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Rhinoceros
Fossil range: Eocene–Recent
Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Rhinocerotidae
Gray, 1820
Extant Genera

Ceratotherium
Dicerorhinus
Diceros
Rhinoceros
Extinct genera, see text

Rhinoceros (pronounced /raɪˈnɒsərəs/), often colloquially abbreviated rhino, is a name used to group five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia. Three of the five species—the Javan, Sumatran and Black Rhinoceros—are critically endangered. The Indian Rhinoceros is endangered, with fewer than 2,700 individuals remaining in the wild. The White is registered as "vulnerable", with approximately 17,500 remaining in the wild, as reported by the International Rhino Foundation.[1][2]

The rhinoceros family is characterized by its large size (one of the largest remaining megafauna alive today), with all of the species able to reach one ton or more in weight; herbivorous diet; and a thick protective skin, 1.5–5 cm thick, formed from layers of collagen positioned in a lattice structure; relatively small brains for mammals this size (400–600g); and a large horn. They generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter, if necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their powerful premolar and molar teeth to grind up plant food.[3]

The rhino is killed by humans for its horn. The horns of a rhinoceros are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails.[4] Both African species and the Sumatran Rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan Rhinoceros have a single horn. Rhinoceroses have acute hearing and sense of smell, but poor eyesight. Most live to be about 60 years old or more.

Contents

Taxonomy and naming

The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Greek ῥῑνόκερως, which is composed of ῥῑνο-, ῥίς (rhino-, rhis), meaning nose, and κέρας (keras), meaning horn. The standard plural in English is rhinoceroses (some dictionaries also list rhinoceri, although this is neither a proper Latin, Greek or English plural form). The collective noun for a group of rhinoceros is crash or herd.[5]

Size comparison of extant rhinoceros species

The five living species fall into three categories. The two African species, the White Rhinoceros and the Black Rhinoceros, diverged during the early Pliocene (about 5 million years ago) but the Dicerotini group to which they belong originated in the middle Miocene, about 14.2 million years ago. The main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths. White rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing and black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage. A popular—if unverified—theory claims that the name White Rhinoceros was actually a mistake, or rather a corruption of the word wyd ("wide" in Afrikaans), referring to their square lips.[6]

White Rhinoceros are divided into Northern and Southern subspecies. There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the endangered Indian Rhinoceros and the critically endangered Javan Rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago. The critically endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene (about 20 million years ago).[7] The extinct Woolly Rhinoceros of northern Europe and Asia was also a member of this tribe.

A subspecific hybrid white rhino (Ceratotherium s. simum × C. s. cottoni) was bred at the Dvůr Králové Zoo (Zoological Garden Dvur Kralove nad Labem) in the Czech Republic in 1977. Interspecific hybridisation of Black and White Rhinoceros has also been confirmed.[8]

All rhinoceros species have 82 chromosomes (diploid number, 2N, per cell), except the Black Rhinoceros, which has 84. This is the highest known chromosome number of all mammals.

White Rhinoceros

These White Rhinoceros are actually gray. The White in this species' name is from the Dutch word wijd which means wide. It refers to the White Rhinoceros's wide lip compared to the Black Rhinoceros's pointed lip. The original meaning was subsequently lost in translation.

The White or Square-lipped Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is, after the elephant, the most massive remaining land animal in the world, along with the Indian Rhinoceros and the hippopotamus, which are of comparable size. There are two subspecies of White Rhinos; as of 2005, South Africa has the most of the first subspecies, the Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). The population of Southern White Rhinos is about 14,500, making them the most abundant subspecies of rhino in the world. However, the population of the second subspecies, the critically-endangered Northern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni), is down to as few as four individuals in the wild, and as of June 2008 this sub-species are thought to have become extinct in the wild.[9]. Six are known to be held in captivity, two of which reside in a zoo in San Diego. There are currently four that were in held in captivity since 1982 in a zoo in the Czech Republic which were transferred to a wildlife refuge in Kenya in December 2009, in an effort have the animals reproduce and save the subspecies[10].

