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Congee
Chinese rice congee.jpg
Chinese rice congee with rousong and zha cai (coriander in side bowl)
Chinese name
Chinese 粥 or 稀饭
Min Chinese name
Chinese
Filipino name
Tagalog lúgao
Japanese name
Kanji 1. 粥
2.
Hiragana 1. かゆ
2. しらがゆ
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Malay name
Malay bubur
Portuguese name
Portuguese canja
Thai name
Thai โจ๊ก chok
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese cháo
Spanish name
Spanish arroz caldo
Khmer name
Khmer បបរ bâbâr (IPA: [bɑˈbɑː])
Indonesian name
Indonesian bubur
Javanese name
Javanese bubur
Burmese name
Burmese ဆန်ပြုတ် san byoke
Bengali name
Bengali জাউ jau (IPA: [dʒaw])
Hindi name
Hindi गांजी ganji
Malayalam name
Malayalam കഞ്ഞി kanji
Tagalog name
Tagalog lugaw
Tamil name
Tamil kanji=கஞ்சி
Telugu name
Telugu ghanji

Rice congee (pronounced /ˈkɒndʒiː/) is a type of rice porridge that is eaten in many Asian countries. The word congee is possibly derived from the Dravidian language Tamil word கஞ்சி kanji.[1][2]

In some cultures, congee is eaten primarily as a breakfast food or late supper; while in others, it is eaten as a substitute for rice at other meals.

Congee can be made in a pot or in a rice cooker. Some rice cookers even have a "congee" setting, allowing the user to cook their breakfast congee overnight.

Contents

Variations

Burma

In Burma, rice congee is called san byohk, literally "rice boiled". It is very thin and plain, often made with just rice and water but sometimes with chicken or pork stock and served with a simple garnish of chopped spring onions and crispy fried onions. As in other Asian countries, san byohk is considered lu ma mar zar - "food for the sickly" and thus given to people who are unwell.

Cambodia

In Cambodia, rice congee (babaw) is widely eaten for breakfast. Plain congee is typically eaten with salted eggs, pickled vegetables, or dried fish. Chicken congee, pig's blood congee, and seafood congee are also commonly eaten.

China

There are many regional variations of Chinese congees (called zhou in Mandarin Chinese). For example, to make Cantonese congee, white rice is boiled in many times its weight of water for a long time until the rice breaks down and becomes a fairly viscous white porridge.[3] Congees made in other regions may use different types of rice with different quantities of water, thus resulting in a thicker or more viscous product.

It is often eaten with zha cai, salted duck eggs, lettuce and dace paste, bamboo shoots, youtiao, rousong, pickled tofu, wheat gluten, with other condiments, meat or century eggs.

Other seasonings, such as white pepper and soy sauce, may be added. Alternatively, grilled fish may be mixed in to provide a different texture.

Congee is often eaten with fried bread sticks known as youtiao. Congee with youtiao is commonly eaten as breakfast in many areas in China. Congee can be left watery or can be drained so that it has a texture similar to Western oatmeal porridge. Congee can also be made from brown rice, although this is less common and takes longer to cook.

Besides functioning as an everyday meal, congee is considered to be food therapy for the unwell. Ingredients can be determined by their supposed therapeutic value as well as flavor.

The origin of congee is unknown, but from many historical accounts, it was usually served during times of famine or when numerous patrons visited the temples. Thus, it can be interpreted as a way to stretch the rice supply to feed more people.

In China, congee has also been used to feed young infants. However, the cooking time is much longer than for okayu, and because it is for infants, the congee is not seasoned with salt or any other flavoring. Often it is mixed with pre-steamed and deboned fish.

