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Richard M. Nixon


In office
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
Vice President Spiro Agnew (1969–1973)
Gerald Ford (1973–1974)
Preceded by Lyndon B. Johnson
Succeeded by Gerald Ford

In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by Alben W. Barkley
Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson

In office
December 4, 1950 – January 1, 1953
Preceded by Sheridan Downey
Succeeded by Thomas Kuchel

In office
January 3, 1947 – December 1, 1950
Preceded by Jerry Voorhis
Succeeded by Patrick J. Hillings

Born January 9, 1913(1913-01-09)
Yorba Linda, California
Died April 22, 1994 (aged 81)
New York City, New York
Resting place Nixon Presidential Library
Yorba Linda, California
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Thelma Catherine "Pat" Ryan
Children Tricia Nixon Cox
Julie Nixon Eisenhower
Alma mater Whittier College (B.A.)
Duke University School of Law (LL.B.)
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Quaker
Signature
Military service
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1942–1946
Rank Lieutenant commander
Battles/wars World War II (Pacific Theater)
Awards American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (with two service stars)
World War II Victory Medal
.Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States from 1969–1974 and was also the 36th Vice President of the United States (1953–1961).^ President of the United States (1969-1974) Quotes .

^ Richard Nixon @ 10:22 AM 0 comments .

^ August 8, 1974: Nixon Resigns Presidency .

.Nixon was the only President to resign the office and also the only person to be elected twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency.^ August 8, 1974: Nixon Resigns Presidency .

^ We both served as Vice Presidents during the same period of time, and he became President of his country, as I have had the honor of becoming President of the United States.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Nixon s Address to the Nation Resigning the Office of the Presidency - Pt 2 Nixon continues outlining achievements: We have unlocked the doors ...
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California.^ Born in a small, wood-frame house in Yorba Linda, alumnus of Fullerton Union High School.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My birth on the night of January 9, 1913, coincided with a record-breaking cold snap in our town of Yorba Linda, California.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the speakers at the first Nixon Legacy Forum — to be held in the East Room of the Library in Yorba Linda next Friday (8 January, from 1.30-3.30 PM)— will be the Hon.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After completing his undergraduate work at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law in La Habra.^ When I went to law school, there were only three women in my graduating class out of a graduating class of thirty.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But I look back on that Depression in Whittier, I look back on law school and the rest, it wasn't a sad time.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I mentioned the fact that I was fairly proficient in Latin, and at Whittier High School we alwa -- which had a very strong Latin department -- in fact, it was a requirement at Whittier -- no longer, but was then -- for graduation for those that wanted to go to college.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, he joined the United States Navy, serving in the Pacific theater, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Commander during World War II.^ It is highly appropriate for the museum to locate at Vint Hill, the former Vint Hill Farms Station used during the Cold War, by the National Security Agency, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the US Army to safeguard the United States against a surprise nuclear attack.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was also one who could relate to World War II people because he had been a veteran in World War II. He was young, he was charismatic.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was elected in 1946 as a Republican to the House of Representatives representing California's 12th Congressional district, and in 1950 to the United States Senate.^ On December 7, 1941, United States Senator Gerald Nye looked over his notes for a speech he was about to deliver to a packed house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was the real reason that Voorhis lost, that I won, and the real reason I think that Jackson won in the Sixteenth, and that we had enough wins to have the historic change of over fifty votes in the House, which won both the House and the Senate in 1946.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ House Un-American Activities Committee -- who had testified before the committee about a number of Communists who, she said, had infiltrated the government of the United States.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was selected to be the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party nominee, in the 1952 Presidential election, becoming one of the youngest Vice Presidents in history.^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We both served as Vice Presidents during the same period of time, and he became President of his country, as I have had the honor of becoming President of the United States.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agnew, a conservative Maryland Republican with a long history of racial repression, ethnic jokes, and racial slurs in his record, appealed to conservative Southern voters as Richard Nixon’s vice presidential candidate in 1968 and 1972 (see 1969-1971 ).

.He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and an unsuccessful campaign for Governor of California in 1962; following these losses, Nixon announced his withdrawal from political life.^ Nixon campaigning in 1960, shaking hands; announcing his defeat w/ Pat.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John F Kennedy (JFK) Inauguration Arrival Nixon and Eisenhower (Ike) band plays - Kennedy arrives - prayer - Marian Anderson sings Star Spangled Banner.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1968, however, he ran again for president of the United States and was elected.^ The United States had its president to thank for that.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We both served as Vice Presidents during the same period of time, and he became President of his country, as I have had the honor of becoming President of the United States.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President of the United States (1969-1974) Quotes .

.The most immediate task facing President Nixon was a resolution of the Vietnam War.^ A furious President Nixon demands an immediate court injunction to keep the paper from printing more excerpts.

^ President Nixon gives antiwar demonstrators a chance to physically protest the Vietnam War during a campaign rally in Michigan, hoping for favorable press coverage that would denigrate the protesters.

^ The first stage of the bombing, “Operation Breakfast,” is productive enough to lead Nixon to predict the war in Vietnam will be over by 1970.

.He initially escalated the conflict, overseeing incursions into neighboring countries, though American military personnel were gradually withdrawn and he successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam in 1973, effectively ending American involvement in the war.^ [Palmer] was asked his opinion about how the US should end the Vietnam war.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, let s look at the future: As you can see from the progress we have made to date & by this announcement tonight, the American involvement in Vietnam is coming to an end...
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I ve asked for this television time tonight to make public a plan for peace that can end the war in Vietnam.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His foreign policy initiatives were largely successful: his groundbreaking visit to the People's Republic of China in 1972 opened diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union.^ We have opened the new relation with the Soviet Union...
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 26, 1972: US, USSR Enter Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty .

^ It is suspended and later reintroduced in a more modest form under the moniker “Safeguard.” Nixon says the program will protect “our land-based retaliatory forces against a direct attack by the Soviet Union.” Safeguard has serious conception and design flaws, and is never completely deployed; when the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty is signed with the Soviet Union (see May 26, 1972 ), the program is scaled back and eventually terminated by Congress.

.On the domestic front, he implemented new economic policies which called for wage and price control and the abolition of the gold standard.^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ Shepard explained that the Domestic Council started in the Nixon White House as a counterpart to the National Security Council to provide the President with information and analysis before he implemented policy.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was reelected by a landslide in 1972. In his second term, the nation was afflicted with economic difficulties. .In the face of likely impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal,[1] Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. He was later pardoned by his successor, Gerald Ford, for any federal crimes he may have committed while in office.^ August 8, 1974: Nixon Resigns Presidency .

^ President Nixon s Address to the Nation Resigning the Office of the Presidency - Pt 2 Nixon continues outlining achievements: We have unlocked the doors ...
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gerald R. Ford Library and Museum, 7/3/2007 ] President Nixon is labeled an “unindicted co-conspirator” by the grand jury, on a 19-0 vote.

.In his retirement, Nixon became a prolific author and undertook many foreign trips.^ Nixon became a lawyer in Los Angeles, and after losing the race for governor of California in 1962, claimed he was retiring from politics.

^ His influence skyrocketed when his protg, Henry Kissinger, became Nixons chief foreign policy advisor and chose as his deputy Alexander Haig, another Kraemer protg.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This time, his retirement was permanent, but he remained in the public eye as a prolific author and one of the nation's most cogent commentators on international politics.
  • U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Richard M. Nixon, 36th Vice President (1953-1961) 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

.His work as an elder statesman helped to rehabilitate his public image.^ In his later years Nixon worked hard to rehabilitate his public image.
  • What is Richard Nixon? 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his later years Nixon worked hard to rehabilitate his public image, and he enjoyed considerably more success than was anticipated at the time of his resignation.

He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, and died four days later at the age of 81.

Early life

.Richard Nixon was born on January 9, 1913, to Francis A. Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon in a house his father had built in Yorba Linda, California.^ As a matter of fact, he built the house that I was born in.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I was born in a house my father built.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Born in a small, wood-frame house in Yorba Linda, alumnus of Fullerton Union High School.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][3][4][5] His mother was a Quaker, and his upbringing was marked by conservative Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from drinking, dancing, and swearing. His father converted from Methodism to Quakerism after his marriage.[4] Nixon had four brothers: Harold (1909–1933), Donald (1914–1987), Arthur (1918–1925), and Ed (born 1930).[6]
Nixon's early life was marked by hardships. .Two of his brothers died before he was 21 and his family's ranch failed in 1922. The Nixons then moved to Whittier, California, the home of his mother's relatives, where his father opened a grocery store.^ You know, when my father's mother died, he was shunted from place to place.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I worked at home in the grocery store, went to market every morning, and so forth and so on, and yet took lessons.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ John caught the first courier flight out to San Clemente [President Nixon’s home in California] to see [then-White House aide John] Ehrlichman.

[6]
.Nixon attended Fullerton High School in Fullerton, but later he transferred to Whittier High School, where he graduated second in his class in 1930.[7] Financial concerns forced him to decline scholarships to Harvard[8] and Yale universities;[9] he instead enrolled at Whittier College,[10] a local Quaker school, where he co-founded a fraternity known as The Orthogonian Society.^ They were high school graduates.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Whittier College did not have fraternities.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Whittier College, I think, was founded the same year that the town was founded.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Nixon was a formidable debater, standout in collegiate drama productions, student body president, player on the football and basketball teams, and track runner.^ You ran track, and you also played football, but you -- in the -- it was the 130-pound middleweight-- Day 1, Tape 2 00:09:18 [Richard Nixon] Mm-hmm.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I went out, in addition to football and basketball, I went out for track.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Telegram to the President of the Student Body of San Jose State College.

[10][11] .While at Whittier, he lived at home and worked at his family's store;[10] he also taught Sunday school at East Whittier Friends Church, where he remained a member all his life.^ As a matter of fact, I recall an incident at the time that we had the grocery store, and we were working there and one of our customers, whose children were good friends of mine in school and of Don's, my brothers, she found had been shoplifting.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Why, I took it home and I worked all night.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I worked at home in the grocery store, went to market every morning, and so forth and so on, and yet took lessons.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1934, he graduated second in his class from Whittier and received a full scholarship to Duke University School of Law.^ He had been first in his class at Harvard Law School, which we knew was -- meant that he was one of the top echelon.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When I went to law school, there were only three women in my graduating class out of a graduating class of thirty.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When we moved over to Whittier, in East Whittier, he went to that school there, he had to drop out a year, and he was behind in his class.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10] His future plans at this time focused solely on law; he was elected president of the Duke Bar Association[12] and graduated third in his class in June 1937.[10] Nixon later spoke about the influence of his alma-mater, saying, "I always remember that whatever I have done in the past or may do in the future, Duke University is responsible in one way or another."[13]

Law practice

.Although Nixon's first choice was to get a job with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, he returned to California and was admitted to the bar in 1937. He began practicing with Wingert and Bewley,[10] where he worked on commercial litigation for local petroleum companies and other corporate matters as well as on wills.^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:11:56 [Richard Nixon] Well, when I say the Chief, I shouldn't leave out others.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:10:16 [Richard Nixon] Well, I'd never been in a speakeasy before, or since, as a matter of fact, that I recall.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As cameras rolled, Americans for the first time were exposed to the inner workings of the Nixon Presidency.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

.By his own admission, Nixon would not work on divorce because he was "severely embarrassed by women's confessions of sexual misconduct."^ Haldeman warns Nixon not to say anything because it would reveal Haldeman’s source, apparently some “legal guy” at the Post.

^ Dean's attorney threatened to sue Basic Books after it published in 1994 my book, Nixon Reconsidered, simply because I quoted from the Colodny and Gettlin work.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have been without work, dreading that anyone in my family would get sick, because I would be unable to afford healthcare.

.Nixon found the practice of law unexciting, but thought that it would gain him experience that would be beneficial in a future political career.^ President Nixon's decision to press Dean would cost him his Presidency.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When President Richard M. Nixon found, to his enormous surprise, that his own military chiefs were spying on him, he took some interesting as well as drastic actions.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I just hope they do not out law private practice so others of us can get the care we need.

[14] In 1938, he opened up his own branch of Wingert and Bewley in La Habra, California,[15] becoming a full partner in the firm the following year.[16]

Marriage

.In January 1938, Nixon was cast in the Whittier Community Players production of The Dark Tower.^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:14:46 [Richard Nixon] "The Night of January 16" and "Dark Tower" and -- Day 1, Tape 3 00:14:50 [Frank Gannon] And it was at the rehearsal for "Dark Tower" that an important event occurred.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There he played opposite a high school teacher named Thelma "Pat" Ryan.^ Her name actually was Thelma Ryan.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Allin was a a former Wisconsin high school teacher who had directed the 1968 election campaign’s youth operations and was hired to be editor of the News Summary by Pat Buchanan.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pat Nixon on tour of school w/ Elena Ceausescu - uniformed children applaud, play bugles, teachers introduced.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][17] Nixon pursued her, but initially Ryan was not interested in a relationship. .He began making unannounced visits to her home and would take her on Sunday drives to the Quaker Sunday School where he was a teacher.^ You know, she was a very devout pacifist, as a good Quaker should be, but I remember often on a Sunday my grandmother would ask one of us to drive her to Sawtel, which was the veterans' hospital way across town.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And for them to take two law school students far away from home and do that, I thought was beyond the call of duty.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[18] After several proposals, Ryan eventually agreed to marry the future president and they wed at a small ceremony on June 21, 1940.[10]
.After a honeymoon in Mexico, the Nixons moved to Long Beach, then settled into an apartment in East Whittier a few months later.^ Rodeway Inn Long Beach 22.59 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 85.00 - 85.00 ) The Rodeway Inn is conveniently located in downtown Long Beach, in the heart of the East Village, cl...
  • Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda, CA, California hotels 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

^ (Six months after his attacks, Dole will say that the credibility of the Nixon administration is “zilch, zero.” Years later, Dole will apologize to Post reporter Bob Woodward for his comments.

^ When we moved over to Whittier, in East Whittier, he went to that school there, he had to drop out a year, and he was behind in his class.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[19] .In January 1942, they moved to Washington, D.C., where Richard Nixon took a job at the Office of Price Administration.^ There was a national drama played out in Washington that did not end until Richard Nixon climbed aboard the White House helicopter, having resigned his office at noon, August 9, 1974.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Action note: Screen goes black] Day 1, Tape 1 00:43:58 [Richard Nixon] They were quite a bunch of characters, weren't they?
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Day 1, Tape 2 00:07:14 [Richard Nixon] Well, they didn't do what they do today.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10]

World War II

Lieutenant Commander Richard Nixon of the United States Navy, 1945
.Nixon was eligible for an exemption from military service, both as a Quaker and through his job working for the OPA, but he did not seek one and was commissioned into the United States Navy in August 1942.[10] He was trained at Naval Air Station Quonset Point, Rhode Island and was assigned to Ottumwa Naval Air Station, Iowa, for seven months.^ Nixon children into Air Force One and plane leaving.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you -- you did your training at -- Day 1, Tape 3 00:30:22 [Richard Nixon] Quonset Point, Rhode Island.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We both served as Vice Presidents during the same period of time, and he became President of his country, as I have had the honor of becoming President of the United States.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was subsequently reassigned as the naval passenger control officer for the South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command, supporting the logistics of operations in the South West Pacific theater.^ So, consequently, I was about the most popular officer in the South Pacific because of that hamburger stand.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[20][21] After requesting more challenging duties, he was given command of cargo handling units.[22] .Nixon returned to the United States with two service stars (although he saw no actual combat) and a citation of commendation, and became the administrative officer of the Alameda Naval Air Station.^ We both served as Vice Presidents during the same period of time, and he became President of his country, as I have had the honor of becoming President of the United States.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Executive Order 11517--Providing for the issuance and signature by the Secretary of State of warrants appointing agents to return fugitives from justice extradited to the United States .

^ Nixon on TV to nation: I am today ordering a freeze on all prices & wages throughout the United States for a period of ninety days.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .In January, 1945, he was transferred to Philadelphia's Bureau of Aeronautics office to help negotiate the termination of war contracts.^ I was settling contracts then at the end of the war with the [Bud Manufacturing Company], whose office is in Philadelphia.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

There he received another letter of commendation, this time from Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal. In October 1945, he was promoted to lieutenant commander.[23] He resigned his commission on New Year's Day 1946.[24]

Congressional career

House of Representatives

.Soon after World War II ended, a group of Whittier Republicans approached Nixon about running for a seat in the United States House of Representatives.^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
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^ He was also one who could relate to World War II people because he had been a veteran in World War II. He was young, he was charismatic.
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^ Where were you when -- where were you when you heard about the outbreak of the Second World War?
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[25] .Nixon accepted their offer, and waged a campaign which ended in a victory over the five-term Democratic incumbent Jerry Voorhis in November 1946. Nixon represented southern California's 12th Congressional district for the next four years.^ Jerry Voorhis was the incumbent, had been the incumbent for ten years.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After Nixon’s landslide presidential victory (see November 7, 1972 ), the attacks continue.

^ For instance, the law cuts Medicaid spending by $4.8 billion over the next five years and by $26.1 billion over the next 10 years.

[25] .He helped finance the campaign with his World War II poker winnings.^ He was also one who could relate to World War II people because he had been a veteran in World War II. He was young, he was charismatic.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:46:47 [Richard Nixon] Very significantly, particularly during the period of the -- of -- of World War II , when we were allies.
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^ At that time, incidentally, she was helping to build up the nest egg, which, along with my poker winnings and what I saved during the service, made it possible for me to run for Congress.
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[26][27]
Nixon while serving in Congress
.In Congress, Nixon supported the Taft-Hartley Act of 1948, and served on the Education and Labor Committee.^ One of the reasons was that we were both put on the Labor Committee, and we had to draw straws to see who had, among the new members of the Congress, who had the seniority.
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^ He, coming from a heavily pro-labor district, voted against the Taft-Hartley bill and also voted against overriding President Truman 's veto.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But be that as it may, it was very friendly and gentlemanly, and we expressed our differences of opinion on the Taft-Hartley Act.
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[25] .He was part of the Herter Committee, which went to Europe to prepare a preliminary report on the newly enacted Marshall Plan.^ And so the way I heard about this, I was reading the "Washington Star" one afternoon, and to my amazement, it said," The following have been appointed to members of the Herter Committee to go to Europe".
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^ After I went to Congress in 1947, Karl Mundt , who was on the Committee on Un-American Activities with me, was part of a poker game, a group.
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^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:01:26 [Richard Nixon] The Herter Committee was established to go to Europe to study the economic conditions in Europe, to make recommendations to what was then a very isolationist House of Representatives for foreign aid, implementing the Marshall Plan .
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[25]
.Nixon first gained national attention in 1948 when his investigation on the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) broke the impasse of the Alger Hiss spy case.^ On that occasion, he came before the Committee on Un-American Activities .
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^ From Westminster, Maryland, came the news on Wednesday that an electrical fire had occured at the farm of Whittaker Chambers, the onetime Communist and journalist whose testimony in 1948, and “pumpkin papers” evidence, led to the conviction of former State Department official Alger Hiss on perjury charges, in the case which propelled Richard Nixon to national prominence.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you believe that the people that were investigated and criticized by the House Un-American Activities Committee and the McCarthy investigations did harm to the country?
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.While many doubted Whittaker Chambers' allegations that Hiss, a high State Department official, was a Soviet spy, Nixon believed the allegations to be true.^ From Westminster, Maryland, came the news on Wednesday that an electrical fire had occured at the farm of Whittaker Chambers, the onetime Communist and journalist whose testimony in 1948, and “pumpkin papers” evidence, led to the conviction of former State Department official Alger Hiss on perjury charges, in the case which propelled Richard Nixon to national prominence.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, going further then, after this last deposition, the lawyers for Hiss had demanded for Chambers -- to Chambers that he produce some documentary evidence, some hard evidence proving that Hiss was a Communist, proving that what he said was true.
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^ April 15, 1973: Justice Department Officials Confront Nixon about Watergate Conspiracy .

