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This article is about the unrecognized state of Rhodesia, today's Zimbabwe. For other uses, see Rhodesia (name).
Republic of Rhodesia
Unrecognized state

Flag Coat of arms
Sit Nomine Digna (Latin)
"May she be worthy of the name"
"Rise O Voices of Rhodesia" (from 1974)
Capital Salisbury
Language(s) English
Government Parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy Later Parliamentary Republic
 - 1970–1975 Clifford Dupont
 - 1976–1978 John Wrathall
Prime minister
 - 1965–1979 Ian Smith
Historical era Cold War
 - Independence (UDI) 11 November 1965
 - Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 1 June 1979
 - Zimbabwe 17 April 1980
 - 1978 390,580 km2 (150,804 sq mi)
 - 1978 est. 6,930,000 
     Density 17.7 /km2  (46 /sq mi)
Currency Pound (until 1970)
Dollar (from 1970)
¹ The government recognised Queen Elizabeth II as the official Head of State from 1965 to 1970. The highest official of Rhodesia held the title "Officer Administering the Government" (OAtG) as he acted in lieu of the official Governor-General, who remained at his post but was ignored. After Rhodesia became a republic in March 1970 the president replaced the OAtG as the highest official, and the Governor -General returned to London.

This article is part of the series:
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Governor of Southern Rhodesia
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Rhodesia (pronounced /roʊdiːˈʃə/), officially the Republic of Rhodesia from 1970, was an unrecognized state located in southern Africa that existed between 1965 and 1979 following its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965. With its government based at the former colonial capital of Salisbury, its territory consisted of the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia. The state was named after Cecil John Rhodes, whose British South Africa Company acquired the land in the nineteenth century.

The landlocked country bordered South Africa to the south, Botswana (post-1966) to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest and Mozambique (Portuguese East Africa until 1975) to the east. The state was governed by a predominantly white minority government until 1979, initially as a self-governing colony then, after the Unilateral Declaration of Independence as a self-proclaimed sovereign Dominion and latterly a Republic.

Throughout its history, Rhodesia continued to be referred to by the British, who did not recognize the state, as "Southern Rhodesia". Before 1964, the name "Rhodesia" had referred to the territory of modern Zambia and Zimbabwe; however, when the former colony of Northern Rhodesia renamed itself Zambia on independence in 1964, the colony of Southern Rhodesia changed its name to simply "Rhodesia". However, the change had not yet been officially ratified when Rhodesia declared itself independent, and as a result, the British Government continued to refer to the breakaway colony as "Southern Rhodesia" throughout its existence, a stance it maintained regarding the June–December 1979 successor state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Therefore, when Zimbabwe Rhodesia returned to colonial status from December 1979 to April 1980, it was as "Southern Rhodesia", which, according to the British, it had never ceased to be called. Southern Rhodesia subsequently gained international recognition of its independence in April 1980, when it became the independent Republic of Zimbabwe.




The British government adopted a policy of no independence before majority rule, dictating that colonies with a substantial population of white settlers would not receive independence except under conditions of majority rule, regardless of whether the population had advanced sufficiently into the modern world to take part in it. The European minority Rhodesian Front (RF) government, led by Ian Smith, opposed the policy. The British Empire ruled over the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia until negotiations between colonial government and the British government broke down in 1965.

Smith's government declared the country independent from British rule on November 11, 1965 in what became known as UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence). Smith sent a telegram notifying British Prime Minister Harold Wilson at precisely 1 p.m. local time (11 a.m. in London) on 11 November, at the precise moment that the UK started its traditional two minutes of silence to mark the end of World War I and honour its war dead. The not-so-hidden message to "kith and kin," as Smith put it, recalled Southern Rhodesia's assistance and allegiance to the UK in its time of need in World Wars I and II. British High Commissioner John Baines Johnston, who disliked Smith, cleaned out the High Commission building of all official documents and left Rhodesia. Smith gave strict instructions to his government not to harm the High Commission building in any way, much to Johnston's surprise.

The international community condemned UDI. The United Nations Security Council authorised the use of sanctions, targeting Rhodesia at the behest of Britain, beginning in 1965 and lasting until the restoration of British rule in December 1979. The terms of these sanctions forbade most forms of trade or financial exchange with Rhodesia. However, not all members of the international community adhered to the sanctions. South Africa, Portugal, Israel, Iran and some Arab nations helped Rhodesia in various ways. In the case of the U.S., the 1971 Byrd Amendment allowed the importation of chrome, ferrochrome and nickel from Rhodesia.[1] Rhodesia evaded sanctions in the short term but few outsiders invested in Rhodesia after the sanctions.[2]

Ian Smith signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence on 11 November 1965 with his cabinet watching

The Rhodesian government struggled to obtain international recognition and the lifting of sanctions. No significant state ever granted recognition to Rhodesia and in 1970 the U.S. government categorically stated that "under no circumstances" would it recognize Rhodesian independence.[3]

Initially, the state maintained its loyalty to Queen Elizabeth II as "Queen of Rhodesia" (a title to which she never consented) but not to her representative, the Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs, whose constitutional duties were exercised by an "Officer Administering the Government," Clifford Dupont. On 2 March 1970, Rhodesia's government formally severed links with the British Crown, declaring Rhodesia a republic with Dupont as President. Dupont, a London solicitor, had emigrated to Rhodesia in 1953. The Rhodesians hoped that the declaration of a Republic would finally prompt sympathetic states to grant recognition. The UK government pressured United States Secretary of State William P. Rogers into closing the U.S. consulate in Salisbury.

Impact of UDI

In 2005 the 40th anniversary of UDI prompted memorial events of various kinds. Many individuals directly affected by, or who participated in, UDI still lived. The British Academy funded a two day conference on UDI ('UDI: 40 Years On') at the London School of Economics in January 2006. The conference portrayed UDI as a joint product of racial conflict and the Cold War.[4] UDI had an international dimension. Domestic events in Rhodesia alone did not produce Smith's declaration.

Critics of UDI sought to maintain that Smith intended only to defend the privileges of a small white elite at the expense of the black majority. In this view UDI created a vacuum which the Mugabe regime eventually filled.[5] Alternatively, many Rhodesians sought to justify UDI on the ground that the British government had delayed independence by 15 years. They said the delay contained the spread of communism in Africa and enabled Zimbabwe to avoid some of the economic and political problems suffered by many other newly independent African nations.

Tobacco generated more than half of Rhodesia's foreign currency throughout the UDI era and a highly-organised cartel smuggled it out to world markets disguised as South African or Portuguese product. However, sanctions that followed UDI affected tobacco production badly. The volume sold quickly declined from 150m kg (US$75m) in 1964 to around 60m kg (US$30m) per year.

From the industry's point of view, UDI was the worst setback it ever faced. Zimbabwe would be producing 400m kg of tobacco a year (double actual 1990 output) if it were not for UDI
Ted Jeffreys, President of the Rhodesia Tobacco Association from 1962 to 1965, in 1991

During UDI, white tobacco farmers switched to the production of maize and beef for sale on the domestic market. This provided severe competition to black farmers, whose share of marketed home food production declined from 65% to 30% during the UDI period. The black peasant farming sector never recovered. At the same time, sanctions provided an artificial protection for domestic manufacturing, which allowed the development of industries. These businesses later faltered when exposed to international competition in 1980.

Start of the Bush War

A lengthy armed campaign by ZANLA, the military wing of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), and ZIPRA, the military wing of the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), against the Rhodesian government followed UDI. This became known as the "Bush War" by White Rhodesians and as the "Second Chimurenga" (or rebellion in Shona) by supporters of the guerrillas.[6] The war is generally considered to have started in 1972 with scattered attacks on isolated white-owned farms.

After unsuccessful appeals to Britain and the United States for military assistance to liberate Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe, latterly based in Mozambique, led ZANU with support from the People's Republic of China. Joshua Nkomo, based in Zambia and supported by the Soviet Union, led ZAPU.[7] ZANU and ZAPU together formed 'the Patriotic Front'. Broadly, ZANU represented the 80% of the Black population who spoke Shona and ZAPU represented the 20% who spoke Ndebele.[8]

An impression quickly took root during the war that the Rhodesians were going to lose. Even the South Africans considered sustaining white minority rule in a nation in which blacks outnumbered whites by 22:1 as untenable.[7] In 1978 there were 270,000 Rhodesians of European descent and more than six million of African descent.[9] International business groups involved in the country (e.g. Lonrho) transferred their support from the Rhodesian government to black nationalist parties. Business leaders and politicians feted Nkomo on his visits to Europe, funding his ZAPU party and associated ZIPRA military operations. This funding allowed ZIPRA to purchase sophisticated weaponry on the international arms market, which ultimately helped lead to the demise of the Rhodesian state. ZANU also attracted business supporters who saw the course that future events were likely to take.[10]

Initially, the Rhodesian government's overwhelming superiority in manpower, fire-power and mobility led the government to several victories. Containing the insurgency required little more than a police action. But the situation changed dramatically after the end of Portuguese colonial rule in Mozambique in 1975. Rhodesia now found itself almost entirely surrounded by hostile states and even South Africa, its only real ally, pressed for a settlement.

The Rhodesian government and the black nationalists met at Victoria Falls in August 1975 for negotiations brokered by South Africa and Zambia, but the talks never got beyond the procedural phase.[11] Rhodesian representatives made it clear they were prepared to fight an all out war to prevent majority rule.[12]

Having let slip one chance after another of reaching an accommodation with more moderate black leaders, Rhodesia's whites seem to have made the tragic choice of facing black nationalism over the barrel of a gun rather than the conference table. The downhill road toward a race war in Rhodesia is becoming increasingly slippery with blood.
Rand Daily Mail editorial, May 1976[13]

At this point, ZANU's alliance with FRELIMO (the Liberation Front of Mozambique) and the porous border between Mozambique and eastern Rhodesia enabled large-scale training and infiltration of ZANU/ZANLA guerrillas. The governments of Zambia and Botswana were also emboldened sufficiently to allow guerrilla bases to be set up in their territories. Guerrillas began to launch operations deep inside Rhodesia, attacking roads, railways, economic targets and isolated security force positions, in 1976.[14]

Dawn Croucamp, a Rhodesian national servicewoman takes aim with a Browning Hi-Power 9mm semi-automatic, from 1976 army recruitment poster

The government adopted a 'strategic hamlets' policy of the kind used in Malaya and Vietnam to restrict the influence of insurgents over the population of rural areas. Local people were forced to relocate to protected villages (PVs) which were strictly controlled and guarded by the government against rebel atrocities. The protected villages were compared by guerillas to concentration camps. Some contemporary accounts claim that this interference in the lives of local residents induced many of them who had previously been neutral to support the insurgents.[15] Other accounts say that the insurgents lacked real support in the country and had to resort to terrorizing the population to force their support (the reason for the 'protected village' program). The war degenerated into rounds of increasing brutality from all three parties involved (ZANU and ZAPU, and the Rhodesian Army fighting off their attacks). Mike Subritzky, a former NZ Army ceasefire monitor in Rhodesia, in 1980 described the war as "both bloody and brutal and brought out the very worst in the opposing combatants on all three sides."[16]

The Rhodesian government faced a serious economic struggle during the 1970s as a result of sanctions, emigration, and the strain imposed on the economic system by conscription of all white males, from the age of sixteen upwards. At this time volunteers were recruited from overseas to help in the fight. One particular source of volunteers, Vietnam War veterans mostly from the USA and Australia, who had found it difficult to adjust to civilian life in their home countries. Rhodesians began to take serious casualties in 1977, leaving few white families untouched.[17]

End of the Bush War

Rhodesia began to lose vital economic and military support from South Africa, which, while sympathetic to the white minority government, never accorded it diplomatic recognition. The South Africans placed limits on the fuel and munitions they supplied to the Rhodesian military. They also withdrew the personnel and equipment that they had previously provided to aid the war effort. In 1976 the South African and United States governments worked together to place pressure on Smith to agree to a form of majority rule. The Rhodesians now offered more concessions, but those concessions were insufficient to end the war.

At the time, some Rhodesians said the still embittered history between the British-dominated Rhodesia and the Afrikaner-dominated South Africa partly led South Africa to withdraw its aid to Rhodesia. Ian Smith said in his memoirs that even though many white South Africans supported Rhodesia, South African Prime Minister John Vorster's policy of détente with the Black African states ended up with Rhodesia being offered as the "sacrificial lamb" in order to buy more time for South Africa. Other observers perceive South Africa's distancing itself from Rhodesia as being an early move in the process that led to majority rule in South Africa itself.[18]

In 1976 South Africa saw settlement of the Rhodesian question as vital on several fronts: to cauterize the wound of the psychological blow … caused by her defeat in the Angolan conflict; to pre-empt possible Cuban intervention in Rhodesia and the possibility of South Africa being sucked into another Cold War regional conflict without the support and endorsement of the western powers
Dr Sue Onslow, 'South Africa and UDI'[19]
The Umniati was downed by ZIPRA insurgents using a SA-7 Grail surface-to-air missile on the 12 February 1979. All 59 passengers and crew aboard were killed.

