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Richard L. Armitage

In office
March 26, 2001 – February 22, 2005
President George W. Bush
Preceded by Strobe Talbott
Succeeded by Robert Zoellick

Born April 26, 1945 (1945-04-26) (age 64)
Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Richard Lee Armitage, Honorary KCMG (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005. He gained notoriety in 2003 for having leaked information to columnist Robert Novak, 'outing' Valerie Plame Wilson as a covert CIA agent. The Plame Affair caused a national scandal which is still unresolved.


Early life and military career

Armitage was born in Boston and graduated in 1967 from the United States Naval Academy and was commissioned an ensign in the United States Navy. He served on a destroyer stationed off the coast of Vietnam during the Vietnam War before volunteering to serve what would eventually become three combat tours with the riverine/advisory forces for the South Vietnamese navy.[1]

According to Captain Kiem Do, a Republic of Vietnam Navy officer who served with him in Vietnam, Armitage "seemed drawn like a 'moth to flame' to the hotspots of the naval war: bedding down on the ground with Vietnamese commandos, sharing their rations and hot sauce, telling jokes in flawless Vietnamese."[2] Instead of a uniform, Armitage often dressed in native garb, and was nicknamed "Tran Van Phu" by the Vietnamese.[2]

Several associates who fought alongside Armitage and other politicians (including Ted Shackley)[3] have since said publicly that Armitage was associated with the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) highly controversial and clandestine Phoenix Program.[3] Armitage has since denied a role in Phoenix and has stated that - at most - CIA officers would occasionally ask him for intelligence reports.[4]

In 1973, Armitage left active duty and joined the office of the U.S. Defense Attache in Saigon. Immediately prior to the fall of Saigon, he organized and led the removal of South Vietnamese naval assets and personnel from the country and out of the hands of the approaching North Vietnamese. Armitage told South Vietnamese naval officers to take their ships to a designated place in the ocean where they would be rescued by U.S. forces and the ships destroyed. When Armitage arrived at the designated location he found over 20,000 South Vietnamese clinging to less than three dozen naval boats without food or water.[5] With transportation options limited for removing the floating city, Armitage personally decided to sail the flotilla of ships over 1000 miles to Subic Bay, Philippines in 1975 against the wishes of both the Philippine and American governments. Armitage personally arranged for food and water to be delivered by the U.S. Defense Department before negotiating with both governments for permission to dock in Subic Bay.[1][5]

Public service career

After the end of the Vietnam War Armitage moved to Washington, D.C. to serve as a consultant for the United States Department of Defense. He was almost immediately sent to serve in Tehran, Iran until November 1976. Following that posting, he moved to Bangkok and operated an import/export business in the private sector for the next two years. In 1978, he returned to the U.S. and started working as an aide to Senator Bob Dole.

In late 1980, Armitage became a foreign policy advisor to President-elect Ronald Reagan. Following that role, he was made a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for East Asia and Pacific Affairs, a high-ranking post in the Pentagon. He served in this position from 1981 to 1983.

In June 1983, he was promoted to Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy where he represented the Department of Defense in developing political-military relationships and initiatives throughout the world. He helped to spearhead U.S. Pacific security policy including the USA-Japan and U.S.-China security relationships, managed all Defense security assistance programs, and provided oversight of policies related to the law of the sea, U.S. special operations, and counter-terrorism. Armitage earned the Secretary of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service and the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service.[6] He played a leading role in Middle East security policies. Armitage left that post in 1989 to serve as a special negotiator for the President on military bases in the Philippines, and as a mediator on water issues in the Middle East.

In 1991, he was appointed a special emissary to King Hussein of Jordan. Following that, he was sent to Europe with the title of ambassador; his assignment was to direct U.S. foreign aid to the states that had been formed out of the fallen Soviet Union. He occupied that post until 1993, at which point he entered the private sector. His roles in the private sector included a directorship of US data aggregation company ChoicePoint.[7]

In 1998, Armitage signed "The Project for the New American Century" letter (PNAC Letter) to President Bill Clinton. The letter urged Clinton to target the removal of Saddam Hussein's regime from power in Iraq due to erosion of the Gulf War Coalition's containment policy and the resulting possibility that Iraq might develop weapons of mass destruction. The letter's intended purpose of removing Hussein was to protect Israel and other U.S. allies in the region, including oil-producing Arab countries.