.He discovered that Chambers saved microfilm reproductions of incriminating documents by hiding the film in a pumpkin.^ Day 1, Tape 1 00:23:16 [Richard Nixon] Oh, yes, they'd figure some way to - -the psychohistorians would figure that that -- that that had to have something to do with Whittaker Chambers hiding the microfilm in pumpkins forty years later.
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^ When a Justice Department representative took some of these documents in to show them to Truman, the so-called Pumpkin Papers , the reproductions of the documents on microfilm and the typewritten papers and the rest, which were later proved to have been written on a typewriter by Priscilla Hiss , which Hiss's -- Hiss owned.
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[28] They were alleged to be accessible only to Hiss and to have been typed on his personal typewriter. .Hiss was convicted of perjury in 1950 for statements he made to the HUAC. The discovery that Hiss committed perjury and thus may well have been a Soviet spy thrust Nixon into the spotlight for the first time.^ Nixon Believes Publication May Discredit Predecessors, Not Him - President Nixon, who is not mentioned in the papers, at first is not overly worried about the papers being made public, and feels they may actually do him more good than harm.

^ It is the first time Felt, who will become Woodward’s “Deep Throat” Watergate source (see May 31, 2005 ), gives important information to Woodward.

^ That was what broke open the Hiss case , broke it o--o--open, and set in motion a chain of circumstances which eventually brought Hiss 's indictment and his conviction of perjury.
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This case turned the young Congressman into a controversial figure.[25] He was easily reelected in 1948.[25]

Senate

.In the 1950 mid-term elections, Nixon ran against Democratic Representative Helen Gahagan Douglas for a seat in the U.S. Senate, representing California.^ Well, Voorhis -- Voorhis was not as unpopular, for example, as Helen Gahagan Douglas , who had turned off both Republicans and Democrats, except those were very liberal.
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^ Day 1, Tape 2 00:01:08 [Richard Nixon] -- and he, telling of his cam -- of his election to the Senate, and it was very, very close.
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^ That's one of the problems I had with Helen Gahagan Douglas .
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[29] .The campaign is best remembered as one of the most contentious of the times.^ But the one I remember most vividly, of course, was "The Ten Commandments".
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^ And I remember one time we drove clear up to Oregon looking for a farm.
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^ We had limited funds and the -- at one time somebody came in and took a whole lot of our -- of our campaign literature out, and then came in and took out some more.
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Nixon felt the former actress was a left-wing sympathizer, labeling her "pink right down to her underwear."[29] Conversely, Douglas referred to Nixon as "Tricky Dick."[29] In the November election, Nixon defeated Douglas.
In the Senate, Nixon took a prominent position in opposing the spread of global communism, traveling frequently and speaking out against "the threat."[29] He also criticized what he perceived to be President Harry S. Truman's mishandling of the Korean War.[29] .He supported statehood for Alaska and Hawaii, voted in favor of civil rights for minorities, and supported federal disaster relief for India and Yugoslavia.^ MCU Chicago Daily Tribune headline: Alaska Voted Statehood; kids hold pennant 49th State.
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^ Instead of cherishing its tradition of supporting civil rights, the party extended the red carpet to Democrats dismayed by their party’s embrace of equality.
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[30] .He voted against price controls and other monetary controls, benefits for illegal immigrants, and public power.^ Furthermore, "critics say that carriers are not only creating monopolies and oligopolies in many regions, they also control the other side of the equation in what is known as monopsony power.

^ Charles Bragg, VP of NU, re uselessness of votes against nuclear power.
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[30]

Vice Presidency (1953-1961)

.In part because of his reputation as an ardent anti-communist, 39-year-old Nixon was selected by Republican party nominee General Dwight D. Eisenhower to be the Vice Presidential candidate at the Republican National Convention in July 1952.[31] In September, the New York Post published an article claiming that campaign donors were buying influence with Nixon by providing him with a secret cash fund for his personal expenses.^ July 22, 1970: Nixon, Aides Plan Dissemination of Secret Campaign Funds .

^ The war of the books title was fought, continuously throughout the forty years, between pragmatists who agreed with Nixons dtente with Americas Communist enemies, and ideologues who agreed with Kraemers tenets, persistent anti-Communism, and distaste for diplomacy.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Source: New York University] Republican presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon defeats Democratic challenger Hubert H. Humphrey in one of the closest elections in modern history.

[31] .Nixon responded that the fund was not secret, and the campaign commissioned an independent review which showed that it was used only for political purposes.^ The purpose of this particular fund is to support candidates in the November 1970 midterm elections that Nixon believes are loyal to him.

^ Caulfield was added to the White House by Nixon aide John Ehrlichman after President Nixon’s decision to use private, secretly held funds for political intelligence operations (see January 30, 1969 ).

^ March 23, 1971: Nixon Negotiates Secret Deal with Milk Consortium for Campaign Donations .

[32] .Republicans, including some within Eisenhower's campaign, pressured Eisenhower to remove Nixon from the ticket, but Eisenhower realized that he was unlikely to win without Nixon.^ Eisenhower with Nixon (election campaign ?
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^ Some are Democrats openly contributing to Democratic candidates and hedging their bets with contributions to Nixon and other Republicans.

^ Dean did manage to remove some secret documents before his firing, documents that prompted Nixon to recently admit to “covert activities” surrounding Watergate.

[33]
Vice President and Mrs. Nixon in Ghana, 1957
Vice President Nixon with Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev, 1959
.Nixon appeared on television on September 23, 1952, to defend himself against the allegations.^ In Nixon’s case, he appeared by himself on 24 of his 48 covers, while FDR and Hussein were solo on almost all of their covers.
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He detailed his personal finances and mentioned the independent third-party review of the fund's accounting.[31] .While it was the first time that a national politician released his tax returns, the speech became better known for its rhetoric, such as when he remarked that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather "a respectable Republican cloth coat," and that, although he had been given an American Cocker Spaniel named Checkers in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give the dog back because his daughters loved it.^ Nixon with wife Pat, two daughters and mother - speaks with journalists re how hard it will be to follow in Eisenhower s footsteps.
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^ I don't know what the first one is, and I'm not going to ask you to be in contempt of court by telling us, but whatever the other bombshell is, you keep that.
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^ Nixon, his wife Pat and another man seated on back of car.
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[31] .Now known as the "Checkers speech," it resulted in much support from the base of the Republican Party and from the general public,[34] and greatly aided Nixon in remaining on the ticket.^ Now, this was much later, about 1920, ' 21, when he then was saying, "Now, look, you vote the straight Republican ticket", and yet in 1924 I remember very well that he didn't vote the straight Republican ticket.
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^ Ford’s longtime aide and speech writer Robert Hartmann will be equally blunt in his own recollections: “The Nixon-to-Ford transition was superbly planned.

^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:34:51 [Richard Nixon] Now this one here is -- Day 1, Tape 3 00:34:52 [Frank Gannon] Hold it.
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[31] .In the 1952 presidential elections, Eisenhower and Nixon defeated Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson and Alabama Senator John Sparkman by seven million votes.^ Eisenhower with Nixon (election campaign ?
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^ Adlai Stevenson voting in Illinois.
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^ John Dean s Testimony Before the Senate Watergate Committee - Pt 7 Tells of conversation where he tells Nixon the coverup is a cancer on the Presidency...
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[31]
.As Vice President, Nixon expanded the office into an important and prominent post.^ President Nixon s Address to the Nation Resigning the Office of the Presidency - Pt 2 Nixon continues outlining achievements: We have unlocked the doors ...
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^ Nixon into banquet hall w/ Pat - seated next to President Suharto.
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^ Alexander Haig, President Nixon’s chief of staff, is briefly staying on at the White House to ease the transition into the new, hastily assembled Ford staff.

[31][35] .Nixon would conduct National Security meetings in the president's absence.^ Rumsfeld, who is also an assistant to President Nixon, takes Cheney with him to morning and afternoon meetings in the White House.

^ The Intelligence Community will do that as directed by the President, working closely with our nation’s entire national security team.
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^ President Nixon meets with his top military and national security aides at the Western White House in San Clemente, California.

[31] .As President of the Senate, he intervened to make procedural rulings on filibusters to assure the passage of Eisenhower's 1957 civil rights bill, which created the United States Commission on Civil Rights and protected voting rights.^ The CIA also created a network of informants who were tasked to penetrate antiwar and civil rights groups and report back on their findings.

^ President of the United States (1969-1974) Quotes .

^ It makes a very great deal of difference because that's part of a whole Soviet move, not only toward the United States, but everyplace else in the world.
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[36]
.Although he had little formal power, Nixon had the attention of the media and the Republican Party.^ Filed Under History , Republican Party , Richard Nixon .
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^ Filed Under Republican Party , Richard Nixon .
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using these, he and his wife undertook many foreign trips of goodwill to garner support for American policies during the Cold War.^ The Cold War Museum began many years ago with the vision of Gary Powers.
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^ One reason for this calendar-driven appropriateness was the irony that so many important Cold War stories had Christmas season components.
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^ Talks of the friendship for past generation; it the friendship is a cornerstone for American foreign policy.
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[31] .On one such trip to Caracas, Venezuela, anti-American protesters disrupted and assaulted Nixon's motorcade, pelting his limousine with rocks, shattering windows, and injuring Venezuela's foreign minister.^ Message to the Inter-American Economic and Social Council Meeting in Caracas, Venezuela.

^ Toasts at a Dinner Honoring Latin American and Caribbean Foreign Ministers.

[31] Nixon was lauded and attracted international media attention for his calm and coolness during the incidents.[31]
In March 1957, he visited Libya for a program of economic and military aid.[37] .Nixon was, and is still, the highest-ranking U.S. official to visit the African nation.^ Gemstone” is a response to pressure from President Nixon to compile intelligence on Democratic candidates and party officials, particularly Democratic National Committee chairman Lawrence O’Brien.

^ On hand with Nixon was Vice President Gerald Ford, foreign policy adviser Henry Kissinger and a host of top level national security officials.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Nixon Announces Visit to China Nixon speaking to the nation re reasons for going to China: world peace & more normal relations between two countries.
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.In July 1959, President Eisenhower sent Nixon to the Soviet Union for Moscow's opening of the American National Exhibition.^ Nixon, the 37th president, was known for working with Democrats on health care policy, including legislation in 1971 that opened a major government effort to fight cancer.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
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^ [Source: American Rhetoric.com] President Richard Nixon, forced to resign because of the Watergate scandal, begins his last day in office.

[31] .On July 24, while touring the exhibits with Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, the two stopped at a model of an American kitchen and engaged in the impromptu "Kitchen Debate" about the merits of capitalism versus communism.^ Diplomacy; Anti-Capitalism; Communism; Cold War; Students; Propaganda; Anti-American Demonstration; 1958; 1950s; NOTE: Demonstrations partially in response to US activity in Guatemala.
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^ And its slashing demand for action on an issue that voters care deeply about, and Democrats hope to capitalize on, generated plenty of buzz.

^ Toasts of the President and Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, at a Dinner in Moscow.

[31]
.As Vice President, he officially opened the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, California.^ On hand with Nixon was Vice President Gerald Ford, foreign policy adviser Henry Kissinger and a host of top level national security officials.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speech by the Vice President, Closed Circuit Television, 1960 Campaign Dinner, Boston, MA .

^ Remarks of Vice President Richard M. Nixon on "The Open Question," WTMJ-TV, Milwaukee, WI .

[38]

1960 presidential election

Nixon debates John F. Kennedy in the first-ever televised U.S. presidential election debate.
.In 1960, Nixon launched his campaign for President of the United States.^ Nixon on TV to nation: I am today ordering a freeze on all prices & wages throughout the United States for a period of ninety days.
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^ Chisholm will run an unsuccessful campaign for president in 1972 [ Jo Freeman, 2/2005 ] , but it is not known whether her campaign receives any money from Republicans as Nixon suggests.

^ President Nixon’s personal lawyer, Herbert Kalmbach, delivers over $900,000 in secret campaign contributions to the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP).

He faced little opposition in the Republican primaries, and chose former Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. as his running mate.[31] His Democratic opponent was John F. Kennedy, and the race remained close for the duration.[39] .Nixon campaigned on his experience, but Kennedy called for new blood and claimed the Eisenhower-Nixon administration allowed the Soviet Union to overtake the U.S. in ballistic missiles (the "missile gap").^ We have opened the new relation with the Soviet Union...
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^ Eisenhower with Nixon (election campaign ?
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^ John F Kennedy (JFK) Inauguration Arrival Nixon and Eisenhower (Ike) band plays - Kennedy arrives - prayer - Marian Anderson sings Star Spangled Banner.
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.Kennedy told voters it was time to "get the country moving again."^ Night & Times Square zipper banner (moving electric light news sign) says Kennedy overcomes slow start.
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[40] .In the midst of the campaign, Nixon advocated stimulative tax cuts in what would become one of the core tenets of the supply-side theory of economics.^ Patman’s probe would have subpoenaed around 40 individuals and organizations, including top Nixon campaign aides.

^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:24:49 [Richard Nixon] Well, that's one that I probably not only would hate to answer, but one that I simply am unable to do.
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^ Economics; State Property Tax Relief; 1970s; Presidential Activities; Advisors; Note: Please credit: The Nixon Project, National Archives And Records Administration .
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[41] He also presented a plan for economic growth and deficit reduction, which appealed to many.[41]
.A new medium was brought to the campaign: televised presidential debates.^ Well, the first debate was not in the '60 campaign, where seventy million people listened to the first presidential debate on television, but the first one was a little town called McKeesport, Pennsylvania.
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.In the first of four such debates, Nixon was recovering from illness and, wearing little makeup, looked wan and uncomfortable, in contrast to the composed Kennedy.^ Well, the first debate was not in the '60 campaign, where seventy million people listened to the first presidential debate on television, but the first one was a little town called McKeesport, Pennsylvania.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first TV debate in 1960 pitted a sweaty, unshaven Richard Nixon recovering from flu, against a tanned, youthful John F. Kennedy who had spent much of the previous week on the golf course.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Day 1, Tape 2 00:53:26 [Richard Nixon] Well, the four b's--that had to do with a little society which I suppose some would call a fraternity.
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[31] .Nixon's performance in the debate was perceived to be mediocre in the visual medium of television, though many people listening on the radio thought that Nixon had won.^ Those who heard the debate on radio reckoned Nixon the winner.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Day 1, Tape 4 01:02:17 [Richard Nixon] Well, I won't get into any people that are living today.
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^ The last debate that we had in the San Gabriel Mission Playhouse, I recall they had over a thousand outside listening by radio when we were debating inside.
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[42]
.Nixon lost the election narrowly, with Kennedy ahead by only 120,000 votes (0.2%) in the popular vote.^ In Agnew’s stead, Nixon wants to appoint Treasury Secretary John Connally, a popular, conservative Texas Democrat who Nixon feels can deliver votes among Southern Republicans and Democrats alike in the 1972 presidential elections.

^ The election is too close to call for hours, until Illinois’s 26 electoral votes finally go to Nixon.

^ Mid-September 1971: Nixon, Aides Discuss Ways to Split Democrats’ Votes in ‘72 Elections .

[31] .There were charges of vote fraud in Texas and Illinois; Nixon supporters unsuccessfully challenged results in both states as well as nine others.^ The other is that his strong support for a job now held by Governor Spitzer could give Mr. Bloomberg a leg up in dealings with the state.

^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:11:56 [Richard Nixon] Well, when I say the Chief, I shouldn't leave out others.
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^ As for the charge that a universal health care system would be "socialized medicine," Moore rightfully counters that in the United States there's socialism when it comes to the public well-being; there are public schools, public fire departments, and public libraries.

[43] .After all the court battles and recounts were done, Kennedy had a greater number of electoral votes than he held after Election Day.^ The election is too close to call for hours, until Illinois’s 26 electoral votes finally go to Nixon.

^ Instead, Nixon wins with 290 electoral votes, 20 more than he needs.

[43] Nixon halted further investigations to avoid a Constitutional crisis.[43] .Nixon and Kennedy later met in Key Biscayne, Florida, where Kennedy offered Nixon a job in his administration, an offer which Nixon declined.^ (Six months after his attacks, Dole will say that the credibility of the Nixon administration is “zilch, zero.” Years later, Dole will apologize to Post reporter Bob Woodward for his comments.

^ CIA, the White House, the offices of the Nixon re-election campaign (CREEP), and Nixon’s home in Key Biscayne, where White House aide H. R. Haldeman is.

^ International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT) offers the Nixon administration $400,000 to finance the GOP’s 1972 national convention in San Diego.

[44]

Wilderness years

Nixon playing the piano, Beverly Hills, California, 1962
.Following his loss to Kennedy, Nixon and his family returned to California, where he practiced law and wrote a bestselling book, Six Crises.^ The Nixon and Johnson families followed the tradition of meeting at the White House and traveling together to the Capitol.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .It recorded his political involvement as a congressman, senator and vice president and used six different crises Nixon had experienced throughout his political career to illustrate his political memoirs.^ John Dean s Testimony Before the Senate Watergate Committee - Pt 7 Tells of conversation where he tells Nixon the coverup is a cancer on the Presidency...
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^ President Nixon refuses to testify before the Senate Watergate Committee, and will not provide access to White House documents.

^ Baltimore Stadium; Vice President Nixon in MCU watching; shot of filled stadium upper deck.
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The work won praise from many policy experts and critics. .It also found a favorable critic in Mao Zedong, who referred to the book during Nixon's visit in 1972.^ He was obviously drunk and let her drown,” Nixon says of Kennedy, who is considered the Democrats’ leading presidential candidate for 1972.

^ News Review Of 1959 Vice-President Nixon touring US Fair in Moscow w/ Kruschev during visit to Russia.
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^ But -- Day 1, Tape 6 00:41:05 [Frank Gannon] This is the man who wrote the book about the -- Day 1, Tape 6 00:41:07 [Richard Nixon] That's right.
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[45]
.Local and national Republican leaders encouraged Nixon to challenge incumbent Pat Brown for Governor of California in the 1962 election.^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
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^ Presidents w/ backs to camera as national anthems are played; MCU Elena Ceausescu & Pat Nixon.
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^ Nixon wants to have a campaign committee for his re-election set up outside the Republican National Committee, and with separate, independent financing.

[31] Despite initial reluctance, Nixon entered the race.[31] .The campaign was clouded by public suspicion that Nixon viewed the governorship as a political "stepping-stone" to a higher office, some opposition from the far-right of the party, and his own lack of interest in being California's governor.^ Nixon has offered Bush a staff appointment in the White House, but Bush is eager for higher office.

^ As far as I was concerned, I've always said that what separates the men from the boys in politics is that -- is that the -- the boys want office, they want to be president in order to be somebody.
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^ In that campaign, Nixon played on people’s fears and used the phrase to reassure the voting public that he was a steady and trustworthy hand at the rudder during turbulent times.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] He lost to Brown by nearly 300,000 votes.[31] This loss was widely believed to be the end of his career;[31] in an impromptu concession speech the morning after the election, Nixon famously blamed the media for favoring his opponent, saying, "You won't have Nixon to kick around anymore because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference."[31] The California defeat was highlighted in the November 11, 1962, episode of ABC's Howard K. Smith: News and Comment entitled "The Political Obituary of Richard M. Nixon."[46]
.The Nixon family traveled to Europe in 1963; Nixon gave press conferences and met with leaders of the countries he visited.^ She had press conferences in each country, had had conversations with the presidents and then carried it all off with unbelievable skill.
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^ The memos and actual details of the visit are a part of Bud’s book, The Day Elvis Met Nixon .
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^ President Nixon Announces Visit to China Nixon speaking to the nation re reasons for going to China: world peace & more normal relations between two countries.
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[47] .The family soon moved to New York City, where Nixon became a senior partner in the leading law firm Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie & Alexander.^ From left to right: Christopher Nixon Cox, the President’s grandson; Commander Alvarez; Tricia Nixon Cox; Edward F. Cox, the President’s son-in-law and newly elected Chairman of the Republican Party of New York; and Ronald H. Walker, the new President of the Richard Nixon Foundation.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He created 600 and some parks that way including the Gateway to the East and West in New York City and San Francisco, two of the largest parks in the country.” .
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RN’s son-in-law and the newly elected Chairman of the New York Republican Party, Edward F. Cox, gave the annual Nixon legacy Lecture in the East Room Saturday.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] In 1963 the family bought an apartment at 810 Fifth Avenue.[48][49] .Nelson Rockefeller lived upstairs, and during the Presidential campaign of 1968 the two used different entrances and elevators.^ In that campaign, Nixon played on people’s fears and used the phrase to reassure the voting public that he was a steady and trustworthy hand at the rudder during turbulent times.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The address book of one of the burglars contains sketches of the hotel rooms to be used by the campaign of Democratic candidate George McGovern during the Democratic National Convention in Miami.