The White Rhino has an immense body and large head, a short neck and broad chest. This rhino can exceed 3,500 kg (7,700 lb), have a head-and-body length of 3.5–4.6 m (11–15 ft) and a shoulder height of 1.8–2 m (5.9–6.6 ft) The record-sized White Rhinoceros was about 4,600 kg (10,000 lb).[11] On its snout it has two horns. The front horn is larger than the other horn and averages 90 cm (35 in) in length and can reach 150 cm (59 in). The White Rhinoceros also has a prominent muscular hump that supports its relatively large head. The colour of this animal can range from yellowish brown to slate grey. Most of its body hair is found on the ear fringes and tail bristles with the rest distributed rather sparsely over the rest of the body. White Rhinos have the distinctive flat broad mouth which is used for grazing. White rhinos aren't actually white, they are named after the Dutch word for wide.

Black Rhinoceros

The Black Rhinoceros has a beak shaped lip. The Black Rhinoceros is similar in color to the White Rhinoceros

The name Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was chosen to distinguish this species from the White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). This can be confusing, as those two species are not really distinguishable by colour. There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central (Diceros bicornis minor), the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa; South-western (Diceros bicornis bicornis) which are better adapted to the arid and semi-arid savannas of Namibia, southern Angola, western Botswana and western South Africa; East African (Diceros bicornis michaeli), primarily in Tanzania; and West African (Diceros bicornis longipes) which was tentatively declared extinct in 2006.[12]

An adult Black Rhinoceros stands 150–175 cm (59–69 in) high at the shoulder and is 3.5–3.9 m (11–13 ft) in length.[13] An adult weighs from 850 to 1,600 kg (1,900 to 3,500 lb), exceptionally to 1,800 kg (4,000 lb), with the females being smaller than the males. Two horns on the skull are made of keratin with the larger front horn typically 50 cm long, exceptionally up to 140 cm. Sometimes, a third smaller horn may develop. The Black Rhino is much smaller than the White Rhino, and has a pointed mouth, which they use to grasp leaves and twigs when feeding.

Indian Rhinoceros

An Indian rhinoceros and baby at the Nürnberger Zoo.
A bronze rhinoceros figure with silver inlay, from the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) period of China, sporting a saddle on its back

The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is now found almost exclusively in Nepal and North-Eastern India. The rhino once inhabited many areas of Pakistan to Burma and may have even roamed in China. But because of human influence their range has shrunk and now they only exist in several protected areas of India (in Assam, West Bengal and a few pairs in Uttar Pradesh) and Nepal, plus a few pairs in Lal Suhanra national park in Pakistan. It is confined to the tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas.

The Indian Rhinoceros has thick, silver-brown skin which creates huge folds all over its body. Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps, and it has very little body hair. Fully-grown males are larger than females in the wild, weighing from 2,500–3,200 kg (5,500–7,100 lb). Female Indian rhinos weigh about 1,900 kg. The Indian Rhino is from 3–4 metres long. The record-sized specimen of this rhino was approximately 3,800 kg. The Indian Rhino has a single horn that reaches a length of between 20 and 100 cm. Its size is comparable to that of the White Rhino in Africa.

Two-thirds of the world's Great One-horned Rhinoceroses are now confined to the Kaziranga National Park situated in the Golaghat district of Assam, India.[14]

Javan Rhinoceros

The Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) is one of the rarest and most endangered large mammals anywhere in the world.[15] According to 2002 estimates, only about 60 remain, in Java (Indonesia) and Vietnam. Of all the rhino species, the least is known of the Javan Rhino. These animals prefer dense lowland rain forest, tall grass and reed beds that are plentiful with large floodplains and mud wallows. Though once widespread throughout Asia, by the 1930s the rhinoceros was nearly hunted to extinction in India, Burma, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra for the supposed medical powers of its horn and blood. As of 2009, there are only 40 of them remaining in Ujung Kulon Conservation, Java, Indonesia.

Like the closely related larger Indian Rhinoceros, the Javan rhinoceros has only a single horn. Its hairless, hazy gray skin falls into folds into the shoulder, back, and rump giving it an armored-like appearance. The Javan rhino's body length reaches up to 3.1–3.2 m (10–10 ft), including its head and a height of 1.5–1.7 m (4 ft 10 in–5 ft 7 in) tall. Adults are variously reported to weigh between 900–1,400 kg[16] or 1,360-2,000 kg.[17] Male horns can reach 26 cm in length while in females they are knobs or are not present at all.[17]

Sumatran Rhinoceros

Sumatran rhinoceroses at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden

The Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is the smallest extant rhinoceros species, as well as the one with the most fur, which allows it to survive at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. Due to habitat loss and poaching, its numbers have declined and it is one of the world's rarest mammals. About 275 Sumatran Rhinos are believed to remain.

