From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Richard Allan Bartle (born 10 January 1960 in
Ripon, England) is a British writer, professor and game researcher, best known for being the
co-author of MUD, the first multi-user dungeon. He is one of the
pioneers of the massively multiplayer
online game industry.
, an early multi-user roleplaying
Bartle received a Ph.D. in artificial intelligence from
the University of Essex, where he
created MUD with Roy
Trubshaw, in 1978.
He lectured at Essex until 1987, when he left to work full time
on MUD (known as MUD2 in its
present version). Recently he has returned to the university as a
part-time professor and principal teaching fellow in the Department
of Computing and Electronic Systems, supervising courses on
computer game design
as part of the department's degree course on computer game
In 2003, he wrote Designing Virtual Worlds, a book
about the history, ethics, structure, and technology of massively
Bartle is also a contributing editor to Terra
Nova, a collaborative blog that deals with virtual world
Bartle did research on player personality types in
massively-multiplayer online games. In Bartle's analysis, players
of massively multiplayer
online games can be divided into four types: achievers,
explorers, socializers and killers. This
idea has been adapted into a popular online test generally referred
to as the Bartle
test is very popular and scores are often exchanged on MMORPG
forums and networking sites.
- Spellbinder, 1977, a pencil and
paper game also known as Waving Hands, first described in
Bartle's fanzine Sauce
of the Nile
- MUD1, 1978, with Roy Trubshaw
- MUD2, 1980, based on MUD1.
This was arguably the first "playable" multi-user dungeon.
- Artificial Intelligence and Computer Games, Paperback,
256 pages, Century Communications, 25 July 1985, ISBN
- Designing Virtual Worlds, Paperback, 768 pages, New Riders Pub., 25 July
2003 ISBN 978-0131018167
- INsightflames, 1999, Online
publication. Also 2 Paperbacks, NotByUs, "IN Sight", 422 pages,
July 2007, ISBN 978-0955649400 & "IN Flames", 416 pages, August
2007, ISBN 978-0955649417
Bartle, R: "Interactive Multi-User
Computer Games", section 1.5; Retrieved on 2009-01-05.
"University of Essex Module
Details - EE224-5-FY: Computer Games Architecture and
Design". http://www.essex.ac.uk/courses/default.aspx?coursecode=EE224&level=5&period=FY. Retrieved January 31,
Bartle, R. "Players Who Suit MUDs".
"Random Dialogue: You
Shuffle, I'll Deal(archived)". April 26, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20071223023405/http://www.mmorpgdot.com/index.php?hsaction=10053&ID=951. Retrieved January 31,
"Bartle Test of Gamer
Psychology". http://www.gamerdna.com/quizzes/bartle-test-of-gamer-psychology. Retrieved January 31,
"Waving Hands from Duel
Purpose". http://www.gamecabinet.com/rules/WavingHands.html. Retrieved January