During the 2000 Presidential election campaign, he served as a foreign policy advisor to George W. Bush as part of a group led by Condoleezza Rice that called itself The Vulcans.

The United States Senate confirmed him as Deputy Secretary of State on March 23, 2001; he was sworn in three days later. A close associate of Secretary of State Colin Powell, Armitage was regarded, along with Powell, as a moderate within the presidential administration of George W. Bush. According to President Musharraf, of Pakistan, shortly after 9/11, Armitage presented Pakistan with demands for assistance in the campaign against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban. The demands were non-negotiable. Should Pakistan accept, it would be considered a United States ally. Should it decline, Pakistan would be considered an enemy. According to Musharraf, Armitage further averred that, should Pakistan decline, the United States would bomb it 'back to the Stone Age.' Armitage denies having used those words. Armitage tendered his resignation on November 16, 2004, the day after Powell announced his resignation as Secretary of State. He left the post on February 22, 2005, when Robert Zoellick succeeded to the office.

Life after public service

There was some media speculation that President Bush would appoint him to a key security position such as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Director of National Intelligence or Defense Secretary. As of the start of July 2007, Armitage had not re-entered public service. On May 10, 2006, he was elected to the board of directors of the ConocoPhillips oil company.

In October 2006, Armitage lobbied – on behalf of the L-3 Communications Corporation, a company providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance products – some key people in Taiwanese political circles regarding the possible sale of P-3C marine patrol aircraft to the ROC military. Those who received his personal letter included Premier Su Tseng-chang, President of the Legislative Yuan Wang Jin-pyng, and opposition People First Party leader James Soong.

Armitage stated in the letter that he wished the Taiwan government would reconsider the purchase from Lockheed Martin, the dealer the United States government had designated. Instead, he hoped that the right to negotiate the purchase should be made through an open and fair bidding process.[8] The letter was made public by PFP Legislators on October 24, 2006 in a Legislative Yuan session discussing the military purchases.[9]

Role in Plame affair

  • On November 15, 2005, journalist Bob Woodward of The Washington Post revealed that "a government official with no axe to grind" leaked to him the identity of outed CIA officer Valerie Plame in mid-June 2003. According to an April 2006 Vanity Fair article (published March 14, 2006), former Washington Post executive editor Ben Bradlee said in an interview "that Armitage is the likely source is a fair assumption," though Bradlee later told the Post that he "[did] not recall making that precise statement" in the interview.[10]
  • On March 2, 2006, bloggers discovered that "Richard Armitage" fit the spacing on a redacted court document, suggesting he was a source for the Plame leak.[11]
  • In the September 4, 2006 issue of Newsweek magazine, in an article titled "The Man Who Said Too Much", journalist Michael Isikoff, quoting a "source directly familiar with the conversation who asked not to be identified because of legal sensitivities", reported that Armitage was the "primary" source for Robert Novak's piece outing Plame. Armitage allegedly mentioned Ms. Wilson's CIA role to Novak in a July 8, 2003 interview after learning about her status from a State Department memo which made no reference to her undercover status.[13] Isikoff also reported that Armitage had also told Bob Woodward of Plame's identity in June 2003, and that special counsel Patrick Fitzgerald investigated Armitage's role "aggressively", but did not charge Armitage with a crime because he "found no evidence that Armitage knew of Plame's covert CIA status when he talked to Novak and Woodward".
  • Novak, in an August 27, 2006 appearance on Meet the Press, stated that although he still would not release the name of his source, he felt it was long overdue that the source reveal himself.[14] Armitage has also reportedly been a cooperative and key witness in the investigation.[15] According to The Washington Note, Armitage has testified before the grand jury three times.[16]
  • On August 29, 2006 Neil A. Lewis of The New York Times reported that Armitage was the "initial and primary source" for columnist Robert Novak's July 14, 2003 article, which named Valerie Plame as a CIA "operative" and which triggered the CIA leak investigation.[17]
  • On August 30, 2006, CNN reported that Armitage had been confirmed "by sources" as leaking Ms. Wilson's CIA role in a "casual conversation" with Robert Novak.[18] The New York Times, quoting people "familiar with his actions", reported that Armitage was unaware of Ms. Wilson's undercover status when he spoke to Novak.[19]
  • The Times claims that White House counsel Alberto Gonzales was informed that Armitage was involved on October 2, 2003, but asked not to be told details. Patrick Fitzgerald began his grand jury investigation three months later knowing Armitage was a leaker (as did Attorney General John Ashcroft before turning over the investigation).
  • Fitzgerald has issued no statement about Armitage's involvement, and as of August 2006, the CIA leak investigation remains open.
  • On September 7, 2006, Armitage admitted to being the source in the CIA leak.[21] Armitage claims that Fitzgerald had originally asked him not to discuss publicly his role in the matter, but that on September 5 Armitage asked Fitzgerald if he could reveal his role to the public, and Fitzgerald consented.[21]
  • In a review of Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, by Michael Isikoff and David Corn, which hit book stores in early September 2006, Novak wrote: "I don't know precisely how Isikoff flushed out Armitage [as Novak's original source], but Hubris clearly points to two sources: Washington lobbyist Kenneth Duberstein, Armitage's political adviser, and William Taft IV, who was the State Department legal adviser when Armitage was deputy secretary."[22]