By early 1978 militant victories put the Rhodesian armed forces on the defensive. The government abandoned its early strategy of trying to defend the borders in favour of trying to defend key economic areas and lines of communication with South Africa, while the rest of the countryside became a patchwork of "no-go areas." Rhodesia's front-line forces never contained more than 25,000 troops, eight tanks (Polish build T-55LD tanks) and nine old Hawker Hunter jets. Those forces could still launch raids on enemy bases, but Rhodesia faced diplomatic isolation, economic collapse and military defeat.[20][21]

During the closing stages of the war, the Rhodesian government resorted to biological warfare. Watercourses at several sites close to the Mozambique border were deliberately contaminated with cholera and warfarin, an anti-coagulant commonly used as the active ingredient in rat poison. Food stocks in areas of insurgent activity were contaminated with anthrax spores. These biological attacks had little impact on the fighting capability of ZANLA, but caused considerable distress to the local population. Over 10,000 people contracted anthrax in the period 1978 to 1980 of whom 200 died. The facts about this episode became known during the hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission during the late 1990s. Former senior members of the Rhodesian security forces have stated that the actions described were undertaken by Rhodesian psy-ops units using material supplied through the Operation Coast programme of the SADF.[22]

The work of journalists such as Lord Richard Cecil, son of the Marquess of Salisbury, stiffened the morale of Rhodesians and their overseas supporters.[23] Lord Richard produced regular news reports such as the Thames TV 'Frontline Rhodesia' features. These reports typically contrasted the incompetent insurgents with the "superbly professional" government troops.[24] A group of ZANLA insurgents killed Lord Richard on 20 April 1978 when he parachuted into enemy territory with a Rhodesian airborne unit and landed in the middle of a group of ZANLA fighters.

The shooting down on 3 September 1978 of the civilian Vickers Viscount airliner Hunyani, Air Rhodesia Flight RH825, in the Kariba area by ZIPRA insurgents using a surface-to-air missile, and the subsequent massacre of its survivors, is widely considered to be the event that finally destroyed the Rhodesians' will to continue the war. Although militarily insignificant, the loss of this aircraft (and a second Viscount, the Umniati, in 1979) demonstrated the reach of insurgents extended to Rhodesian civil society.[25]

The Rhodesians' means to continue the war were also eroding fast. In December 1978 a ZANLA unit penetrated the outskirts of Salisbury and fired a volley of rockets and incendiary device rounds into the main oil storage depot – the most heavily defended economic asset in the country. The storage tanks burned for five days giving off a column of smoke that could be seen 80 miles (130 km) away. Half a million barrels of petroleum product (comprising Rhodesia’s strategic oil reserve) were lost. At a stroke, the country’s annual budget deficit was increased by 20%.[26]

The government's defence spending increased from R$30m, 8.5% of the national budget in 1971 to 1972, to R$400m in 1978 to 1979, 47% of the national budget. In 1980 the post-independence government of Zimbabwe inherited a US$500m national debt.[27]

The end of UDI

The Rhodesian army continued its "mobile counter-offensive" strategy of holding key positions ("vital asset ground") while carrying out raids into the no-go areas and into neighbouring countries. While initially extraordinarily successful, these raids had become more costly by 1979. For example, in April 1979 special forces carried out a raid on Joshua Nkomo's residence in Lusaka (Zambia) with the stated intention of assassinating him.[28] Nkomo and his family left hastily a few hours before the raid – having clearly been warned that the raid was coming. Rumours of treachery circulated within Rhodesia. It was variously suggested that the army command had been penetrated by British MI6 or that people in the Rhodesian establishment were positioning themselves for life after independence. The loyalty of the country's Central Intelligence Organization became suspect.

In 1979, some special forces units were accused of using counterinsurgent operations as cover for ivory poaching and smuggling. Colonel Reid-Daly (commander of the Selous Scouts) was dismissed for insubordination while defending himself against this charge. Meanwhile, support for ZANU-PF was growing amongst the black soldiers who made up 70% of the Rhodesian army.[29]

By the end of 1978, the need to cut a deal was apparent to most Rhodesians, but not to all. Ian Smith had dismissed his intransigent Defence Minister, P. K. van der Byl as early as 1976.[30] "PK" had been a hard-line opponent of any form of compromise with domestic opposition or the international community since before UDI. is better to fight to the last man and the last cartridge and die with some honour. Because, what is being presented to us here is a degree of humiliation...
P. K. van der Byl in 1977, commenting on a British peace plan.[31]

Van der Byl eventually retired to his country estate outside Cape Town, but there were elements in Rhodesia, mainly embittered former security force personnel, who forcibly opposed majority rule up to and well beyond independence.[32] New white immigrants continued to arrive in Rhodesia right up to the eve of independence.[33]

As the result of an internal settlement between the Rhodesian government and some urban-based African nationalist parties, which were not in exile and not involved in the war, elections were held in April 1979. The UANC (United African National Council) party won a majority in this election, and its leader, Abel Muzorewa (a United Methodist Church bishop), became the country's prime minister on 1 June 1979. The country's name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The internal settlement left control of the country's police, security forces, civil service and judiciary in white hands, for the moment. It assured whites of about one third of the seats in parliament. It was essentially a power-sharing arrangement between whites and blacks which did not amount to majority rule.[34] However, the United States Senate voted to end economic sanctions against Zimbabwe Rhodesia on 12 June.[35]

While the 1979 election was described by the Rhodesian government as non-racial and democratic, it did not include the main nationalist parties ZANU and ZAPU. In spite of offers from Ian Smith, the latter parties declined to participate in an election leading to anything less than full and immediate majority rule.

Bishop Muzorewa's government did not receive international recognition. The Bush War continued unabated and sanctions were not lifted. The international community refused to accept the validity of any agreement which did not incorporate the main nationalist parties. The British Government (then led by the recently elected Margaret Thatcher) issued invitations to all parties to attend a peace conference at Lancaster House. These negotiations took place in London in late 1979. The three-month-long conference almost failed to reach conclusion, due to disagreements on Land reform, but resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. UDI ended, and Rhodesia reverted to the status of a British colony ('The British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia').

The outcome was an internationally supervised general election in early 1980. ZANU (PF) led by Robert Mugabe won this election by terrorizing opposition to ZANU, including supporters of ZAPU. The observers and the newly-installed governor Lord Soames looked the other way, and Mugabe's victory was certified. Elements in the Rhodesian armed forces toyed with the idea of mounting a coup against the stolen election ("Operation Quartz")[36] to prevent ZANU taking over government of the country, but the coup was never realised.


Mugabe and the victorious black nationalists were rather less concerned by Operation Quartz than by the possibility that there might be a mass exodus of the white community of the kind that had caused chaos in Mozambique five years earlier. Such an exodus had been prepared for by the South African government. With the agreement of the British Governor of Rhodesia, South African troops had entered the country to secure the road approaches to the Beit Bridge border crossing point. Refugee camps had been prepared in the Transvaal. On the day the election results became known, most white families had prepared contingency plans for flight, including the packing of cars and suitcases.

However, after a meeting with Robert Mugabe and the central committee of ZANU (PF), Ian Smith was reassured that whites could, and should stay in the new Zimbabwe. Mugabe promised that he would abide strictly by the terms of the Lancaster House Agreement and that changes in Zimbabwe would be made gradually and by proper legal process.

On 18 April 1980 the country became independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe, and its capital, Salisbury, was renamed Harare two years later.


Presidential flag of Rhodesia

Although Southern Rhodesia never gained full Dominion status within the old Commonwealth, Southern Rhodesians ruled themselves from the attainment of 'Responsible Government' in 1923. Its electoral register had property and education qualifications, intended to ensure that the government remained in "civilized" hands. Over the years various electoral arrangements made at a national and municipal level upheld these standards. For example, the franchise for the first Legislative Council election in 1899 contained the following requirement:

voters to be British subjects, male, 21 years of age and older, able to write their address and occupation, and then to fulfil the following financial requirements: (a) ownership of a registered mining claim in Southern Rhodesia, or (b) occupying immovable property worth £75, or (c) receiving wages or salary of £50 per annum in Southern Rhodesia. Six months' continuous residence was also required for qualifications (b) and (c).

Following Cecil Rhodes' dictum of "equal rights for all civilized men", there was no overt racial component to the franchise. However, the requirement effectively excluded native blacks from the electorate. Whites never comprised more than 5% of the country's total population, but up to 1979 they never had less than 95% of the total vote in national elections. Up until the 1950s, Southern Rhodesia had a vibrant political life with right and left wing parties competing for power. The Rhodesia Labour Party held seats in the Assembly and in municipal councils throughout the 1920s and 30s. From 1953 to 1958 the prime minister was Garfield Todd, a liberal who did much to promote the development of the Black community through investment in education, housing and healthcare. However, the government forced Todd from office due to his inability to come to agreement with Britain over the terms of Rhodesia's independence.

From 1958 onwards, white settler politics consolidated and ossified around resistance to majority rule, setting the stage for UDI. The 1961 Constitution governed Southern Rhodesia and independent Rhodesia up until 1969, using the Westminster Parliamentary System modified by a system of separate voter rolls with differing property and education qualifications, without regard to race. Whites ended up with the majority of Assembly seats.

The 1969 republican constitution established a bicameral Parliament consisting of an indirectly-elected Senate and a directly-elected House of Assembly, effectively reserving the majority of seats for whites. The office of President had only ceremonial significance with the Prime Minister holding executive power.

The Constitution of the short-lived Zimbabwe Rhodesia, which saw a black-led government elected for the first time, reserved 28 of the 100 parliamentary seats for whites. The independence constitution agreed at Lancaster House reserved 20 out of 100 seats for whites in the House of Assembly and 8 out of 40 seats in the Senate. The constitution prohibited Zimbabwe authorities from altering the Constitution for seven years without unanimous consent and required a three quarters vote in Parliament for a further three years. The government amended the Constitution in 1987 to abolish the seats reserved for whites, and replace the office of Prime Minister with an executive President. In 1990 the government abolished the Senate.

Foreign relations

Throughout the period of its Unilateral Declaration of Independence (1965 to 1979), Rhodesia pursued a foreign policy of attempting to secure recognition as an independent country, and insisting that its political system would include 'gradual steps to majority rule.' Ardently anti-communist, Rhodesia tried to present itself to the West as a front-line state against communist expansion in Africa, to little avail. Rhodesia received little international recognition during its existence; recognition only occurred after elections in 1980 and a transition to black African rule.

Rhodesia wished to retain its economic prosperity and also feared communist elements in the rebel forces, and thus felt their policy of a gradual progression to black majority rule was justified. However, the international community refused to accept this rationale, believing that their policies were perpetuating racism. This attitude was part of the larger decolonisation context, during which Western powers such as United Kingdom, France, and Belgium hastened to grant independence to their colonies in Africa.

Britain and the UDI

Rhodesia was originally a British colony. Although decolonisation in Africa had commenced after World War II, it began accelerating in the early 1960s, causing Britain to negotiate independence rapidly with several of its colonies. During this period, it adopted a foreign policy called NIBMAR, or No Independence Before Majority African Rule, mandating democratic reforms that placed governance in the hands of the majority black Africans. The governing white minority of Rhodesia, led by Ian Smith, opposed the policy and its implications. On 11 November 1965, Rhodesia's minority white government made a unilateral declaration of independence, or UDI, from the United Kingdom, as it became apparent that negotiations would not lead to independence under the white regime.

The United Kingdom government immediately brought in legislation (Southern Rhodesia Act 1965) which formally abolished all Rhodesian government institutions. This move made life difficult for Rhodesian citizens who wished to travel internationally as passports issued by Rhodesia were not recognised as valid;[37] in January 1966, the Government issued a statement accepting as valid any passport issued before the declaration of independence and allowing six month United Kingdom passports to be granted when they expired - provided that the bearer declared they did not intend to aid the independent Rhodesian government.[38]

Until late 1969, Rhodesia still recognised Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, even though it opposed the British government itself for hindering its goals of independence. The Queen, however, refused to accept the title Queen of Rhodesia. Eventually, the Smith government abandoned attempts to remain loyal to the Crown, and in 1969, a majority of whites voted in referendum to declare Rhodesia a republic. They hoped that this move would facilitate recognition as an independent state by the international community, but the issues of white minority control remained and hindered this effort, and like the UDI before it, the government lacked international recognition.