Typically a mature Sumatran rhino stands about 130 cm (51 in) high at the shoulder, a body length of 240–315 cm (94–120 in) and weighs around 700 kg (1,500 lb), though the largest individuals have been known to weigh as much as 1,000 kilograms. Like the African species, it has two horns; the largest is the front (25–79 cm) and the smaller being the second, which is usually less than 10 cm long. The males have much larger horns than the females. Hair can range from dense (the most dense hair in young calves) to scarce. The color of these rhinos is reddish brown. The body is short and has stubby legs. They also have a prehensile lip.

Evolution

Rhinocerotoids diverged from other perissodactyls by the early Eocene. Fossils of Hyrachyus eximus found in North America date to this period. This small hornless ancestor resembled a tapir or small horse more than a rhino. Three families, sometimes grouped together as the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea, evolved in the late Eocene: Hyracodontidae, Amynodontidae and Rhinocerotidae.

Hyracodontidae, also known as "running rhinos," showed adaptations for speed, and would have looked more like horses than modern rhinos. The smallest hyracodontids were dog-sized; the largest was Indricotherium, believed to be one of the largest land mammals that ever existed. The hornless Indricotherium was almost seven metres high, ten metres long, and weighed as much as 15 tons. Like a giraffe, it ate leaves from trees. The Hyracodontids spread across Eurasia from the mid-Eocene to early Miocene.

Juxia, an extinct genus of Indricothere genus.

The family Amynodontidae, also known as "aquatic rhinos," dispersed across North America and Eurasia, from the late Eocene to early Oligocene. The amynodontids were hippopotamus-like in their ecology and appearance, inhabiting rivers and lakes, and sharing many of the same adaptations to aquatic life as hippos.

Teleoceras, an extinct rhinoceros genus.

The family of all the modern rhinoceroses, the Rhinocerotidae, first appeared in the Late Eocene in Eurasia. The earliest members of Rhinocerotidae were small and numerous; at least 26 genera lived in Eurasia and North America until a wave of extinctions in the middle Oligocene wiped out most of the smaller species. Several independent lineages survived, however. Menoceras, a pig-sized rhinoceros which had two horns side-by-side or the Teleoceras of North America which had short legs and a barrel chest and lived until about 5 million years ago. The last rhinos in America became extinct during the Pliocene.

Coelodonta, the extinct woolly rhinoceros.

Modern rhinos are believed to have dispersed from Asia beginning in the Miocene. Two species survived the most recent period of glaciation and inhabited Europe as recently as 10,000 years ago. The woolly rhinoceros appeared in China around 1 million years ago and first arrived in Europe around 600,000 years ago and again 200,000 years ago, where alongside the woolly mammoth, they became numerous but eventually were hunted to extinction by early humans. Another species of enormous rhino, Elasmotherium, survived through the middle Pleistocene. Also known as the giant rhinoceros, Elasmotherium was two meters tall, five meters long and weighed around five tons, with a single enormous horn, hypsodont teeth and long legs for running.

Indricotherium, the extinct giraffe-sized rhinoceros.

Of the extant rhinoceros species, the Sumatran Rhino is the most archaic, first emerging more than 15 million years ago. The Sumatra Rhino was closely related to the woolly rhinoceros, but not to the other modern species. The Indian Rhino and Javan Rhino are closely related and from a more recent lineage of Asian rhino. The ancestors of early Indian and Javan rhino emerged 2-4 million years ago.[18]

The origin of the two living African rhinos can be traced back to the late Miocene (6 mya) species Ceratotherium neumayri. The lineages containing the living species diverged by the early Pliocene (1.5 mya), when Diceros praecox, the likely ancestor of the Black Rhinoceros, appears in the fossil record.[19] The black and white rhinoceros remain so closely related that they can still mate and successfully produce offspring.[8]

Rhino from the San Diego Zoo
Indian Rhino
Rhino skin
Black Rhinos in Ngorongoro Crater
Rhinos at Lake Nakuru

Predators

In the wild, adult rhinoceros have few natural predators other than humans. Young rhinos can fall prey to predators such as big cats, crocodiles, wild dogs, and hyena. It has also been reported that a large Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was seen taking a black rhino while it was drinking from a river; whether other species of rhino may fall prey to these large reptiles is unknown. Although rhinos are of large size and have a reputation of being tough, they are actually very easily poached. Because it visits water holes daily, the rhinoceros is easily killed while taking a drink. As of December 2009 poaching has been on a "global" increase whilst efforts to protect the rhinoceros are being considered increasingly ineffective. The worst estimate, that only 3% of poachers are successfully countered, is reported of Zimbabwe. Rhino horn is considered to be particularly effective on fevers and even "life saving" by traditional Chinese medicine practitioners, which in turn provides a sales market. Nepal is apparently alone in avoiding the crisis while poacher-hunters grow ever more sophisticated.[21]

Horns

Monk with rhinoceros horn. Samye, Tibet, 1938.