[50][51][52]
.Though largely out of the public eye, he was still supported by much of the Republican base who respected his knowledge of politics and international affairs.^ Why is it, though, that you can number on a couple of hands the women who have risen to the top in politics?
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't think he could have made out on it, because the gas must have cost him that much, even though gas was only sixteen cents a gallon then.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Filed Under American Politics , History , Intelligence , International Affairs , Islam and the West , National Security , Terrorism , U.S. History , War on Terror .
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] This reputation was enhanced when Nixon wrote an article in Foreign Affairs entitled "Asia After Vietnam",[31] in which he proposed a new relationship with China.[53] He campaigned for Republican candidates in the 1966 Congressional elections[31] and took an extended trip to South America and parts of the Middle East in 1967.[54]
.Toward the end of 1967, Nixon was experiencing a crisis of indecision about whether to run for president the following year.^ Nixon had withdrawn another 50,000 men from Vietnam by year’s end, bringing U.S. force levels down 115,000 to 435,000, easily beating Clark Clifford’s target of 100,000 fewer by the end of 1970, the level of mid-1967.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ Chisholm will run an unsuccessful campaign for president in 1972 [ Jo Freeman, 2/2005 ] , but it is not known whether her campaign receives any money from Republicans as Nixon suggests.

.He consulted with longtime friend the Reverend Billy Graham, who urged him to run.^ RN, PN, and Tricia (who lived in the White House during 1969) posed on the North Portico with Ruth and Billy Graham.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well, as you can tell from hearing that, that that would be inconsistent with what those who believe in the literal interpretation of the ""Bible"" would say, inconsistent with what my good friend Billy Graham and some of those who are called born-again fundamentalist Christians, would say.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Reverend Billy Graham and President Richard Nixon.

[55] He later held a dinner at his home with friends and all except his wife supported a presidential bid.[55] He formally announced his candidacy for president of the United States on February 1, 1968.[55]

1968 presidential election

.Throughout the campaign, Nixon portrayed himself as a figure of stability during a period of national unrest and upheaval.^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:46:47 [Richard Nixon] Very significantly, particularly during the period of the -- of -- of World War II , when we were allies.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In that campaign, Nixon played on people’s fears and used the phrase to reassure the voting public that he was a steady and trustworthy hand at the rudder during turbulent times.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The address book of one of the burglars contains sketches of the hotel rooms to be used by the campaign of Democratic candidate George McGovern during the Democratic National Convention in Miami.

[56] .He appealed to what he called the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the hippie counterculture and the anti-war demonstrators, and secured the nomination in August.^ Filed Under American Politics , History , Intelligence , International Affairs , Islam and the West , National Security , Terrorism , U.S. History , War on Terror .
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His running mate, Maryland governor Spiro Agnew, became an increasingly vocal critic of these groups, solidifying Nixon's position with the right.^ Nixon with Henry Cabot Lodge his running mate.
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^ MCU Nixon; crowd shots; MCU VP Spiro Agnew.
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^ Hence, both these scorpions in the bottle--Nixon and Dean-- became committed to destroying the other.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

[57]
.Nixon waged a prominent television campaign, meeting with supporters in front of cameras and advertising on the television medium.^ White House meeting of Sato & Nixon sit in front of fireplace for photographers.
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^ Part of the meeting concerns the dissemination of secret campaign funds to a variety of campaigns with candidates considered friendly to the Nixon administration (see December 1, 1969 ).

^ Nixon back in Moscow sits in front of television cameras to directly address the Soviet people Makes speech SOF re prospects for peace and progress made.
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[58] .He stressed that the crime rate was too high, and attacked what he perceived as a surrender by the Democrats of the United States' nuclear superiority.^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Remarks of the Vice President of the United States at Natrona County High School Gym, Casper, WY .

^ Statement of the Vice President of the United States on Democratic Tax Program, Brooklyn, NY .

[59] .His campaign was aided by turmoil within the Democratic Party:[56] President Lyndon B. Johnson, consumed with the Vietnam War, announced that he would not seek reelection.^ If Johnson had been Johnson, he would not have had gradual escalation of the war in Vietnam.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ President Nixon gives antiwar demonstrators a chance to physically protest the Vietnam War during a campaign rally in Michigan, hoping for favorable press coverage that would denigrate the protesters.

^ Patman’s probe would have subpoenaed around 40 individuals and organizations, including top Nixon campaign aides.

.After a contentious Democratic primary campaign, Vice President Hubert Humphrey held a moderate but not decisive lead over Senator Robert F. Kennedy; however, Kennedy was assassinated in Los Angeles following the final, California primary.^ Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, Kennedy nominated on first ballot.
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^ Senator Hubert Humphrey's endorsing statement...

^ Hoarding with Hubert Humphrey and Kennedy posters.
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Humphrey was nominated at a convention marked by mass protests.[56] Nixon appeared to represent a calmer society.[56] With regard to the Vietnam War, he promised peace with honor, and campaigned on the notion that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific." He did not give specific plans on how to end the war, resulting in media intimations that he must have a "secret plan."[60] His slogan of "Nixon's the One" proved to be effective.[58]
In a three-way race between Nixon, Humphrey, and independent candidate George Wallace, Nixon defeated Humphrey by nearly 500,000 votes to become the 37th President of the United States on November 5, 1968.[56]

Presidency (1969–1974)

Nixon is sworn in as the 37th President on January 20, 1969, with the new First Lady, Pat, holding the family Bibles.

First term

Nixon was inaugurated on January 20, 1969. Pat Nixon held the family Bibles open to Isaiah 2:4, reading, "They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks."[61] In his inaugural address, which received almost uniformly positive reviews, Nixon remarked that "the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker."[61] He spoke about turning partisan politics into a new age of unity:
.In these difficult years, America has suffered from a fever of words; from inflated rhetoric that promises more than it can deliver; from angry rhetoric that fans discontents into hatreds; from bombastic rhetoric that postures instead of persuading.^ Tuesday, 06/12/07 Pay for America's top CEOs soars Half in study make more than $8.3 million a year .

^ NEW YORK -- A new Associated Press calculation shows that compensation for America's top CEOs has skyrocketed into the stratospheric heights of pro athletes and movie stars: Half make more than $8.3 million a year, and some make much, much more.

^ I'll go out on a limb and say more than 2600/year.

We cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another, until we speak quietly enough so that our words can be heard as well as our voices.”[62]
.Nixon set out to reconstruct the Western Alliance, develop a relationship with China, pursue arms control agreements with the Soviet Union, activate a peace process in the Middle East, restrain inflation, implement anti-crime measures, accelerate desegregation, and reform welfare.^ Richard Nixon entered office with a plan to open relations with China, extract the U.S. from Indochina without bringing down the non-Communist government in Saigon, and pursue better relations with the USSR, arms control, and a peace process in the Middle East.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ [Source: Rolls Press / Popperfoto / Getty Images] The first major act of Middle East terrorism on a global scale plays out in Jordan.

[61] The most immediate task, however, was the Vietnam War.[61]
The Nixon Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Richard Nixon 1969–1974
Vice President Spiro Agnew 1969–1973
Gerald Ford 1973–1974
Secretary of State William P. Rogers 1969–1973
Henry Kissinger 1973–1974
Secretary of Treasury David M. Kennedy 1969–1971
John Connally 1971–1972
George Shultz 1972–1974
William Simon 1974
Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird 1969–1973
Elliot Richardson 1973
James Schlesinger 1973–1974
Attorney General John N. Mitchell 1969–1972
Richard Kleindienst 1972–1973
Elliot Richardson 1973
William B. Saxbe 1974
Postmaster General Winton M. Blount 1969–1971
Secretary of the Interior Walter Joseph Hickel 1969–1971
Rogers Morton 1971–1974
Secretary of Agriculture Clifford M. Hardin 1969–1971
Earl Butz 1971–1974
Secretary of Commerce Maurice Stans 1969–1972
Peter Peterson 1972–1973
Frederick B. Dent 1973–1974
Secretary of Labor George Shultz 1969–1970
James D. Hodgson 1970–1973
Peter J. Brennan 1973–1974
Secretary of Health,
Education, and Welfare
Robert Finch 1969–1970
Elliot Richardson 1970–1973
Caspar Weinberger 1973–1974
Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development
George W. Romney 1969–1973
James Thomas Lynn 1973–1974
Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe 1969–1973
Claude Brinegar 1973–1974

Vietnam War

.When Nixon took office, 300 American soldiers were dying per week in Vietnam.^ Vietnam troops; Nixon shaking hands w/ Blacks; in hospital; against pollution; crime; meeting in Oval office.
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^ Nixon speaks to United Nations: Since I took office as President nothing has taken so much of my time...as searching for an end to the war in Vietnam....we are prepared to withdraw all our troops...
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.The Johnson administration had negotiated a deal in which the U.S. would suspend bombing in North Vietnam in exchange for unconditional negotiations, but this faltered.^ To leaders of North Vietnam: As we have ended the war through negotiations, let us now build a peace of reconciliation...
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.Nixon faced the choice of devising a new policy to chance securing South Vietnam as a non-communist state, or withdrawing American forces completely.^ [Source: American Rhetoric.com] President Richard Nixon, forced to resign because of the Watergate scandal, begins his last day in office.

^ In other words, to -- to get a pro-Communist policy in the Department of Agriculture, in the Department of State, and so forth.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ House Un-American Activities Committee -- who had testified before the committee about a number of Communists who, she said, had infiltrated the government of the United States.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[63]
.Nixon approved a secret bombing campaign of North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia in March 1969[64] (code-named Operation Menu) to destroy what was believed to be the headquarters of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam.^ February 23-24, 1969: Nixon Orders Plans for Secret Bombing of Cambodia .

^ The New York Times reveals the secret bombings of Cambodia, dubbed “Operation Menu” (see February 23-24, 1969 and March 15-17, 1969 ).

^ Nixon’s secret bombings of Cambodia—dubbed “Operation Menu”—will trigger a wave of global denunciations, further energize the antiwar movement, and help precipitate the leak of the “Pentagon Papers” (see March 1971 ).

.The Air Force considered the bombings a success.^ But [unclear: Ribal ] , ninety miles away, was still Japanese-occupied, and it was heavily bombed by the Pacific air force there, by [unclear: B-29s ] .
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[64] .He then proposed simultaneous substantial withdrawals of North Vietnamese and American forces from South Vietnam one year after reaching a mutual agreement.^ Within 6 months of an agreement: We shall withdraw all U.S. & allied forces from South Vietnam...
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^ Commander Alvarez was shot down over the skies of Vietnam in 1964 and was held captive over eight years in the Hanoi Hilton and other Vietnamese prisons.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy in a few years would regret that he had not seized the chance and reached an agreement around the Nixon plan.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .In June 1969, in a campaign fulfillment, Nixon reduced troop strength in Vietnam by 25,000 soldiers, who returned home to the United States.^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the United States (1969-1974) Quotes .

^ Executive Order 11517--Providing for the issuance and signature by the Secretary of State of warrants appointing agents to return fugitives from justice extradited to the United States .

.From 1969 to 1972 troop reduction in Vietnam was estimated to be 405,000 soldiers.^ When I left Washington in January of 1961...there were not American combat forces in Vietnam....when I returned to Washington as President 8 years later, there were 540,000 American troops in Vietnam.
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[66]
.In July 1969, the Nixons visited South Vietnam, where President Nixon met with his U.S. military commanders and President Nguyen Van Thieu.^ October 28, 1969: President Nixon Signs Executive Order 11490 .

^ General Creighton Abrams, the US military commander in South Vietnam, wants those sites bombed, regardless of the fact that military strikes against locations in a neutral country would be flagrant violations of international laws and treaties.

^ April 1969: Speechwriter Warns Nixon Not to Visit Martin Luther King’s Widow; Calls King ‘Divisive’ and ‘a Fraud’ .

Amid protests at home, he implemented what became known as the Nixon Doctrine, a strategy of replacing American troops with Vietnamese troops, also called "Vietnamization."[56] He soon enacted phased U.S. troop withdrawals[67] but authorized incursions into Laos, in part to interrupt the Ho Chi Minh trail that passed through Laos and Cambodia. .Nixon's 1968 campaign promise to curb the war and his subsequent Laos bombing raised questions in the press about a "credibility gap," similar to that encountered earlier in the war by Lyndon B. Johnson.^ AP Managing Editor's Convention Nixon fielding questions from Associated Press Editors re Watergate and tax irregularities.
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^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:58:49 [Richard Nixon] I've often thought about that question, and my answer is, at first, no.
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^ President Nixon gives antiwar demonstrators a chance to physically protest the Vietnam War during a campaign rally in Michigan, hoping for favorable press coverage that would denigrate the protesters.

[67] .In a televised speech on April 30, 1970, Nixon announced the incursion of U.S. troops into Cambodia to disrupt so-called North Vietnamese sanctuaries.^ [Source: Taylor Owen / History News Network] President Nixon and his National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, discuss North Vietnamese sanctuaries and supply routes in the neutral border country of Cambodia.

^ April 24-30, 1970: Nixon Orders Invasion of Cambodia; Kissinger Staffers Resign Rather than Participate in Coordination .

^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:31:29 [Frank Gannon] It's a good thing you weren't called on to -- Day 1, Tape 3 00:31:30 [Richard Nixon] That's right.
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.This led to protest and student strikes that temporarily closed 536 universities, colleges, and high schools.^ High school students brought in and introduced to judge and wants to talk about civil rights.
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^ Remarks to the Student Body of Rio Grande High School, Rio Grande City, Texas.

^ Statement Announcing Establishment of the President's Environmental Merit Awards Program for High School Students .

[68]
.Nixon formed the Gates Commission to look into ending the military service draft,[69] implemented under President Johnson.^ Having gained an officer’s commission after that exploit, he received the Medal of Honor from President Richard M. Nixon on March 2, 1971.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shepard explained that the Domestic Council started in the Nixon White House as a counterpart to the National Security Council to provide the President with information and analysis before he implemented policy.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon w/ Armas & military visiting exhibit & looking at propaganda seized as Red Terror .
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The Gates Commission issued its report in February 1970, describing how adequate military strength could be maintained without conscription.[70] The draft was extended to June 1973,[71] and then ended. .Military pay was increased as an incentive to attract volunteers, and television advertising for the United States Army began for the first time.^ We both served as Vice Presidents during the same period of time, and he became President of his country, as I have had the honor of becoming President of the United States.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I said Jesus Christ, here's the military actually spying on the President of the United States .
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Fairbanks, before RN the words “energy policy” had never been spoken by a United States President, also marking the first time the issue had been talked about in a “cohesive manner” in terms of both its ‘domestic and international implications.” .
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]
.In December 1972, though concerned about the level of civilian casualties, Nixon approved Linebacker II, the codename for aerial bombings of military and industrial targets in North Vietnam.^ Nixon had withdrawn another 50,000 men from Vietnam by year’s end, bringing U.S. force levels down 115,000 to 435,000, easily beating Clark Clifford’s target of 100,000 fewer by the end of 1970, the level of mid-1967.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don’t give a damn [about civilian casualties].

^ Between 1969 and 1974: Nixon Expresses Disregard for Civilian Casualties in Vietnam .

[73] .After years of fighting, the Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973.[74] The treaty, however, made no provision that 145,000-160,000 North Vietnam Army regulars located in the Central Highlands and other areas of S. Vietnam had to withdraw.^ After my junior year, I had not made the team, and I knew that there was no way I was going to make it in my senior year.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To leaders of North Vietnam: As we have ended the war through negotiations, let us now build a peace of reconciliation...
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Nixon Years: Change Without Chaos R1 of 3 Montage: police beating demonstrators; Vietnam fighting; riots; industry; burning draft cards; Army patrolling Wshington DC streets.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .Under President Nixon, American involvement in the war steadily declined from a troop strength of 543,000 to zero in 1973.[56] Once American support was diminished, in 1975, North Vietnam was able to conquer South Vietnam and formed one country.^ South Vietname troops.
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^ Nixon speechwriter Pat Buchanan, one of the most conservative members of the Nixon administration, is appalled at the president’s priorities for the upcoming year, which features increased human resource spending, education and health care reform, wage guarantees, and plans to withdraw US troops from Vietnam.

^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

Economy

.Under Nixon, direct payments from the federal government to individual American citizens in government benefits (including Social Security and Medicare) rose from 6.3% of the Gross National Product (GNP) to 8.9%.^ Nixon, the 37th president, was known for working with Democrats on health care policy, including legislation in 1971 that opened a major government effort to fight cancer.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon waving to audience of older people & speaks of locking Social Security to inflation & increases benefits.
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^ Under the vague title, “Assigning Emergency Preparedness Functions to Federal Departments and Agencies,” the order directs government leaders to ensure the continuation of “essential functions” in the event of a crisis.

Food aid and public assistance also rose, beginning at $6.6 billion and escalating to $9.1 billion. .Defense spending decreased from 9.1% to 5.8% of the GNP. The revenue sharing program pioneered by Nixon delivered $80 billion to individual states and municipalities.^ Nixon 1971 State of the Union speech: Let us share our resources; let s share them to rescue the states & localities from the brink of financial crisis...
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special Message to the Congress on Sharing Federal Revenues With the States.

^ Senior Citizens Program: Study Paper by Richard Nixon, Vice President, United States of America .

[75]
.In 1970, the Democratic Congress passed the Economic Stabilization Act, giving Nixon power to set wages and prices; Congress did not believe the president would use the new controls and felt this would make him appear to be indecisive.^ President Nixon's decision to press Dean would cost him his Presidency.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why he chose to sign the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 on 1 January 1970, at the beginning of a new decade and the start of the second year of his presidency.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York Times, 9/19/1996 ; Time, 9/30/1996 ] Interestingly, while many Americans celebrate Agnew’s rhetoric, few want him as a successor to the presidency.

[76] .While opposed to permanent wage and price controls,[77] Nixon imposed the controls on a temporary basis[78] in a 90 day wage and price freeze.^ Whittier, CA 90604 12.09 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 68.01 - 78.01 ) 2 Star -Welcome to the Days Inn Whittier, CA. We offer quality accommodations at an affordable price.
  • Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ Nixon on TV to nation: I am today ordering a freeze on all prices & wages throughout the United States for a period of ninety days.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:14:00 [Richard Nixon] Well, it doesn't look like a very imposing figure, and I wasn't.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[79] .The controls (enforced for large corporations, voluntary for others) were the largest since World War II; they were relaxed after the initial 90 days.^ He was also one who could relate to World War II people because he had been a veteran in World War II. He was young, he was charismatic.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:46:47 [Richard Nixon] Very significantly, particularly during the period of the -- of -- of World War II , when we were allies.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But that was as close as we came to World War I. Day 1, Tape 1 00:42:01 [Offscreen voice] Excuse me, gentlemen, one second.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[80] .Nixon then spoke to the American public, saying that by "Working together, we will break the back of inflation."^ K asks if Americans will see pictures when Nixon says yes he shakes hands.
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^ As cameras rolled, Americans for the first time were exposed to the inner workings of the Nixon Presidency.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly before his death in 2005, Gray will say, “I made the gravest mistake of my 88 years” in going to work for Nixon.

[81]
A Pay Board set wage controls limiting increases to 5.5% per year, and the Price Commission set a 2.5% annual limit on price increases.[82] The limits did help to control wages, but not inflation.[83] .Overall, however, the controls were viewed as successful in the short term[84] and were popular with the public, who felt Nixon was rescuing them from price-gougers and from a foreign-caused exchange crisis.^ Nixon 1971 State of the Union speech: Let us share our resources; let s share them to rescue the states & localities from the brink of financial crisis...
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^ I think, however, the advantage I had over who had previously run against Voorhis was that I was not -- did not portray myself and did not believe that I held a point of view which was reactionary.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Former FBI Deputy Director W. Mark Felt, who served before and during the Watergate era, denounces the attempts by the Nixon administration to control the FBI and the Justice Department.

[80][85]
.Nixon was worried about the effects of increasing inflation and accelerating unemployment,[80] so he indexed Social Security for inflation, and created Supplemental Security Income (SSI).^ President Nixon explodes in fury at a Jewish Department of Labor official’s statement to the press about unemployment rates going up.

^ In a conversation with National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger about civilian casualties in Vietnam, US President Richard Nixon says, “I don’t give a damn.

^ Nixon waving to audience of older people & speaks of locking Social Security to inflation & increases benefits.
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In 1969, he had presented the only balanced budget between 1961 and 1998.[86] However, despite speeches declaring an opposition to the idea, he decided to offer Congress a budget with deficit spending to reduce unemployment and declared, "Now I am a Keynesian."[80]
Nixon in the Oval Office
.Another large part of Nixon's plan was the detachment of the dollar from the gold standard.^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ August 15, 1971: Nixon Takes US Dollar off Gold Standard .