After the declaration of independence, and indeed for the entire duration of its existence, Rhodesia did not receive official recognition from any state, although it did maintain diplomatic relations with South Africa, another white minority regime (but did not recognize Rhodesia due to its wish to preserve its fragile positions with other nations but frequently assisted the republic), and Portugal, which ceased relations with Rhodesia after its Carnation Revolution in 1974. The day following the declaration of independence, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution (S/RES/216) calling upon all states to not accord Rhodesia recognition, and to refrain from any assistance. The Security Council also imposed selective mandatory economic sanctions, which were later made comprehensive.

International perspective

Rhodesia campaigned for international acceptance and invoked the doctrine of non-intervention in internal affairs as justification for rebuking external criticism of its internal policies. However, the emerging doctrine of self-determination in colonial situations meant that most nations regarded Rhodesia as illegitimate.

Zambia, formerly Northern Rhodesia, took a pragmatic approach towards Rhodesia. Kenneth Kaunda, heavily dependent on access through Rhodesia for his nation's copper ore exports, fuel, and power imports unofficially worked with the Rhodesian government. Rhodesia still allowed Zambia to export and import its goods through its territory to Mozambique ports, despite the Zambian government's official policy of hostility and non-recognition of the post-UDI Smith Administration.

The United States, like all other Western nations, refused to recognise Rhodesia, but unlike others allowed its Consulate-General to function as a communications conduit between the American government in Washington, D.C., and the Rhodesian government in Salisbury. When Rhodesia set up an information office in Washington, D.C., OAU nations loudly protested. the U.S. government responded by saying the Rhodesian mission and its staff had no official diplomatic status and violated no U.S. laws.

Portugal pursued a middle path with Rhodesia. While not officially recognising Rhodesia under Ian Smith, the government of Antonio Salazar did permit Rhodesia to establish a diplomatic mission in Lisbon, and permitted Rhodesian exports and imports through their colony of Mozambique. The Portuguese government in power at that time, authoritarian and ardently anti-communist, gave active behind-the-scenes support in Rhodesia's fight against the guerrilla groups.

South Africa, itself under international pressure as a white minority government, pursued a policy of détente with the black African states at the time. These states wanted South Africa to pressure Ian Smith to accept a faster transition to majority rule in Rhodesia, in return for pledges of non-interference in South Africa's internal affairs. Prime Minister John Vorster, believing majority rule in Rhodesia would lead to international acceptance for South Africa, used a number of tactics to pressure Smith. The South African government held up shipments of fuel and ammunition and pulled out friendly South African forces from Rhodesia. The combined loss of Mozambique and the loss of support from South Africa dealt critical blows to the Rhodesian government.


After the UDI, Rhodesia House in London, (the Rhodesian High Commmission), now the Embassy of Zimbabwe in London, simply became a representative office with no official diplomatic status. Other locations which had Rhodesian representative offices were:

The most important representative offices for Rhodesia were Lisbon and Pretoria.


Continuing civil war and a lack of international support eventually led the Rhodesian government to submit to an agreement with the UK in 1979. This led to internationally supervised elections, won by ZANU-PF and Robert Mugabe, establishing the internationally-recognised Zimbabwe.


After independence in April 1980, the history of Rhodesians became that of the whites in Zimbabwe. However, many of the issues associated with UDI and the Bush War were not resolved immediately. In the early 1980s, South Africa sought to secure its position in the region by various means including the destabilisation of neighbouring states through support for dissident groups such as UNITA (in Angola) and Renamo (in Mozambique).[39] In Zimbabwe, the South African intelligence service promoted ZIPRA dissidents in what became known as the super-ZAPU insurgency in Matabeleland.[40]

During the Bush War of the 1970s some white farmers were able to carry on operations by paying protection money to commanders.[41] The super-ZAPU insurgency of the early 1980s was much less manageable. Super-ZAPU targeted white farmers, missionaries and tourists on the grounds that their murders would make "international headlines."[42]

...then the super-ZAPU element came in and this really unseated us – South Africa targeting white farmers. I mean it changed a few perspectives, I can tell you...
Ed Cumming, Matabeleland white farmer

The insurgency was equipped and coordinated by South African intelligence, working through white former members of the Rhodesian security services.[43] The super-ZAPU insurgency was eventually resolved at a military level by the Zimbabwe army Fifth Brigade's sweep through Matabeleland in 1983 (operation "Gukurahundi") and at a political level by the Unity Accord of 1987.[44] Operation Gukurahundi was associated with the massacre of between four and ten thousand civilians. Those last figures are estimated by sources ranging from the Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace to Parade magazine.[45]

The Matabeleland police reserve, still a largely white force in 1983, provided a degree of support to operation Gukurahundi. White police officers manning roadblocks and checkpoints were a commonly observed feature in Matabeleland at the time of the operation.[46]

In the ten years after independence, around 60% of the white population of Zimbabwe emigrated. Most emigrated to South Africa and mainly white, English speaking countries where they formed expatriate communities. Many expatriates and some of the whites who stayed in Zimbabwe became deeply nostalgic for Rhodesia. These individuals are known as "Rhodies." Native whites who are more accepting of the new order are known as "Zimbos."

Today, Zimbabwe, once considered the breadbasket of Africa, is a net importer of foodstuffs, with the European Union and United States providing emergency food relief as humanitarian aid on a regular basis.[47] Part of the issue is due to a marked decrease in agricultural production as fertile farmland once cultivated by trained white farmers has been forcibly relocated to black former combatants, who are untrained in agricultural land management, as compensation for military service. In such cases, production usually falls to less than half of its estimated capacity and fertile land lies fallow due to neglect. Not only is production reduced, but the jobs associated with operating a viable enterprise are lost.

Zimbabwe also suffers from a crippling inflation rate, as the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe has a routine policy of printing money to satisfy government debts, which introduces excessive currency into the economic system. This policy has caused the inflation rate to soar from 32% in 1998 (considered extremely high by most economic standards) to an astonishing 11,200,000% by 2007. Monetary aid by the International Monetary Fund has been suspended due to the Zimbabwe government's defaulting on past loans, inability to stabilize its own economy and her poor track record in regards to corruption and human rights.[47]

In 2008 elections, Mugabe's opponent Morgan Tsvangirai won the presidential polls despite irregularities in electoral procedures by the Zimbabwe Electoral Committee; mostly well-documented cases of vote tampering and ballot-stuffing by Mugabe supporters. In the months leading up to a run-off, instances of extreme violence against Tsvangirai supporters led to Tsvangirai to withdraw from the election. In February, 2009, a power-sharing accord was reached with Mugabe retaining the title of President and Tsvangirai being elected as Prime Minister. The Prime Minister position was created specifically for Tsvangirai as a result of the accord, and the powers granted to the role are somewhat nebulous.


  1. ^ Meredith, Martin. The Past is Another Country. pp. 218.  
  2. ^ Elizabeth Schmidt (2003). "Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1 (March 2003), pp. 311-312". JSTOR. Retrieved 2007-11-10.  
  3. ^ "1970: Ian Smith declares Rhodesia a republic". BBC News. 2 March 1970. Retrieved 2007-11-10.  
  4. ^ Dr. Sue Onslow. "UDI: 40 Years On". LSE. Retrieved 2007-11-10.  
  5. ^ Michael Hartnack (2005). "40 years in wilderness after UDI declaration". The Herald. Retrieved 2007-11-10.  
  6. ^ Spring, William (1986). The Long Fields: Zimbabwe Since Independence. pp. 38.  
  7. ^ a b "APF newsletter, "Appraisal of Rhodesia in 1975"".  
  8. ^ Chachage, C. S. L.; Magnus Ericsson and Peter Gibbon (1993). Mining and Structural Adjustment: Studies on Zimbabwe and Tanzania. pp. 34.  
  9. ^ Ian Beckett. "Report on Bush War, paragraph 10".  
  10. ^ The Guardian, 21 April 2000 British Multimillionaire bankrolls Mugabe party
  11. ^ Brookings Institution: p156, study on conflict resolution
  12. ^ "Peace talks fail". BBC news. 26 August 1975. Retrieved 2007-11-27.  
  13. ^ "Rhodesia: A Strike At the Lifeline". Rand Daily Mail via TIME magazine. 1976. pp. 2.,9171,914118-1,00.html. Retrieved 2007-11-23.  
  14. ^ "A Strike at the Lifeline". TIME magazine. 1976.,9171,914118-1,00.html. Retrieved 2007-11-23.  
  15. ^ APF Newsletter, 1976 :Rhodesia's "Protected" Blacks
  16. ^ "Operation Agila, "The British Empire's Last Sunset"". NZ History. Retrieved 2007-11-23.  
  17. ^ Mazoe: Rhodesian Roll of Honour
  18. ^ APF newsletter, 1976: appraisal of Rhodesia in 1976
  19. ^ LSE conference, UDI - 40 years on abstracts
  20. ^ Time magazine, 7 August 1978: Rhodesia faces collapse
  21. ^ Time magazine, 1 August 1978: taking the chicken run
  22. ^ Southern African News Feature:the plague wars
  23. ^ The Guardian, 15 July 2003: obituary of sixth Marquess of Salisbury
  24. ^ Nick Downie report: caution, partisan comment
  25. ^ The Viscount Disasters - The Story
  26. ^ The Atlantic Monthly : The Fragility of Domestic Energy, see page 5
  27. ^ Selby, p88
  28. ^ Ian Beckett :report on Bush War, para 7
  29. ^ Ian Beckett :report on Bush War
  30. ^ Rhodesia Worldwide:"PK"
  31. ^ The Past is Another Country, Martin Meredith, p291
  32. ^ Newsnet report :saboteurs hit Zimbabwean military, partisan comment
  33. ^ Time magazine, October 1977 :The Land of Opportunity
  34. ^ BBC "On this day" report :1 June 1979
  35. ^ Senate Votes Down A Move To Preserve Rhodesia Sanctions; Arms-Bill Veto Threatened White House Says 52-to-41 Margin Shows President Has Support to Prevent an Override, 13 June 1979. The New York Times.
  36. ^ Operation Quartz :possible military coup Rhodesia 1980
  37. ^ The Southern Rhodesia (Property in Passports) Order 1965 provided that they were the property of the British governmnent, allowing them to be impounded if presented by anyone arriving at a port of entry. See Hansard, HC 5ser vol 721 col 696.
  38. ^ The statement is printed in Hansard HC 5ser vol 723 col 4.
  39. ^ Wars of the World :Renamo insurgency, 1976–1992
  40. ^ Selby thesis, p170
  41. ^ Selby thesis, p84
  42. ^ Selby thesis, p171
  43. ^ Newsnet report:, caution, partisan comment
  44. ^ Selby thesis, p175
  45. ^ Selby thesis, p174
  46. ^ Selby thesis:, p174
  47. ^ a b

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

RHODESIA (so named after Cecil Rhodes), an inland country and British possession in South Central Africa, bounded S. and S.W. by the Transvaal, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and German South-West Africa; W. by Portuguese West Africa. N.W. by Belgian Congo; N.E. by German East Africa; E. by the British Nyasaland Protectorate and Portuguese East Africa. It covers an area of about 450,000 sq. m., being larger than France, Germany and the Low Countries combined. It is divided into two parts of unequal size by the middle course of the Zambezi.

Southern Rhodesia, with an area of 148,575 sq. m., consists of Matabeleland and Mashonaland, the western and eastern provinces, while the trans-Zambezi regions are divided into North-Western Rhodesia (or Barotseland) and North-Eastern Rhodesia.

Table of contents

Physical Features

Rhodesia forms part of the high tableland which constitutes the interior of Africa south of the Congo basin. Hydrographically the greater part of the country belongs to the basin of the Zambezi (q.v.), but in the N.E. it includes the eastern headstreams of the Congo, and in the S. and S.E. it is drained by the tributaries of the Limpopo, the Sabi and the Pungwe. The Limpopo forms the boundary between Southern Rhodesia and the Transvaal. The northwestern regions, drained by the upper Zambezi and its affluents, are described under Barotseland, and North-Eastern Rhodesia, together with the adjacent Nyasaland Protectorate, under British Central Africa. The highest portion of the tableland of Southern Rhodesia runs from the S.W. to the N.E. and forms a broad watershed between the tributaries of the Zambezi flowing north and the rivers flowing south and east. It is along this high plateau that the' railway runs from Bulawayo to Salisbury and onwards to Portuguese East Africa. The elevation of the railway varies from 4500 ft. to 550o ft. There is a gradual sloping away of the plateau to the N.W. and S.E., so that only a small portion of Southern Rhodesia is under 3000 ft. The eastern boundary, along Portuguese East Africa, forms the edge of the tableland; the height of the edge is accentuated by a series of ridges, so that the country here assumes a mountainous appearance, the grass-clad heights being reminiscent of the Cheviot Hills of Scotland or the lower Alps of Switzerland.