The most obvious distinguishing characteristic of the rhinos is a large horn above the nose. Rhinoceros horns, unlike those of other horned mammals, consist of keratin only and lack a bony core, such as bovine horns. Rhinoceros horns are used in traditional Asian medicine, and for dagger handles in Yemen and Oman.

One repeated misconception is that rhinoceros horn in powdered form is used as an aphrodisiac in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Cornu Rhinoceri Asiatici (犀角). It is, in fact, prescribed for fevers and convulsions.[22] Discussions with TCM practitioners to reduce its use have met with mixed results since some TCM doctors mistakenly see rhinoceros horn as a life-saving medicine of better quality than substitutes.[23] China has signed the CITES treaty however. To prevent poaching, in certain areas, rhinos have been tranquilized and their horns removed. Many rhino range States have stockpiles of rhino horn, which needs to be carefully managed.[24]

A Rhinoceros depicted on a Roman mosaic in Villa Romana del Casale, an archeological site near Piazza Armerina in Sicily, Italy

Historical representations

Albrecht Dürer created a famous woodcut of a rhinoceros in 1515, based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon earlier that year. Dürer never saw the animal itself, and as a result, Dürer's Rhinoceros is a somewhat inaccurate depiction.

Dürer's Rhinoceros, in a woodcut from 1515

There are legends about rhinoceros stamping out fire in Malaysia, India, and Burma. The mythical rhinoceros has a special name in Malay, badak api, where badak means rhinoceros and api means fire. The animal would come when a fire is lit in the forest and stamp it out.[25] There are no recent confirmations of this phenomenon. However, this legend has been reinforced by the film The Gods Must Be Crazy, where an African rhinoceros is shown to be putting out two campfires.[26]

Footnotes

  1. ^ White Rhinoceros, White Rhinoceros Profile, Facts, Information, Photos, Pictures, Sounds, Habitats, Reports, News - National Geographic
  2. ^ Unattributed. "White Rhino (Ceratotherum simum)" (in en-US). Rhinos. The International Rhino Foundation. http://www.rhinos-irf.org/white/. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  3. ^ Owen-Smith, Norman (1984). Macdonald, D.. ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 490–495. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  4. ^ What is a rhinoceros horn made of?
  5. ^ San Diego Zoo
  6. ^ Rookmaaker, Kees (2003). "Why the name of the white rhinoceros is not appropriate". Pachyderm 34: 88–93. 
  7. ^ Rabinowitz, Alan (June 1995) "Helping a Species Go Extinct: The<33 six. Sumatran Rhino in Borneo" Conservation Biology 9(3): pp. 482-488
  8. ^ a b Robinson, Terry J.; V. Trifonov, I. Espie, E.H. Harley (01 2005). "Interspecific hybridization in rhinoceroses: Confirmation of a Black × White rhinoceros hybrid by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite analysis". Conservation Genetics 6 (1): 141–145. doi:10.1007/s10592-004-7750-9. http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&doi=10.1007/s10592-004-7750-9. 
  9. ^ Times Online | News | Environment | Poachers kill last four wild northern white rhinos
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "African Rhinoceros". Safari Now. http://196.36.153.129/cms/african-rhino/irie.aspx. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  12. ^ "West African black rhino 'is extinct'". The Times. July 7, 2006. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-2260631,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  13. ^ Dollinger, Peter and Silvia Geser. "Black Rhinoceros". World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. http://www.waza.org/virtualzoo/factsheet.php?id=118-003-003-001&view=Rhinos&main=virtualzoo. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  14. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (17 April 2007). "Assam rhino poaching 'spirals'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6564337.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  15. ^ Derr, Mark (July 11, 2006). "Racing to Know the Rarest of Rhinos, Before It’s Too Late". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/11/science/11rhin.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  16. ^ Species Endangered: Javan Rhinoceros
  17. ^ a b Rhino Guide: Javan Rhinoceros
  18. ^ Lacombat, Frédéric (2005). "The evolution of the rhinoceros". in Fulconis, R.. Save the rhinos: EAZA Rhino Campaign 2005/6. London: European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. pp. 46–49. 
  19. ^ Geraads, Denis (2005). "Pliocene Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia) from Hadar and Dikika (Lower Awash, Ethiopia), and a revision of the origin of modern African rhinos". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (2): 451–460. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0451:PRMFHA2.0.CO;2]. http://www.vertpaleo.org/publications/jvp/25-451-461.cfm. 
  20. ^ Haraamo, Mikko (2005-11-15). "Mikko's Phylogeny Archive entry on "Rhinoceratidae"". http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/users/haaramo/metazoa/deuterostoma/chordata/synapsida/eutheria/Perissodactyla/Rhinocerotidae/Rhinocerotidae.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  21. ^ 'Global surge' in rhino poaching BBC
  22. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica, Third Edition, by Dan Bensky, Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger, and Andrew Gamble. September 2004
  23. ^ Parry-Jones, Rob and Amanda Vincent (January 3, 1998). "Can we tame wild medicine? To save a rare species, Western conservationists may have to make their peace with traditional Chinese medicine.". New Scientist 157 (2115). http://seahorse.fisheries.ubc.ca/pdfs/parryjones_and_vincent1998_newscientist.html. 
  24. ^ Milledge, Simon. Rhino Horn StockpilePDF (1.34 MB), TRAFFIC, 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
  25. ^ Rhinoceros Frequently Asked Questions
  26. ^ The Gods Must Be Crazy, James Uys, C.A.T. Films, 1980.