^ Over the years he has promoted the standard interpretation of the Watergate break-ins on May 28 and June 17 as examples of attempts at political espionage on the part of the Nixon administration.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

[79] .By the time Nixon took office, U.S. gold reserves had declined from $25 billion to $10.5 billion.^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:21:10 [Richard Nixon] We gave her the mixer, and she took it.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

Gold was an underpriced commodity, as the dollar was overpriced as a currency. .The United States was on the verge of running its first trade deficit in over 75 years.^ The Government of the United States for the past seven years has had the courage openly to oppose by every peaceful means the spread of the dictator form of Government.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Says to the public that next few years will be difficult and asks for help of the United States.
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^ But 2000 was the last year the United States ran a budget surplus.

[87] .The price of gold had been set at $35 an ounce since the days of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency; foreign countries acquired more dollar reserves, outnumbering the entire amount of gold the United States possessed.^ The United States had its president to thank for that.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think they were very detrimental to the country, because they cast reflections on the Roosevelt foreign policy".
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Nixon completely eradicated the gold standard, preventing other countries from being able to claim gold in exchange for their dollar reserves, but also weakening the exchange rate of the dollar against other currencies and increasing inflation by driving up the cost of imports.^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ August 15, 1971: Nixon Takes US Dollar off Gold Standard .

^ The dollar becomes a fiat currency, causing a brief international panic before other countries follow suit and also allow their currencies to “float.” [ New York Times, 8/16/1971, pp.

[80] .Nixon felt that the dollar should float freely like other currencies.^ The dollar becomes a fiat currency, causing a brief international panic before other countries follow suit and also allow their currencies to “float.” [ New York Times, 8/16/1971, pp.

^ Haldeman, like Nixon and others, is facing a raft of criminal and civil trials.

^ Nixon’s move to sever the link between the dollar’s value and gold reserves effectively ends the Breton Woods system of monetary exchange and changes the dollar to a “floating” currency whose value is to be determined largely by market influences.

[88] Said Nixon in his speech:
"The American dollar must never again be a hostage in the hands of international speculators.... Government... does not hold the key to the success of a people. That key... is in your hands. .Every action I have taken tonight is designed to nurture and stimulate that competitive spirit to help us snap out of self-doubt, the self-disparagement that saps our energy and erodes our confidence in ourselves...^ Can you help us out?

^ Neither of us seeks the territory of the other; neither of us seeks domination over the other; neither of us seeks to stretch out our hands and rule the world.
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^ And -- and the Chief was always trying to inspire us, inspire us to be self-sufficient, to be competitive, and above everything else, never to give up.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Whether the nation stays Number One depends on your competitive spirit, your sense of personal destiny, your pride in your country and yourself."^ Oakwood Corporate Housing can handle everything for your temporary stay with just one call.
  • Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ Whether your stay here is on businesses or leisure, we want to make you...
  • Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ Treat yourself and your family to one of our spacious suit...
  • Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

[89]
.Other parts of the Nixon plan included the reimposition of a 10% investment tax credit, assistance to the automobile industry in the form of removal of excise taxes (provided the savings were passed directly to the consumer),[88] an end to fixed exchange rates, devaluation of the dollar on the free market, and a 10% tax on all imports into the U.S.[79] Income per family rose, and unionization declined.^ Others Informed - The plans are finalized by Nixon and Kissinger, with Rebozo sitting in on the discussion.

^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ Sheraton Anaheim Hotel 7.59 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 149.00 - 149.00 ) Enjoy free shuttle service to and from the Disneyland?
  • Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda, CA, California hotels 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

[79]
.Nixon wanted to lift the spirits of the country as polls showed increasing concern about the economy.^ Bill Clinton wanted it all to be about “the economy, stupid.” But the first priority of any president is to keep us safe so we can actually have an economy.
  • The New Nixon: News and Commentary about the President, his Times, and his Legacy 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC thenewnixon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somehow, somewhere, Richard Nixon must have received previous information concerning Gordon Strachan and John Dean knew the President knew about Strachan.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, that’s all I want to hear about it.” Haldeman tells Nixon that Felt wants to be director of the FBI. Nixon’s first question: “Is he Catholic?” “No sir, he’s Jewish,” Haldeman replies.

His program was viewed by nearly everyone as exceptionally bold, and astounded the Democrats.[89] Nixon soon experienced a bounce in the polls.[90] His economic program was determined to be a clear success by December 1971.[91] One of Nixon's economic advisers, Herbert Stein, wrote: "Probably more new regulation was imposed on the economy during the Nixon administration than in any other presidency since the New Deal."[80]

Initiatives within the federal government

Noam Chomsky remarked that, in many respects, Nixon was "the last liberal president."[92] Indeed, Nixon believed in using government wisely to benefit all and supported the idea of practical liberalism.[93]
.Nixon initiated the Environmental Decade by signing the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act amendments of 1972, as well as establishing many government agencies.^ Statement on Signing the Agricultural Act of 1970.

^ Statement on Signing the Education Amendments of 1972.

^ Remarks on Signing the Clean Air Amendments of 1970.

.These included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)[80], and the Council on Environmental Quality.^ Nixon in Oval Office establishing first Environmental Protection Agency.
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[94] .The Clean Air Act was noted as one of the most significant pieces of environmental legislation ever signed.^ Remarks on Signing the Clean Air Amendments of 1970.

^ Executive Order 11738--Providing for administration of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act with respect to Federal contracts, grants, or loans .

^ Remarks on Signing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.

[95]
.In 1971, Nixon proposed the creation of four new government departments superseding the current structure: departments organized for the goal of efficient and effective public service as opposed to the thematic bases of Commerce, Labor, Transportation, Agriculture, et al.^ By doing so, Nixon intends to ensure the GOP will field candidates suitably loyal to him, and reliably opposed to the GOP’s traditional Eastern Establishment base that Nixon so resents.

^ Richard & Pat Nixon on red carpet - farewells to Ceausescu, Maurer et al; then up steps & into Air Force One.
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^ Nixon et al watching from covered seating area.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Departments including the State, Treasury, Defense, and Justice would remain under this proposal.^ Mitchell argues that disclosing the information would cause “irreparable injury to the defense interests of the United States,” and claims that the publication is in violation of laws against espionage.

^ He got them out and had taken them to the next deposition and turned them over to the federal -- no -- turned them over to the defense lawyers, and the defense lawyers, of course, called in the Department of Justice.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the Justice Department would not prosecute it.… It was won in the papers….

[96] .He reorganized the Post Office Department from a cabinet department to a government-owned corporation: the U.S. Postal Service.^ Executive Order 11717--Transferring certain functions from the Office of Management and Budget to the General Services Administration and the Department of Commerce .

^ Another example of the government and their corporate financiers pushing human feed (out of their own gain and greed) is the hype over soy.

^ President Richard M. Nixon reorganizes the Office of Civil Defense (OCD), which is responsible for parts of the federal government’s emergency civil defense and continuity of government plans, into a new organization within the Department of Defense called the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA).

.Nixon cut billions of dollars in federal spending and expanded the power of the Office of Management and Budget.^ For instance, the law cuts Medicaid spending by $4.8 billion over the next five years and by $26.1 billion over the next 10 years.

^ Executive Order 11717--Transferring certain functions from the Office of Management and Budget to the General Services Administration and the Department of Commerce .

^ Executive Order 11600--Establishing a seal for the Office of Management and Budget .

[97] .He established the Consumer Product Safety Commission in 1972[94] and supported the Legacy of parks program, which transferred ownership of federally owned land to the states, resulting in the establishment of state parks and beaches, recreational areas, and environmental education centers.^ The hotel is located adjacent to the Long Beach Airport with easy freeway accessibility to major attractions and corporate parks in the area.
  • Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This Riverside hotel is close to area attractions including the Castle Amusement Park, California Citrus State Historical Park, the California Sp...
  • Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

Civil rights

.The Nixon years witnessed the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South.^ In 1994, after the publication of Haldeman’s diaries first reveals the contents of the anti-Semitic conversation between Nixon and Graham, Graham will say: “Those are not my words.

^ It is the first public acknowledgement that the Nixon administration had used wiretaps against its political enemies (see June 27, 1973 ).

^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:04:34 [Richard Nixon] --that first year, because, as I said, we -- they -- they pulled no punches, and -- the faculty.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

[98] .Strategically, Nixon sought a middle way between the segregationist George C. Wallace and liberal Democrats, whose support of integration was alienating some Southern white Democrats.^ Not surprisingly, Dean emerged as the hero of liberal Democrats the during the Nixon impeachment investigation and as a defender of President Clinton during his impeachment troubles, hoping no doubt for what he has long sought: a presidential pardon for his Watergate misdeeds.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Source: Public domain] President Nixon is intent on knocking Alabama governor George Wallace, a segregationist Democrat, out of the 1972 elections.

^ (Ironically, in 1968, AMPI had supported Democratic candidate Hubert Humphrey, but they now want access to Nixon, and retained former Nixon aide Murray Chotiner as soon as Chotiner left the White House.

[99] He was determined to implement exactly what the courts had ordered— desegregation — but did not favor busing children, in the words of author Conrad Black, "all over the country to satisfy the capricious meddling of judges."[100] Nixon, a Quaker, felt that racism was the greatest moral failure of the United States[101] and concentrated on the principle that the law must be color-blind: "I am convinced that while legal segregation is totally wrong, forced integration of housing or education is just as wrong."[102]
Nixon tied desegregation to improving the quality of education[101] and enforced the law after the Supreme Court, in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education (1969), prohibited further delays. .By the fall of 1970, two million southern black children had enrolled in newly created unitary fully integrated school districts; only 18% of Southern black children were still attending all-black schools, a decrease from 70% when Nixon came to office.^ We are centrally located to all the popular Southern California attractions and only...
  • Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ What group would you feel safe in having them attend the health and welfare of your wife and children...that you would entrust all in their hands?

^ Instead of agreeing to cooperate, they are still telling [Nixon] that John should walk the plank for all of them.

[95] .Nixon's Cabinet Committee on Education, under the leadership of Labor Secretary George P. Shultz, quietly set up local biracial committees to assure smooth compliance without violence or political grandstanding.^ So does Nixon.… This guy Stans set up the whole thing.

^ They are still Communists -- I'm speaking of the leadership -- and under the circumstances, if they give up on us, if they think that the relationship with us economically and otherwise is not worth their while, they may turn that way.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As Nixon tried to set Dean up for the fall, Dean in turn used everything at his disposal to turn the tables on Nixon.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

[103] ."In this sense, Nixon was the greatest school desegregator in American history," historian Dean Kotlowski concluded.^ Instead of being a centerpiece of Watergate history, it was merely the final culminating act of a struggle between President Nixon and John Dean.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This conversation that Kutler hid from history also would have confirmed John Dean's and Richard Nixon's guilt in lying and covering up.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Dean report" disappeared and the Cancer on the Presidency went into history as a principal cause of the demise of Richard Nixon.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

[104] .Author Conrad Black concurred: "In his singular, unsung way, Richard Nixon defanged and healed one of the potentially greatest controversies of the time."^ Dean, in employing the image of a "Cancer on the Presidency," presented Richard Nixon with not one but all his top staff as guilty members of a conspiracy.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 13, 1973 is the day Richard M Nixon made a fateful decision, one that would insure that his Presidency was doomed to self-destruct.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two things are now very clear: Richard Nixon is an active co-conspirator quite removed from the passive characterization of him by the authors of Silent Coup .
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

[105] Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Nixon's presidential counselor, commented in 1970 “There has been more change in the structure of American public school education in the last month than in the past 100 years.”[106]
.In addition to desegregating public schools, Nixon implemented the Philadelphia Plan, the first significant federal affirmative action program in 1970.[107] Nixon also endorsed the Equal Rights Amendment after it passed both houses of Congress in 1972 and went to the states for ratification as a Constitutional amendment.^ This information can be very helpful both while you are planning your trip, as well as when you are packing for your visit to Richard Nixon Presidential Library.
  • Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda, CA, California hotels 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

^ Ford’s longtime aide and speech writer Robert Hartmann will be equally blunt in his own recollections: “The Nixon-to-Ford transition was superbly planned.

^ Dean also says that Nixon personally directed the White House’s efforts to counterattack the press over Watergate (see October 16-November, 1972 ).

[108] .Nixon had campaigned as an ERA supporter in 1968, though feminists criticized him for doing little to help the ERA or their cause after his election, which led to a much stronger women's rights agenda.^ Eisenhower with Nixon (election campaign ?
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By doing so, Nixon intends to ensure the GOP will field candidates suitably loyal to him, and reliably opposed to the GOP’s traditional Eastern Establishment base that Nixon so resents.

^ Though Nixon promises Connally an unprececented amount of power as vice president, even making him in essence “an alternate president,” Connally declines the position.

Nixon increased the number of female appointees to administration positions.[109] .Nixon signed the landmark laws Title IX in 1972, prohibiting gender discrimination in all federally funded schools and the Equal Employment Opportunity Act.^ Quote from President Nixon memo 08Aug69 re Equal Employment Opportunity.
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^ Brezhnev & Nixon exchange signed agreements, shake hands, all applaud.
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^ One of our most important projects for 1970 is to see that our major contributors funnel all their funds through us,” Nixon writes.

.In 1970 Nixon had vetoed the Comprehensive Child Development Act, denouncing the universal child-care bill, but signed into law Title X, which was a step forward for family planning and contraceptives.^ Nixon signing bill.
  • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statement on Signing the Rural Development Act of 1972.

^ Richard & Pat Nixon on red carpet - farewells to Ceausescu, Maurer et al; then up steps & into Air Force One.
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It was during the Nixon Presidency that the Supreme Court issued its Roe v. Wade ruling, legalizing abortion. .First Lady Pat Nixon had been outspoken about her support for legalized abortion, a goal for many feminists (though there was a significant pro-life minority faction of the Women's Liberation Movement as well).^ About -- over half -- about half the class was from the North or West, and half the class was from the South, and they were all smart, primarily because there were so many scholarships in the class.
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^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:58:49 [Richard Nixon] I've often thought about that question, and my answer is, at first, no.
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^ But, in retrospect, I regret that we felt that way and -- because it meant so much to him that we should have not worried about what all those strangers -- and there were many of them on the beach at that time.
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.Nixon himself did not speak out publicly on the abortion issue, but was personally pro-choice, and believed that, in certain cases such as rape, or an interracial child, abortion was an option.^ Because we believe that the public believes that the Eastern press really is what Agnew said it was—elitist, anti-Nixon and ultimately pro-McGovern.” [ Bernstein and Woodward, 1974, pp.

^ Day 1, Tape 4 01:26:18 [Richard Nixon] Did we run out?
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^ Marshall Goldman on Glastnost & speaking out on economy & other issues.
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[110]

U.S. space program

Nixon visits the Apollo 11 astronauts in quarantine.
.In 1969, Nixon's first year in office, the United States sent three men to the moon, becoming the first nation in the world to do so.^ President Nixon s Address to the Nation Resigning the Office of the Presidency - Pt 2 Nixon continues outlining achievements: We have unlocked the doors ...
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^ Nixon on TV to nation: I am today ordering a freeze on all prices & wages throughout the United States for a period of ninety days.
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^ Nixon speaks to United Nations: Since I took office as President nothing has taken so much of my time...as searching for an end to the war in Vietnam....we are prepared to withdraw all our troops...
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.On July 20, Nixon addressed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, two of the astronauts, live over radio during their historic Apollo 11 moonwalk.^ Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buz Aldrin suiting up.
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^ Telegram to the Apollo 11 Astronauts on the Eve of the Launch.

^ Crew of Apollo 11 on World Goodwill Tour including meeting w/ Pope Paul VI. 02:10:20 Project Apollo 12.
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Nixon also placed a telephone call to Armstrong on the moon, the longest distance phone call ever,[111] and called it "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House."[112] He observed their landing in the ocean from the deck of the aircraft carrier USS Hornet.[112] .All U.S. Project Apollo moon landings, and the attempted moon landing of Apollo 13, took place during Nixon's first term.^ One of our most important projects for 1970 is to see that our major contributors funnel all their funds through us,” Nixon writes.

^ Day 1, Tape 2 00:31:04 [Richard Nixon] He was the blonde, the first born in all of our -- it's interesting.
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^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:17:57 [Richard Nixon] Took place in Room Fourteen Hundred at the Commodore Hotel.
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.On January 5, 1972, Nixon approved the development of NASA's Space Shuttle program,[113] a decision that profoundly influenced American efforts to explore and develop space for several decades thereafter.^ Martin Luther King, Jr. [Source: Bettmann / Corbis] President Nixon, deep in planning for his 1972 re-election campaign, issues several orders regarding the campaign’s approach towards African-American voters.

^ NASA at Work - Moon Landing - 1969 Pre title montage - rocket launch - radar tracking - solar panels - Space flight - Shuttle.
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^ Dean also says that Nixon personally directed the White House’s efforts to counterattack the press over Watergate (see October 16-November, 1972 ).

.Under the Nixon administration, however, NASA's budget declined.^ These tapes, however, combined with the 40 million pages of documents which constitute his presidential papers will make Nixon's administration the best documented in U.S. history.
  • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nixon administration revamps the Bureau of the Budget into the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

^ Kissinger Argues that Leak is a Threat to Nixon's Administration - However, Kissinger is furious, yelling to his staff: “This will destroy American credibility forever.

[114] .NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine was drawing up ambitious plans for the establishment of a permanent base on the Moon by the end of the 1970s and the launch of a manned expedition to Mars as early as 1981. Nixon, however, rejected this proposal.^ By doing so, Nixon intends to ensure the GOP will field candidates suitably loyal to him, and reliably opposed to the GOP’s traditional Eastern Establishment base that Nixon so resents.

^ Why did Richard Nixon begin a planned cover-up of those activities of Gordon Strachan?
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^ NASA at Work - Moon Landing - 1969 Pre title montage - rocket launch - radar tracking - solar panels - Space flight - Shuttle.
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[115]
On May 24, 1972, Nixon approved a five-year cooperative program between NASA and the Soviet space program, culminating in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a joint-mission of an American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in 1975.[116]

Indo-Pakistani War

.A conflict broke out in Pakistan in 1971 following independence demonstrations in East Pakistan; President Yahya Khan instructed the Pakistani Army to quell the riots, resulting in widespread human rights abuses.^ L-R Richard Nixon, President Aga Mohammad Yahya Khan & Pat Nixon applauding dancers as they pass.
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^ Nixon & Aga Mohammad Yahya Khan arrive along red carpet - Pakistani photographers - Pat Nixon & Aga Khan s wife following.
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^ President Reagan speaking to World Affairs Council dinner calling on USSR to comply w/ Helsinki Accords: Regional conflicts & human rights are closely intertwined; they are issues of moral conscience, they are issues of international security.
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.President Nixon liked Yahya personally, and credited him for helping to open a channel to China; accordingly, he felt obligated to support him in the struggle.^ Rumsfeld, who is also an assistant to President Nixon, takes Cheney with him to morning and afternoon meetings in the White House.

^ Exactly why Bloomberg felt it necessary to leave the GOP, and exactly what precludes him from taking a run at the presidency.

^ President Nixon wants to know if they are ready for him to edit the statement.
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[117] .There were limits to how far the U.S. could associate itself with Pakistan, however.^ Thus far, I think we’ve done the right things.” Colson could well be referring to the White House’s attempts to distance itself from the break-in.

[117] American public opinion was concerned with the atrocities[118] and the emigration of over 10 million people into India.[117]
Nixon relayed messages to Yahya, urging him to restrain Pakistani forces.[119] .His objective was to prevent a war and safeguard Pakistan's interests, though he feared an Indian invasion of West Pakistan that would lead to Indian domination of the sub-continent and strengthen the position of the Soviet Union,[120] which had recently signed a cooperation treaty with India.^ That's part of the Soviet Union's great objective, and we have to be on guard, in a responsible way, to see that people under their control, influenced by them, even innocently influenced, are not in government positions.
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^ If it is, I think we would have contributed to it during our administration by not only what we did with regard to China, but what we did with regard to a different relationship with the Soviet Union.
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^ I think he was more interested, incidentally, in getting God out of the Soviet Union than the Jews.
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.Nixon felt that the Soviet Union was inciting the country.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
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^ President Nixon uses the incident to challenge the Soviet Union, warning the Soviets not to intervene if the US moves to prevent Syrian tanks from entering Jordan.