The geology of this region is very imperfectly known. Metamorphic rocks extend over immense areas, but these and the other formations are to a great extent hidden beneath superficial deposits. Conglomerates and banded ironstone rocks are found in the metamorphic areas around Bulawayo and the borders of Katanga; but to what extent these represent the different formations older than the Karroo and newer than the Swaziland schists (see Transvaal) has not been satisfactorily determined. Certain gold-bearing conglomerates are regarded as the equivalents of the Witwatersrand series, but the main sources of gold are the veins of quartz and igneous rocks developed in the metamorphic series. The Karroo formation is well represented, and covers extensive areas in the Zambezi basin. The Dwyka conglomerate appears to be developed in the Tuli district. The coal-bearing strata of Tuli and Wankies are certainly of Karroo age. They have yielded the fossil remains of fishes Acrolepis molyneuxi, the freshwater mollusc Palaeomutela, a few reptilian bones, and species of Glossopteris among plants.

The age of a widely distributed series of red-white sandstones, named by Molyneux the Forest Sandstone, remains uncertain. Molyneux considers them Tertiary, but it is not improbable that sandstones of various ages from Karroo to those of Recent date are represented. They contain numerous interbedded sheets of basalt, but it is doubtful if any of these are of so recent a date as Tertiary. Rocks of Karroo age occur round Lake Bangweulu, and contain numerous fossil plants and a few small shells. The age of the wide, thick sheet of basalt, through which the Zambezi has cut the Batoka gorge between the Victoria Falls and Wankies, remains uncertain.' ' For geology see F. H. Hatch, " Notes on the Geology of Mashonaland and Matabeleland," Geol. Mag., 1895; A. J. C. Molyneux, ' ` The Sedimentary Deposits of Rhodesia," Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. lix. (1903); F. P. Mennel, " Geology of Rhodesia," British Association Handbook (Cape Town, 1905); G. W. Lamplugh, British Assoc. Rep., South African Meeting, 1905.


As Southern Rhodesia extends between 16° S. and 22° S., and is thus within the tropics, it might be expected that the climate would be trying for Europeans, but owing to the elevation of the country the temperature is rarely too high for comfort. Another factor that renders the climate equable is that the rainy season coincides with the summer months, and the winter months are dry. The nights are always cool, so that the climate approximates to the ideal. On the high tableland which forms the great proportion of the country the temperature in the shade rarely reaches too° and there is just sufficient frost in the winter to be useful to farmers. The winter months are June, July and August, and the hottest months are the spring months of September, October and November, just before the rains begin. A temperature of 110° is sometimes reached in the low-lying district of Tuli (elevation 1890 ft.) and in the Zambezi valley. There is a striking difference between the minimum temperatures on the ground and those registered 4 ft. from the ground. The latter rarely reach freezing-point, but the ground temperature is sometimes as low as 24 °. Hoar frost is most noticeable in the vleis and low-lying areas. The period known as the rainy season extends from September to March, but the greatest amount falls in the last three months of that period. The mean annual rainfall for various stations in the eastern half of Rhodesia ranges D 36° from 24 to 44 in., the greatest rainfall being along the eastern border. For the western half the mean ranges from 19 to 27 in., but in the south-west corner it is much drier, the rainfall so far recorded never reaching 18 in. There is a sufficiency of rain for all summer crops, but winter 1 crops, such as wheat, must be assisted by irrigation. Malaria is prevalent in certain districts during the wet season, but this is now preventable and the country is very healthy, children, especially in towns and on the high veld, growing sturdily. The death-rate amongst Europeans is only about 15 per 1000.


Rhodesia is rich in the larger graminivorous animals, especially in antelope, which number about twenty-five varieties, including kudu, eland, hartebeeste, roan, sable, wildebeeste and impala. The most common are the duiker, the stembok and the rietbok. Other herbivorous animals found in the country are the buffalo, giraffe, zebra, elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros (black and white), warthog, and various baboons and monkeys. The buffalo is now rare, having been almost exterminated by the rinderpest in 1896. The carnivora include the lion, leopard, cheetah, and various wild cats, foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs. There are at least five varieties of the mongoose. Amongst the rodents are squirrels, dormice, rats (eleven kinds), the porcupine, the Cape hare and the rock hare. Of insectivora the ant-eater, the ant-bear, the hedgehog and various shrews may be mentioned. Bats number eleven varieties. Snakes are numerous, the most important being the python, the puff-adder and the cobra. Crocodiles and iguanas are found in most of the rivers, and chameleons and lizards are very common. Rhodesia abounds in beetles, butterflies and moths, and new varieties are frequently discovered in the wet season. Mention ought to be made of white ants (termites) and locusts. The ants are a serious pest, attacking all cut timber resting in or on the ground. They gradually envelop the dead wood in a mound of earth and consume it wholly, so that all poles and house-timber have to be carefully protected either by chemical preparations or by raising them clear from contact with the earth. The mounds which the white ants erect often reach a height of many feet. There are several kinds, the black-headed nipper ant, chiefly found in the west, being the most destructive. Locusts are particularly dreaded in their wingless state, when. they clean off every green leaf, every bit of vegetation, as they march on in their hundreds of thousands. The rivers are not very plentiful in fish, but occasional sport is afforded by barbel, bream and tiger-fish.

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Birds to the number of about 400 varieties have been found in Rhodesia. The largest of these are the ostrich, the secretary-bird, the paauw, the koorhaan, cranes (three varieties), storks (four), vultures (six) and eagles (eight). The chief birds that attract sportsmen, besides the paauw and the koorhaan already mentioned, are the guinea-fowl (three kinds), partridge and francolin (seven kinds), wild goose, duck and teal. Some of the most interesting birds are the weaver-birds (eighteen), the ox-peckers, which find their food on the backs of cattle, the kingfishers. (eight),. the hornbills (five), the parrots, lovebirds, the polygamous widow birds - whose females are of insignificant appearance, but whose males develop a brilliant plumage and lengthy tails during the breeding season, when they are on guard over their harems of from ten to fifteen wives - the sunbirds, with their long curved beaks that search out the nectar of flowers, and the honey-guides, which, with their agitated " chuck, chuck," lead the wayfarer to bees' nests with expectation of joining in the plunder. The small birds of Rhodesia are usually very brilliantly coloured, the most distinguished being what is known as the blue jay, with its bright, iridescent, light blue plumage.


The vegetation of the territory is luxurious and mainly subtropical, but in the lower valleys the flora assumes a tropical aspect. The country is well wooded and in this respect differs from the high tablelands farther south. The trees as a rule attain no greater height than about 20 ft., but in some districts, such as South Melsetter and Wankies, there are remains of forests of large timber. The small growth of the trees is said to be due to the annual veld fires, and it is noticeable that native trees that are protected attain a much greater height. As a rule the wood is either very hard or very soft, so that timber for building has still to be imported, although the existing timber is useful for mining purposes. One of the hardest woods is the so-called Rhodesian teak (native Ikusi), which is about 50% harder than real teak (Tectona grandis). The trees most commonly met with are mapane, used for poles; umkamba, resembling mahogany; m'lanji cedar, chiefly found along the eastern border; umsasa, used for firewood; impachla, the native wisteria. Among other trees are the baobab with enormous very soft trunk, the fruit being a large nut containing citrate of magnesia, which natives use to make a cooling drink; the umvagaz - or blood-wood - which issues a blood-coloured juice when cut, and the umkuna, or hissing tree, which hisses when an incision is made. The barks of the umsasa, the umhondo, and the umgosa are much used by natives for binding fibres in making huts and are also used for tanning. The bark of the baobab yields a fine fibre which natives use in making excellent game nets and fishing nets. The native fruit-bearing trees are the fig (many varieties), the mahobohobo or umjanje, resembling the loquat, the Kaffir plum, very sour and totally different from the Kaffir plum of Cape Colony, and the Kaffir orange. Among the shrubs the proteas, or sugar bushes, with their nectar-stored flowers, are the most frequent. The mimosa thorn, although more of the nature of a tree, grows in dense masses, chiefly in the western province.

The period of the year when flowers begin to bloom is rather remarkable. After the long spell of dry weather, lasting from five to seven months, and before any rain has fallen, blooms appear all over the veld. Most of such flowers are those of bulbous plants or plants with large roots that have been stored with nourishment during the previous growing wet season. The flowers are sustained by this stock of food until the rains appear again to replenish the roots. Even grass sprouts green over the earth before the rains appear, and the hard-baked veld is pierced by the shoots of the gladiolus, the orchid, the asparagus, the solanum, the convolvulus and many other flowers. When the rains are far advanced, the annuals shoot rapidly and make a second: show of bloom. A peculiarity of the early spring shoots on trees and shrubs is that they have not the green tints of the colder regions, but are all shades of brown and orange and red and yellow.

One of the chief features of Rhodesia is the vast stretches of grass-covered veld, the grasses varying from a few inches to 15 ft. in height and numbering about Too different varieties. Along the rivers are to be found palms, tree ferns, bananas, dracaenas and other hot climate plants. Rubber, indigo and cotton are indigenous and there are groves of lemon trees, but these were most probably introduced by early settlers. Tobacco, which grows luxuriantly, may also have been introduced.


In Southern Rhodesia about half the European population, which in 1909 was approximately 16,50o, is British born or born of British parents, and about one-third is South African born. There are about 11,500 males and 5000 females, and the population is equally divided between the urban and rural areas. In rural areas the chief occupations are mining and agriculture. Industrial pursuits, including mining, engage about 25% of the population, 8% are employed in agriculture, and 15% in commerce. Mashonaland has 7 500 white inhabitants, and Matabeleland 9000. There are about 2000 Asiatics in Southern Rhodesia.

The Natives of Rhodesia belong to the Bantu-Negro stock and are roughly divisible into two groups; those long settled in the country, and the Amazulu, who during the 19th century left Zululand and, passing through the more southern regions, overran Rhodesia and settled in Matabeleland. The Barotse are mainly settled in North-West Rhodesia. In Southern Rhodesia, in spite of incursions from Portuguese territory and from the north, the natives can be still clearly divided into Mashona and Matabele, living in the eastern and western pro vinces respectively. The name Mashona is no t t used by the natives but is useful as distinguishing the allied tribes of the eastern division from the MatabeleAin the west. The languages of the Mashona tribes are allied and are distinct from that of the Matabele (or Zulu), but it is uncertain whether these Mashona tongues should be regarded merely as different dialects, or languages as different as those of the various nations of Europe (but see Bantu Languages). The tribes round Salisbury and extending as far as Marondella in the east and iabout zoo m. north are clearly branches of the Vasezuru people, that is, the people from " higher up," the " higher up " being a region in the south-east. Their history can be traced from about the beginning of the 18th century; but there is a great lack of tradition amongst this class of native, which is distinctly inferior in type to the Matabele in the west.

Farther north there are the Makorikori and the Mabudja or Mabushla. It would appear that the country in which these people now dwell was formerly in the possession of the Barotse, and some of the present chiefs obtained their positions by permission of the Barotse. Previously, according to Portuguese documents of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Makaranga or Makalanga now located in the south round about Victoria had possession of the country as far north as the Zambezi. Their language is allied to that of the present inhabitants, but in many respects is widely different and of late has become more so owing to intercourse with the Matabele. Along the eastern border two more tribes can be differentiated, namely, Umtasa's people in the north and those speaking the Chindawo language in the south. Their languages are merely variants of the language spoken in the Salisbury and Mazoe districts.

All the tribes in the eastern province have very similar habits and customs. Their huts are circular with a wall a foot or two high, made of poles and daga (mud) surmounted by a conical thatched roof. They thus differ from the beehive huts of the Zulus. They are built indiscriminately together and are not surrounded by stockades. The whole family dwells in the same hut along with dogs, goats and fowls, and sometimes even with cattle, though there are usually separate kraals for their cattle. The kraals are as a rule filthy, but the inside of the hut is kept clean. There is a special place for a fire, and a raised portion of the mud floor on which to sleep, but no furniture. Their mealie fields are usually some distance from the place of abode, but their tobacco gardens are near their huts. Their main object in life seems to be to grow sufficient grain for food and beer. The grain they store in granaries, resembling small huts, placed on rocks or on stakes, out of the reach of white ants and secure from the depredations of animals. They amuse themselves occasionally by making earthenware pots which are very soft and easily broken, or by engaging in iron-work or brass-wire work for ornamentation. In the south they are quite clever in making water-tight baskets from rushes grown by the Sabi river. In their religious beliefs spirits play a great part. Above all there is a vague idea of a Supreme Being whom they call Mwari. They have a fixed belief in the spirits of their ancestors, the spirits of the witch-doctors, the spirits of the Matabele, the spirits of old women, the spirits of the foolish, the spirits of baboons, &c. Every occurrence is attributed to the influence of a spirit, and if the occurrence is an evil one a feast and dance of propitiation are held. Feasts of thanksgiving are also held on such occasions as the gathering of the first-fruits, the harvest festival, or on the return from a long and dangerous journey. Of the tribes already mentioned the most advanced are Umtasa's people and the Makaranga. The probable connexion of the tribes now inhabiting Mashonaland with the architects of the ancient stone buildings which are scattered over the country is discussed in the section Archaeology. Of these ruins the most extensive are situated near Victoria and are known as Zimbabwe.