Congee can also be made from other grains, like cornmeal, millet, barley, and sorghum. These are common in the north of China, where rice does not grow as well as other grains suited for a colder climate. Multigrain congee mixes are popularly sold in the health food sections of Chinese supermarkets. Congee with mung beans is usually eaten with sugar, just like red bean congee. The mung beans are eaten for their therapeutic "cooling" effect.[citation needed]

India

Udupi rice ganji is a variant made by Kannada-speaking, Tulu-speaking or Konkani people in and around Udupi and Mangalore (Karnataka, South India). Here parboiled rice (Kocheel akki in Kannada, oorpel aari in Tulu or ukadey tandool in Konkani) is steamed with a small amount of water. Fresh coconut is grated and its milk is skimmed; this milk is then added to the ganji. The ganji (called pej in Konkani) is served hot with fish curry, coconut chutney, or Indian pickles.

In Tamil Nadu and Kerala a plain rice porridge, or the thick supernatant water on overcooked rice is called 'kanji' with no stress on either syllable (or both short syllables in the Tamil system based on duration of sounds). In Andhra Pradesh state, it is called ganji in Telugu and mostly eaten as breakfast by the farmers and other village work-force.

Indonesia

In Indonesian, congee is called "bubur". It is a favourite breakfast food, and many food vendors pass through the streets at dawn to serve it at residences, while calling "bubur". A popular version is "bubur ayam", which is congee with shredded chicken meat. It is also served with many condiments, such as green onion, crispy fried shallot, fried soybean, Chinese crullers (You tiao, known as cakwe in Indonesia),both salty and sweet soy sauce, and sometimes it is topped with yellow chicken broth & kerupuk/Indonesian style crackers. In contrast to many other Indonesian dishes, it is not spicy. Sambal or chili paste is served separately.

The food hawkers sometimes have sate for accompanied, made from quail egg or chicken intestine, liver, gizzard, or heart.

In another region of Indonesia, Manado. It is very popular with bubur Manado or Tinotuan Manadonese porridge, a healthier choice porridge with ample vegetables. It is a bit different from the one which is sold in Java island. It is made from rice porridge and enhanced with water spinach or kangkung, corn kernels, yam or sweet potato, dried salty fish, lemon basil or kemangi leaves, and melinjo or gnetum gnemon leaves.

Japan

Okayu (also kayu) is the name for the type of congee eaten in Japan.[4] Okayu is still considerably thicker than congee produced in other cultures.[citation needed] For example, a typical Cantonese style congee uses a water to rice ratio of 12:1, but okayu typically uses water to rice ratios of 5:1 (zen-gayu) or 7:1 (shichibu-gayu). Also, its cooking time is short compared to other types of congee; okayu is cooked for about 30 minutes, while Cantonese congees cook for an hour or more.

Okayu (お粥?) may simply consist of rice and water, although salt is often added for seasoning. Beaten eggs could be beaten into it to thicken it into gruel. Toppings may be added to enhance flavour; negi (a type of green onion), salmon, roe, ginger, and umeboshi (pickled ume fruit) are among the most common. Similarly, miso or chicken stock may be used to flavor the broth. Most Japanese electric rice cookers have a setting for okayu.

In Japan, okayu is popularly known as a food served to the ill, occupying a similar cultural status to that of chicken noodle soup in America. Because it is soft and easily digestible, okayu is the first solid food served to Japanese infants; it is used to transition them from liquids to the thicker rice dishes which constitute much of the Japanese diet. It is also commonly eaten by the elderly for the same reasons.

A type of okayu called nanakusa-gayu (七草粥, "Seven Herb Porridge") is traditionally eaten on 7 January, as a way of using special herbs that protect against evils, and to invite good luck and longevity in the new year. Moreover, as a simple, light dish, nanakusagayu serves as a break from the many heavy dishes eaten over the Japanese New Year.

Korea

In Korea the dish goes by the name juk [jook] ([tɕuk]} derived from the Chinese language in which juk [jook] means the same thing and is often cooked with vegetables, abalone, tuna, or other ingredients to create variants of the dish. Being largely unflavored, it is served together with a number of side dishes such as kimchi, pickled cuttlefish, spicy octopus, chicken, or other side-dishes, to add flavor to the dish. One variety is called jatjuk made with finely ground pine nut flour.

Juk is a common take-out dish, with several large chain stores selling it in South Korea, such as Bon Juk (본죽) and Hyun Juk (현죽).