^ They shake hands as Nixon says it will be sent over the Soviet Union.
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[119]
.Nixon met with Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and did not believe her assertion that she would not invade Pakistan;[121] he did not trust her and once referred to her as an "old witch".[122] On December 3, Yahya attacked the Indian Air Force and Gandhi retaliated, pushing into East Pakistan.^ Nixon children into Air Force One and plane leaving.
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^ Richard & Pat Nixon on red carpet - farewells to Ceausescu, Maurer et al; then up steps & into Air Force One.
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^ Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn seated in FG. 11:04:53 01-02Aug69 Lahore, Pakistan Richard & Pat Nixon & others stand for anthems.
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[123] .Nixon issued a statement blaming Pakistan for starting the conflict and blaming India for escalating it[123] because he favored a cease-fire.^ The White House issues an official statement claiming Nixon had no prior knowledge of the Watergate affair.

^ If, as he wrote, the tapes reveal much of Richard Nixon, then these issues make a similar statement about Stanley Kutler's professionalism.
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[124] .The United States was secretly encouraging the shipment of military equipment from Iran, Turkey, and Jordan to Pakistan, reimbursing those countries[125] despite Congressional objections.^ If worse comes to worse, bearing in mind the main objectives stated above, those involved in the Watergate affair should be considered expendable in the best interests of the country.

^ Why is the population of the United States, as wealthy as this nation is, not as healthy as the population of Britain, France, Canada, and 33 other countries?

^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
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[126] A cease fire was reached on December 16 and Bangladesh was created.[127]

China

President Nixon shakes hands with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai upon arriving in Beijing
Relations between the Western powers and Eastern Bloc changed dramatically in the early 1970s. .In 1960, the People's Republic of China publicly split from its main ally, the Soviet Union, in the Sino-Soviet Split.^ Chinese People s Republic, audience, LS stage, representative of China s Academy of Science, reads news about USSR space achievement, applause.
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^ That's part of the Soviet Union's great objective, and we have to be on guard, in a responsible way, to see that people under their control, influenced by them, even innocently influenced, are not in government positions.
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^ If it is, I think we would have contributed to it during our administration by not only what we did with regard to China, but what we did with regard to a different relationship with the Soviet Union.
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.As tension along the border between the two communist nations reached its peak in 1969 and 1970, Nixon decided to use their conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War.^ Nixon and Kennedy together Cold War .
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^ The first stage of the bombing, “Operation Breakfast,” is productive enough to lead Nixon to predict the war in Vietnam will be over by 1970.

^ Between 1969 and 1974: Nixon Expresses Disregard for Civilian Casualties in Vietnam .

[128]
.Nixon had begun entreating China a mere month into office by sending covert messages of rapprochement through Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania[129] and Yahya Khan of Pakistan[130] in December 1970. He reduced many trade restrictions between the two countries, and silenced anti-China voices within the White House.^ President Nicolae Ceausescu toasting Nixon.
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^ But he had a line within the White House, and he said that his source within the White House was in the Oval Office.
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^ Many in the Nixon White House had privately withdrawn their support for Gray.

.In April 1971, the Chinese table tennis team invited the American table tennis team to attend a demonstration competition for a week in China.^ Remarks to Members of the Table Tennis Team From the People's Republic of China.

[131] .The invitation came upon the order of Mao Zedong himself, who had taken note of Nixon's "subtle overtures" to improve U.S.-Chinese relations, including the conflict in Pakistan.^ (Agnew has not made himself popular by attacking Nixon’s recent overtures to the Communist Chinese and complaining to anyone who would listen about his “poor” treatment at the hands of Nixon and his aides.

^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:35:10 [Richard Nixon] Yeah, but who -- [Action note: Screen goes black.
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^ And Bill Adelson , a big hulking fellow, a lawy -- who later became a lawyer in Maryland, came by, and he says, "Nixon", he said, "what's the matter?
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[131] .This was significant in that the fifteen-member table tennis team were allowed to enter mainland China after a period of over twenty years in which Americans, except on very rare occasions, had been denied visas[132] (the term "ping pong diplomacy" arose from this encounter).^ Ping-pong / table tennis match, gymnastic display.
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^ Well, he was very young-looking, and of course he was about three years younger than I. I was thirty-three by that time, and he was about twenty-nine or so.
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^ During this period we had eight years of a true conservative presidency, twelve years of center-right presidencies, and eight years of a nominally liberal presidency during which nothing very liberal occurred in the realm of domestic policy.

[133]
Chinese Premier Chou En-lai, through Pakistani intermediaries, had relayed a message to Nixon reading: "The Chinese government reaffirms its willingness to receive publicly in Peking a special envoy of the president of the United States, or the U.S. secretary of state, or even the president himself."[134] Nixon sent then-National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger on a secret mission to China in July, 1971, to arrange a visit by the president and first lady.[134] Soon, the world was stunned to learn that Nixon intended to visit Communist China the following year.[135]
President Nixon greets Chinese Party Chairman Mao Zedong (left) in a historic visit to the People's Republic of China, 1972.
In February 1972, President and Mrs. Nixon traveled to China, where the president was to engage in direct talks with Mao and Chou. Kissinger briefed Nixon for over forty hours in preparation.[136] .Upon touching down, the President and First Lady emerged from Air Force One and greeted Chou.^ Nixon children into Air Force One and plane leaving.
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^ Richard & Pat Nixon on red carpet - farewells to Ceausescu, Maurer et al; then up steps & into Air Force One.
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^ Boarding plane & inside Air Force One (Spirt of 76) w/ Kissinger.
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According to Nixon biographer Stephen Ambrose:
."[Nixon] knew that when his old friend John Foster Dulles had refused to shake the hand of Chou En-lai in Geneva in 1954, Chou had felt insulted.^ Nixon shakes hand of motorcycle policeman.
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^ Mrs John Foster Dulles shakes hands with King.
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^ Nixon shaking hands.
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He knew too that American television cameras would be at the Beijing airport to film his arrival. .A dozen times on the way to Peking, Nixon told Kissinger and Secretary of State William Rogers that they were to stay on the plane until he had descended the gangway and shaken Zhou Enlai's hand.^ She saw it, she told me, half a dozen times.
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^ We must destroy them!” Kissinger is not only referring to the Times, but Defense Secretary Melvin Laird and Secretary of State William Rogers, whom he believes leaked the information to the Times in order to discredit him.

^ Kissinger on plane talking about how Nixon conducts business in understated way, ...His impact on foreign policy wilil be historic, no matter what happens.
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.As added insurance, a Secret Service agent blocked the aisle of Air Force One to make sure the president emerged alone."^ Nixon children into Air Force One and plane leaving.
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^ Reagan boarding Air Force One & waving & saluting, plane taxiing & turning (GOOD Reagan leaving).
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^ It was one of the Air Force DC-3s, it reminded me of my days in the Pacific.
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[137]
Over one hundred television journalists accompanied the president. .On Nixon's orders, television was strongly favored over printed publications, as it would capture the trip's visuals much better while snubbing the print journalists Nixon despised.^ June 15, 1971: Nixon Demands Injunction to Stop Publication of Pentagon Papers, Orders Investigation .

^ Day 1, Tape 4 01:01:28 [Richard Nixon] Johnson -- Johnson would have been -- frankly, Johnson would have been much better had he been Johnson.
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[137]
.Nixon and Kissinger were soon summoned to an hour-long meeting with Mao and Zhou at Mao's official private residence, where they discussed a range of issues.^ Meeting w/ Nixon, Chou, Kissinger etc.
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^ Others Informed - The plans are finalized by Nixon and Kissinger, with Rebozo sitting in on the discussion.

^ He and Assistant Attorney General Henry Petersen meet with President Nixon, and tell the president that they both believe White House officials as well as officials of his re-election campaign are involved in the cover-up conspiracy.

[138] .Mao later told his doctor that he had been impressed by Nixon, who was forthright, unlike the leftists and the Soviets.^ Dean and his supporters paint Dean as a White House loyalist who merely did what he was told, until he began agonizing over the effect Watergate was having on Nixon.

^ Dean has told investigators that later Nixon insisted he had been merely “joking” about the payoff.

^ And Bill Adelson , a big hulking fellow, a lawy -- who later became a lawyer in Maryland, came by, and he says, "Nixon", he said, "what's the matter?
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[138] He also said he was suspicious of Kissinger,[138] though the National Security Advisor referred to their meeting as his "encounter with history."[137] A formal banquet welcoming the presidential party was conducted that evening in the Great Hall of the People. .The following day, Nixon met with Chou; during this meeting he stated that he believed “there is one China, and Taiwan is a part of China.”[139][140][141] When not in meetings, Nixon toured architectural wonders including the Forbidden City, Ming Tombs, and the Great Wall.^ Nixon & party walk on Great Wall.
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^ Nixon in China toasting & meeting w/ Chou Enlai & others; touring Great Wall.
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^ Meeting w/ Nixon, Chou, Kissinger etc.
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[137] .Americans received their first glance into China via Pat Nixon, who toured the city of Beijing and visited communes, schools, factories, and hospitals accompanied by the American media.^ Doing his I-can't-believe-it act, Moore grills Americans and locals in each country who relate stories of receiving quality care for no payments.

^ Day 1, Tape 5 00:09:06 [Frank Gannon] That's the man who brought Richard Nixon into politics.
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^ One of his last actions as vice president is to visit Nixon, who assures him that he is doing the right thing.

[137]
The visit ushered in a new era of Sino-American relations.[56] .Fearing the possibility of a Sino-American alliance, the Soviet Union yielded to American pressure for détente.^ Is a Sino-Soviet rapproachment possible, and are we doing the right things to prevent it now?
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[142]

Soviet Union

.Nixon used the improving international environment to address the topic of nuclear peace.^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ [Nixon - Address to the Nation Making Public A Plan For Peace In Vietnam, 25Jan72] White House ext.
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.Following his successful visit to China, the Nixon administration drew up plans for the president to visit the Soviet Union.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
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^ Nixon administration was a participant or observer in the following events: .

^ They shake hands as Nixon says it will be sent over the Soviet Union.
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The President and First Lady arrived in Moscow on May 22, 1972.[143]
Nixon meets with Brezhnev during the Soviet Leader's trip to the U.S. in 1973
.Nixon met with Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev, and engaged in intense negotiations regarding international issues[143] with his Soviet counterpart.^ Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev, 1972.

^ [Source: London Times] President Richard Nixon and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the SALT I arms limitation agreement (see November 17, 1969 ).

^ And I said, "Well, if we don't do something about this, then I'll be going to the Soviet Union and be negotiating with Brezhnev with North Vietnamese tanks rumbling through the streets of Saigon.
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[56] .Out of this "summit meeting" came agreements for increased trade and two landmark arms control treaties: SALT I, the first comprehensive limitation pact signed by the two superpowers,[56] and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which banned the development of systems designed to intercept incoming missiles.^ Signing of agreements, including trade.
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^ Shaking hands after signing arms treaty.
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^ We had limited funds and the -- at one time somebody came in and took a whole lot of our -- of our campaign literature out, and then came in and took out some more.
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.Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence" and established groundbreaking new policy of détente (or cooperation) between the two superpowers.^ President Nixon Announces Visit to China Nixon speaking to the nation re reasons for going to China: world peace & more normal relations between two countries.
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^ Ornate chandelier, Brezhnev & Nixon signing agreement for Peace.
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^ Brezhnev & Nixon at table, sign cooperation agreement, other government leaders present incl.
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Détente would replace the hostility of the Cold War and the two countries would enjoy peaceful relations. A banquet was held that evening at the Kremlin.[143]
.Nixon extended the Nixon Doctrine from Vietnam to his policy toward the Soviet Union, believing that helping Iran become stronger would check the Soviets' power.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
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^ If it is, I think we would have contributed to it during our administration by not only what we did with regard to China, but what we did with regard to a different relationship with the Soviet Union.
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^ Such people would have a right to say that I and many like me took too long to see what was going on in the Soviet Union, but, whatever our mistakes, I do not believe we did our country any harm, and I think they did".
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[144] .To win American friendship, both China and the Soviet Union cut back on their diplomatic support for North Vietnam and advised Hanoi to come to terms.^ Now, let s look at the future: As you can see from the progress we have made to date & by this announcement tonight, the American involvement in Vietnam is coming to an end...
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^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
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^ As a result, the Soviets said, "You're not going to do that to us", and they cut back.
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[145][146][147] Nixon laid out his strategy:
"I had long believed that an indispensable element of any successful peace initiative in Vietnam was to enlist, if possible, the help of the Soviets and the Chinese. .Though rapprochement with China and détente with the Soviet Union were ends in themselves, I also considered them possible means to hasten the end of the war.^ If it is, I think we would have contributed to it during our administration by not only what we did with regard to China, but what we did with regard to a different relationship with the Soviet Union.
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^ I was, too, frankly, busy trying to handle the foreign policy problems that we had dealing with the Soviet Union at the very highest level, dealing with China, delling -- dealing with the Mideast, and, of course, the primary concern, at least for the first four years, of ending the war in Vietnam in an honorable way.
  • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It did not mean, as it did later, that it was related to control by and supported by a foreign power and a potential enemy, the Soviet Union.
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At worst, Hanoi was bound to feel less confident if Washington was dealing with Moscow and Beijing. .At best, if the two major Communist powers decided that they had bigger fish to fry, Hanoi would be pressured into negotiating a settlement we could accept."^ When they came into power, they'd have dictatorship.
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^ As -- as they identified with independence, when they come into power, they imposed Communist colonialism, which was worse than the colonialism before.
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^ Second point, when you have two major powers, believe me, if war comes between two major powers like China and Russia, it cannot be contained.
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[148]
.Having made great progress over the last two years in U.S.-Soviet relations, Nixon planned a second trip to the Soviet Union in 1974.[149] He arrived in Moscow on June 27 to a welcome ceremony, cheering crowds, and a state dinner at the Grand Kremlin Palace that evening.^ We have opened the new relation with the Soviet Union...
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^ This information can be very helpful both while you are planning your trip, as well as when you are packing for your visit to Richard Nixon Presidential Library.
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^ INT Nixon arrives at state dinner [dark].
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[149] .Nixon and Brezhnev met in Yalta, where they discussed a proposed mutual defense pact, détente, and MIRVs.^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:17:04 [Richard Nixon] Well, I was proposing from the moment I met her.
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^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:21:25 [Richard Nixon] And so there they met before the television cameras.
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.While he considered proposing a comprehensive test-ban treaty, Nixon felt that it would take far too long to accomplish.^ Ehrlichman has Mitchell fly to Washington to hear Nixon’s proposal, but Mitchell refuses to take the entire fall.

^ President Nixon s Address to the Nation Resigning the Office of the Presidency - Pt 1 Throughout the long and difficult period of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to...
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^ St Vladimir Hall, Nixon & Brezhnev walk down stairs, take seats at table & sign Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT 1).
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[149] There were not any significant breakthroughs in these negotiations.[149]

1972 presidential campaign

.Nixon entered his name on the New Hampshire primary ballot on January 5, 1972, effectively announcing his candidacy for reelection.^ Letter Announcing Candidacy for Renomination and Reelection.

[150] .Largely assured the Republican nomination,[151] the President had expected his Democratic opponent to be Senator Ted Kennedy,[152] but Senator Edmund Muskie instead became the front runner, with Senator George McGovern in a close second place.^ I want all of you to know...I want Senator Kennedy to know & I want all of you to know that if this trend does continue & he does become our next President he will have my support and yours too.
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^ McGovern says he cannot see how any senator can ever again permit the president to make any foreign policy decisions without first going through Congress.

^ Martinez is dismayed to find that Hunt has two operations planned for the evening, one for the DNC and one for the campaign offices of Democratic candidate George McGovern.

[150] Though Muskie defeated McGovern in the New Hampshire primary, his showings were poorer in Florida and he soon ended his campaign.[151] .Alabama Governor George Wallace entered the race as an Independent; popular in Florida, he would create havoc among the Democrats and boost Nixon's campaign.^ [Source: Public domain] President Nixon is intent on knocking Alabama governor George Wallace, a segregationist Democrat, out of the 1972 elections.

^ President Nixon orders chief of staff H. R. Haldeman to finalize the creation of a second secret campaign fund (see February 17, 1969 ).

^ Martinez is dismayed to find that Hunt has two operations planned for the evening, one for the DNC and one for the campaign offices of Democratic candidate George McGovern.

[153]
Nixon campaigns during the 1972 presidential campaign
Prominent issues of the early campaign included school busing and heated relations between the three branches of the government. .Nixon addressed the nation on March 16 about the school busing issue, reiterating that it was wrong to force a child onto a school bus and that busing lowered the quality of education.^ In a conversation with National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger about civilian casualties in Vietnam, US President Richard Nixon says, “I don’t give a damn.

^ Day 1, Tape 5 00:31:16 [Frank Gannon] I'll ask you about the debates, and then about the house meetings, and then -- Day 1, Tape 5 00:31:19 [Richard Nixon] Right.
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^ So, how about FIRST, before we get into terms (or doctors or patients)....we start with a GLENN LEMON- "I was wrong, they DO practice rationing in rich nations.

[151] .He announced the Equal Education Opportunities bill that would seek a moratorium on local school busing;[154] the bill later passed.^ Address to the Nation on Equal Educational Opportunities and School Busing.

^ Special Message to the Congress on Equal Educational Opportunities and School Busing.

^ Remarks on School Busing in Connection With the Education Amendments of 1972.

.Vietnam was still ongoing, though Nixon had reduced troop levels dramatically.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:28:05 [Richard Nixon] -- and you're still walking around, even though you may be dead.
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^ Vietnam troops; Nixon shaking hands w/ Blacks; in hospital; against pollution; crime; meeting in Oval office.
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On June 10, McGovern won the California primary and secured the Democratic nomination.[155] .The following month, Nixon was renominated at the 1972 Republican National Convention.^ Chisholm will run an unsuccessful campaign for president in 1972 [ Jo Freeman, 2/2005 ] , but it is not known whether her campaign receives any money from Republicans as Nixon suggests.

^ Nixon wants to have a campaign committee for his re-election set up outside the Republican National Committee, and with separate, independent financing.

^ However, Republican presidential candidate Richard Nixon wanted to name the Chief Justice himself, if he won the national election.

He dismissed the Democratic platform as cowardly and divisive.[156] .Nixon was ahead in most polls for the entire election cycle, and was reelected that November in one of the largest landslide election victories in U.S. political history.^ The purpose of this particular fund is to support candidates in the November 1970 midterm elections that Nixon believes are loyal to him.

^ [Source: New York University] Republican presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon defeats Democratic challenger Hubert H. Humphrey in one of the closest elections in modern history.

^ New York Times headline for Nixon election victory.

He defeated McGovern with over 60% of the popular vote, losing only in Massachusetts and the District of Columbia.[157]
.Nixon's victory made him the first former Vice President since Thomas Jefferson to win two terms as President.^ Rumsfeld, who is also an assistant to President Nixon, takes Cheney with him to morning and afternoon meetings in the White House.

^ Vice President Nixon speaking at mics at unveiling of X-15.
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^ Burger was named months before by newly elected president Richard Nixon after two earlier candidates, former Eisenhower attorney general Herbert Brownell and former GOP presidential candidate Thomas Dewey, turned down the job.

.Nixon and Franklin Roosevelt are the only candidates in U.S. history to appear on five presidential tickets for a major party.^ [Source: New York University] Republican presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon defeats Democratic challenger Hubert H. Humphrey in one of the closest elections in modern history.

^ Agnew, a conservative Maryland Republican with a long history of racial repression, ethnic jokes, and racial slurs in his record, appealed to conservative Southern voters as Richard Nixon’s vice presidential candidate in 1968 and 1972 (see 1969-1971 ).

^ Econo Lodge Downey 17.00 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 67.99 - 149.99 ) Centrally located in the heart of Downey and only minutes from several major Los Angeles freeways, i...
  • Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda, CA, California hotels 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Second term

Nixon is sworn in for a second term in 1973
.On October 10, 1973, Vice President Agnew resigned, amid charges of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering from his tenure as Maryland's governor.^ All of this has made Nixon unwilling to spend a lot of political capital in defending Agnew from bribery charges (see April 10, 1973 ).