In the western province the Matabele, or rather Amandabele, are the descendants of the Zulus who trekked under the leadership of the famous Mosilikatze up through the Transvaal, whence they were driven by the Boers. Mosilikatze died in 1868, and his son Lobengula, after a fight with a brother, assumed sway in 1870. His people were divided into three main sections: the Abezansi (who were the aristocrats), the Abenhla and the Amaholi. The Amaholi or Holi were the inhabitants of the land at the time of the invasion and thereafter were practically in the position of bondsmen and rarely allowed to possess cattle. The great spirit of the Holis was the Mlimo, who was practically the spirit of the nation. Among the Holi tribes are the Abashangwe, the Abanyai, the Batonke (near the Zambezi), the Abananzwa of the Wankie district, the Ababiro of the Tuli district, and the Abasili, a nomadic tribe chiefly subsisting on game. There is a small tribe in the Belingwe district called the Abalemba, which would appear to have been in touch with the Arabs in early times. Their customs include circumcision and the rejection of pork as food.

The natives in Southern Rhodesia number about 700,000, and of these io,000 work on the mines and 20,000 are engaged in farm, railway and household work under Europeans.

Chief Towns. - Salisbury, which lies 4880 ft. above the sea, is the capital of Southern Rhodesia, being the seat of government, and is situated in the eastern province (Mashonaland). There are about 1700 white inhabitants and 3000 natives. It is the commercial centre for an extensive mining and farming district. The principal buildings include churches, public library, hospital, schools, banks, post office and numerous hotels. There are a considerable number of government offices, and the administrator and resident commissioner live here. The only industries are a brewery and a tobacco factory for grading and packing the tobaccos of the local growers.

Bulawayo (q.v.), situated 4469 ft. above the sea, is the largest town and is in the western province, Matabeleland. It is 301 m. by rail S.W. of Salisbury, and 1362 m. N.E. of Cape Town. The population is some 4000 Europeans and about the same number of natives. The town has the advantage of a good pipe water supply and a service of electric light. It was the ancient capital of the Matabele king, Lobengula. There is a Government house which is occasionally occupied, and was the residence of Cecil Rhodes. It is from Bulawayo that the World's View, the burial-place of Rhodes in the Matoppo Hills, is usually visited.

The other towns are Umtali, on the eastern border, pop. 800 whites, railway works, centre for numerous large and small gold mines; Gwelo, the central town, about midway between Salisbury and Bulawayo, 370 whites; Victoria and Melsetter in the south, centres of farming districts. Victoria, near which are the famous Zimbabwe ruins, is reached by mail cart (80 m.) from Selukwe, and Melsetter by mail cart (95 m.) from Umtali. There are also small townships at Hartley, Selukwe, Enkeldoorn and Gwanda. Bulawayo and Salisbury are managed by town councils, the other towns have sanitary boards.


The Rhodesian railway system connects the chief towns and mining centres with one another and all the other South African countries. The main line is a continuation of the railway from Cape Town through Kimberley and Mafeking. It runs from Mafeking in a general N.E. direction to Bulawayo, whence it goes N.W. to the Zambezi, which is crossed a little below the Victoria Falls. The bridging of the river was completed in April 1905. Thence the railway is continued N.E. (92 m.) to Kalomo, Barotseland, and onward to the Katanga district of Belgian Congo. The section from Kalomo to Broken Hill (261 m.) was completed in 1907, and the extension to the frontier of Belgian Congo (126 m.) in 1909. This main line forms the southern link in the Cape to Cairo railway and steamboat service. From Bulawayo a line goes N.E. by Gwelo to Salisbury and thence S.E. to the Portuguese port of Beira. From Bulawayo another line (120 m. long) runs S.E. to the West Nicholson Mine. From Gwelo a railway (40 m.) goes S.E. to Yankee Doodle, and from this there branches a line (50 m. long) in an easterly direction to Blinkwater. From Salisbury a line runs N.W. to Lomagundi (84 m.). The last-named has a 2 ft. gauge. The other railways are of the standard gauge of South Africa-- 3 ft. 6 in. The distances from Bulawayo to the following places are: - Gwelo, 113 m.; Salisbury, 301 m.; Umtali, 471 m.; Beira, 675 M.; Mafeking, 490 m.; Kimberley, 713 m.; Cape Town, 1362 m.; Port Elizabeth, 1199 m.; East London, 1260 m.; Bloemfontein, 800 m.; Johannesburg, 931 m.; Pretoria, 977 m.; Lourenco Marques, 1307 m.; Durban, 1238 m. (the last four places all via Fourteen Streams, a junction 48 m. N. of Kimberley), and Victoria Falls, 282 m.

About 4000 m. of roads have been built and are maintained by government. The telegraph and telephone system is very complete, there being for the whole of Rhodesia about 8000 m. of wires. This total includes the police telephone wires and part of the African Transcontinental system, and is served by about ninety telegraph offices. In Southern Rhodesia there are about eighty post offices. A post office savings bank wai brought into operation on the 1st of January 1905. Over 2,500,000 letters, post-cards and parcels are despatched annually.


The country is well adapted for agriculture. Chief attention has been paid by farmers to the growing of maize, the annual produce being about half a million bushels. It is a very easily grown cereal, especially in such a fertile country as Rhodesia, and is extensively grown by natives, but the improved methods of the whites easily secure a yield of from twice to eight times that of the native. The average yield by European farmers is about eight bags of 200 lb per acre, but ten to fifteen bags is quite a common crop. Wheat, barley and oats are grown with success under irrigation in the winter time, but the moisture with attendant rust is too excessive for these crops in summer. Tobacco promises to be a great source of wealth to the territory. Both the Turkish and Virginian tobaccos have been raised and cured and put on the market, where they were easily disposed of. They are of better quality than those grown elsewhere in South Africa. In 1908 only about 500 acres were under cultivation, but there are large tracts of land suitable for this industry.

Fruits of very extensive variety thrive in Rhodesia; they include plums, bananas, grapes, guavas, paupaus, figs, loquats, pine-apples, Cape gooseberries, mulberries, tree tomatoes, rosellas, granadillas, all kinds of citrus fruits. The most flourishing are the citrus fruits and the Japanese plums, but in the higher altitudes pears and apples are also very successful. Vegetables of nearly all kinds can be grown, especially potatoes, tomatoes, asparagus, sweet potatoes, yams, &c. Coffee produces as much as 4 lb of beans to the shrub in certain parts.

Cattle thrive well in Rhodesia, and stock-raising promises to be the chief agricultural industry of the future. During the early period of European occupation rinderpest and at a later date East Coast fever decimated the country, but the prevention of these diseases is now thoroughly understood and, since the rinderpest of 1896 swept away large herds, cattle have been increasing rapidly in number. There is hardly any portion of the territory which is not suitable for cattle, and the rapid natural increase indicates a speedy prosperity in cattle ranching. Goats and woolless sheep number about 800,000 in the territory. Donkeys and mules thrive, but horses are very liable to horse-sickness towards the end of the rainy season.


When Rhodesia was first opened up to European occupation, attention was immediately called to the large number of gold workings made by unknown former inhabitants of the country. These workings were only carried on to a limited extent, being stopped probably by the presence of water and the lack of suitable machinery. European enterprise has resulted in the discovery of a large number of mines situated in widely scattered areas. The chief mines are the Globe and Phoenix, the Selukwe and the Wanderer in the Gwelo district; the Giant in the Hartley district; the Jumbo in the Mazoe district; the Ayrshire in the Lomagundi district; the Penhalonga and the Rezende in the Umtali district, while there are numerous smaller mines in the Gwanda, Insiza, Gwelo, Hartley and Umtali districts. The output of gold increased in value from £308,000 in 1900 to £2,623,000 in 1909, about one-third of this being produced by small workers whose individual output is not over 1500 oz. a month. As efforts have been restricted mainly to extracting the ore indicated by ancient workings, it is probable that many gold reefs still await discovery. The mineral wealth of Rhodesia is very varied and includes silver, of which 262,000 oz. were produced in 1909; coal, 170,000 tons (1909), and lead, 965 tons. Extensive discoveries of chrome iron have been made in the Selukwe district. There is a steady export of this metal, of which the output in 1909 was over 25,000 tons. Besides these, small quantities of copper, wolframite and diamonds have been exported, while scheelite and asbestos have been discovered in payable quantities.


Taking the average for a series of years ending 1908, the total imports amounted to about £1,500,000 per annum, 55% of which were manufactured articles, including £250,000 textile goods and wearing apparel, and £120,000 machinery. Imports of food and drink amounted to £330,000. In 1909 the imports amounted to £ 2,214,000, the chief items being food and drink (£422,000), machinery, animals and cotton goods. Exports consist almost entirely of minerals. In 1909 they were valued at £3,178,000. Included in the total is £342,000 goods imported and re-exported.


The administration of Rhodesia is carried on by the British South Africa Company under an order in council of 1898, amended by orders in council of 1903 and 5905. The company is called upon to appoint for Southern Rhodesia an administrator or administrators. The company also appoints an executive council of not fewer than four members to advise the administrator upon all matters of importance in administration. An order in council of 1903 provided for a legislative council consisting of the administrator, who presides, seven nominees of the company approved by the secretary of state, and seven members elected by registered voters (the number of registered voters in 1908 was 5291). In 1907 it was agreed to reduce the company's nominees by one, so that the elected members should form the majority of the council. The secretary of state appoints a resident commissioner, who sits on both executive and legislative councils without vote. The duty of the resident commissioner is to report to the high commissioner upon all matters of importance. Ordinances passed by the legislative council are submitted to the high commissioner for consent or otherwise, but may be disallowed by the secretary of state.

For the administration of justice there is a High Court with two judges having civil and criminal jurisdiction. There are seven magistrates' courts throughout the territory. For the administration of native affairs there are appointed a secretary for native affairs, two chief native commissioners, twenty-eight native commissioners and six assistant native commissioners. Natives suffer no disabilities or restrictions which do not equally apply to Europeans except in respect of the supply of arms, ammunition and liquor. Native commissioners may exercise jurisdiction in native affairs not exceeding that exercisable by magistrates. The company has to provide land, usually termed Native Reserves, sufficient and suitable for occupation by natives and for their agricultural and industrial requirements.


The administrative revenue of Southern Rhodesia was at first much less than the cost of administration. The figures for1899-1900were: revenue, £325,000; expenditure, £ 702,000. Since that date revenue has increased and expenditure decreased, and from 1905-6 (in which year the revenue exceeded £500,000) the cost of administration has been met out of revenue. For 1909-10 the revenue was approximately £600,000, the two main items being customs duty, £190,000, and native tax, £ 200,000. The native tax is £1 per head for every adult male and Los. for every wife after the first.


Besides a few private schools, there were in 1909 34 schools for Europeans, 26 of which were wholly financed by government, the remainder being aided. The aided schools are as a rule connected with some religious body, and aid is given to the extent of half the salaries of the teachers and half the cost of school requisites. Loans are also given to assist in school building. A system of boarding grants has been instituted to enable children in the outlying districts to attend school. Education is not free except for poor children, but the fees in government schools do not exceed £6 a year. In 1910 several schools had reached the stage of preparing pupils for matriculation at the Cape University and similar examinations. The number of pupils in 1909 in European schools was 1212, being more than double what it had been four years previously. The education of natives is in the hands of various religious bodies, but financial aid is given by government to native schools which comply with certain easy conditions. In 1909, 80 native schools with an enrolment of 7622 pupils earned grants.

Military Forces

The military force in Southern Rhodesia is styled the British South African Police, and numbers about 40 officers, 400 non-commissioned officers and men, and 550 native police. The force is under a commandant-general, who, with the subordinate officers, is appointed by the secretary of state, and is under the direct control and authority of the high commissioner. The commandant-general is paid by the British parliament. The offices of commandant-general and resident commissioner were combined in 1905.

The Southern Rhodesia Volunteers, in two divisions, eastern and western, under command of colonels, number altogether 86 officers and 1700 non-commissioned officers and men.