It is the ideal choice of food for the ill or elderly as it is easily consumed and digested.

Philippines

Filipino Arroz Caldo - Lugao
arroz caldo

Lúgao (alternately spelled "lugaw" or "lugau") is the Filipino name for congee. Very similar to Cantonese style congee, lúgao is typically of a thicker consistency, retaining the shape of the rice while achieving the same type of texture. It is boiled with strips of fresh ginger. Other flavors may be added according to taste. Most often it will be topped with scallions and served with crispy fried garlic. As with okayu, fish or chicken stock may also be used to flavor the broth. Lúgao can also be served with tokwa't baboy (diced tofu and pork), goto (beef tripe), utak (pig's brain), dila (pork tongue), litid (beef ligaments) as well as calamansi, fish sauce, and soy sauce. It is often served to the ill and the elderly, and is favored among Pinoys living abroad in colder climates because it is warm, soft, and easily digestible.

Some provinces prefer the Spanish-influenced arroz caldo (literally broth rice), which is often mistaken for a European dish due to its name. Arroz caldo is actually a Chinese congee that was adapted to the tastes of the Spanish colonial settlers who patronized Chinese restaurants in the Philippines. As the Spanish could not pronounce Chinese, they gave it a Spanish name for easy reference.

Arroz caldo is most usually spiced with saffron and black pepper in place of or in addition to the more traditional ginger and scallion. Arroz caldo more closely resembles risotto than congee, and is clearly recognized by the bright yellow hue contributed by the addition of saffron, and the larger pieces of meat. Arroz caldo is more popular among those of Ilokano heritage, although people of other provinces, such as Cebu, often add Philippine prawns, olive oil, bay leaf, and Chinese sausage.

Portugal

In Portugal there is a traditional soup made of rice and chicken meat that is named Canja (very similar pronunciation to congee). The rice is not cooked for as long as in Asian congee, so it is very soft but still consistent. Traditionally the chicken should have small eggs, which are then carefully boiled and served in the canja; this soup is sometimes served with a fresh mint leaf on top. Canja is traditionally given to people recovering from disease, just like in Asia, and is strongly valued as comfort food. In some regions of Portugal, there is even an ancient custom of feeding the mother a strict diet of canja in the first weeks after childbirth. Due to Portuguese influence, canja is also eaten traditionally in Brasil and Cape Verde.

Taiwan

As a heritage of Chinese Culture, in Taiwan, congee is prepared almost identically to congee in Fujian Province - China, and consists of rice and water, with few other ingredients. Sweet potato is often added for taste, and eggs are sometimes beaten into it to thicken it to a gruel. As in China, congee is often served to the ill and those with difficulty chewing. A variety of side dishes are often served with congee as well.

Thailand

In Thailand, rice congee is known as "chok" (โจ๊ก) and is often served as breakfast with a raw or partially-cooked egg added. In most, minced pork or beef is also added and the dish is usually topped with a small version of youtiao (known as pathongko by Thais), garlic, slivered ginger, spicy pickles such as pickled radish and chopped spring onions. Although it is more popular as a breakfast dish, many stores specializing in congee will sell it throughout the entire day. Variations in the meat and toppings are also frequently found.

Vietnam

In Vietnam, rice congee is called cháo. It is sometimes cooked together with pandan leaves. Cháo gà is a variety of cháo cooked with chicken and garlic. Other combinations includes: "Cháo vịt" cooked with duck meat and "Cháo lòng heo" made with "lòng heo" a type of sausage made of various pig organs. Many people tend to eat cháo when they feel sick because it is easy to digest. It is also made for death anniversary ceremonies, during which it is offered to the spirits of one's ancestors.

See also

References

  1. ^ 'Dravidian Studies 1, by T. Burrow Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London © 1938
  2. ^ ""congee."". Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary.. MICRA, Inc.. 23 Nov. 2008.. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/congee. 
  3. ^ Basic Congee Recipe, About.com, Accessed May 2, 2007
  4. ^ Okayu recipe, About.com, Accessed May 2, 2007

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