thing than iron, though less useful: it is harder to get, and therefore better worth getting.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.But undoubtedly the best modern book on the subject is Whately's Elements of Rhetoric. Starting from Aristotle's view, that rhetoric is " an offshoot from logic," Whately treats it as the art of " argumentative composition."^ It is of this line of argument that Corax's Art of Rhetoric is composed.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It follows plainly, therefore, that he who is best able to see how and from what elements a syllogism is produced will also be best skilled in the enthymeme, when he has further learnt what its subject-matter is and in what respects it differs from the syllogism of strict logic.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For it does not belong to the art of rhetoric, but to a more instructive art and a more real branch of knowledge; and as it is, rhetoric has been given a far wider subject-matter than strictly belongs to it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.He considers it under four heads: (I) the address to the understanding (=Aristotle's XoyLKrl 7riarCs); (2) the address to the will, or persuasion (=Aristotle's 7)O K? and Hermogenes.^ These proofs must bear directly upon the question in dispute, which must fall under one of four heads.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

At the revival of letters the treatise of Aphthonius once more became a standard text-book. Much popularity was enjoyed also by the exercises of Aelius Theon (of uncertain date; see Theon). (See further the editions of the Rhetores Graeci by L. Spengel and by Ch. Walz.) .During the first four centuries of the empire the practice of the art was in greater vogue than ever before or since.^ Again, where one good is always accompanied by another, but does not always accompany it, it is greater than the other, for the use of the second thing is implied in the use of the first.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what is at the end of life is better than what is not, since those things are ends in a greater degree which are nearer the end.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, things look better merely by being divided into their parts, since they then seem to surpass a greater number of things than before.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

First, there was a general dearth of the higher intellectual of Rhet- interests: politics gave no scope to energy; philosophy oric was stagnant, and literature, as a rule, either arid or frivolous. Then the Greek schools had poured their Empire. rhetoricians into Rome, where the same tastes which revelled in coarse luxury welcomed tawdry declamation. The law-courts of the Roman provinces further created a continual demand for forensic speaking. The public teacher of rhetoric was called " sophist," which was now an phists. ` academic title, similar to " professor " or " doctor." For. ' ` Attachment to the state begins from the family." " Wife and children are a discipline in humanity. Bachelors are morose and austere." " The only advantage of celibacy and childlessness is in case of exile." two classes. (I) The suasoriae were usually on iratrtrucd i; ivres); (3) style; (4) elocution, or delivery. .But when it is thus urged that " All a rhetorician's rules But teach him how to name his tools," the assumption is tacitly made that an accurate nomenclature and classification of these tools must be devoid of practical use.^ Further, in using metaphors to give names to nameless things, we must draw them not from remote but from kindred and similar things, so that the kinship is clearly perceived as soon as the words are said.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus it may be that one law will enact that all contracts must be held binding, while another forbids us ever to make illegal contracts.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not right to pervert the judge by moving him to anger or envy or pity-one might as well warp a carpenter's rule before using it.
  • non-contradiction.com: RHETORIC translated by W. Rhys Roberts 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC the0phrastus.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The conditions of modern life, and especially the invention of printing, have to some extent diminished the importance which belonged in antiquity to the art of speaking, though modern democratic politics and forensic conditions still make it one which may be cultivated with advantage.
.Among more modern works are J. Bascom, Philosophy of Rhetoric (New York, 1885); and numerous books on voice culture, gesture and elocution.^ New York: Modern Language Association, 1985.