There are, including cottage hospitals, ten hospitals in towns and townships, and thirteen district surgeries have been established. (G. Du.) Archaeology. - Between the Zambezi and the Limpopo, and extending from the coast to at least 27° E., may be found the traces of a large population which inhabited Southern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa in bygone times. Apart from numerous mines, some of which are being successfully reworked at the present day, ruins of stone buildings have been found in several hundred distinct places. Few of these have been explored systematically, but investigations in 1905, though confined to a small number of sites, determined at least the main questions of date and origin. The fanciful theories of popular writers, who had ascribed these buildings to a remote antiquity, and had even been so audacious as to identify their founders with the subjects of King Solomon or of his contemporary the queen of Sheba, are now seen to be untenable. J. T. Bent's Ruined Cities of Mashonaland (1892) is now interesting only for its illustrations, and his theories are obsolete. Positive archaeological evidence demonstrates that the " Great Zimbabwe " itself, the most famous and the most imposing of the misnamed " Ruined Cities," was not built before medieval times, and that the earliest date which can be assigned to any of the sites explored is subsequent to the 11th century A.D. Moreover, the complete identity of custom, revealed no less by the details of the dwellings than by the type of the articles found within them, proves that the tribe that built these structures was one closely akin to if not actually identical with the present Bantu inhabitants of the country.

These ruins, even when stripped of their false romance, are of extreme interest; but their nature and appearance have been much misunderstood, and the skill and intelligence required for their erection have been grossly overestimated. It should be clearly stated, therefore, that the methods of the old Rhodesians evince their complete ignorance of all the devices employed in the architecture of civilized peoples. They have not attempted to solve the problems of supporting weight and pressure by the use of pillar, arch or beam; the ingenuity of the builders goes no further than the dexterous heaping up of stones. Indeed, their most finished and elaborate work must be compared with nothing more ambitious than the dry-built walls which serve to enclose the fields in certain parts of England. The material is the local granite or diorite obtainable in the immediate neighbourhood. Stonehewing has not been practised; and was unnecessary, since the natural flaking of the boulders provides an abundance of ready-made slabs which need only be detached from the parent rock and broken to the required size. At most the blocks thus obtained have been very roughly trimmed with one or two blows, and any apparent regularity in the fitting has been obtained merely by judicious selection. Mortar has seldom been used; the courses are never laid with any approach to exactness; walls merely abut on one another without being bonded, and the same line often varies greatly in thickness at different parts.

The main principle of the ground plan is invariably circular or elliptical, though it is carried out with a conspicuous lack of symmetry or exactness. Straight lines are unknown, and even accidental approximations to an angle are rare. This is eminently characteristic of the Bantu, whose huts are commonly built in circular form. Indeed, it is the round Bantu hut which has been the original model for even the finest of these stone constructions. The connexion between the two, however, goes beyond mere resemblance. The stone walls are always accompanied by huts; they are mere partitions or ring-fences enclosing and structurally inseparable from platforms of clay or cement on which stand the remains of precisely the same dwellings that the Makalanga make at the present day. Buildings such as those at Dhlo Dhlo, Nanatali and Khami in Matabeleland, or at Zimbabwe in southern Mashonaland, are merely fortified kraals; remarkable indeed as the work of an African people, but essentially native African in every detail, not excepting the ornamentation.

The best-known and the most attractive of the Rhodesian ruins are those situated in the more central and southern region. In the north-east, however, the remains are even more numerous, though the single units are less remarkable. Over the whole of Inyanga and the Mazoe region are distributed hill-forts, pit-dwellings and intrenchments which are more primitive in character though of -the same generic type as those found farther south. The inhabitants of these northern districts were occupied more in agriculture than in gold-mining, and one of the most striking features of their settlements is the irrigation system. There are no aqueducts such as Europeans or Arabs might have built, but water furrows have been carried on admirably calculated gradients for miles along the hill-sides. The amount of labour which has been expended on the great villages between Inyanga and the Zambezi is astounding. On one site, the Niekerk Ruins, an area of fully 50 sq. m. is covered with uninterrupted lines of walls. It is an interesting question which may be solved by future explorations whether these settlements do not extend north of the Zambezi. Intrenchments like those of the Niekerk Ruins have been reported from the south-east of Victoria Nyanza, and Major Powell Cotton has published a photograph from the Nandi country which exhibits a structure precisely similar to the hill forts of Inyanga. (See also Zimbabwe; Monomotapa.) See D. Randall-Maelver, Mediaeval Rhodesia (London, 1906); R. N. Hall and W. G. Neal, The Ancient Ruins of Rhodesia (London, 1902); Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie, 1875 and 1876; Journal of the R.G.S., 1890, 1893, 1899, 1906; Journal of Anthropl. Inst., vols. xxxi., xxxv. (D. R.-M.) History. - There is evidence that from the 10th or 11th centuries onward the lands now forming Rhodesia were inhabited by Bantu-negroes who had made some progress in civilization and who traded with the Arab settlements at Sofala and elsewhere on the east coast (see Archaeology above). From the 15th century, if not earlier, until about the close of the 18th century, a considerable part of this area was ruled by a hereditary monarch known as the Monomotapa, whose zimbabwe (capital) was, in the earlier part of the period indicated, in what is now Mashonaland. Some of the Monomotapas during the 16th and 17th centuries entered into political and commercial relations with the Portuguese (see Monomotapa and Zimbabwe). The Monomotapa " empire " included many vassal states, and probably fell to pieces through intertribal fighting, which greatly reduced the number of inhabitants. In the early years of the 10th century the tribes appear to have lost all cohesion. The people were mainly agriculturists, but the working of the gold-mines, whence the Monomotapas had obtained much of their wealth, was not wholly abandoned.

The modern history of the country begins with its invasion by the Matabele, an offshoot of the Zulus. Mosilikatze, their first chief, was a warrior and leader who served under the Zulu despot Chaka. Being condemned to death by Chaka, Mosilikatze fled, with a large division of the Zulu army. About 1817 he settled in territories north of the Vaal, not far from the site of Pretoria; and in 1836 a treaty of friendship was entered into with him by the governor of Cape Colony. In the same year a number of the " trek Boers " had crossed the Vaal river, and came in contact with the Matabele, who attacked and defeated them, capturing a large number of Boer cattle and sheep. In November 1837 the Boers felt themselves strong enough to assail Mosilikatze, and they drove him and his tribe north of the Limpopo, where they settled and occupied the country subsequently known as Matabeleland. In 1868 Mosilikatze died. Kuruman, son and recognized heir of the old chieftain, had disappeared years before, and though a Matabele who claimed to be the missing heir was brought from Natal he was not acknowledged by the leading indunas, who in January 1870 invested Lobengula, the next heir, with the chieftainship. Those Matabele who favoured the supposed Kuruman were defeated in one decisive battle, and thereafter Lobengula, whose kraal was at Bulawayo, reigned unchallenged. At this time the Matabele power extended north to the Zambezi, and eastward over the land occupied by the Mashona and other Makalanga tribes. North of the Zambezi the western districts were ruled by the Barotse (q.v.), while the eastern portion had been overrun by other tribes of Zulu-Xosa origin, among whom the Agoni were the most powerful. The explorations of David Livingstone, Thomas Baines (1822-1875), Karl Mauch, and other travellers, had made known to Europe the general character of the country and the existence of great mineral wealth. Lobengula was approached by several " prospectors " for the grant of concessions; among them two Englishmen, Baines in 1871 and Sir John Swinburne in 1872, obtained cessions of mineral rights, but little effort was made to put them in force. In 1882 President Kruger, who was then bent on extending the boundaries of the Transvaal in every direction, endeavoured to make a treaty with Lobengula, but without success. The Warren expedition of 1884 to Bechuanaland (q.v.), while it checked for a time the encroachments of the Transvaal Boers, and preserved to Great Britain the highway to the north through Bechuanaland, also served to encourage colonists to speculate as to the future of the interior. At this time, too, the struggle between the nations of western Europe for the unappropriated portions of Africa had begun, and while the Boers, foiled in Matabeleland, endeavoured to get a footing in Mashonaland, both Portuguese and Germans were anxious to secure for their countries as much of this region as they could. In 1887 a map was laid before the Portuguese cortes showing the territories in Africa claimed by Portugal. They stretched across the continent from sea to sea, and included almost the whole of what is now Rhodesia, as well as the British settlements on Lake Nyasa. To the claim of a transcontinental domain Portugal had succeeded in gaining the assent of Germany and France, though Germany, which had secured a footing in south-west Africa, still dreamed of extending her sway over Matabeleland. By the instructions of Lord Salisbury, then foreign secretary, the British representative at Lisbon informed the Portuguese government that except on the seacoast and on portions of the Zambezi river there was not a sign of Portuguese authority or jurisdiction in the districts claimed by them, and that the British government could not recognize Portuguese sovereignty in territory not effectively occupied by her.

This protest, so far as southern Rhodesia is concerned, might have been ineffective save for the foresight, energy and determination of Cecil Rhodes, who had been instrumental in saving Bechuanaland from the Boers, and who as early as 1878 had conceived the idea of extending British influence over central Africa.' At this time gold prospecting was being feverishly undertaken all over South Africa as a result of the discoveries at Barberton and on the Rand, and Lobengula was besieged for all sorts of concessions by both Portuguese and Boers, as well as by other adventurers from all parts of the world.

If the country was to be secured for Britain immediate action was necessary. Sir Sidney Shippard, who had succeeded Rhodes as commissioner in Bechuanaland and who shared his views, kept up a friendly correspondence with Lobengula, while at Bulawayo Mr J. S. Moffat was British resident. At the end of 1887 Sir Sidney urged the high commissioner, Lord Rosmead (then Sir Hercules Robinson), to allow him to conclude a treaty with Lobengula, but unavailingly, until Rhodes, by taking upon himself all pecuniary responsibility, succeeded in obtaining the required sanction. On the 11th of February 1888, Moffat and Lobengula signed an agreement, whereby the Matabele ruler agreed that he would refrain from entering into any correspondence or treaty with any foreign state or power without the previous knowledge and sanction of the British high commissioner for South Africa. Shortly after the conclusion of this treaty, representatives of influential syndicates directed by Rhodes, in which Alfred Beit and C. D. Rudd were large holders, were sent, with the knowledge of the British government and the high commissioner, to negotiate with Lobengula, and on the 30th of October of the same year he concluded an arrangement with Messrs Rudd, Rochfort Maguire and F.R. Thomson, by which, in return for the payment of £loo a month, together with 1000 Martini-Henry rifles and 1 oo,000 rounds of ammunition, he gave the syndicate complete control over all the metals and minerals in his kingdom, with power to exclude from his dominions " all persons seeking land, metals, minerals or mining rights therein," in which action, if necessary, he promised to render them assistance. The position of the envoys was one of considerable danger, as Lobengula had around him many white advisers strongly antagonistic to 1 See article " Bechuanaland " by Sir Henry Shippard in British Africa (London, 1899).

Rhodes's scheme. The arrival at Bulawayo of Dr L. S. Jameson, who had previously attended Lobengula professionally, and who strongly supported Rudd and his companions, appears to have been the factor which decided Lobengula to sign the concession. This concession once obtained, Rhodes proceeded with rapidity to prosecute his great enterprise. He extinguished the claims of earlier concessionaires by purchase (giving, for instance, 10,046 for the Baines and Swinburne grants), and united all interests in the British South Africa Company, with a share capital of r,000,000.

Following the example of Sir George Goldie in West Africa and of Sir William Mackinnon in East Africa, Rhodes determined to apply to the British government for a charter for the newly formed company, whose original directors were, in addition to Rhodes and Beit, the duke of Abercorn, the duke of Fife, Lord Gifford, Albert (afterwards 4th earl) Grey and George Cawston. In applying for a charter (in April 1889) the founders of the company stated their objects to be the following: (I) To extend northwards the railway and telegraph systems in the direction of the Zambezi; (2) to encourage emigration and colonization; (3) to promote trade and commerce; (4) to develop and work minerals and other concessions under the management of one powerful organization, thereby obviating conflicts and complications between the various interests that had been acquired within these regions, and securing to the native chiefs and their subjects the rights reserved to them under the several concessions. In making this application the boundaries in which they proposed to work were purposely left somewhat vague. They were described to be the region The of South Africa lying immediately north of British B. s.A. Bechuanaland, north and west of the South African Republic, and west of the Portuguese dominions on the east coast. The government, having ascertained the substantial nature of the company's resources and the composition of the proposed directorate, and also that they were prepared to begin immediately the development of the country, granted the charter, dated the 2 9 th of October 1889. From this date onward the company was commonly known as " the Chartered Company." A few points in the charter itself deserve to be noted. In the first place, it gave considerable extension to the terms of the original concessions by Lobengula. In short, it transformed the rights of working minerals and metals, and preventing others from doing so, into rights practically sovereign over the regions in which the company's activity was to be employed. These rights the crown granted directly itself, not merely confirming a previous grant from another source. By Article X. the company was empowered to make ordinances (to be approved by the secretary of state), and to establish and maintain a force of police. A strict supervision was provided for, to be exercised by the secretary of state over the relations between the company and the natives. The British government reserved to itself entire power to repeal the charter at any time that it did not consider the company was fulfilling its obligations or endeavouring duly to carry out the objects for which the charter was granted. The sphere of operations of the company was not stated with any greater precision than had been indicated in the application for the charter; but by agreements concluded with Germany in 'goo, with Portugal in 1891 and with the Congo State in 1894, the international boundaries were at length defined (see Africa, § 5). The agreements, while they took the British sphere north to Lake Tanganyika, disappointed Rhodes in that they prevented the realization of the scheme he had formed by the time the charter was granted, namely, for securing a continuous strip of British territory from the Cape to Egypt - a scheme which was but an enlargement of his original conception as formulated in 1878.