Pakistan and the War on Terror

Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, in an interview with CBS News 60 Minutes on September 21, 2006, alleged that Armitage called an ISI general immediately after the September 11, 2001 attacks and threatened to "bomb the country (Pakistan) back to the stone age" unless they supported the US-led war on terror. Presently, Musharraf has refused to provide details, commenting that he is unable to provide details due to restrictions by the publisher (Simon & Schuster) of his book In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. President Bush on the other hand has mentioned that he only became aware of these comments as late as September 2006, when he read them in the newspapers. Armitage confirmed he had held a conversation with the Pakistani general to whom Musharraf had sourced the comments, but denied using a threat of military action couched in such terms on the claimed basis that he was not authorized to do so.[23]


  1. ^ a b ""Deputy Secretary of State Richard Lee Armitage" (bio)". Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  2. ^ a b Do Kiem and Julie Kane, Counterpart: A South Vietnamese Naval Officer's War, ISBN 1-55750-181-5, 1998, p. 164
  3. ^ a b Mann, James 2004. Rise of the Vulcans Viking Press ISBN 0-670-03299-9, page 42
  4. ^ James Mann, 2004. Rise of the Vulcans Viking Press ISBN 0-670-03299-9; p. 43
  5. ^ a b Mann, James 2004. Rise of the Vulcans Viking Press ISBN 0-670-03299-9. P. 52.
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ NNDB
  8. ^ (Chinese) "軍購/軍火商搶標? 橘營指內幕重重 要蘇揆說清楚". 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  9. ^ (Chinese) "軍購案遭擋 橘委批政府與美軍火商同陣線". 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  10. ^ VandeHei, Jim (March 14, 2006). "Magazine: Bradlee Knows Woodward's Source on Plame". The Washington Post. p. A02. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  11. ^ emptywheel (March 2, 2006). ""About the Journalists"". The Next Hurrah. TypePad. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  12. ^ "Calendars mark Armitage-Woodward meeting". August 22, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  13. ^ Isikoff, Michael (September 4, 2006 issue). "The Man Who Said Too Much". Newsweek National News ( Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  14. ^ "Transcript for August 27". Meet the Press ( p. 7. August 27, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  15. ^ Bazinet, Kenneth and Meek, James Gordon (May 20, 2006). "Ex-deputy secretary of state new figure in CIA leak probe". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  16. ^ Clemons, Steve (May 19, 2006). "Insiders: Richard Armitage Will NOT Be Indicted". The Washington Note. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  17. ^ Lewis, Neil A. (August 30, 2006). "First Source of C.I.A. Leak Admits Role, Lawyer Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  18. ^ King, John, and Todd, Brian (August 30, 2006). "Sources: State Department official source of Plame leak". Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  19. ^ Johnston, David (September 2, 2006). "Leak Revelation Leaves Questions". The New York Times (final). p. A-1. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  20. ^ Stout, David and Lewis, Neil A. (March 5, 2007). "Libby Guilty of Lying in C.I.A. Leak Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-06.  
  21. ^ a b Smith, R. Jeffrey (September 8, 2006). "Armitage Says He Was Source of CIA Leak". The Washington Post. p. A03. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  22. ^ Novak, Robert D. (October 16, 2006). "Who Said What When: The rise and fall of the Valerie Plame 'scandal'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  
  23. ^ "Richard Armitage interview" (ASX (video)). 2006-09-22. Retrieved 2007-01-27.  

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Strobe Talbott
United States Deputy Secretary of State
2004 – 2005
Succeeded by
Robert Zoellick


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