^ New York: Modern Language Association, 1994.
  • Rhetoric bibliography, FSEM019, Fall 1996 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC wrt-howard.syr.edu [Source type: Academic]

For ancient rhetoric see Sir R. C. Jebb's translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric (ed. J. E. Sandys, 1909), and his Attic Orators (1876); also Spengel, Artium Scriptores (1828); Westermann, Gesch. der .Beredtsamkeit (1833-35;) Cope, in the Cambridge Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology (1855-57); introductions to Cicero's De Oratore (A. S. Wilkins) and Orator (J. E. Sandys); Volkmann, Die Rhetorik der Griechen and Romer in system.^ Wilkinson, L. P. Cicero and Socrates: The Significance of the De Oratore .
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Sprute, J. Die Enthymemtheorie der aristotleischen Rhetorik.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The Appeal to the Emotions in the Judicial Speeches of Cicero as Compared with the Theories Set Forth in the De Oratore: University of Minnesota; 1928Dissertation.
  • Classical Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC rhetjournal.net [Source type: Academic]

Ubersicht
(ed. 2, 1885). (R. C. J.; X.)


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  • Selective Bibliography of Rhetoric 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC web.cn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He is currently working on the manuscript for his first book, tentatively titled Lingua Fracta: Rhetoric and Identity in the Late Age of Print .

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  • New Rhetoric Home 14 January 2010 11:20 UTC newrhetoric.com [Source type: General]

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Simple English

File:The Rhetoricians, circa 1655, by Jan Steen (1625-1679) - IMG
The Rhetoricians, circa 1655, by Jan Steen (1625-1679)

Rhetoric is the art of persuading people by speaking and (later) by writing.[1] People can be trained in this skill. It is the art or the technique of persuasion, used by orators (public speakers). Its origin was in Ancient Greece of the 5th century BC. They made their decisions by speaking for or against proposals in a public place. Also, speeches were made when a person was accused of a serious crime before the magistrates.[2]

The Romans, who were much influenced by the ancient Greeks, also used the same methods for decision-making. Cicero was one of their famous orators. In their case, the debates did not involve all citizens, just the Roman Senate or the courts.

Because rhetoric was so important to them, the Greeks and Romans wrote about how to be a good rhetorician. This is sometimes called 'secondary rhetoric'.[2] It is a technique which can be taught, and used in writing. An early example is Plato, who wrote his works in the form of dialogues. Each question raised is discussed between two characters. One character is called Socrates (who was Plato's tutor when he was young), and the other was some other philosopher. This idea is well-known now, and has been copied many times.

In mediaeval universities rhetoric was taught as part of the curriculum. Rhetoric, dialectic and grammar form the trivium which, with the quadrivium, make up the seven liberal arts of Western culture. During Antiquity and the Middle Ages, rhetoric was used for persuasion in public and political arenas, and also in the courts of justice. Several hundred rhetorical figures were recognised by classical rhetoricians. Some of these are still in use, such as metaphor, simile and paradox.[3]

The words 'rhetoric' or 'sophism' are often used with a negative meaning, of disinformation or propaganda. They are also used to describe a speech with doubtful or slanted arguments. Some very witty things have been said against orators and their rhetoric:

"The orator is one who intends to mislead another, without being misled himself". Plato
"Oratory is the art of playing for one's own purpose upon the weaknesses of men, and merits no respect whatever". Kant

As the art of persuasion, the rhetoric continues to be important in present-day public life.[4] This includes the following:

  • Speaking to an audience, and convincing the people (sometimes called persuasion)
  • Speaking to only a few adversaries
  • Getting one's own ideas across.

According to Aristotle, rhetoric has three methods of persuasion:

  • ethos: depends on the personal character of the speaker (must appear good, worthy of trust).
  • pathos: puts the audience in a fit state of mind (stirs their emotions).
  • logos: proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech (the actual argument).

Reference

  1. From Greek ῥητορικὴ [τέχνη] roughly meaning 'the art of speech'.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kennedy, George A. 1980. Classical rhetoric and its Christian and secular tradition from ancient to modern times. Croom Helm, London.
  3. Dixon, Peter. Rhetoric. Methuen, London.
  4. Vickers, Brian 1988. In defence of rhetoric. Clarendon Press, Oxford.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Rhetoric, which are similar to those in the above article.








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