References

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Rhinoceroses article)

From Wikiquote

The rhino is a homely beast

The rhinoceros or rhino is a large mammal noted for its horn.

Sourced

  • If ever you meet a rhinoceros
    And a tree be in sight,
    Climb quick! for his might
    Is a match for the gods: he could toss Eros!
    • Robert Browning, The Rhinoceros
    • Written impromptu when challenged to find a rhyme for "rhinoceros" [1]
  • Did you ever see the Rhinoceros, and the Hippopotamus, at the Zoological Gardens, trying to dance a minuet together? It is a touching sight.
    • Lewis Carroll, A Selection from the Letters of Lewis Carroll to his Child-Friends (1933) edited by Evelyn M. Hatch, Letter to Gaynor Simpson (27 December 1873), p.91
  • Pity the poor old rhino with
    A bodger on its bonce.
  • The rhino is a homely beast,
    For human eyes he's not a feast.
    Farwell, farewell, you old rhinoceros,
    I'll stare at something less prepoceros.

External links

Wikipedia
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1911 encyclopedia

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian Rhinoceros)

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Perissodactyla
Familia: Rhinocerotidae
Genus: Rhinoceros
Species: R. sondaicus - R. unicornis

Name

Rhinoceros Linnaeus, 1758

Vernacular names

Hrvatski: nosorog
Slovenčina: nosorožec
中文: 犀牛属

References

  • Rhinoceros on Mammal Species of the World.
    Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed).

Simple English

Rhinoceros
Fossil range: Eocene - Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Rhinocerotidae
Gray, 1821

A rhinoceros (also called a rhino for short) is any of five living species of mammals in the family Rhinocerotidae, of the order Perissodactyla.

Contents

Taxonomy

[[File:|thumb|200px|Sizes of the different rhinoceros species.]]

  • Family Rhinocerotidae
    • Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis
    • White Rhinoceros, or Square-lipped Rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum
    • Javan Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus
    • Indian Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis
    • Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

Habitat

All five rhinoceros species are native to Africa or Asia. The two species in Africa are the White Rhinoceros and the Black Rhinoceros. The three species in Asia (including islands of Indonesia) are the Javan Rhinoceros, Sumatran Rhinoceros, and Indian Rhinoceros.

Life

The rhinoceros is an herbivore.

Rhinoceroses have a large horn on the nose. Their horns are not like those of other horned mammals: the rhinoceros' horn is made of keratin packed together very tightly.

Rhinoceros and Humans

Only the White Rhinoceros is not in critical danger of becoming extinct because of humans killing them even though it is illegal, and the White Rhino in some danger of becoming extinct. Loss of habitat is also a danger to all rhinos. Rhinos are becoming extinct because people are still killing them for money even though the government made logging their habitat and poaching illegal. Rhinoceros horns are used in Asian medicine, and for dagger handles in Yemen and Oman which is leading to extinction of these animals.

Other websites

Look up Rhinocerotidae in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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