^ [Source: Texas State Archives] President Nixon, disenchanted with Vice President Spiro Agnew’s ability to deliver electoral results and his negative public persona, decides to press Agnew to resign his post.

^ Statement of the Vice President of the United States on Democratic Tax Program, Brooklyn, NY .

.Nixon chose Representative Gerald Ford, Republican Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, to replace Agnew.^ [Source: Oyez.org] After the second of President Richard Nixon’s conservative Supreme Court nominees is rejected by Congress (see May 14, 1969 ), House Minority Leader Gerald Ford (R-MI) leads an unsuccessful fight to impeach Justice William O. Douglas.

^ Mid-1971: Nixon Tries to Replace Agnew with Connally .

[158]

Continuation of economic changes

.After he won reelection, Nixon found that inflation was increasing, and the legislation authorizing price controls expired April 30, 1973. The Senate Democratic Caucus recommended a 90-day freeze on all profits, interest rates, and prices.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:20:19 [Richard Nixon] Oh, not at all, not at all, because I've never been one of those charisma nuts.
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^ Whittier, CA 90604 12.09 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 68.01 - 78.01 ) 2 Star -Welcome to the Days Inn Whittier, CA. We offer quality accommodations at an affordable price.
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^ March 20-30, 1972: Nixon Confirms Plan to Bug Democrats .

[84] .Nixon re-imposed price controls in June 1973, echoing his 1971 plan, as food prices rose; this time, he focused on agricultural exports and limited the freeze to 60 days.^ Nixon on TV to nation: I am today ordering a freeze on all prices & wages throughout the United States for a period of ninety days.
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^ The New York Times publishes its third installment of the “Pentagon Papers” (see June 13, 1971 and June 14, 1971 ).

^ Day 1, Tape 2 00:03:13 [Richard Nixon] You're not going to get to his death yet?
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[84]
.The price controls became unpopular with the public and businesspeople, who saw powerful labor unions as preferable to the price board bureaucracy.^ It did not mean, as it did later, that it was related to control by and supported by a foreign power and a potential enemy, the Soviet Union.
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[84] .Business owners, however, now saw the controls as permanent rather than temporary, and voluntary compliance decreased.^ We went -- we saw "Tobacco Road" , and I must say that I didn't realize that you could have that kind of profanity and that kind of rather -- that rather obvious sexual-related things and get away with it, but in New York you can get away with anything now, even more so than then.
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[84] .The controls produced food shortages, as meat disappeared from grocery stores and farmers drowned chickens rather than sell them at a loss.^ "Underwriting" payouts for losses is a/THE key component which you suggest be apportioned to three big "competitors" rather than have the "gumment" (bless you Molly Ivins!

^ And, anyway, the -- she also -- she also was very good at cakes and her specialty, rather than devil's food, was angel's food, which I guess is also something, too.
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[84] .The controls were slowly ended, and by April 30, 1974, the control authority from Congress had lapsed.^ Congress and the press learn of the invasion on April 30.

[84] .However, the controls on oil and natural gas prices persisted for several years.^ Be it cutting refining capacity to control gas prices and keep record profits in the oil industry, or: .

[80] .Nixon also dramatically increased spending on federal employees' salaries while the economy was plagued by the 1973–1974 stock market crash.^ All of this has made Nixon unwilling to spend a lot of political capital in defending Agnew from bribery charges (see April 10, 1973 ).

[159]
.In his 1974 State of the Union address, Nixon called for comprehensive health insurance.^ A new report from the American Medical Association documented the increasing consolidation of the US health insurance market, if that is what it should be called.

^ [Ike State of the Union Address to Congress, 1955] 06Jan55 Congress stands and applauds as Eisenhower arrives and makes his way to the podium.
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^ Nixon 1971 State of the Union speech: Let us share our resources; let s share them to rescue the states & localities from the brink of financial crisis...
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[160] .On February 6, 1974, he introduced the Comprehensive Health Insurance Act.^ Radio Address About a Proposed Comprehensive Health Insurance Plan.

^ Special Message to the Congress Proposing a Comprehensive Health Insurance Plan .

.Nixon's plan would have mandated employers to purchase health insurance for their employees, and in addition provided a federal health plan, similar to Medicaid, that any American could join by paying on a sliding scale based on income.^ Moore opens the movie by looking at two cases involving Americans who don't have health insurance.

^ A former employee at a health insurance sales centers cries as she talks about how she was trained to handle prospective clients who might be health risks.

^ That means in addition to having the most enrollees, they're also the biggest purchasers of health care and can dictate prices and coverage terms."

[160][161][162] .The New York Daily News writes that Ted Kennedy rejected the universal health coverage plan offered by Nixon because it wasn't everything he wanted it to be.^ He reviewed each plan in his column published by the New York times.

^ [Source: New York University] Republican presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon defeats Democratic challenger Hubert H. Humphrey in one of the closest elections in modern history.

^ New York Times, 9/19/1996 ; Time, 9/30/1996 ] Interestingly, while many Americans celebrate Agnew’s rhetoric, few want him as a successor to the presidency.

Kennedy later realized it was a missed opportunity to make major progress toward his goal.[163]

Yom Kippur War and 1973 oil crisis

.The Nixon administration supported Israel, a powerful American ally in the Middle East, during the Yom Kippur War.^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:46:47 [Richard Nixon] Very significantly, particularly during the period of the -- of -- of World War II , when we were allies.
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^ There shall be no...I am trying to show the American people what has been the result to them, abroad & at home, of an administration that has been too long in power.
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^ February 22, 1969: Nixon Says US Backs Israel but Must Prevent Soviet Expansion into Middle East .

.When an Arab coalition led by Egypt and Syria attacked in October 1973, Israel suffered initial losses and pressed European powers for help, but (with the exception of the Netherlands) the Europeans responded with inaction.^ Letter to Prime Minister Golda Meir of Israel About Arab Terrorist Attack at Ma'alot, Israel.

Nixon cut through inter-departmental squabbles and bureaucracy to initiate an airlift of American arms. .By the time the U.S. and the Soviet Union negotiated a truce, Israel had penetrated deep into enemy territory.^ And I said, "Well, if we don't do something about this, then I'll be going to the Soviet Union and be negotiating with Brezhnev with North Vietnamese tanks rumbling through the streets of Saigon.
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^ It did not mean, as it did later, that it was related to control by and supported by a foreign power and a potential enemy, the Soviet Union.
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^ February 22, 1969: Nixon Says US Backs Israel but Must Prevent Soviet Expansion into Middle East .

A long-term effect was the movement of Egypt away from the Soviets toward the U.S. But Israel's victory came at the cost to the U.S. of the 1973 oil crisis; the members of OPEC decided to raise oil prices in response to the American support of Israel.[164]
.After Nixon chose to go off the gold standard, foreign countries increased their currency reserves in anticipation of currency fluctuation, which caused deflation of the dollar and other world currencies.^ August 15, 1971: Nixon Takes US Dollar off Gold Standard .

^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ The dollar becomes a fiat currency, causing a brief international panic before other countries follow suit and also allow their currencies to “float.” [ New York Times, 8/16/1971, pp.

Since oil was paid for in dollars, OPEC was receiving less value for their product. .They cut production and announced price hikes as well as an embargo targeted against the United States and the Netherlands, specifically blaming U.S. support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War for the actions.^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
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^ Mitchell argues that disclosing the information would cause “irreparable injury to the defense interests of the United States,” and claims that the publication is in violation of laws against espionage.

^ Statement Announcing Procedures for Providing Presidential Tape Recordings and Documents to the United States District Court .

[165]
.On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 miles per hour (90 km/h) to conserve gasoline during the crisis.^ Nixon signing bill.
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^ Comfort Inn Monrovia 19.55 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 89.99 - 179.99 ) Outdoor seasonal pool.
  • Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda, CA, California hotels 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

^ Little Boy Blue Motel 7.97 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 55.00 - 55.00 ) Welcome to the Little Boy Blue Motel in Anaheim.
  • Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda, CA, California hotels 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

[166] This law was repealed in 1995, though states had been allowed to raise the limit to 65 miles per hour in rural areas since 1987.[167][168]

Watergate

Nixon bids farewell to his staff, August 9, 1974, as First Lady Pat Nixon and the rest of his family look on.
.The term Watergate has come to encompass an array of illegal and secret activities undertaken by the Nixon administration.^ To the reporters, the Segretti story opens up speculation that the Nixon campaign had undertaken political espionage efforts long before the Watergate burglary.

^ Part of the meeting concerns the dissemination of secret campaign funds to a variety of campaigns with candidates considered friendly to the Nixon administration (see December 1, 1969 ).

^ Hoover says he will not share FBI intelligence with other agencies, and will not authorize any illegal activities without President Nixon’s personal, written approval.

.The activities became known in the aftermath of five men being caught breaking into Democratic party headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972.[169] The Washington Post picked up on the story, while reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward relied on an FBI informant known as "Deep Throat" to link the men to the Nixon White House.^ The three tell their story to Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein in late September 1972, and Bernstein’s colleague Bob Woodward learns more from his FBI source, “Deep Throat,” days later (see October 7, 1972 and October 9, 1972 ).

^ June 17, 1972: Five ‘Plumbers’ Caught Burglarizing Democratic Offices in Watergate Hotel .

^ Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein asks a former Nixon administration official about some of the White House officials who may have connections to the Watergate burglary (see 2:30 a.m.June 17, 1972 ).

[169] .This became one of a series of scandalous acts involving the Committee to Re-Elect the President.^ President Nixon’s personal lawyer, Herbert Kalmbach, delivers over $900,000 in secret campaign contributions to the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP).

^ Mitchell is preparing to leave his post to head the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP—see March 1, 1972 ).

^ Herbert L. “Bart” Porter (see Fall 1970 - Early 1971 ) is promoted from his post on the White House’s Communications Directorate to the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP), as director of scheduling.

[169] .Nixon downplayed the scandal as mere politics, and his White House denounced the story as biased and misleading.^ Nixon addresses White House Staff.
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^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
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^ Rumsfeld, who is also an assistant to President Nixon, takes Cheney with him to morning and afternoon meetings in the White House.

[169] .As the FBI eventually confirmed that Nixon aides had attempted to sabotage the Democrats, many began resigning and senior aides faced prosecution.^ March 20-30, 1972: Nixon Confirms Plan to Bug Democrats .

^ Nixon knows that many senior military officials, as well as his Secretary of Defense, Melvin Laird, will oppose the operation, so he carefully keeps Laird ignorant of the invasion plans.

^ Nixon, Colson Plan Delays - Later the same day, Nixon meets with senior aide Charles Colson.

[169]
.Nixon's alleged role in ordering a cover-up came to light after the testimony of John Dean.^ John Dean s Testimony Before the Senate Watergate Committee - Pt 7 Tells of conversation where he tells Nixon the coverup is a cancer on the Presidency...
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^ The order apparently originates with President Nixon, or Nixon’s senior aide John Ehrlichman, and not Gray.

^ Nixon orders Kissinger to come up with a plan for bombing Cambodia.

[170] .In July 1973, White House aide Alexander Butterfield testified that Nixon had a secret taping system that recorded his conversations and phone calls in the Oval Office.^ But he had a line within the White House, and he said that his source within the White House was in the Oval Office.
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^ Nixon addresses White House Staff.
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^ Julie Eisenhower sitting in White House talking of Nixon s sensitivity.
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[170] .Unlike the tape recordings by earlier Presidents, Nixon's were subpoenaed.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:01:59 [Richard Nixon] He, incidentally, worked with me later when I was president.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 00:57:51 [Frank Gannon] What was the most critical small pot of the Nixon presidency?
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^ In a secretly recorded conversation in the Oval Office, President Nixon makes the following comments about Jewish contributors to the Democratic Party: “Please get the names of the Jews.

.The White House refused to release them, citing executive privilege.^ Herbert L. “Bart” Porter, a California business executive, joins the staff of the White House Director of Communications, Herb Klein.

[170] .A tentative deal was reached in which the White House would provide written summaries of the tapes, but this was rejected by Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox, a former member of the Kennedy administration.^ Tape damage 03:27:11 - 03:27:15 White House staff at balcony waving.
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^ Former New York Police Department detective Jack Caulfield begins his new job as a White House aide.

^ After Nixon’s victory, Chotiner will be named a special counsel for Nixon, joining Nixon’s White House staff.

[170] .Cox was fired at the White House's request and was replaced by Leon Jaworski, a former member of the Johnson administration.^ Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein asks a former Nixon administration official about some of the White House officials who may have connections to the Watergate burglary (see 2:30 a.m.June 17, 1972 ).

^ Former New York Police Department detective Jack Caulfield begins his new job as a White House aide.

^ Kissinger himself fears that his former association with Ellsberg will damage his own standing in the White House.

[170] .Jaworski revealed an audio tape of conversations held in the White House on June 20, 1972, which featured an unexplained 18½ minute gap.^ June 20, 1972: Colson: Blame CIA for Watergate .

^ June 20-21, 1972: Liddy, Other Burglars Demand Payoffs; Nixon Says Burglars ‘Going to Need Money’ .

^ June 27, 1971, and Beyond: Nixon Campaign ‘Agent Provocateur’ Funded by White House .

[170] .The first deleted section, of about five minutes, has been attributed to human error by Rose Mary Woods, the President's personal secretary, who admitted accidentally wiping the section while transcribing the tape.^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:58:49 [Richard Nixon] I've often thought about that question, and my answer is, at first, no.
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^ Nixon Believes Publication May Discredit Predecessors, Not Him - President Nixon, who is not mentioned in the papers, at first is not overly worried about the papers being made public, and feels they may actually do him more good than harm.

^ We can still tape for another forty-five minutes.
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.The gap, while not conclusive proof of wrong-doing by the President, cast doubt on Nixon's claim that he was unaware of the cover-up.^ President Nixon tries to come up with ways to use the recently leaked “Pentagon Papers” (see June 13, 1971 ) to his own advantage.

^ President Nixon explodes in fury at a Jewish Department of Labor official’s statement to the press about unemployment rates going up.

^ (Nixon has an unproductive phone conversation with Laird before his meeting with Kissinger; Nixon opened the phone call by calling Laird a “son of a b_tch,” and Laird hung up on the president.

[171]
Nixon displays the V-for-victory sign as he departs the White House after resigning
Though Nixon lost much popular support, including from some in his own party, he rejected accusations of wrongdoing and vowed to stay in office.[170] He insisted that he had made mistakes, but had no prior knowledge of the burglary, did not break any laws, and did not learn of the coverup until early 1973.[172] On November 17, 1973, during a televised question and answer session with the press,[171] Nixon said,
People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. .I've earned everything I've got.^ I've earned everything I've got."
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^ I've earned everything I've got.| .
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[173]
Problems listening to this file? See media help.
.In April 1974, Nixon announced the release of 1200 pages of transcripts of White House conversations between him and his aides.^ Nixon addresses White House Staff.
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^ President Nixon meets with his top military and national security aides at the Western White House in San Clemente, California.

^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
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[172] .Despite this, the House Judiciary Committee, controlled by Democrats, opened impeachment hearings against the President on May 9, 1974.[172] On July 24, the Supreme Court then ruled that the tapes must be released to Jaworski; one of the secret recordings, known as the Smoking Gun tape, was released on August 5, 1974, and revealed that Nixon knew of the cover-up from its inception and had administration officials try to stop the FBI's investigation.^ August 17, 1971: Nixon Orders FBI to Investigate Reporter .

^ The Washington Post reveals that the FBI investigated CBS reporter Daniel Schorr (see August 17, 1971 ).

^ Had the FBI agreed to investigate Ellsberg to the extent Nixon wanted, he would not have created the “Plumbers.” “The problem was that we [the FBI] wouldn’t burglarize” (see June 30-July 1, 1971 ), Felt will say.

[171] .In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of impeachment, Nixon resigned the office of the presidency on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening.^ President Nixon officially announces the end of the gold standard system of monetary policy for international exchange of gold deposits in an evening address to the country.

^ Hoover even refuses a direct request from President Nixon to back off on the finding of authenticity.

^ Though Nixon promises Connally an unprececented amount of power as vice president, even making him in essence “an alternate president,” Connally declines the position.

[172] .Nixon's resignation letter, addressed to Secretary of State Kissinger, consisted of one terse sentence: "I hereby resign the Office of President of the United States."^ Everett Dirksen to microphone introduces Chief Justice of Supreme Court Early Warren to administer oath of office to President Elect Richard Nixon.
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^ Stills of Nixon & Kissinger; Air Force One & Kissenger talking on board about difference of Nixon from what he expected & talks about what Nixon s done in terms of foreign policy.
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^ I can tell you that from my observations in each one of the countries we visited, that the great majority of the people...are friendly to the United States today (applause).
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The resignation speech was delivered on August 8, 1974, at 9:01 p.m. .Eastern time from the Oval Office of the White House and was carried live on radio and television.^ But he had a line within the White House, and he said that his source within the White House was in the Oval Office.
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^ And years later he came into government, and I saw him in the Oval Office at the White House.
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^ The New York Times called it, "The most comprehensive account of the White House's political machinations...fascinating reading."

.The core of the speech was Nixon's announcement that Gerald Ford, as Vice President, would succeed to the presidency, effective at noon Eastern time the next day.^ By that time, I was vice president.
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^ Nixon makes speech from dais.
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^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:34:47 [Frank Gannon] We should go to the top, with just the president and a -- next to the palm tree.
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.Around this announcement, he discussed his feelings about his presidential work and general political issues that would need attention once he left.^ "Conservatives, what is so terrible, so communist, so terrible, about just giving someone medical attention that they need.

^ And its slashing demand for action on an issue that voters care deeply about, and Democrats hope to capitalize on, generated plenty of buzz.

^ We were working so hard to get good grades so that we would get good jobs when we came out that we didn't spend much time talking politics that I can recall.
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He never admitted to criminal wrongdoing, although he conceded errors of judgment. .During the Watergate scandal, Nixon's approval rating fell to 23%.^ The Nixon White House will attempt to pin the blame for the Watergate conspiracy on the CIA, an attempt forestalled by McCord (see March 19-23, 1973 ).

[174] .On May 28, 2009, speaking to Republicans in Litchfield Beach, South Carolina, Ed Nixon said that his brother did not resign "in disgrace" but "resigned in honor.^ I pray that it may prove true for me as it did for my brother Arthur".
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^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:28:05 [Richard Nixon] -- and you're still walking around, even though you may be dead.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 00:39:27 [Frank Gannon] --or did you eat -- Day 1, Tape 4 00:39:28 [Richard Nixon] No.
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It was a disappointment to him because his missions were cut short." .He also said that his brother "held the office of president in high regard."^ As far as I was concerned, I've always said that what separates the men from the boys in politics is that -- is that the -- the boys want office, they want to be president in order to be somebody.
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^ He said that -- they came -- they had a portrait of me hanging in the office of the president, and he went in, and he told the reporters, "Every time we go in we bow at the picture".
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[175]

Judicial appointments

Nixon appointed the following justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: Warren E. Burger as Chief Justice in 1969, Harry Andrew Blackmun in 1970, Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. in 1972, and William Rehnquist later that year. .Along with his four Supreme Court appointments, Nixon appointed 46 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 181 judges to the United States district courts.^ Nixon on TV to nation: I am today ordering a freeze on all prices & wages throughout the United States for a period of ninety days.
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^ Executive Order 11517--Providing for the issuance and signature by the Secretary of State of warrants appointing agents to return fugitives from justice extradited to the United States .

^ Everett Dirksen to microphone introduces Chief Justice of Supreme Court Early Warren to administer oath of office to President Elect Richard Nixon.
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.Nixon formally nominated one person, Charles A. Bane, for a federal appellate judgeship, who was never confirmed.^ Nixon dismissive of local officials who he says grab off Federal grant money.
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^ And -- and -- and one particularly, very shocking, moving event -- I'll never forget it -- was when we talked to one young fellow who -- who told us about his sister.
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^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:20:19 [Richard Nixon] Oh, not at all, not at all, because I've never been one of those charisma nuts.
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Pardons

Nixon issued 926 pardons or commutations.[176] .Among notable cases were labor leader Jimmy Hoffa (sentence commuted on condition)[177] and mobster Angelo DeCarlo (convicted of extortion; served one and a half years; pardoned because of poor health).^ So one day when the lady came in and what she picked up, incidentally, was so small -- it was just a kleptomaniac problem, because they weren't poor, not by the standards of those days.
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^ He found in Donald's case, unfortunately, incipient tuberculosis, and Donald had to go to Arizona for one year with Harold before he recovered from that.
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^ How can one, for all these years, in the face of such overwhelming evidence and the conviction by a jury -- how can he do this?
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DeCarlo's pardon was later investigated, but no evidence was found of corruption.
.During his presidency, Nixon decided to grant clemency in over 20 percent of requests.^ Hoover even refuses a direct request from President Nixon to back off on the finding of authenticity.