Much, however, had happened before the boundaries of the British sphere were fixed. While the railway from Cape Town was being continued northward as rapidly as possible, the determination was taken to occupy immediately part of the sphere assigned to the company, and Mashonaland was selected as not being in actual occupation by the Matabele but the home of more peaceful tribes. A pioneer force was sent up in June 1890 under Colonel Pennefather, consisting of five hundred mounted police and a few hundred pioneers. Accompanying this force as guide was the well-known traveller, F. C. Selous. The work of transport was attended with considerable difficulty, and roads had to be cut as the expedition advanced. Nevertheless, in a few months the expedition, without firing a shot, had reached the site of what is now the town of Salisbury, and had also established on the line of march small forts at Tuli, Victoria and Charter. Archibald Ross Colquhoun was chosen as the first administrator. He had not long been in office when, in May 1891, difficulties arose with the Portuguese on their north-west frontier, both parties claiming a tract of territory in which a Portuguese trading station had been established. The result was a skirmish, in - A which a small company of British South Africa police were victorious. In 1891 Dr Jameson, who had joined the pioneer force, was appointed administrator in succession to Colquhoun. The Boers for several years had been planning a settlement north of the Limpopo, and they now determined, in spite of the Moffat treaty and the British occupation, to carry out their object. An expedition known as the Banyailand Trek was organized under the leadership of Colonel Ferreira, and two large parties of Boers proceeded to the banks of the Limpopo. Information of the intended trek had been conveyed to Cape Town, and Sir Henry (afterwards Lord) Loch (the high commissioner) at once sent a strong protest to President Kruger, informing him that any attempt to invade the Chartered Company's territories would be an act of hostility against the British Crown; and Kruger issued a proclamation forbidding the trekkers to proceed. Meanwhile, however, a party had already reached the Limpopo, where they were met by Jameson in command of the British South Africa Company's forces. He told them that they would not be allowed to proceed except as private individuals, who might obtain farms on application to the Chartered Company. Colonel Ferreira was arrested and detained for a few days, and the expedition then broke up and dispersed.

The pioneers, who were granted farms and mining claims, having been settled in Mashonaland, Rhodes recognized the extreme importance of giving the country a port nearer than that provided by Cape Town. On his initiative proposals were made to Portugal, and the treaty concluded in 1891 between Great Britain and Portugal provided that a railway might be built from Beira in Portuguese territory to Salisbury, on condition that Portugal received a duty not exceeding 3% on the value of the goods imported. The treaty further stipulated for the free navigation of the Zambezi and the construction of telegraphs. Prospecting operations were at once started, and various gold mines were discovered containing traces of old workings. Fresh gold reefs were also opened up. The prospects of the country seemed promising, and although a good deal of fever occurred in the low-lying valleys under the conditions of camp life, the health of the community soon improved as more suitable habitations were erected. In two years a white population of 3000 people had settled in the newly opened country.

Though the company was now free from international rivalry it was soon faced by serious native trouble. The first pioneers had deliberately chosen Mashonaland as their place of settlement. Ever since the advent of Mosilikatze north of the Limpopo the unfortunate Mashonas had been the prey of the Matabele; they therefore readily accepted the British occupation. The Matabele, however, were 10th to abandon their predatory excursions among the Mashonas, and in July 1893 a large impi (native force) was sent into Mashonaland, and entered not only native kraals, but also the streets of the new township of Victoria. An attempt was made to preserve the peace, but it was evident from the attitude taken by the Matabele that nothing short of the authority which only superior force could command would settle the question. The Matabele were XXIII. 9 a a proud and fearless race of warriors; the men of that generation had never come in conflict with Europeans, and had never been defeated in their conflicts with native foes. Jameson's forces were slender, and Rhodes, on being consulted, urged him by telegram to " Read Luke fourteen, thirty-one." On obtaining a Bible, Jameson read the words: " Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand ?" He telegraphed in reply: " All right. I have read Luke fourteen, thirty-one." The position, though dangerous, admitted of no delay, and Jameson determined to risk an expedition with the forces at his command. His success on this occasion doubtless weighed with him on another and less fortunate one. The force available consisted of about 700 volunteers and 225 British Bechuanaland police, with some 700 natives. Jameson determined to march to Bulawayo, the headquarters of Lobengula and the capital of Matabeleland. The force was divided into two columns, and was to be met by a further column of Bechuanas marching from the south under Khama, the most influential of the Bechuan chiefs and a loyal friend of the British. The first engagement took place on the Shangani river, where the two columns which had started from Fort Charter and Fort Victoria were both engaged. Majors Forbes and Allan Wilson commanded in these engagements; and after a hot contest with between 4000 and 5000 Matabele, the latter were repulsed, machine guns being used with terrible effect upon the enemy. On the 1st of November a second fight occurred on the high ground, in which it was estimated that 7000 of the Matabele attacked the laager of the two columns. The oldest and most tried regiments of Lobengula dashed right up to the muzzles of the guns, but were swept down before the modern rifles and machine guns with which the invaders were armed. Meanwhile the column of Khama's men from the south had reached the Tati, and won a victory on the Singuesi river on the 2nd of November. On the 3rd of November Bulawayo was reached, and the columns from Mashonaland, accompanied by Jameson and Sir John Willoughby, entered the town, Lobengula, and Matabele- his followers being in full flight towards the Zambezi. An endeavour was made to induce Lobengula to surrender; but as no replies were received to the messages, Major Forbes, on the 13th of November, organized a column and started in pursuit.' The pursuing party were delayed by difficult roads and heavy rains, and did not come up with Lobengula until the 3rd of December. Major Allan Wilson, in command of thirty-four troopers, crossed the Shangani river in advance, and bivouacked close to Lobengula's quarters. In the night the river rose, and reinforcements were unable to join him. During the early morning the Matabele surrounded the little band, and after fighting most gallantly to the last, Major Allan Wilson and all his followers, with the exception of three messengers, who had been sent back, were killed.

In January 1894 Lobengula died - from fever, or as the result of a wound, accounts differ - at a spot about forty miles south of the Zambezi. After his death his indunas submitted to the Chartered Company's forces, and the war, which cost the company over one hundred lives and £11o,000, was thus ended. An order in council of the 18th of July following defined the administrative power of the company over Matabeleland. Charges were made against the company of having provoked the Matabele in order to bring on the war and thus secure their territory, but after inquiry the company was expressly exonerated from the charge by Lord Ripon, then colonial secretary. With the close of the war the Matabele appeared to be crushed, and for over two years there was no serious trouble with the natives. The country was at once thrown Lobengula had in fact sent to the Forbes patrol gold dust worth about £t000, and intimated his desire to surrender; but two troopers to whom the gold and message were entrusted kept the gold and suppressed the message. Their crime was afterwards discovered and the troopers sentenced to fourteen years' penal servitude.

open to white settlers. Close to the site of Lobengula's kraal the new town of Bulawayo was founded, and rapidly grew in importance. Among the new settlers were many Dutch farmers. The Roman-Dutch law was chosen as that of the new colony, a land commission was established and commissioners appointed to look after the interests of the natives.

Considerable development in the part of the company's territory north of the Zambezi had meantime taken place. Between 1889 and 1891 a large number of tribes in the region between lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika and the Zambezi had entered into treaty relations with the company, and a settlement named Abercorn had been founded at the south end of Tanganyika. This work was undertaken in part to forestall German action, as before the signature of the agreement of July 1890 German agents entertained the design of penetrating west of Lake Nyasa to the Congo State frontier. The company further acquired the property of the African Lakes Company - which had done much to secure British predominance in the Nyasa region - and on the organization of Nyasaland as an imperial protectorate the South Africa Company contributed £10,000 a year for three years (1891-92-93) towards the cost of the administration, the imperial commissioner during this period acting as administrator for the adjacent territories belonging to the company (see British Central Africa). Farther west, Lewanika, the king of the Barotse, signed, on the 27th of June 1890, a treaty placing his country under the protection of the Chartered Company, which, while obtaining all mineral rights, undertook not to interfere in the internal administration of Barotseland. In securing a position thus early in Barotseland, Rhodes's aim was to prevent the farther extension eastward of the Portuguese province of Angola. The subsequent development of Barotseland had little direct connexion with the events in other parts of Rhodesia (see Barotse and Lewanika). The growth of territory and the outlay on Matabeleland led to a great increase of expenditure, and the capital of the company was raised to £2,000,000 in November 1893, and to £2,500,000 in July 1895.

In every step taken by the company the guiding hand was that of Cecil Rhodes, a fact which received recognition when, by a proclamation of the 3rd of May 1895, the company's territory received officially the name of " Rhodesia." During this year there was great activity in exploiting Matabeleland, " Stands " or plots were sold at extraordinary prices in Bulawayo; J39 fetched a total of £ 153,312, about £285 a stand. In within nine months Bulawayo had a population of 1900 whites, and in the various goldfields there were over 2000 prospectors. The construction of telegraphs proceeded with rapidity and by the end of 1895, 500 m. of new lines had been constructed, making about 150o in all. A new company, the African Transcontinental Company, had been founded under the auspices of Rhodes, with the ultimate purpose of connecting the Cape with Cairo. By the end of 18 95, 1 33 m. of these lines had been laid. At this time too, the railway from Cape Town had passed Mafeking and was approaching the Rhodesian frontier, while on the east coast the line to connect Salisbury with Beira was under construction.

In November 1895 the crown colony of British Bechuanaland was annexed to Cape Colony, and the Chartered Company desired to take over the administration of the Bechuanaland protectorate, which stretched between the newly annexed portion of Cape Colony and Matabeleland, and through which the railway to Bulawayo had to pass. The British government consented, and arrangements were made for the transfer. The company's police were moved down to a camp in the protectorate at Pitsani Potlogo. It was from this place that on the 29th of December Jameson crossed the Transvaal border and marched on Johannesburg, in his disastrous attempt to upset President Kruger's administration. The " Jameson Raid " put an end to the proposed transfer of the protectorate to the Chartered Company, and caused a serious crisis in its affairs. Rhodes resigned his position as managing director, and Alfred Beit retired from the directorate in London. Jameson was, on the 9th of January 1896, officially removed from his office of administrator of the company's territories, and was succeeded by Earl Grey. Just at this time rinderpest made its appearance in southern Rhodesia, carrying off large herds of cattle, and this was followed in March 1896 by a revolt of the Matabele, while in June the Mashona also rebelled. The occasion, but not the cause, of the Matabele rising was the withdrawal of the greater part of the company's force to take part in the Jameson Raid. The Matabele had various grievances, chiefly that after the war of 1893 they were treated as a conquered people. All able-bodied young men were required to work for the white farmers and miners a certain number of months per annum at a fixed rate of pay - a most irksome regulation, enforced, on occasions, by the native police in a tyrannical fashion. Another grievance was the seizure by the company, after the death of Lobengula, of the cattle of the Matabeletheir chief source of wealth. Not only was there a first confiscation after the war, but subsequently there was a periodical taking away of cattle in small numbers - the company acting under the belief that nearly all the cattle in Matabeleland belonged to the king and were therefore lawfully theirs. However, before the end of 1895 the company had settled the question in agreement with the indunas, two-fifths of the cattle to go to the company and the remainder to become the absolute property of the natives. But it was neither the action of the company in the confiscation of cattle, nor the labour regulations, that induced the mass of the people to rebel; they were induced to act by chiefs who chafed under their loss of power and The position and imagined themselves strong enough to throw off the yoke of the conquerors. In the manner customary among savages the Matabele began hostilities by the murder of defenceless white settlers - men, women and children. Bulawayo was threatened, and soon all the country south of the Zambezi was in a state of rebellion. Imperial troops under Sir Frederick Carrington were hurried up to the assistance of such police as the British South Africa Company still had at its command. Volunteers were enrolled, and much fierce fighting followed. Rhodes hastened to Bulawayo, and after conferences with the military and other authorities he determined to go, with Dr Hans Sauer and Mr J. Colenbrander, a well-known hunter and pioneer intimately acquainted with the natives, and interview the chiefs. They went (September 1896) unarmed into the heart of the Matoppo Hills, and there 'arranged terms of peace with the indunas. The interview involved grave danger to the emissaries, and depended for its success entirely upon Rhodes's personality and influence over the native races, but it terminated what promised to be a long and disastrous native war. The Matabele, whose legitimate grievances were acknowledged and met, ceased the war after the indaba with Rhodes; the Mashona revolt continued, and was not finally crushed until October 18 9 7, though all danger to settlers was over six months previously. At this time the rinderpest had carried off nearly all the cattle in the country - a disaster which, together with the destruction of grain during the war, had brought the natives almost to starvation - and steps had to be taken to supply their needs. Many of the white settlers too were reduced to sore straits and required assistance. The rebellions had cost the company fully £2,500,000, and to meet the debt incurred an additional capital of £1,500,000 was raised in 1898. At the meeting of the company in April 1898, at which this step was taken, Rhodes was re-elected a director.