^ News Review Of 1959 Vice-President Nixon touring US Fair in Moscow w/ Kruschev during visit to Russia.
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^ FBI director J. Edgar Hoover decides to wiretap Brandon after President Nixon, looking for National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, finds him at Brandon’s home.

[178]

Later life

Pardon and illness

.Following his resignation, the Nixons returned to their home La Casa Pacifica in San Clemente, California.^ Remarks Following a Meeting on Welfare Reform Proposals in San Clemente, California.

^ Remarks on Arrival in San Clemente, California.

^ Remarks at a Reception for General Secretary Brezhnev in San Clemente, California.

[179] .Nixon was said to be in seclusion for a number of days in his home, first experiencing shock and later persistent sadness.^ Day 1, Tape 1 00:02:06 [Frank Gannon] This is the first in a series of several tapings which will extend over several months and several hours with President Nixon.
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^ Day 1, Tape 1 00:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Well, curiously enough, my first memory is of running.
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^ I meant that you said yes to the -- Day 1, Tape 5 00:03:19 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I'm sorry.
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[180] On September 8, 1974, Ford granted him a "full, free, and absolute pardon". This ended any possibility of an indictment. Nixon then released a statement:
I was wrong in not acting more decisively and forthrightly in dealing with Watergate.... .No words can describe the depths of my regret and pain at the anguish of my mistakes over Watergate have caused the nation and presidency, a nation I so deeply love and an institution I so greatly respect.^ Remarks of Vice President Richard M. Nixon, National Telethon, ABC Network, Southfield, MI .

[181]
Within one month, Ford's approval rating dropped from 71% to 49%.[182] .Nixon later told a former aide that he felt he was chased out of office by "the establishment" in Washington and leftist elements in the media, as they considered him a mortal threat to their domination of national affairs.^ They wanted him to be considered just what he was.
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^ But, on the other hand, Joe Martin felt that they needed a -- a lawyer on the committee, and I was a young lawyer, and, as a matter of fact, as it turned out, on the Republican side, I was the only lawyer on the committee.
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^ DAVID CORN , the Washington editor of The Nation magazine, has spent years analyzing the policies and pursuing the lies that spew out of the nation's capital.

[183]
.As a result of Watergate, Nixon was disbarred by the state of New York.^ Day 1, Tape 4 00:26:27 [Richard Nixon] New York City.
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^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:18:02 [Richard Nixon] In New York.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 00:26:20 [Frank Gannon] Where -- where were you on V-J Day -- Day 1, Tape 4 00:26:25 [Richard Nixon] Oh, New York City.
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He had attempted to resign his license, but the state refused to let him do so unless he admitted wrongdoing in Watergate.[184] He later resigned his other law licenses, including one in California.[185]
.The evening of the pardon, Nixon experienced great pain in his lower left abdomen and his left leg had swollen to three times its normal size.^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:04:50 [Richard Nixon] I can remember all of them because they were great challenges at the time.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 01:15:42 [Richard Nixon] Around the world more times than I even choose to remember.
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^ Day 1, Tape 5 00:58:23 [Richard Nixon] Well, it's like going into a great cathedral for the first time.
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[186] It was determined that phlebitis, a condition which had afflicted Nixon the previous June, had recurred.[187] .Told that he would surely die if he did not go to a hospital, Nixon was taken to Long Beach Memorial Hospital.^ And Michael Moore, David Corn, Katrina vanden Heuvel, Hillary Clinton, and all the advocates (with cash) sure as hell won't be going to the public hospitals.

^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:29:51 [Richard Nixon] Well, I'm sure that both my mother and my grandmother -- grandmother disapproved, but they never told me that.
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^ Such people would have a right to say that I and many like me took too long to see what was going on in the Soviet Union, but, whatever our mistakes, I do not believe we did our country any harm, and I think they did".
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[188] It was discovered that a clot from his leg had broken off and traveled to his lung; to treat this, he was placed on an anti-coagulant intravenous machine.[188]
.While Nixon was hospitalized, Watergate special prosecutor Leon Jaworski subpoenaed him to testify before a trial regarding Watergate.^ John Dean s Testimony Before the Senate Watergate Committee - Pt 7 Tells of conversation where he tells Nixon the coverup is a cancer on the Presidency...
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[189] .Nixon's doctor, John Lungren, said that Nixon could not sustain a flight to Washington because of his condition, because he needed to avoid being seated for prolonged periods.^ Day 1, Tape 1 00:22:17 [Richard Nixon] My father, you know, as I said, he could do it all, and he was the barber, too.
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^ So I, by being a charter member, avoided that, because, believe me, initiations are no fun.
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^ He knew I was a great baseball fan because I used to go all the time, when I -- every time I could, in Washington, both as congressman, senator and vice president.
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[190] Nixon was released from the hospital on October 4 and soon filed a motion requesting the judge to revoke the subpoena,[190] which was rejected.[191] .Dr Lungren filed an affidavit, arguing that the well-being of the former president might be compromised by forcing him to appear at the trial.^ I was trying to find out what might have motivated Chambers, because Hiss 's defenders -- this is after Hiss denied that he knew him -- said, "Well, Chambers must have had a grudge against him.
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^ They liked him even better than they liked Herbert Hoover , who was, incidentally, a master of the media until he became president, when he didn't do as well.
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[192]
On October 23, Nixon was taken back to the hospital after a recurrence of swelling. Doctors found serious vascular blockages and a danger of gangrene;[193] it was feared that blood clots might break loose and travel to his heart or brain with lethal consequences.[193] An eighteen-inch blood clot was found in a vein leading to Nixon's heart.[193] Surgery was deemed necessary for his survival; he underwent a ninety-minute operation on October 29.[193] While recuperating, Nixon fainted, fell out of bed, and fell into a coma.[194] He underwent four blood transfusions in three hours and suffered severe internal bleeding, along with hypotension.[194] His family stayed by his side, while he was visited by Ford and telephoned by Mao Zedong.[194] He returned home on November 14. Three leading doctors sent by the judge in the Watergate trial evaluated Nixon's condition, and concluded that he was not able to testify.[195] The judge ruled that his testimony would not be necessary.[195]
Nixon joins Presidents Ronald Reagan, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter at the White House, 1981
By early 1975, Nixon's mental and physical health was improving.[196] .He maintained an office in a Coast Guard station 300 yards from his home, first taking a golf cart and later walking the route each day; he mainly worked on his memoirs.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:01:59 [Richard Nixon] He, incidentally, worked with me later when I was president.
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^ Informal Exchange With Reporters at the United States Coast Guard Station, Newport Beach, California.

[196] Nixon traveled extensively, both domestically and internationally. .He was a frequent CB Radio user, which Nixon was not allowed to use while in the White House for security reasons.^ Nixon addresses White House Staff.
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^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
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^ MCU Nixon & arrival of Bhutto & Mrs. Bhutto from limousine & into White House.
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.He took trips to Europe, the Middle East, Russia, Africa, and Asia.^ Ike speaks on Middle East situation - international communism - Russias desire to control Middle East - not oil but World domination.
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[179] .At the invitation of Mao Zedong, Nixon traveled to China in February 1976.[197] His trip was initially criticized, including by some within his own party, who argued that citizen-Nixon was conducting U.S. foreign policy.^ The Hiss case was considered by Hiss's supporters and defenders as being an attack on the whole elite establishment, an attack on the Foreign Service of the United States, an attack on those who were for the U.N., attack on the Roosevelt foreign policy.
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^ Nixon reads announcement of invitation to visit China before May 1972.
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^ Nixon in China - Part 1 Ziegler statement on China: announces that Nixon met with Chairman Mao.
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[197] .The well-publicized trip was deemed a success, however; upon his return, Nixon prepared a lengthy memorandum on his experiences that was sent to the White House.^ Nixon addresses White House Staff.
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^ Republican Presidential Candidates; Summer White House; NOTE: Nixon & Lodge were losing Republican candidates in Presidential election, November, 1960.
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^ MCU Nixon & arrival of Bhutto & Mrs. Bhutto from limousine & into White House.
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[197] .He would visit China four more times.^ President Nixon Announces Visit to China Nixon speaking to the nation re reasons for going to China: world peace & more normal relations between two countries.
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Rehabilitation

By 1977, Nixon began forming a public-relations comeback effort. .In August of that year, he met with British commentator David Frost, who paid him $600,000 for a series of sit-down interviews.^ Interview with sports coach - same type of comments - fine boy but just an average athlete - maybe won t make it through the year [and stay in team ?
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^ Incidentally, I met him many years later, in 1958, in Argentina.
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^ The second highest paid person was the CEO of another HMO who had been paid 600 million.

[198] .They began on the topic of foreign policy, recounting the leaders he had known, but the most remembered section of the interviews was that on Watergate.^ But they were the most extraordinary ordinary men I've ever known.
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^ I think they were very detrimental to the country, because they cast reflections on the Roosevelt foreign policy".
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^ I remember -- I think what I remember him most for was what he told Eisenhower very early on in one of the legislative leaders' meetings.
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Nixon admitted that he had "let down the country" and that "I brought myself down. I gave them a sword and they stuck it in. And they twisted it with relish. And, I guess, if I'd been in their position, I'd have done the same thing."[199] .Nixon did not admit to criminal wrongdoing, denied criminal intent,[200] and denied authorizing payment to the burglars as an incentive for them not to reveal information.^ A woman who was in a car crash is denied payment for an ambulance trip because she did not receive pre-approval for that cost.

[200] He was criticized at the time by some who opined that he should not be giving information to Frost that he had declined to give to federal courts.[201] .Nonetheless, the interviews became well known and were viewed widely across the world,[199] garnering between 45 and 50 million viewers and making them the most watched interviews in the history of television.^ Day 1, Tape 2 00:02:11 [Frank Gannon] We'll make -- we'll place television history.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 01:15:38 [Frank Gannon] Did you ever imagine that you would become the most traveled, air traveled, figure in world history?
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[202] .The encounters were the subject of the 2006 play Frost/Nixon, which later became a 2008 film.^ And Bill Adelson , a big hulking fellow, a lawy -- who later became a lawyer in Maryland, came by, and he says, "Nixon", he said, "what's the matter?
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.He soon published his memoirs, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon and a second book, The Real War.^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:46:47 [Richard Nixon] Very significantly, particularly during the period of the -- of -- of World War II , when we were allies.
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^ Day 1, Tape 1 01:05:59 [Richard Nixon] Well, the First World War, I have a vivid memory of when it ended, of Armistice Day.
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^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:15:30 [Richard Nixon] Years later, years later I asked Bill about it, and Bill said, "You know, you really pulled it off.
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These were the first of ten books he was to author in his retirement,[179] and their respective releases enabled Nixon to further his comeback effort by partaking in book tours. .The Nixons moved to New York City in February 1980 to be closer to their family.^ Bloomberg has done an incredibly good job of running New York City .

^ As The New York Times points out, "Canada has moved informally to a two-tier, public-private system.

^ Mayor Bloomberg would have more support from New York City voters in a bid to become governor than to become president.

.When the former Shah of Iran died in Egypt in July 1980, Nixon defied President Jimmy Carter's State Department by attending the funeral.^ President Nixon & President Aga Mohammad Yahya Khan arrive w/ wives at presidential palace state dinner.
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^ State visit to Iran, Nixon & Shah reza Pahlavi waving from open top car.
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^ President & Mrs Nixon w/ Russian hosts attend Bolshoi ballet.
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[203] He supported Ronald Reagan for president in 1980, making numerous television appearances portraying himself as, in biographer Steven Ambrose's words, "the senior statesman above the fray."[204] He wrote guest articles for numerous publications and participated in many television interviews.[205] .After 18 months in the New York City townhouse, Nixon and his wife moved to Saddle River, New Jersey in 1981.[179] Throughout the 1980s, Nixon maintained a routine schedule of speaking engagements and writing,[179] traveled, and met with many foreign leaders, especially those of Third World countries.^ New York is -- of course, it was a very cold city in many ways.
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^ Nixon with wife Pat, two daughters and mother - speaks with journalists re how hard it will be to follow in Eisenhower s footsteps.
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^ And he used to regale us with stories about New York City, and from that time I wanted to go to New York.
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.He joined former Presidents Ford and Carter as representatives of the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat.^ Executive Order 11649--Regulations governing the seals of the President and the Vice President of the United States .

^ Does that mean that a great orchestra playing for the inauguration of a president of the United States didn't want to play it?
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^ Excerpts of Remarks of the Vice President of the United States, Prepared for Delivery at the Airport, Schenectady, NY .

[179] On a trip to the Middle East, Nixon made his views known regarding Saudi Arabia and Libya, which attracted significant U.S. media attention; The Washington Post ran stories on Nixon's "rehabilitation."[206] He later embarked on journeys to Japan, China, and the Soviet Union.[179] .On his return from the Soviet Union, Nixon sent President Ronald Reagan a lengthy memorandum that contained foreign policy suggestions and his personal impressions of Mikhail Gorbachev.^ They shake hands as Nixon says it will be sent over the Soviet Union.
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^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
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^ Kissinger on plane talking about how Nixon conducts business in understated way, ...His impact on foreign policy wilil be historic, no matter what happens.
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[179] .Following this trip, Nixon was ranked by Gallup as one of the ten most admired men in the world.^ But the one I remember most vividly, of course, was "The Ten Commandments".
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^ President Nixon s World Trip Reel 6, Pt 1 of 3 Bucharest, Romania, 02-03Aug69.
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^ President Nixon s World Trip Reel 5, Pt 3 of 3 Jakarta, Indonesia, 27-28Jul69.
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[207]

Elder statesman

In 1986, Nixon gave an address to a convention of newspaper publishers, impressing his audience with his tour d'horizon of the world.[208] .Author Elizabeth Drew wrote that "even when he was wrong, Nixon still showed that he knew a great deal and had a capacious memory as well as the capacity to speak with apparent authority, enough to impress people who had little regard for him in earlier times."^ I wrote him a little note thanking him for it.
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^ In other words, particularly in this day of television, I think maybe some people who are not gregarious and the rest may be able to come over quite well on the tube.
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^ Day 1, Tape 1 00:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Well, curiously enough, my first memory is of running.
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[208] Newsweek, among other publications,[207] ran a story on "Nixon's comeback" with the headline "He's back."[208] He gained respect as an elder statesman[179] in the area of foreign affairs, being consulted by both Republican and Democratic successors to the presidency; Reagan sought Nixon's advice in dealing with Gorbachev.[209]
Richard and Pat Nixon in 1990
.On July 19, 1990, the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California opened as a private institution, with Nixon and Pat in attendance.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:20:19 [Richard Nixon] Oh, not at all, not at all, because I've never been one of those charisma nuts.
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^ Quality Inn Monrovia 1125 E. Huntington Dr. Monrovia, CA 91016 19.57 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 107.49 - 107.49 ) 1 Star Outdoor seasonal pool.
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^ Downey, CA 90241 17.19 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 89.99 - 89.99 ) 2 Star Located in the heart of Downey.
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They were joined by a throng of people, including Gerald Ford, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, and their spouses Betty, Nancy, and Barbara, respectively.[210] .The property was owned and operated by a private foundation and was not part of the National Archives' presidential libraries system until July 11, 2007, when the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum was officially welcomed into the federal presidential library system.^ Anaheim, CA 92804 11.03 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 59.01 - 160.01 ) 1 Star Welcome to our first class, newly renovated hotel.
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^ Pasadena, CA 91108 23.57 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 199.99 - 219.99 ) 1 Star Welcome to Super 8 Pasadena, CA. The AAA approved 2 Diamond property is easily accessible from Hwy 210 east and west.
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^ Super 8 Long Beach 4201 E. Pacific Coast Highway Long Beach, CA 90804 19.85 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 71.10 - 86.00 ) 2 Star Welcome to Super 8 Long Beach, CA. The property is easily accessible from Interstate 405 North and South.
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.In January 1991, the former president founded the Nixon Center, a policy think tank and conference center.^ Worldnet broadcast w/ Dimitri Simes (founding President of Nixon Center) saying Soviets did NOT have a master plan when Perestroika was begun.
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^ During this period we had eight years of a true conservative presidency, twelve years of center-right presidencies, and eight years of a nominally liberal presidency during which nothing very liberal occurred in the realm of domestic policy.

^ In his dispatches, he takes on the day-by-day political and policy battles under way in the Capitol, the White House, the think tanks, and the television studios.

[211]
Pat Nixon died on June 22, 1993 of health problems, including emphysema and lung cancer. .Her funeral services were held on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace during the week leading up to her burial on June 26. Richard Nixon was deeply distraught, and broke down in convulsive sobs for the only time in his adult life.^ Rosemead, CA 91770 18.26 miles from Richard Nixon Presidential Library Nightly Rates: ( 159.00 - 350.00 ) 3 Star The Doubletree Hotel located in Rosemead California.
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^ In fact, the only time I've ever had a gun in my hand, you know, when I was growing up, I never went fishing, except once, and then quit.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 00:22:26 [Richard Nixon] Possibly, yes, but I think under the circumstances it would have depended upon what the throne could do.
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[212] Inside the building, he delivered a tribute to her.[212] .Nixon was comforted by his family while former presidents Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan and their wives attended the ceremony.^ Remarks Announcing Intention To Nominate Gerald R. Ford To Be Vice President.

[213][214] .Some commented that without Pat, Nixon would not "last a year."^ Day 1, Tape 1 00:53:14 [Richard Nixon] Well, it would be symphonic, without question, not modern music, not Rhapsody in Blue or any of the -- although I like that.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 01:13:15 [Frank Gannon] If you were a sports commentator, how would you have summarized the last -- the Super Bowl?
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^ Title: The Nixon Years: Change Without Chaos 01:01:21 Nixon speaks to Convention: I don t promise that we can eradicate poverty & end discrimination...but I do promise action...
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[212]

Death and funeral

Nixon suffered a severe stroke at 5:45 p.m. EDT on April 18, 1994, while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge, New Jersey home.[215] It was determined that a blood clot resulting from his heart condition had formed in his upper heart, then broken off and traveled to his brain. .He was taken to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan, initially alert, but unable to speak or to move his right arm or leg.^ Judge speaking to students says your life can then be taken away on a whim without Civil Rights.
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^ As The New York Times points out, "Canada has moved informally to a two-tier, public-private system.

^ Remarks of Vice President Nixon, Rockefeller Center, New York, NY .

[215] Damage to the brain caused swelling (cerebral edema) and Nixon slipped into a deep coma. On April 22, 1994, he died at 9:08 p.m., with his daughters at his bedside; he was 81.[215]
.Nixon's funeral took place on April 27, 1994, the first for an American president since that of Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973, which Nixon had presided over as president.^ President Nixon s World Trip Reel 6, Pt 3 of 3 Jakarta, Indonesia, 27-28Jul69.
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^ President Nixon s World Trip Reel 5, Pt 3 of 3 Jakarta, Indonesia, 27-28Jul69.
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^ Day 1, Tape 1 00:02:06 [Frank Gannon] This is the first in a series of several tapings which will extend over several months and several hours with President Nixon.
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.Held at the Nixon Library, eulogists included then-President Bill Clinton, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, California Governor Pete Wilson, and the Reverend Billy Graham.^ And now they were both great political leaders, one as a governor and the other as a senator.
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^ Hotels Near Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California hotels .
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^ All Countries  :  United States  :  California  :  Yorba Linda  :  Richard Nixon Presidential Library Hotels Closest To Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California .
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[216] .Also in attendance were former Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, George H. W. Bush and their respective first ladies.^ Remarks of the President and Mrs. Nixon on the First Lady's Departure for Peru.

[217] .Nixon was buried beside Pat on the grounds of the Nixon Library.^ Pat Nixon kneels beside band playing sitar & other instruments (MOS); visits girls school - girls in white uniforms look down from balcony.
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.He was survived by his two daughters, Tricia and Julie, and four grandchildren.^ And, as a result, she has -- when our daughters were born, she said, "We'll not" --both Tricia and Julie -- "don't give them a second name.
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[215] .In keeping with his wishes, his funeral was not a state funeral, though his body did lie in repose in the Nixon Library lobby from April 26 to the morning of the funeral services.^ Day 1, Tape 4 01:26:18 [Richard Nixon] Did we run out?
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^ All Countries  :  United States  :  California  :  Yorba Linda  :  Richard Nixon Presidential Library Hotels Closest To Richard Nixon Presidential Library - Yorba Linda California .
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[218] .Despite heavy rain, police estimated that roughly 50,000 people waited in lines up to 18 hours to file past the casket and pay their respects.^ People in at polls, waiting in line.
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^ That man would have his 2 fingers, but sadly people like you carried the majority, and he had to pay 12,000$ to have just 1 of his fingers re-attached.

^ People waiting for arrival (sd) as plane taxiis up.
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[219]

Legacy

The graves of President Richard and first lady Pat Nixon.
.No other American has held office in the executive branch of the federal government as long as Richard Nixon did.^ Day 1, Tape 6 00:58:49 [Richard Nixon] I've often thought about that question, and my answer is, at first, no.
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^ Day 1, Tape 2 01:11:56 [Richard Nixon] Well, when I say the Chief, I shouldn't leave out others.
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^ Day 1, Tape 4 00:24:52 [Richard Nixon] Uh -- in the long run, yes.
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[220] .He is the only person in American history to appear on the Republican Party's presidential ticket five times, to secure the Republican nomination for president three times, and to have been elected twice to both the vice presidency and the presidency.^ By that time, I was vice president.
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^ I was only about five-nine at that time.
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^ Vice-President Nixon w/ three others at mics look at petitions or telegrams.
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.With Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, Richard Nixon was the chief builder of the modern Republican party.^ Telegram Sent to All Republican State and County Chairmen, From Vice President Richard M. Nixon, Washington, DC .

^ Speech by Vice President Richard M. Nixon to Luncheon at Annual Convention of National Federation of Republican Women, Convention Hall, Atlantic City, NJ .

.From 1952 to 1992, at least one of these three men appeared on the Republican ticket for nine of the eleven presidential elections in those 40 years.Throughout his career, he was instrumental in moving the party away from the control of isolationists and as a Congressman was a persuasive advocate of containing Soviet Communism.^ That's two guys who sucked 1.4 billion dollars out of the health care system in one year.

^ It's hard to see a film moving a nation--and, in particular, the politicians who pocket all those health care industry dollars.

[220]
.Although he did not achieve all that he had wished for in the Middle East, Nixon virtually expelled the Soviet Union from the region and initiated a long peace process.^ Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:32 [Frank Gannon] This photograph is back in Venice, I think, and -- Day 1, Tape 5 01:03:39 [Richard Nixon] Oh, I can see that, and I can see that's a Soviet Union photograph.
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^ They shake hands as Nixon says it will be sent over the Soviet Union.
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^ Worldnet broadcast w/ Dimitri Simes (founding President of Nixon Center) saying Soviets did NOT have a master plan when Perestroika was begun.
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[221] .He began formal relations with China and improved relations with the Soviet Union.^ We have opened the new relation with the Soviet Union...
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^ If it is, I think we would have contributed to it during our administration by not only what we did with regard to China, but what we did with regard to a different relationship with the Soviet Union.
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^ It did not mean, as it did later, that it was related to control by and supported by a foreign power and a potential enemy, the Soviet Union.
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.Domestically, he decentralized government by revenue sharing, greatly reduced segregation in schools, reduced inflation (until it rose again as a result of the oil cartels), ended the gold standard, reduced the crime rate, and pioneered positive environmental measures.^ John Ehrlichman, Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, enters & talks about revenue sharing.
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[221] .As a result of the Watergate scandal, however, the mood of the nation was severely affected and the office of the presidency was demeaned.^ President Nixon s Address to the Nation Resigning the Office of the Presidency - Pt 2 Nixon continues outlining achievements: We have unlocked the doors ...
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^ President Nixon s Address to the Nation Resigning the Office of the Presidency - Pt 1 Throughout the long and difficult period of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to...
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^ Address to the Nation Announcing Decision To Resign the Office of President of the United States.

[221]
.Though often referred to as a "conservative" in politics because of his "Southern strategy" and his victory in numerous southern states in 1968, Nixon had a considerable share of detractors on the right of the political spectrum.^ Nixon 1971 State of the Union speech: Let us share our resources; let s share them to rescue the states & localities from the brink of financial crisis...
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^ He felt that I should refer to God in my speeches, as he did, because it was good politically, and also it was honest.
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^ In fact, some of the conservatives on the right only stuck with him because they thought he was more, shall we say, isolationist, and that -- that held them in line.
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Columnist George Will questioned Nixon's conservatism, citing the wage-and-price controls as "the largest peacetime instrusion of government in the economy in American history, surpassing even the dreams of the New Dealers."

Personality and public image

Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970 "The President & The King."
Nixon's career was frequently dogged by his persona, and the public perception of it. Editorial cartoonists and comedians often exaggerated Nixon's appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. He was often portrayed with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow.[222]
.Nixon had a complex personality, both very secretive and awkward yet strikingly reflective about himself.^ We talked about the -- we, of course, were both very fond of movies.
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^ I think that -- I think that John Kennedy, despite all of the talk, which I understand, about his charisma and the rest -- that John Kennedy was a very private person.
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^ But she was, of course -- an interesting thing about her, incidentally, she was a very remarkable person, too.
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[223] .He was inclined to distance himself from people and was formal in all aspects, always wearing a coat and tie even when home alone.^ I think I'm standing alone there, and that's the way we did -- of course, it was in the tropics and you didn't wear a coat.
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^ Even in that district, which was considerably dry insofar as open bars were concerned, people did drink at home.
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[223] .He advised people not to care about what others thought of them.^ We should have thought of him and not of what other people thought.
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^ How -- I mentioned earlier my aunt Olive , who was so gentle and kind and thoughtful always of other people's feelings.
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^ And Jack Betit invited me and a -- about twelve or fifteen other young people of voting age to his barn.
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Some experts have described him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality.[224] Conrad Black described him as being "driven" though also "uneasy with himself in some ways."[225] According to Black, Nixon "thought that he was doomed to be traduced, double-crossed, unjustly harassed, misunderstood, underappreciated, and subjected to the trials of Job, but that by the application of his mighty will, tenacity, and diligence he would ultimately prevail."[226] Biographer Elizabeth Drew summarized Nixon as a "smart, talented man, but most peculiar and haunted of presidents."[227] .In his account of the Nixon presidency, author Richard Reeves described Nixon as "a strange man of uncomfortable shyness, who functioned best alone with his thoughts".[228] Nixon's presidency was doomed by his personality, Reeves argues: "He assumed the worst in people, and he brought out the worst in them.^ L-R Richard Nixon, President Aga Mohammad Yahya Khan & Pat Nixon applauding dancers as they pass.
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^ Everett Dirksen to microphone introduces Chief Justice of Supreme Court Early Warren to administer oath of office to President Elect Richard Nixon.
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^ President Richard Nixon and Patricia waiting for Royal car to arrive.
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[...] He clung to the idea of being 'tough'. He thought that was what had brought him to the edge of greatness. But that was what betrayed him. He could not open himself to other men and he could not open himself to greatness".[229]
.Nixon frequently brandished the two-finger V sign (alternately viewed as the "Victory sign" or "peace sign") using both hands, an act that became one of his best-known trademarks.^ Brezhnev & Nixon exchange signed agreements, shake hands, all applaud.
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^ The best thing a parent can do to a child, and Mrs. Nixon does this, Pat does with our two--spend time with them, spend time with them.
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^ President Nixon Announces Visit to China Nixon speaking to the nation re reasons for going to China: world peace & more normal relations between two countries.
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[230]
.James MacGregor Burns observed of Nixon, "How can one evaluate such an idiosyncratic President, so brilliant and so morally lacking?"^ One is how daunting it would be to run for president as an independent.

^ How can one, for all these years, in the face of such overwhelming evidence and the conviction by a jury -- how can he do this?
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^ Day 1, Tape 3 00:35:46 [Richard Nixon] It was one of the "president" liners.
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[231] George McGovern, Nixon's former opponent, commented in 1983, "President Nixon probably had a more practical approach to the two superpowers, China and the Soviet Union, than any other president since World War II....I think, with the exception of his inexcusable continuation of the war in Vietnam, Nixon really will get high marks in history."[232] Historian Kaitlyn Ferren argues that Nixon was "one of the greatest Presidents of the Twentieth century. When he took office the Nation was painfully divided. Despite the pressure put on him throughout his presidency, his foreign policy tactics were brilliant and he ultimately brought about the end of the Vietnam War".[233]

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Goldwater, Barry and Jack Casserly (1988), p. 353.
  2. ^ "Richard M. Nixon Birthplace". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/presidents/nixon_birthplace.html. Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  3. ^ Ferris, Gary W. (1999), p. 209
  4. ^ a b Black, Conrad (2007) p. 8
  5. ^ It has also been claimed the Nixon was actually born in a hospital: Los Angeles Times
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References

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    ^ Remarks of the Vice President at Herald Square, New York, NY .

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  • Blythe, Will (2006). To Hate Like This is to be Happy Forever. .New York, NY: Harper Collins. 
  • Boger, John Charles (2005).^ Message From Vice President Richard Nixon to the Annual Convention of the Zionist Organization of America, New York, NY .

    ^ Remarks of the Vice President at Herald Square, New York, NY .

    ^ Statement of the Vice President of the United States on Collective Bargaining, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York, NY .

    School Resegregation: Must the South Turn Back?. UNC Press. ISBN 0807856134. 
  • Dallek, Robert (2007). Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power. HarperCollins. 
  • Drew, Elizabeth (2007). Richard M. Nixon. The American Presidents Series (1st ed.). Macmillan. 
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1965). .The White House Years: Waging Peace 1956–1961.^ And years later he came into government, and I saw him in the Oval Office at the White House.
    • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ White House Statement on House Action Sustaining the Minimum Wage Bill Veto.

    ^ And years later I was glad that he could be a guest at the White House when I was president.
    • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Doubleday and Co..
     
  • Ferris, Gary W (1999). Presidential Places: A Guide to the Historic Sites of the U.S. Presidents. John F. Blair. ISBN 0895871769. 
  • Foner, Eric (2006). Give Me Liberty!: An American History. 2. .New York City: W. W. Norton & Company.^ Remarks to the 89th Annual International Meeting of the Knights of Columbus in New York City.

    ^ Remarks at the National Football Foundation and Hall of Fame Dinner in New York City.

    ^ Remarks During a Visit to New York City To Review Drug Abuse Law Enforcement Activities.

    ISBN 0-3939-2784-9.
     
  • Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465041957. 
  • Gaddis, John Lewis (1982). .Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy.^ Statement Announcing United States Policy on Economic Assistance and Investment Security in Developing Nations .

    Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195030974.
     
  • Garthoff, Raymond L. (1985). Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan (Revised ed.). Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. 
  • Goldwater, Barry and Jack Casserly (1988). Goldwater (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday. OCLC 7353825. 
  • Griffith, Robert K.; Robert K. Griffith, Jr., John Wyndham Mountcastle (1997). .U.S. Army's Transition to the All-volunteer Force, 1868-1974.^ And I got to know them very well, and I ate with them because I was the head of a small detachment -- Army, Navy, Air Force were all members of it.
    • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

    DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0788178644.
     
  • Guan, Ang Cheng (2003). .Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists' Perspective.^ I ve asked for this television time tonight to make public a plan for peace that can end the war in Vietnam.
    • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To leaders of North Vietnam: As we have ended the war through negotiations, let us now build a peace of reconciliation...
    • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    RoutledgeCurzon.
     
  • Hetzel, Robert L. (2008). The Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Hove, Duane T. (2003). .American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of WWII.^ She and uncle Oscar at seventy-five years of age, while I was president, went way out to Kenya for a year with the American Friends Service Committee to work in a hospital out there.
    • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Burd Street Press. ISBN 1-57249-307-0.
     
  • Kaufman, Victor S. (2001). Confronting Communism: U.S. and British Policies toward China. University of Missouri Press. 
  • Kirkpatrick, Rob (2009). 1969: The Year Everything Changed. .New York: Skyhorse Publishing.^ He reviewed each plan in his column published by the New York times.

    ^ Remarks by the Vice President at the Fourth Annual Conference of the Magazine Publishers Association, Commodore Hotel, New York, NY .

    ISBN 978-1602393660.
     
  • Kotlowski, Dean J. (2001). Nixon's Civil Rights: Politics, Principle, and Policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00623-2. 
  • Nixon, Richard (1978). RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. Simon & Schuster. 
  • Nixon, Richard (1987). No More Vietnams. Arbor House Publishing. ISBN 0-87795-668-5. 
  • parmet, Herbert S (1990). .Richard Nixon and His America.^ Message From Vice President Richard Nixon to the Annual Convention of the Zionist Organization of America, New York, NY .

    ^ Senior Citizens Program: Study Paper by Richard Nixon, Vice President, United States of America .

    ^ The Meaning of Communism to Americans: Study Paper by Richard M. Nixon, Vice President, United States of America .

    Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-69232-8.
     
  • Schulzinger, Robert D. (2003). A Companion to American Foreign Relations. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1405149868. 
  • Tahir-Kheli, Shirin (1982). .The United States and Pakistan: the Evolution of an Influence Relationship.^ Statement About United States Flood Relief Assistance for Pakistan .

    .New York: Praeger. 
  • Thornton, Richard C. (1989).^ Vice President Richard Nixon, TV Broadcast and Post Broadcast Remarks, the Coliseum, New York, NY .

    ^ Day 1, Tape 4 00:26:20 [Frank Gannon] Where -- where were you on V-J Day -- Day 1, Tape 4 00:26:25 [Richard Nixon] Oh, New York City.
    • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Interview of Vice President Richard M. Nixon by Walter Winchell, WABC-TV, New York, NY .

    .The Nixon-Kissinger Years: Reshaping American’s Foreign Policy.^ Stills of Nixon & Kissinger; Air Force One & Kissenger talking on board about difference of Nixon from what he expected & talks about what Nixon s done in terms of foreign policy.
    • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Talks of the friendship for past generation; it the friendship is a cornerstone for American foreign policy.
    • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kissinger on plane talking about how Nixon conducts business in understated way, ...His impact on foreign policy wilil be historic, no matter what happens.
    • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Paragon House.^ The New York Times called it, "The most comprehensive account of the White House's political machinations...fascinating reading."

    OCLC 20453666. 
  • Zhai, Qiang. China and the Vietnam Wars, 1950-1975. UNC Press. 

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
President of the United States
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
Preceded by
Alben W. Barkley
Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Succeeded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
United States Senate
Preceded by
Sheridan Downey
United States Senator (Class 3) from California
December 1, 1950 – January 20, 1953
Served alongside: William F. Knowland
Succeeded by
Thomas Kuchel
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Jerry Voorhis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 12th congressional district

January 3, 1947 – December 1, 1950
Succeeded by
Patrick J. Hillings
Party political offices
Preceded by
Barry Goldwater
Republican Party presidential candidate
1968, 1972
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
Preceded by
William F. Knowland
Republican Party nominee for Governor of California
1962
Succeeded by
Ronald Reagan
Preceded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party presidential candidate
1960
Succeeded by
Barry Goldwater
Preceded by
Earl Warren
Republican Party vice presidential candidate
1952, 1956
Succeeded by
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
Oldest U.S. President still living
January 22, 1973 – January 20, 1981
Succeeded by
Ronald Reagan

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Richard Nixon article)

From Wikiquote

The greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker.
.Richard Milhous Nixon (9 January 191322 April 1994) was the 37th U.S. President.^ Richard Milhous Nixon ( January 9 , 1913 – April 22 , 1994 ) was the thirty-seventh President of the United States , and was the only U.S. President to resign the office.
  • What is Richard Nixon? 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dwight D. Eisenhower } Richard Milhous Nixon ( January 9 1913 – April 22 1994 ) was the 37th President of the United States , serving from 1969 to 1974 .
  • Richard Nixon at AllExperts 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Richard Milhous Nixon ( January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States , serving from 1969 to 1974.

Contents

Sourced

.
  • This administration has proved that it is utterly incapable of cleaning out the corruption which has completely eroded it and reestablishing the confidence and faith of the American people in the morality and honesty of their government employees.^ Both kept the decision secret from the American public, but not a secret from the appropriate people within government.
    • Nixon Administration 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.jfkmontreal.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Why are you conservatives so damn concerned that one day the government might get out of control, and give people cosmetic surgery.

    ^ And where individuals, certainly people interested in Jewish emigration could continue to speak out, but the government should play it in a quiet, effective way.
    • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Nixon as Senator, speaking of the Truman administration in 1951, as quoted in Isaac Asimov's Book of Facts (1992), p.^ Speaking with his domestic policy advisor John Ehrlichman, Nixon affirmed that his administration would not endorse the Commissions recommendations to decriminalize the private possession and use of pot.
      • Richard Nixon On Pot - NORML 28 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.norml.org [Source type: News]

      ^ Dean's attorney threatened to sue Basic Books after it published in 1994 my book, Nixon Reconsidered, simply because I quoted from the Colodny and Gettlin work.
      • Watergate.com's Nixon Era Times: The Official Publication of the Nixon Era Center at Mountain State University 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.watergate.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This is a great entertaining book of Nixon quotes through the years through 1972 but not real Nixon tapes at all, just fun fiction.
      • Americana Resources - Political: Richard M. Nixon 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC amres.com [Source type: General]

      .338
  • Isn't it better to talk about the relative merits of washing machines than the relative strength of rockets?^ He talked about the problems facing America and how much greater and more serious they were now than in 1960.

    ^ He joined us to talk about world affairs in January of '92, less than a month after the USSR had collapsed.
    • CNN Transcript - Larry King Live Weekend: A Look Back at President Richard Nixon - February 5, 2001 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A15372-2004Nov26.html In this article it talks about a place in the heartland that has more jobs than people.

    .Isn't this the kind of competition you want?^ But you want to be where the action is because you're bored where it isn't.
    • Nixon - Gannon Interviews - Full Text, Day 1 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.libs.uga.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Highly competitive, you are inclined towards sports, music, the theater and athletic events of all kinds.

    ^ President, this isn't pleasant, but you want to know the situation, and it isn't good."

    .
  • Now, some may ask why we don't get rid of the bases, since the Soviet Government declares today that it has only peaceful intentions.^ That's why we don't have full employment today.
    • Kennedy-Nixon Debate #3: John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.kiva.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As he and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev toured the exhibit, they engaged in a lengthy and sometimes heated debate on the merits of capitalism versus communism.
    • U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Richard M. Nixon, 36th Vice President (1953-1961) 7 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nixon's quick thinking was on display on July 24 , 1959 , at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow where he and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had an impromptu " kitchen debate " about the merits of capitalism versus communism .
    • What is Richard Nixon? 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The answer is that whenever the fear and suspicions that caused us and our Allies to take measures for collective self-defense are removed, the reason for our maintaining bases will be removed.^ America did not settle for a peace that would have betrayed our allies, that would have abandoned our prisoners of war, or that would have ended the war for us but would have continued the war for the 50 million people of Indochina.
    • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Our conclusion is based on the record before us, much of which is under seal.

    ^ Nixon recognized it might take some effort to "reassure Pacific allies we are not changing our policy" nor selling out friends "behind their backs."
    • Michael Schaller: Working Paper No. 2 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In other words, the only possible solution of this problem lies in mutual, rather than unilateral action leading toward disarmament.^ Only recently the Court restated the ancient proposition of law, albeit in the context of a grand jury inquiry rather than a trial, "that `the public .

    ^ "We should deal with the problems of today rather than delve back into reliving leftist glory days of the past."
    • Nixon and the 1969 Vietnam Moratorium 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]
    • Nixon and the 1969 Vietnam Moratorium 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In other words, if the United States is going to maintain its strength and its prestige, we must not only be strong militarily and economically, we must be firm diplomatically.
    • Kennedy-Nixon Debate #3: John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC www.kiva.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • I leave you gentleman now and you will write it.^ NIXON: I leave you gentlemen now.
    • CNN Transcript - Larry King Live Weekend: A Look Back at President Richard Nixon - February 5, 2001 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And you will now write it.
    • CNN Transcript - Larry King Live Weekend: A Look Back at President Richard Nixon - February 5, 2001 25 January 2010 19:20 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John Foster Dulles filmed not long before death from cancer.
    • Footage Farm: Nixon 15 January 2010 5:51 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    You will interpret it. That's your right. .