The events of 1896 - the Jameson Raid and the rebellions - caused the imperial government to remodel the constitution of Rhodesia. The armed forces of the company had already been placed under the direct control of the crown, and on the 10th of October 1898 an order in council was passed providing for the future regulation of the country. An imperial resident commissioner was appointed, who was also to be ex officio a member of the executive and legislative councils; and there was to be a legislative council, consisting of five nominated and four elected members. The first meeting of the newly appointed council took place at Salisbury on the 15th of May 1899. Other changes, in the direction of giving more power to the non-official element, were made subsequently (see above, Administration). While these political changes were being made the company and the settlers set to work to repair the losses by war and plague. In particular the policy of railway development was pushed forward, and in November 1897 the line from Cape Town reached Bulawayo. The Mashonaland railway connecting Salisbury with Beira was completed in May 1899. In the same year gold-mining on a considerable scale began, the output for the year being over 65,000 oz. In the early part of 1899 Rhodes visited London and Berlin in furtherance of his schemes for the transcontinental telegraph extension from Cape Town to Cairo, and the transcontinental railway. He endeavoured to obtain from the British Government the guarantee of a loan for extending the railway, to be raised at 3%, but was unsuccessful. He received, however, the support of various companies in Rhodesia, who amongst them subscribed £252,800 at 3% for the immediate extension of the railway for 150 miles; and in May he stated, at a meeting of the Chartered Company, that the Rhodesia Railways Limited would raise another £3,000,000 at 4%, to be guaranteed by the Chartered Company. In this way he hoped that the remaining 1050 miles of railway from Bulawayo to the frontier of German East Africa might be constructed. In Berlin, Rhodes had an interview with the German Emperor, when arrangements were arrived at for the passage of telegraph lines over German territory, and also in certain contingencies for the continuation of the transcontinental railway through German East Africa.

In many respects the country recovered rapidly from the disasters of 1896, one of the most important measures taken being the compulsory inoculation for rinderpest, which finally stamped out the disease in 1898-99. By the last balancesheet issued by the company previous to the outbreak of the Boer War it would appear that the revenue of Rhodesia for the year ending the 31st of March 1898 amounted to £260,516 net, of which amount the sale of land plots accounts for £63,628; stamps and licences, £69,658; and posts and telegraphs, £46,745; so that the machinery of civilized life was already in full activity where eight years previously the only white inhabitants had been a few missionaries, hunters and traders. The government buildings were estimated in March 1898 to be worth £165,672, and the assessed value of the town property at Bulawayo was £2,045,000 and that at Salisbury £750,000. (Both those towns had been granted municipal government in 1897.) Education was arranged under the supervision of government inspectors, and various religious communities were also engaged in educational work. The country appeared indeed in 1899 to be starting on the road to industrial and agricultural prosperity, but an almost complete stop to progress resulted from the outbreak of the Boer War in October of that year. The company could point with satisfaction to the fact that Rhodesia contributed nearly 1500 men to the forces serving in the war, 122% of the European population. Rhodesia itself was not subjected to invasion, but the withdrawal of so large a number of ablebodied men seriously interfered with the development of the country, the war not ending until June 1902. Throughout this period the natives, with few exceptions, remained peaceful and gave the administration no serious trouble.

Before the war ended, Cecil Rhodes, whose chief work during the period since the Raid had been the building up of the country which bore his name, was dead (26th of Agitation March 1902). Alfred Beit, who had in 1898 refused for self- to rejoin the directorate, now consented (June 1902) govern= to return to the board of the Chartered Company, meat. on which he remained until his death in July 1906. The loss of Rhodes's guiding mind and inspiring personality was, however, manifest, and among the Rhodesians there arose a feeling of discontent at the company's conduct of affairs. The company was willing on proper terms to hand over the administration to the colonists, and they secured the services of Sir George Goldie to examine the situation and report on what terms the transfer could be made. Sir George visited Rhodesia in 1903-4, and drew up a scheme which included the taking over by Rhodesia of the administrative liabilities incurred by the company, which would thus become a public debt. After consultation between leading Rhodesians and the directors of the company the scheme was abandoned, the Rhodesians considering the financial burden proposed too great for an infant colony. The company therefore continued the administration, devoting attention to the development of agriculture and mining. The two railway systems were linked together by a line from Bulawayo to Salisbury, and several short lines to mining properties were built. From Bulawayo the main line was continued to the Wankie coalfields, thence to the Zambezi, bridged in 1905 just below the Victoria Falls. From the Zambezi the line went north-east, so as to render accessible the mineral wealth of Barotseland and that of Katanga on the Rhodesian-Congo frontier. Although Rhodesia was affected by the commercial depression which prevailed in South Africa for some years after the close of the war, its industries showed considerable vitality. In 1906 the gold output exceeded 500,000 oz., and in the financial year 1905-6 the revenue of Southern Rhodesia slightly exceeded the expenditure.

Only once (1895-96) in the first fifteen years following the settlement of the country had the company's annual revenue exceeded the amount expended in the same period. As a commercial undertaking, the company therefore was during this period of no pecuniary advantage to the shareholders. This was due in part to unforeseen and unavoidable causes, but it is also true that the founders of the company had other than commercial aims. Rhodes's chief ambition was to secure the country for Britain and to open it up to the energies of her peoples, and he succeeded in this aim. He acted more quickly, and in many ways more effectively, than the imperial government would have been able to act had it at the outset taken over the country. To the sturdy colonists Rhodes made available a land rich not only in gold, but in coal and other minerals, and with very great agricultural and pastoral resources, and all this was done without the cost of a penny to the imperial exchequer. Despite all drawbacks, an area (reckoning Southern Rhodesia only) considerably larger than that of the United Kingdom had in less than twenty years been endowed with all the adjuncts of civilization and made the home of thousands of settlers.

The progress made by the country in the five years 1906 - T o demonstrated that the faith Rhodes and his colleagues had placed in it was not ill-founded. Although the white population increased but slowly, in all other respects healthy development took place, the element of speculation which had characterized many of the first attempts to exploit the land being largely eliminated. In 1906 Lord Selborne (the high commissioner) visited Rhodesia. He inquired into the various grievances of the settlers against the Chartered Company; held an indaba with Matabele indunas in the Matoppo Hills, and at Bulawayo had a conference with Lewanika, the paramount chief of the Barotse. In 1907 Dr Jameson and other directors of the Chartered Company travelled through Rhodesia, and the result was to clear up some of the matters in dispute between the settlers and the company. Southern Rhodesia had become self-supporting, and the essentially temporary nature of the existing system of government was recognized. But the company held that the time was not yet ripe for Southern Rhodesia to become a self-governing colony. The directors, however, adopted a more liberal land policy, the increased attention given to agriculture being a marked and satisfactory feature of the situation. Mining and railway development were also pushed on vigorously.

The movement for the closer union of the British South African colonies excited lively interest in Southern Rhodesia. The territory, not possessing self-government, could not take part in the national convention which met at Durban in October 1908 on equal terms with the delegates of the Cape, &c. It was, however, represented by three delegates on the understanding that Rhodesia would not, for the time being at least, be included in any agreement which might be reached. The convention resulted in the union (on the 31st of May 1910) under one government of the Cape, Transvaal, Natal and Orange River colonies. The position of Rhodesia with respect to the Union was set forth in the South Africa Act 1909. It provides that " the king, with the advice of the Privy Council, may on addresses from the Houses of Parliament of the Union admit into the Union the territories administered by the British South Africa Company on such terms and conditions as to representation and otherwise in each case as are expressed in the addresses and approved by the king." In Rhodesia itself at this time there was a widespread feeling that there was no urgency as to the territory joining the Union, and the opinion was held by many that a separate existence as a self-governing community would be preferable. A section of the settlers were content for the present to remain under the government of the Chartered Company.

Bibliography.-1. Works dealing with the country before the establishment of British authority: David Livingstone, Missionary Travels (1857) 1; T. Baines, The Gold Regions of S.E. Africa (1877); R. Gordon Cumming, Five Years of a Hunter's Life in. .. S.A. (1850); K. Mauch, Reisen im Inneren von SiidAfrika, 1865-72 (Gotha, 1874); E. Holub, Seven Years in South Africa (1881); E. Mohr, To the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi (1876); F. C. Selous, A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa (1881), and Travel and Adventure in S.E. Africa (1893); T. M. Thomas, Eleven Years in Central South Africa (N.D. [1872]); L. P. Bowler, Facts about the Matabele, Mashona, e5fc. (Pretoria, 1889); Rev. D. Carnegie, Among the Matabele (1894).

2. Since the British occupation: Bishop Knight-Bruce, Memories of Mashonaland (1895); J. C. Chadwick, Three Years with Lobengula (1894); D. C. de Waal, With Rhodes in Mashonaland (trans. from Dutch, 1896); W. A. Wells and L. T. Collingridge, The Downfall of Lobengula (1894); A. R. Colquhoun, Matabeleland (N.D. [1894]); C. H. Donovan, With Wilson in Matabeleland (1894); A. G. Lenard, How we made Rhodesia (1896); Lord R. Churchill, Men, Mines and Minerals in S.A. (1895) E. Foa, La Traversie de l'Afrique (Paris, 1900); F. C. Selous, Sunshine and Storm in Rhodesia (the Matabele rising) (1896); R. S. S. Baden-Powell, The Matabele Campaign, 1896 (1897); E. A. H. Alderson, With the Mounted Infantry (in Mashonaland) (1898); S. J. du Toit, Rhodesia Past and Present (1897); H. Hensman, History of Rhodesia (1900) H. P. N. Muller, De Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek en Rhodesia (The Hague, 1896);W. H. Brown, On the South African Frontier(1899) 3. Economics, &c.: P. F. Hone, Southern Rhodesia (1909); the Annual Reports of the British S.A. Co.; C. T. Roberts, The Future of Gold Mining in Mashonaland (Salisbury, Rhodesia, 1898); Southern Rhodesia; Information for Settlers (1907); D. E. Hutchins, Report. .. on Trees in Rhodesia (Cape Town, 1903); Handbook for Tourists and Sportsmen (1907); A. H. Keane, The Gold of Ophir (1901); C. Peters, The Eldorado of the Ancients (1902); E. de Renty, La Rhodesia (Paris, 1907); Proceedings of the Rhodesian Scientific Association (1899-) (1st vol., Bulawayo, 1903); The Rhodesian Agricultural Journal (1st vol., Salisbury, Rhodesia, 1903). All treaties, &c., respecting Rhodesia will be found in Hertslett's Map of Africa by Treaty (1909 ed.). For Blue Books concerning Rhodesia consult the Colonial Office List (annually). The best general map of S. Rhodesia is that published by the administration in 1909-10 (7 sheets on the 1.500000 scale).

For general works including Rhodesia see SOUTH AFRICA, § Bibliography. See also authorities cited under BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA, BAROTSE, &C. (A. P. H.; F. R. C.)

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Proper noun




  1. (historical) A former name of what is now Zimbabwe, used from 1965 to 1979.

Derived terms

Simple English


Unrecognized state

File:Flag of Rhodesia (1964).svg
1965 – 1979 File:Flag of Zimbabwe

File:Flag of


Motto: Sit Nomine Digna (Latin)
"May she be worthy of the name"
Anthem: "Rise O Voices of Rhodesia" (from 1974)
Capital Salisbury
Language(s) English
Government Value specified for "government_type" does not comply
 - 1970–1975 Clifford Dupont
 - 1976–1978 John Wrathall
Prime minister
 - 1965–1979 Ian Smith
Historical era Cold War
 - Independence (UDI) 11 November1965
 - Zimbabwe-Rhodesia 1 June1979
 - Zimbabwe 17 April 1980
 - 1978 390,580 km2
150,804 sq mi
 - 1978 est. 6,930,000 
     Density 17.7 /km² 
46 /sq mi
Currency Pound (until 1970)
Dollar (from 1970)
¹ The government recognised Queen Elizabeth II as the official Head of State from 1965 to 1970. The highest official of Rhodesia held the title "Officer Administering the Government" (OAtG) as he acted in lieu of the official Governor, who remained at his post but was ignored. After Rhodesia became a republic in March 1970 the president replaced the OAtG as the highest official, and the Governor returned to London.

Rhodesia was a colony of the United Kingdom. It was divided into Northern and Southern Rhodesia, which are now called Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively.

It was named Rhodesia after Cecil Rhodes, the politician and businessman.

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